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Sample records for affect employment duration

  1. Do changes in regulation affect employment duration in temporary help agencies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoni, Manfred; Jahn, Elke

    2009-01-01

    The employment duration of workers in temporary help agencies is seen as an important indicator of their job quality. Most of the countries that regulate temporary agency employment do so to insure at least a minimal level of employment stability. Over the past three decades Germany has repeatedly...... liberalized the law on temporary agency employment. These successive reforms should have affected the employment duration in the temporary employment sector. Based on informative administrative data, we use a mixed proportional hazard rate model to examine whether employment duration has changed in response...... to these reforms. We find that the repeated prolongation of the maximum assignment period has significantly increased average employment duration, while the possibility to conclude fixed-term contracts and further liberalizations have reduced employment tenure....

  2. The determinants of sick leave durations of Dutch self-employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, Laura; van Lomwel, Gijsbert; Peppelman, Wilko

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes sickness absenteeism among self-employed in the Netherlands. Using a unique data set provided by a large Dutch private insurance company, we assess the determinants of sick leave durations. Our study suggests that several risk factors affect the sick leave durations of self-emplo

  3. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  4. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  5. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled.

  6. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  7. Does the duration of untreated psychosis affect prognosis in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, G; Dekel, I; Domrab, A; Drobot, M; Guttnik, Y; Kalman, E; Kozal, M; Yifat, I

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Dilemma: 'An 18-year-old patient, who has been suffering from a prolonged psychotic state, is hospitalized for the first time in his life in our department. We diagnose his condition as schizophrenia, and start anti-psychotic medication and supportive psychotherapy. His parents join the psycho-educational group for families in our department. After one of the group sessions, his parents worriedly approach us with the question whether the fact that their son had been psychotic and had not received anti-psychotic medications for many months before his hospitalization predicts a bad prognosis for his disease course and outcome. Does the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) affect prognosis in schizophrenia?'

  8. Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter JM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54, no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46, having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60, self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24 and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54. Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction.

  9. Phone Duration Modeling of Affective Speech Using Support Vector Regression

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    Alexandros Lazaridis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In speech synthesis accurate modeling of prosody is important for producing high quality synthetic speech. One of the main aspects of prosody is phone duration. Robust phone duration modeling is a prerequisite for synthesizing emotional speech with natural sounding. In this work ten phone duration models are evaluated. These models belong to well known and widely used categories of algorithms, such as the decision trees, linear regression, lazy-learning algorithms and meta-learning algorithms. Furthermore, we investigate the effectiveness of Support Vector Regression (SVR in phone duration modeling in the context of emotional speech. The evaluation of the eleven models is performed on a Modern Greek emotional speech database which consists of four categories of emotional speech (anger, fear, joy, sadness plus neutral speech. The experimental results demonstrated that the SVR-based modeling outperforms the other ten models across all the four emotion categories. Specifically, the SVR model achieved an average relative reduction of 8% in terms of root mean square error (RMSE throughout all emotional categories.

  10. Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Sonja; Blanquart, François; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Turner, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance. In this work, we propose a mechanism for maintaining coexistence at the resistance locus: linkage to a second locus that is under balancing selection and that modulates the fitness effect of resistance. We show that duration of carriage plays such a role, with long duration of carriage increasing the fitness advantage gained from resistance. We therefore predict that resistance will be more common in strains with a long duration of carriage and that mechanisms maintaining diversity in duration of carriage will also maintain diversity in antibiotic resistance. We test these predictions in S. pneumoniae and find that the duration of carriage of a serotype is indeed positively correlated with the prevalence of resistance in that serotype. These findings suggest heterogeneity in duration of carriage is a partial explanation for the coexistence of sensitive and resistant strains and that factors determining bacterial duration of carriage will also affect the prevalence of resistance. PMID:28096340

  11. Do changes in the pace of events affect one-off judgments of duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M Darlow

    Full Text Available Five experiments examined whether changes in the pace of external events influence people's judgments of duration. In Experiments 1a-1c, participants heard pieces of music whose tempo accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 2, participants completed a visuo-motor task in which the rate of stimulus presentation accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 3, participants completed a reading task in which facts appeared on-screen at accelerating, decelerating, or constant rates. In all experiments, the physical duration of the to-be-judged interval was the same across conditions. We found no significant effects of temporal structure on duration judgments in any of the experiments, either when participants knew that a time estimate would be required (prospective judgments or when they did not (retrospective judgments. These results provide a starting point for the investigation of how temporal structure affects one-off judgments of duration like those typically made in natural settings.

  12. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in mothers returning to paid employment postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Tarrant, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

  13. Determinants of Sleep Duration among High School Students in Part-Time Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Auclair, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who work while attending school are reported to sleep less than those who do not. This study aimed to identify factors associated with short sleep duration in students who work during the school year. A cross-sectional survey aiming to describe working conditions and occupational safety and health was completed by representative…

  14. The Impact of Employer Branding on Employees: The Role of Employment Offering in the Prediction of Their Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Hanin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies dedicated to the examination of employer branding in industrial/ organisational psychology investigated it using samples of applicants. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the employer branding of a company on its employees’ attitudes. More precisely, we examined the interactive effect of the employment offering as portrayed by organisational communications and the employment experience as lived by employees on their affective commitment (AC. Furthermore, we analysed the mechanisms underlying these relationships, i.e. perceived organisational support (POS and psychological contract violation (PCV. One-hundred eighty-six department managers of a large multinational retailing company involved in employer branding practices were surveyed. Results indicated that employment offering and lived employment experience interact in the prediction of both POS and PCV and this interactive effect carries over to AC. Implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  15. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate.

  16. Maximum lying bout duration affects the occurrence of shoulder lesions in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Rebecka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shoulder lesions are caused by tissue breakdown of the skin and/or underlying tissue as a result of long lasting pressure. The lesions are commonly seen in sows during the period of lactation and contribute to poor animal welfare as well as affecting the consumers' attitudes towards the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between prolonged recumbency during early lactation and development of shoulder lesions, in particular the lying bout time. Eighteen sows of Swedish Landrace were observed for 24 hours during the day of farrowing and day 2, 4, 9 and 11 after farrowing in May 2009. The data were analysed for correlations between the duration of the longest observed uninterrupted lying bout and the prevalence of shoulder lesions recorded at weaning (week 5. In the study, shoulder lesions were observed in eight of the eighteen sows at the time of weaning. The total lying time of the sows was highest on day 0 and day 2, when the proportion of time spent in lateral recumbency over the 24-hour period was on average 80 percent. The longest lying bout had an average duration of 6,3 hours (right side and 7,2 hours (left side. A significant correlation (Spearman rank coefficient = 0,88; P

  17. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A J; van Rens, B T T M; van der Lende, T; Taverne, M A M

    2005-10-15

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and piglet birth intervals in spontaneous farrowing sows originating from five different breeds. In total 211 litters were investigated. Breed affected duration of the expulsive stage significantly: the shortest duration was found in Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred litters and the longest duration in Dutch Landrace litters. No effect of parity on the duration of the expulsive stage was found. An increase in littersize (Pgestation length (Ppigs.

  18. How Mechanical Ventilation Measurement, Cutoff and Duration Affect Rapid Shallow Breathing Index Accuracy: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Elaine Cristina; Lago, Alessandra Fabiane; Silva, Elaine Caetano; de Almeida, Marcelo Barros; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2017-01-01

    Background Decreased accuracy of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) can stem from 1) the method used to obtain this index, 2) duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and 3) the established cutoff point. The objective was to evaluate the values of RSBI determined by three different methods, using distinct MV times and cutoff points. Methods This prospective study included 40 subjects. Before extubation, three different methods were employed to measure RSBI: pressure support ventilator (PSV) (PSV = 5 - 8 cm H2O; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 5 cm H2O) (RSBI_MIN), automatic tube compensation (ATC) (PSV = 0, PEEP = 5 cm H2O, and 100% tube compensation) (RSBI_ATC), and disconnected MV (RSBI_SP). The results were analyzed according to the MV period (less than or over 72 h) and to the outcome of extubation ( 72 h successful and failed). The accuracy of each method was determined at different cutoff points (105, 78, and 50 cycles/min/L). Results The RSBI_MIN, RSBI_ATC, and RSBI_SP values in the group 72 h, RSBI_SP value was higher than those of RSBI_ATC and RSBI_MIN (78 ± 29, 51 ± 19 and 39 ± 14) (P 72 h who failed in removing MV, the RSBI_SP was higher (93 ± 28, 58 ± 18 and 41 ± 10) (P < 0.000), with greater accuracy at cutoff of 78. Conclusion RSBI_SP associated with cutoff point < 78 cycles/min/L seems to be the best strategy to identify failed extubation in subjects with MV for over 72 h.

  19. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2012-02-01

    In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and motherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004-2005 was used. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were specified using one cross-sectional wave of data to predict breastfeeding duration. Mothers working as employees, full-time (Hazard Ratio 1.6) or part-time (HR1.3), had a higher risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation than non-working mothers. However, self-employed mothers did not differ significantly from non-working mothers in their breastfeeding patterns. Mothers who took longer maternity leave breastfed for longer. The relationships between employment, maternity leave and breastfeeding duration were significant when controlling for known predictors of breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with less formal education, single mothers, those of white ethnic background, and first-time mothers were more likely to stop breastfeeding sooner, as has been noted in previous research. Employment and early return to work are both factors associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. More flexible working conditions and more generous employment leave could help to prolong breastfeeding among working mothers. Current health and employment policy in Scotland and the UK could be better coordinated so that working mothers have the adequate support to meet the conflicting demands of employment and motherhood.

  20. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.D.J.; Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and pi

  1. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...

  2. Speaking rate affects the perception of duration as a suprasegmental lexical-stress cue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinisch, E.; Jesse, A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment

  3. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  4. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  5. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  6. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

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    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  7. Who is affected by neighbourhood income mix? gender, age, family, employment and income differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at

  8. Late Sleeping Affects Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in Adolescents

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    Rajesh G.Kathrotia1,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, there is a tendency to sleep late andsleep less because of altered psychosocial and life-stylechanges. Recent studies have demonstrated the link betweensleeping less and gaining weight in children, adolescents, andadults. We studied the effect of late sleeping and sleepingless on body mass index (BMI in medical college freshmen.All participants were adolescents (104 male and 38 femaleadolescents, mean age 17.77±0.79 years. After obtaininginformed consent, they filled out a questionnaire about theirsleeping habits. Height and weight were measured after abrief history taking and clinical examination. BMI increasedsignificantly with decrease in total sleep duration and withdelayed bedtime. Late sleeping individuals (after midnighthad significantly less sleep duration (6.78 hours v 7.74 hours,P<0.001, more day time sleepiness (85.2% v 69.3%,P=0.033 and more gap between dinner time and going tosleep (234.16 min v 155.45 min, P<0.001. Increased BMI inlate sleepers may be explained by low physical activity duringthe day caused by excess sleepiness and increased calorieintake with a gap of 5-6 hours between dinner and sleep.Sleep habits of late sleeping and sleeping less contribute toincrease BMI in adolescents.

  9. Vowel duration affects visual word identification: evidence that the mediating phonology is phonetically informed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatela, Georgije; Eaton, Thomas; Sabadini, Laura; Turvey, M T

    2004-02-01

    What form is the lexical phonology that gives rise to phonological effects in visual lexical decision? The authors explored the hypothesis that beyond phonological contrasts the physical phonetic details of words are included. Three experiments using lexical decision and 1 using naming compared processing times for printed words (e.g., plead and pleat) that differ, when spoken, in vowel length and overall duration. Latencies were longer for long-vowel words than for short-vowel words in lexical decision but not in naming. Further, lexical decision on long-vowel words benefited more from identity priming than lexical decision on short-vowel words, suggesting that representations of long-vowel words achieve activation thresholds more slowly. The discussion focused on phonetically informed phonologies, particularly gestural phonology and its potential for understanding reading acquisition and performance.

  10. How Do Intensity and Duration of Rehabilitation Services Affect Outcomes from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of inpatient and outpatient treatment intensity on functional and emotional well-being outcomes at 1 year post severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental study comparing outcomes in a US TBI treatment center with those in a Denmark (DK......) center providing significantly greater intensity and duration of rehabilitation. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient TBI rehabilitation. PARTICIPANTS: 274 persons with severe traumatic brain injury. INTERVENTIONS: Inpatient rehabilitation interventions were counted daily by discipline. Outpatient....... CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectation, DK patients who received significantly more rehabilitation services during the year following severe TBI did not differ in outcome from their less intensively treated US counterparts, after adjusting for initial severity. The negative association of functional treatment...

  11. Intensity-duration threshold of rainfall-triggered debris flows in the Wenchuan Earthquake affected area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Cui, Peng; Li, Yong; Ma, Li; Ge, Yonggang; Mahoney, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake has greatly altered the rainfall threshold for debris flows in the affected areas. This study explores the local intensity-duration (I-D) relationship based on 252 post-earthquake debris flows. It was found that I = 5.25 D-0.76 accounts for more than 98% of the debris flow occurrences with rainfall duration between 1 and 135 h; therefore the curve defines the threshold for debris flows in the study area. This gives much lower thresholds than those proposed by the previous studies, suggesting that the earthquake has greatly decreased the thresholds in the past years. Moreover, the rainfall thresholds appear to increase annually in the period of 2008-2013, and present a logarithmic increasing tendency, indicating that the thresholds will recover in the future decades.

  12. Contraceptive Use Affects Overall Olfactory Performance: Investigation of Estradiol Dosage and Duration of Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrenberger, Iris

    2016-01-01

    The influence of female sex steroids on cognitive performance and sensory perception has been investigated for decades. However, previous research that studied olfaction revealed inconsistent results. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different ethinyl estradiol (EE) concentrations of oral contraceptives and duration of intake on olfactory function. Forty-two healthy women, with regular intake of either high or low EE dosage over at least one year and up to 15 years participated in this study. Results revealed a significant concordance between a priori categorization in the two groups with high and low EE dosage and data-driven hierarchical clustering (p = 0.008). Furthermore, significantly higher olfactory performance was observed in women using low-dose products compared to women using high-dosed products (p = 0.019). These findings indicate different effects of pill use with regard to EE concentration. We therefore strongly recommend the acquisition of information about EE dosage of oral contraceptives to reduce potential confounding factors when investigating sensory systems. PMID:28002464

  13. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejeh Mir, Arash Poorsattar [School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar [Private Practice of Orthodontics, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  14. Criteria of immobilization duration of the affected foot in diabetic Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gennadyevna Demina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term offloading is the key factor in the treatment of the acute stage of Charcot foot. The indication for remobilization and transition of the affected foot to weight-bearing activities is believed to be based on two factors: the absence of the clinical signs of inflammation and results of the objective diagnostic tests. At the present time, consensus about appropriate methods sufficient for initiating weight-bearing activities after immobilization is absent. This paper discusses current data on clinical and laboratory tests and methods and describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Duration of fasting but not diurnal variation affects the response to glucagon in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilor, C; Glock, R; Gilor, S

    2015-10-01

    The role of glucagon disturbances in diabetes is increasingly recognized. Glucagon stimulation tests (GSTs) have been described in cats previously, but information is lacking on the response of cats to glucagon under specific conditions. The aim of this study was to assess a novel protocol for GST using human-recombinant glucagon and the effect of diurnal variation and duration of fasting using this protocol in healthy cats. All intravenous doses resulted in occasional vomiting and nausea, and eventually, a 20-μg/kg intramuscular dose was chosen. Five healthy cats were then used in a repeated-measures study. Cats were free-fed regularly at 7:30 AM and 5:30 PM for 30 min. In each cat, GST was performed at 7 PM after a 25-h fast (PM25), at 9 AM after a 25-h fast (AM25), and at 9 AM after a 15-h fast (AM15). Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at -15, 0, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min after stimulation. Baseline and peak concentrations were compared using the Friedman test. Baseline glucose and insulin did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Peak glucose concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.0085) at AM15 (mean ± standard deviation = 185.2 ± 43.0 mg/dL) vs AM25 (144.4 ± 10.5 mg/dL) and PM25 (128.0 ± 18.4 mg/dL). Similarly, peak insulin concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.04) at AM15 (1,911 ± 1,153 pg/mL) vs AM25 (739 ± 52 pg/mL) or PM25 (549 ± 366 pg/mL). In conclusion, prolonged fasting significantly blunted the glycemic response to glucagon compared with shorter fasting, but diurnal variation had no significant effect on glucose or insulin responses.

  16. Does the duration of lysis affect the sensitivity of the in vitro alkaline comet assay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, José Manuel; Sánchez, Oscar; López de Cerain, Adela; Azqueta, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline comet assay is now the method of choice for measuring different kinds of DNA damage in cells. Several attempts have been made to identify and evaluate the critical points affecting the comet assay outcome, highlighting the requirement of arriving at a standardised protocol in order to be able to compare the results obtained in different laboratories. However, reports on the effect of modifying the time of lysis are lacking. Here we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) in control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with different concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or H2O2. We also tested different times of lysis in the comet assay combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in untreated and Ro 19-8022 plus light-treated HeLa cells. The same DNA damage levels were detected in the absence of lysis or after 1h of lysis when the standard comet assay was used to detect the MMS- and H2O2-induced lesions; the response increased when longer lysis was used, up to at least 1 week. When FPG was used, a minimum lysis period of 5 min was necessary to allow the enzyme to reach the DNA; the same DNA damage levels were detected after 5 min or 1h of lysis and the response increased up to 24h. In conclusion, the time of lysis can be varied depending on the sensitivity needed in both versions of the assay, and a constant time of lysis should be used if results from different experiments or laboratories are to be compared.

  17. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  18. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  19. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terézia Horváthová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the temperature-size rule (TSR, ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2 and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium, and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber. Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  20. 基于审查回归模型的失业持续期影响因素分析%Based on the Censored Regression Model to Analyze the Factors Affecting of Unemployment Duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹; 裴晓敏

    2012-01-01

    针对我国失业人员的失业持续期问题,运用审查回归模型(Censored regression model)对影响失业持续时阍因素进行分析。结果显示:男性失业持续时问明显较女性短,教育对一个人再次就业有着明显的促进作用。个人进行人力资本的投资不但能够缩短失业持续时间,而且在当前我国就业形势严峻的局面下,个人受教育年限的多少对于一个人的成功就业也具有重要的意义。对于社会网络、家庭背景等影响劳动力就业的非市场因素,政府创造公平合理的就业竞争机制具有非常重要的作用。%In view of the unemployed duration of unemployment problem, using Censored regression model to analyze the factors affecting of unemployment duration. The results show that male unemployment duration was significantly shorter than that of women, education of a people once again have a significant role in promoting employment. Personal investment in human capital will not only shorten the duration of unemployment, but also in the current situation of China's employment situation is grim, the individual number of years of education for the employment of a person's success is also of great significance. For social networks, family background and other effects of non - market factors, labor employment, government employment and creating a fair competition mechanism has a very important role.

  1. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Drenthe; Case study in a leading rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the per

  2. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Groningen; Case study in a lagging rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Groningen since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Groningen increased by 36,000 jobs or with one quarter in

  3. Effect of exposure to solid wastes in relation to employment duration on some important markers of health and disease in waste management workers of Ogun State in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ekor, Martins

    2013-12-01

    Waste management workers (WMWs) around the world are at risk of work-related health disorders. The influence of employment duration on individuals occupationally exposed to solid waste was investigated in this study. The study comprised (n = 280) 180 WMWs and 100 controls. Employment duration was obtained from questionnaire survey and categorized into three groups: group I (0.5-2 years), group II (>2-4 years) and group III (>4-6 years). Blood sample (10 ml) was collected from the antecubital vein of subjects for analysis. WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) elevated inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp)) relative to control. While Cp increased, ESR and CRP decreased with increasing WMWs' employment duration. Alteration in oxidant/antioxidant markers was characterized by significant (p < 0.001) decrease in ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and catalase activity together with marked (p < 0.01) elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and uric acid (UA). TBARS, UA and FRAP increased while catalase decreased with WMWs' employment duration. In addition, WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) elevated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, which also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. The significantly (p < 0.01) decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels as well as the significantly (p < 0.001) elevated total leukocytes in WMWs increased with employment duration. Alanine aminotransferase increased and albumin decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in WMWs, and these changes also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. Data suggest that levels of alteration of important systemic markers of health/disease are related to WMWs' employment or exposure duration.

  4. Rainfall intensity-duration threshold and erosion competence of debris flows in four areas affected by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Yujie; Hu, Kaiheng; Du, Cui; Yang, Wentao

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows in the Wenchuan seismic region have caused human casualties and severe damage to local infrastructure. Consequently, the triggering rainfall threshold and erosion capability of post-quake debris flows has become an important research topic worldwide. In this study, we analyze five years of rainstorms and debris flow data from four typical earthquake-hit regions in order to examine the local rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) thresholds and debris supply conditions. It was found that debris flow events in the four seismic areas exhibited different I-D thresholds, related to local mean annual hourly precipitation and debris flow supply conditions. The I-D thresholds, normalized by mean annual maximum hourly rainfall, illustrate that post-quake rainfall thresholds were reduced by at least 30% compared to pre-quake levels. Regression analysis revealed a clear linear relationship between the debris supply condition and the empirical coefficient, α, of the I-D equation. This means that rainfall thresholds of post-quake debris flows in different areas are distinctive and are strongly affected by sediment volume. Different relationships between the entrainment rate and the debris volume per watershed area and its product with the channel gradient illustrate that stream sediments in Yingxiu and Dujiangyan are more eroded, and that local debris flows might persist over a shorter time than in Qingping and Beichuan in the future. Finally, debris flows in the studied area exhibit no tendency of reduction in erosion competence entrainment rate, as found in Taiwan, which might be indicative of a higher entrainment rate persisting for a longer time.

  5. A Systematic Review of Transition Interventions Affecting the Employability of Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenaugh, Brenda; Giesen, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to identify and synthesize studies of transition interventions to improve the employability and employment outcomes for youths with visual impairments. Methods: An a priori protocol was followed in conducting a systematic review of the literature, including criteria for selecting studies,…

  6. Factors Affecting Reenlistment of Reservists: Spouse and Employer Attitudes and Perceived Unit Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    dummies for federal, state, and county employers, as well as large, medium, and small civilian employers. A variable measuring the frequency of overtime...household were not significant. Urban, surburban, and rural dummies were not significant. Finally the type of reserve job was statistically significant at...S~ - S 1 £9") " o 0stcics sonds or Othtr kicstrvwt j )S -XI S4 99Y, "o QAlniorty. Chkild SoppixtI (r O1hw Rcýqilai Criibir 059 (XX) - $4.9’l9 bions

  7. Migration to secure future employment – how do workplace closures affect the geography of the workforce?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Håkonsson, Ditte; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    to regions that has denser labour markets. By employing fullpopulation Danish micro data including information on individuals’ workplace,residence, level of education, income, family situation etc. this studyidentify employees in workplaces that have closed down in the period 2007-2011and follow...... these displaced people in a two year period. Thereby the data allowsus to model the relation between individual characteristics, migration,reemployment, education decisions and geography due to changes in employmentstatus caused by a business closure. Looking at migration patterns generated bythe same type...... of shock at the same time in different regions, that is businessclosures registered yearly from 2007 to 2011, we can identify the differencesin migration and employment patterns across different categories of regions bylooking at the same kind of supply shock in the different regions. We model...

  8. Does pain in individuals with multiple sclerosis affect employment? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Auais, Mohammad; Duquette, Pierre; Anderson, Katie; Mayo, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. METHODS: An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. RESULTS: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of these studies, five that exhibited clinical, methodological and statistical homogeneity were included in the meta-analysis. The between-groups (pain + versus pain −) pooled random OR of being employed was 0.7 (strong), and was significantly different from unity (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that individuals with MS who experience pain were significantly more likely to report a decreased employment rate than individuals with MS who were pain free. PMID:24093124

  9. What affects the presence versus absence of schwa and its duration: a corpus analysis of French connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Audrey; Ernestus, Mirjam; Gendrot, Cédric; Fougeron, Cécile; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2011-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of over 4000 tokens of words produced as variants with and without schwa in a French corpus of radio-broadcasted speech. In order to determine which of the many variables mentioned in the literature influence variant choice, 17 predictors were tested in the same analysis. Only five of these variables appeared to condition variant choice. The question of the processing stage, or locus, of this alternation process is also addressed in a comparison of the variables that predict variant choice with the variables that predict the acoustic duration of schwa in variants with schwa. Only two variables predicting variant choice also predict schwa duration. The limited overlap between the predictors for variant choice and for schwa duration, combined with the nature of these variables, suggest that the variants without schwa do not result from a phonetic process of reduction; that is, they are not the endpoint of gradient schwa shortening. Rather, these variants are generated early in the production process, either during phonological encoding or word-form retrieval. These results, based on naturally produced speech, provide a useful complement to on-line production experiments using artificial speech tasks.

  10. C’mon Get Happy: Reduced Magnitude and Duration of Response During a Positive Affect Induction in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Michelle S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Schwartz, Robert M.; Price, Rebecca B.; Haggerty, Agnes E.; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene on the phenomenon, e.g., how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and 34 never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for seven minutes. Results Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. Conclusions These data indicate that depressed and non-depressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals’ ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. PMID:24643964

  11. Employing Textual and Facial Emotion Recognition to Design an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Chien, Ming-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Emotional expression in Artificial Intelligence has gained lots of attention in recent years, people applied its affective computing not only in enhancing and realizing the interaction between computers and human, it also makes computer more humane. In this study, emotional expressions were applied into intelligent tutoring system, where learners'…

  12. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer–employee dataset from Vietnam the authors find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job...

  13. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bruchmann

    Full Text Available Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III, and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II. The results show that (i irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is.

  14. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is.

  15. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Youth Employment%影响青年就业难的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃强

    2014-01-01

    Based on the current situation of youth employment in recent years ,this paper focuses on the subjective and objective factors that affect the youth employment ,and analyzes the causes and ob-stacles of difficult employment from different angles ,in order to provide the beneficial reference for the relevant departments ,the majority of young job hunters and workers .%文章就近年来我国青年就业的现状,着力分析了影响青年就业的主、客观方面的因素,从不同角度剖析造成就业难的原因与障碍,以期为有关部门、广大青年求职者以及青年就业工作者提供有益的参考。

  16. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E G; Forster, J L; Erickson, D J; Lytle, L A; Schillo, B

    2009-06-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Bar and restaurant employment per capita were used to determine if partial CIA policies produced differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies. Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003-2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with partial CIA policies (p = 0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p = 0.36). There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  17. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  18. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting the duration of the existence of subcutaneous seroma after surgical treatment of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Schepotin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous seroma formation is the most common complication of surgical treatment for breast cancer and occurs in 15–85 % of patients. Seroma can cause infection and/or long-term postoperative wound healing, increase the length of stay of patients in the surgical hospital, delaying the start of rehabilitation and adjuvant therapy, increase the cost of treatment, which significantly affects the quality of life of patients and reduces the cost-effectiveness of treatment. In this prospective study examined the factors that affect the duration of seroma in patients after surgical treatment of patients with breast cancer as the first stage in the development and implementation of prevention and treatment protocols subcutaneous seroma.

  20. Duration of plant damage by host larvae affects attraction of two parasitoid species (Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris) to cotton: implications for interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by herbivore-damaged plants can guide parasitoids to their hosts. The quantity and quality of VOC blends emitted by plants may be affected by the duration of plant damage by herbivores, which could have potential ramifications on the recruitment of competing parasitoids. We used two parasitoid species, Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to address the question of whether duration of plant damage affects parasitoid use of plant VOCs for host location. Both wasp species are larval endoparasitoids of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of cotton. Attraction of the two parasitoid species to odors emitted by undamaged (UD), fresh (6 h infestation) damage (FD), and old (24 h infestation) damage (OD) cotton plants infested by H. virescens larvae was investigated using a headspace volatile collection system coupled with four-choice olfactometer bioassay. Both sexes of M. croceipes showed a preference for FD- and OD-plant odors over UD-plants. On the other hand, more C. marginiventris females were attracted to UD- and FD-plants than to OD-plants. GC/MS analyses showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the VOC profiles of UD, FD, and OD-plants, which may explain the observed preferences of the parasitoids. These results suggest a temporal partitioning in the recruitment of M. croceipes and C. marginiventris to H. virescens-damaged cotton, and may have potential implications for interspecific competition between the two parasitoid species.

  1. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  2. 20 CFR 655.737 - What are “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrants, and how does their employment affect the additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... academic specialty (i.e., no “time equivalency” or “performance equivalency” will be recognized as... employee's part-time work schedule; an H-1B nonimmigrant working part-time, whose actual annual... does their employment affect the additional attestation obligations of H-1B-dependent employers...

  3. Duration of treatment and activation of α1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Jovana; Timić, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Batinić, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Milić, Marija; Joksimović, Srđan; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2014-05-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at α1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator βCCt (5mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of βCCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at α1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type.

  4. Relationship of Work-Family Conflict to Substance Use among Employed Mothers: The Role of Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested model relating work-family conflict to heavy alcohol use and cigarette use among employed mothers via domain-specific (job- and family-related) and general negative effect. Data from 366 employed mothers of adolescents revealed that work-family conflict was indirectly related to both heavy alcohol use and cigarette use via negative effect.…

  5. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A significant...... mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50 years of loading...... and of the short-term and long-term strengths. For permanent and imposed library loads, reliability-based estimation of the load duration factor gave almost the same results as direct, deterministic calibration. Keywords: Creep, damage models, duration of load, equal rank assumption, load duration factor, matched...

  6. Interglacial Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  7. Maternal Employment Experiences Affect Children's Behavior via Mood, Cognitive Difficulties, and Parenting Behavior: A Reply to Otto and Atkinson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwen, Karyl E.; Barling, Julian

    1994-01-01

    Reacts to commentary by Otto and Atkinson concerning MacEwen and Barling's 1991 article on effects of maternal employment experiences on children's behavior. Argues that analyses reported in original article did appropriately test hypotheses outlined in paper and that conclusions were appropriate and substantively similar to conclusions presented…

  8. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus): effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Korpimäki, Erkki; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus) at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days). The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period) are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  9. Shelf-life of Roasted Cashew Nuts as Affected by Relative Humidity, Thickness of Polythene Packaging Material and Duration of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Irtwange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity, thickness of polythene packaging material and duration of storageon the shelf life of roasted cashew was determined to provide inform ation for packaged roasted cashew nutsmarketers. For this study, split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design was used with a total number of180 observations (3 relative humidity x 4 polythene thicknesses x 5 duration levels of storage x 3 replicationseach for moisture content, microbial count and quality index, which w ere measured using standard procedures.The initial mean moisture content, total fungal counts and percentage quality index of the nuts were found tobe 1.17%db, 30CFU/g and 100% respectively, which were all deemed appropriate in comparison with the setacceptable storage moisture content of 5.8%db, tolerable fungal levels of 103 and 104/g and acceptablepercentage quality index of 45% for roasted cashew nuts which did not exceed its shelf-life and still deemedfit for human consumption. The results of the study indicates that relative humidity, polythene thickness andduration of storage have a highly significant effect (P≤0.01 on moisture content and quality index while forthe microbial count, polythene thickness and duration of storage has significant effect (P≤0.05 with relativehumidity showing non-significance. For all levels of relative humidity and polythene thickness, moisturecontent and microbial count increased with increase in duration of storage w hile quality index decreased withincrease in duration of storage. As the polythene thickness increased at constant storage duration, the moisturecontent decreased. The moisture content of all the samples increased with increase in duration of storage atconstant polythene thickness level. As the thickness of the polythene packaging material increased, the amountof moisture absorbed over time (in days decreases; the total fugal growth decreases, and the percentage qualityindex increases. It is recommended that

  10. Key-Factor analysis of elements affecting women’s employment in small and medium enterprises (SME among women living in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zarandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent global developments followed by altered attitudes have improved women’s contribution to small and medium enterprises. However, women’s employment in Iranian SME is not in a good condition. In fact, attitude of society towards women together with socio-cultural environments have resulted in reduced rate of women’s employment in developing companies. However, for changing these attitudes the relevant layout should be created anyway. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to enumerate factors affecting women’s employment in Tehran SME from those women’s views. In this regard, we applied Lerner's model which is more comprehensive than the other similar models. The analysis was carried out through distribution of some questionnaires among a statistical population including 384 women living in the city of Tehran. After data analysis and hypothesis testing, it was concluded that economic elements (as an environmental factor, achievement requirement (as an individual factor and encouragement (as an organizational factors respectively affect women’s employment.

  11. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of the District of Columbia Department of Corrections § 330.1102 Duration. This program terminates 1 year...

  12. Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M; Whitworth, R Jeff; McCornack, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.

  13. Destruction of central noradrenergic neurones with DSP4 impairs the acquisition of temporal discrimination but does not affect memory for duration in a delayed conditional discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Zahrani, S S; al-Ruwaitea, A S; Ho, M Y; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    1997-03-01

    This experiment examined the effect of destroying central noradrenergic neurones using the selective neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-n-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on the acquisition of a temporal discrimination and on memory for duration, using a delayed conditional discrimination task. In phase I, rats that had received systemic treatment with DSP4 and vehicle-treated control rats were trained in a series of discrete trials to press lever A following a 2-s presentation of a light stimulus, and lever B following an 8-s presentation of the same stimulus. Following stimulus offset, a response on a panel placed midway between the two levers was required to initiate lever presentation; a single response on either lever resulted in withdrawal of both levers and, in the case of a "correct" response, reinforcer delivery. Both groups acquired accurate discrimination, achieving 90% correct choices within 50 sessions; the DSP4-treated group acquired accurate performance more slowly than the control group. In phase II, delays were interposed between stimulus offset and lever presentation in 50% of the trials. In the absence of a delay, discriminative accuracy was lower in the DSP4-treated group than in the control group. Accuracy declined as a function of post-stimulus delay in both groups; both groups showed a delay-dependent bias towards responding on lever A ("choose-short" bias). Neither of these effects differed significantly between the two groups. The concentrations of noradrenaline in the parietal cortex and hippocampus were reduced by 90% and 89% in the DSP4-treated group, compared to the levels in the control group, but the levels of dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid did not differ significantly between the groups. The results confirm the deleterious effect of DSP4 on the acquisition of temporal discrimination, but do not provide evidence for a role of the noradrenergic innervation of the hippocampus and neocortex in temporal working

  14. Chronic treatment with long-acting bromocriptine does not affect duration of the breeding season, voluntary food intake, body weight, or wool growth in the Scottish blackface ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlewis, J D; Sibbald, A M; Milne, J A; McNeilly, A S

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether suppression of the seasonal increase in prolactin concentrations by chronic treatment with the dopamine agonist bromocriptine would affect onset of anoestrus, voluntary food intake, body weight, and wool growth in a seasonal breed of sheep. Groups of eight Scottish Blackface ewes were injected i.m. each week with either the vehicle (Group A) or 2.0 mg (Group B), 6.0 mg (Group C), or 18.0 mg (Group D) of bromocriptine in a long-acting formulation, commencing on 18 January and terminating on 25 July (midwinter to midsummer in the northern hemisphere). Immediately before the bromocriptine injection, blood samples were taken for progesterone and prolactin determination. Voluntary food intakes were measured daily, and body weights were recorded every fortnight. Estimates of wool growth were made by weighing wool clipped from a measured area of skin once a month. Treatment had no effect on onset of anoestrus, voluntary food intake, body weight, or wool growth. Plasma prolactin concentrations increased significantly in all groups during the treatment period. From January to April, all doses of bromocriptine significantly reduced prolactin concentrations but later in the study (May and June) prolactin was significantly suppressed in Group D only, although even in this group prolactin concentrations increased between March and June. Pituitary prolactin content, measured at the end of the study in July, was also suppressed by bromocriptine. The gradual increase in prolactin concentrations in ewes receiving chronic bromocriptine was further investigated by treating a fifth group of ewes (Group E) with 18.0 mg of long-acting bromocriptine each week, commencing on 20 June.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Investigate the Affect of Post-natal Care Intervention on Breastfeeding Rates and Duration%浅谈进行产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雅铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果。方法收集我院2013年1月~2014年6月收治的1600例产妇按是否愿意接受产后护理干预分为两组。对照组产妇给予常规护理,实验组产妇加施产后护理,比较两组产妇母乳喂养率、母乳喂养持续时间与自信心情况等。结果实验组产妇母乳喂养率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组产妇母乳喂养持续时间与BSES评分高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果显著。%Objective Investigate the affect of post-natal care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration.MethodsColected in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2014 were treated 1 600 cases of maternal press are wiling to accept post-natal care interventions into two groups. Control groups were given routine care,the experimental groups were applied on post-natal care,maternal breastfeeding rates between the two groups,duration of breastfeeding and self-confidence and so on.ResultsExperimental groups were significantly higher than the rate of breastfeeding,there was a significant difference statisticaly significant(P< 0.01),the experimental groups were breastfeeding duration and BSES score significantly higher,there was a significant difference,statisticaly significant(P< 0.01).Conclusion Postpartum care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration affect the results significantly.

  16. Employment Expectations:Factors Affecting the Employment of Economics Majors%就业期望:经济学类大学生就业影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚楠; 华磊; 饶武元

    2014-01-01

    基于江西省14所高等院校的问卷调查数据,运用Logistic模型就影响经济学类专业本科毕业生就业期望的主要因素进行分析,结论表明:经济学类专业大学生的就业压力普遍较大;金融和经济等热门专业大学生就业期望高,但就业率较低,国际经济与贸易等冷门专业的大学生就业期望与就业率相对均衡;就业期望与就业率成反比,就业期望越高,就业情况就越不理想;就业期望变量中的三个因素:就业前景认知,就业形势认知以及对工作类型的选择对大学生就业有着显著影响。%Based on the survey data of 14 universities in Jiangxi Provence, this paper uses Logistic model to analyze the impact of employment expectation on employment of Economics major graduates. The conclusions show that the employment pressure of Economics majors is generally larger. Financial and Economics and other popular majors own higher employment expectations , but lower employment rates; while the employment expectations and employment rate of International Economics and Trade and other less popular majors are relatively balanced. The employment expectation has a significant negative impact on the employment of Economics major graduates, the higher the expectation of employment, the less satisfactory employment situation is. The majors, acknowledge of the career prospects and the choice on the work type can have great impacts on their employment expectation of Economics major graduates.

  17. Evaluating Factors that Affect Construction Project Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Robinson Report on Artificial Intelligence, Vol 5, No. 3 (March 1989). Arditi , David, "Diffusion of Network Planning in Construction," Journal of the...Construction Division, Vol 109, No. CO1 (American Society of Civil Engineers [ASCE], March 1983). Arditi , David, et al., "Line of Balance Scheduling in

  18. Employing Affective Factors in College English Teaching%论大学英语教学内容的情感性处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原金利

    2011-01-01

    针对我国目前大学英语教学中存在严重的“重知轻情”倾向,这种倾向表现为过分强调英语学习的认知因素,忽视对具备各自特点的学习者个体的关注,忽视情感因素对英语学习的影响,根据我国目前大学英语的教学现状,本文着重探讨进行大学英语教学内容的情感性处理的必要性和策略,同时强调培养学生的认知能力不容忽视.%There exists a conspicuous tendency which extremely emphasizes cognition in English learning, but neglects learners' individual traits and emotional factors' influence on English learning. This paper mainly discusses about the necessity and strategies in employing affective factors in college English teaching, also attaches great importance to cognitional capacity of students.

  19. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults : results from the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on em

  20. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret; Diderichsen, Finn; Dahl, Espen; Barr, Ben; Nylén, Lotta; Chen, Wen-Hao; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Clayton, Stephen; Uppal, Sharanjit

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual differences suggest that other macro-level factors, such as active and passive labor market polices, may be important, as examined in part II.

  1. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret;

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact...... on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway......, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition...

  2. Discounted Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ody, Heinrich; Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2016-01-01

    To formally reason about the temporal quality of systems discounting was introduced to CTL and LTL. However, these logic are discrete and they cannot express duration properties. In this work we introduce discounting for a variant of Duration Calculus. We prove decidability of model checking...... for a useful fragment of discounted Duration Calculus formulas on timed automata under mild assumptions. Further, we provide an extensive example to show the usefulness of the fragment....

  3. Investor Sentiment and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Montone (Maurizio); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We find that investor sentiment should affect a firm's employment policy in a world with moral hazard and noise traders. Consistent with the model's predictions, we show that higher sentiment among US investors leads to: (1) higher employment growth worldwide; (2) lower

  4. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  5. Engaging Employers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  6. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  7. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  8. The Duration of Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe author considers the problem of the duration of development and its consequences for development assistance, in the developing as well as developed countries. Emphasis is given to the influence of development aid and it is argued that the time dimension has important policy implicati

  9. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  10. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

  11. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy....... A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p symptoms was statistically...

  12. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activi

  13. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene

    is used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further...

  14. Welfare benefits and the duration of single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J; Wright, R E

    1989-11-01

    The authors examine the contention that the provision of welfare benefits to single parents increases the number of single parents and the duration of single parenthood. Data are from the Women and Employment Survey, which collected marital, childbearing, and employment data from 5,320 women aged 16-59 in the United Kingdom in 1980. The results indicate that welfare benefits exercise no significant effect on the duration of single parenthood.

  15. Employment Values of Patients with Schizophrenia or Affective Disorder and Predictive Factors%精神分裂症和情感障碍患者的就业价值观及其预测因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永爱; 曹平; 李娜; 任向明; 唐争艳; 师建国

    2012-01-01

    To compare the employment values between the patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder and their- predictive factors. Methods The simple random sampling was taken to enroll 755 patients with convalescent schizophrenia and affective disorders, who had received rehabilitation treatments in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Shanxi Province. The Job Value Rating Scale, Protectors' Expectation Rating Scale, Sense of Self - respect Rating Scale, Friends' Support Rating Scale, Experts' Support Rating Scale, and Activity of Daily Living scale (ADL) were used for survey. And the X2 test, t test and multiple linear regression analysis were taken statistically. Results (1) There was statistical significance between patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders ( P 0. 05 ). ( 2 ) Employment value prediction models of patients with schizophreni-a and affective disorders were statistically different ( P < 0. 05 ). The factors influencing employment values of the schizophrenia patients ranged in sense of self — respect, experts support, protectors expectation, friends support, employment expectation, general ability and age; and the total cogency was 66. 0% . The factors influencing employment values of the affective disorder-patients ranged in protectors' expectation, general ability, experts' support, sense of self-respect, friends' support, employment expectation, and life quality; and the total cogency amounted to 69. 0%. Conclusion The common predictive factors for patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders are sense of self- respect, experts' support, protectors' expectation, friends' support, employment expectation, and general ability, which suggests the cognition, motivation and social support in employment value of the patients play an important role for the improvement of their social rehabilitation and life quality.%目的 研究精神分裂症和情感障碍患者的就业价值观及其预测因素.方法 利用简单随机抽

  16. Long-run Employment Effects of Vocational Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Previous studies find that vocational rehabilitation in terms of education has no or even a negative effect on long-term sick-listed employees’ probability of returning to work. This paper extends previous analyses by assessing the employment effect, using both a return-to-work measure...... and a measure of the subsequent employment duration. With data on 637 Danish long-term sick-listed employees, we simultaneously estimate a random effects hazards rate model comprising four durations: (1) the duration until participation in an educational measure, (2) the duration until returning to work...... for the pre-sick leave employer, (3) the duration until returning to work for a new employer, and (4) the duration of the employment after returning to work for a new employer. In line with previous studies, we find that educational measures have a negative effect on the sick-listed employees’ probability...

  17. Barriers Affecting Employment and Work Intention among the People with Disabilities%影响伤残人员就业及工作意愿的障碍因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓平; 丁洪流

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The employment of people with disabilities is an important social and public health challenge.Although the life of this population could be significantly improved if they are employed and a large part of disabled people are able to work,many of them are currently unemployed.In the present study,we investigated the barriers affecting employment as well as work intention among the participants of the Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) Employment and Disability Survey.[ Methods] A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2003 on a total of 2 952 people with disabilities who were members of MassHealth plans.[Results] Our results demonstrated that while disabilities and health problems had a strong influence on the employment of disabled people,these factors were not major determinants of their work intention.Instead,socioeconomic status,work related activities,and policies/special programs were associated with both employment and work intention.[Conclusion] Since the barriers affecting work intention are more policy-associated,policy changes or new programs tailored specifically to encourage disabled people to work will be critical to achieve success in helping them in gaining employment and improving their quality of life as well.%[目的]伤残人员就业是一项重要的社会和公共卫生挑战.尽管该人群中大部分能够工作,并且就业可以明显改善他们的生活,很多伤残人员目前处于失业状态.本研究对影响"麻萨诸塞州就业与伤残调查"参试者就业及工作意愿的障碍因素加以探讨.[方法]基于一项开展于2003年在总数为2952名加入麻萨诸塞州医疗计划的伤残人员的横断面(crosssectional)调查.[结果]虽然伤残及健康问题对伤残人员就业有重要影响,这些并非决定该类人员工作意愿的主要因素.然而,社会经济地位,与工作有关的活动,以及有关政策或专项计划与就业和工作意愿二者皆为相关.[结论]由于影响

  18. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  19. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  20. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  1. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  2. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...... jumps in two ways: as exogenous sampling intervals, and through the interaction with volatility. We adopt a bivariate Ornstein-Ulenbeck process to model intraday volatility and conditional duration. We develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference on irregularly spaced multivariate processes with jumps....... The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, conditional duration, jump times, and jump sizes. We apply this model to IBM data and find that volatility and conditional duration are interdependent. We also find that jumps play an important role in return variation...

  3. Df(3R)Esp13/TM6C片段RNA干扰不同基因对黑腹果蝇睡眠时间的影响%INTERFERENCE OF DIFFERENT GENES IN Df(3R)Esp13/TM6C RNA FRAGMENT AFFECT SLEEP DURATION OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 张可兴; 黄莉莉; 李廷利

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To find the proper genes that affect sleep duration.Methods:Different genes of RNA interference in Df(3R)Espl3/TM6C fragment of the 7 -day old Drosophila melanogaster and CS strains of D.melanogaster were used in the research.Drosophila Activity Monitor System( DAMS) was used to record the Drosophila' s total sleep duration within 24 hours.The data was analyzed according to different kinds of strains.Results:Compared with the prosopon of wild CS strains, the total sleep duration of genes of RNA inference dys, exo84 and Nf1 were significantly different(P<0.001).Conclusion:The genes of Nf1, exo84 and gro are related to the sleep duration of D.melanogaster.%目的:寻找影响果蝇睡眠时间的基因.方法:选择Df(3R) Esp13/TM6C片段RNA干扰不同基因的7日龄黑腹果蝇与野生型CS品系7日龄黑腹果蝇为研究对象,利用果蝇活动监测器系统(Drosophila Activity Monitor System,DAMS),记录果蝇的睡眠时间,累计计算24 h内果蝇睡眠时间,将测得的各品系果蝇睡眠时间进行对比分析.结果:RNA干扰dys,exo84和Nfl基因的黑腹果蝇与野生型CS品系黑腹果蝇相比较具有极显著性差异(P<0.00l).结论:Nfl,exo84和gro基因与睡眠有关.

  4. 高职护生社区护理职业情感和就业意向的调查%Investigation on professional affection about community nursing and employment intention of the associate nursing students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑婉玉; 胡蓉芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To learn the professional affection about community nursing and employment intention of the associate nursing students. Methods 109 associate nursing students were investigated with selfdesigned questionnaires. Results Most students felt high pressure about employment, only 30. 3 percent students were willing to be community nurses, the data revealed that inferior personal prospect, lower salary and insufficiency knowledge about community nursing influenced the participants' career choice, they were passive to community nursing,70.6 percents students thought that community nursing education at school was not enough to meet the needs of community work. Conclusions Nursing schools should pay more attention to cultivate the professional affection about community nursing and the communication ability of the students, develop the professional guidance and improve the teaching environment of community nursing.%目的 了解高职毕业护生社区护理的职业情感和就业意向状况,为高职护生的培养提供参考.方法 采用自制问卷对109名高职毕业护生进行问卷调查.结果 高职护生多数感到就业压力大,仅30.3%表示愿意选择社区护理岗位,其影响因素有个人发展前景不好、社区护士待遇低、人们对社区护理的认识不够等;护生对社区护理的职业情感负性情绪较多,70.6%的护生认为学校的社区护理教育不能够满足社区护理工作的需要.结论 学校应加强培养高职护生正确的职业认知,开展适当的职业指导,加强社区护理实习教学环境的建设,重视护生人文沟通能力的培养.

  5. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.; Hoeksma, M.R.; Smeets, M.A.M.; Semin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  6. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  7. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  8. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitab...... the analysis of extremes. Mean square error approximations (bias second order, variance first and second order) were employed as measures for prediction uncertainly. It was found that optimal estimates can usually be obtained with a nonseasonal approach....

  9. LOG DURATION EMERGENCY OXYGEN BACKPACK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small backpack , for use by Naval aviators, containing a long duration emergency oxygen system and a separate humidifier for the aircraft’s oxygen supply, has been devised and a feasibility model built. (Author)

  10. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....

  11. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational...... level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms...... men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported...

  12. On Unemployment Duration and Narrowing Job Opportunities at Older Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Dygalo

    2007-01-01

    Using a French employer-employee longitudinal dataset for 1976-1996, I present the first direct evidence from workers' employment histories suggesting that job opportunities decline with age and that there is a connection between longer nonemployment duration and limited job opportunities for older workers. This evidence is in the form of segregation curves and indexes that show a more limited set of industry/occupation cells in new jobs compared to old jobs for older workers whose nonemploym...

  13. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses.

  14. Employer's investments in hospital workers' employability and employment opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, E.J.; Knies, E.; Leisink, P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employer’s investments (through job characteristics and managerial support) and employees’ employment opportunities, with employability, conceptualized as perceived up-to-date expertise and willingness to change, as a mediati

  15. 缺失Df(3R)Espl3/TM6C基因片段影响黑腹果蝇的睡眠时间%Deletion of gene fragment Df(3R)Espl3/TM6C affects sleep duration in Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可兴; 李廷利

    2012-01-01

    [Aim] Sleep in Drosophila melanogaster shows biological rhythm, and it can be controlled by different genes. In order to find the proper gene that affects sleep duration, we screened the genotypes of D. melanogaster associated with sleep duration. [ Methods] The 7-day-old adults of the wild CS strain and the strains with gene deletion including 5601 , 8904, 7061, 7146, 27327, 669, 8103, 691, 9697, 24416, 26525, 5411, 3096, 5877 and 7682 of D. melanogaster were used for screening. Drosophila Activity Monitoring System (DAMS) was used to record the total sleep duration within 24 h. The data obtained were compared among different strains. [ Results ] Compared with the wild CS strain, strain 5601 with deletion of gene fragment Df (3R) Espl3/TM6C had significantly shorter total sleep duration (P<0.001). [Conclusion] The gene fragment Df(3R)EspJ3/TM6C is related to the sleep duration in D. melanogaster. This research provides data support for revealing the genes which are related to sleep in D. melanogaster and more clues to studying human sleep.%[目的]果蝇的睡眠活动具有生物节律性,可受到基因的调控.为了寻找影响果蝇睡眠时间的基因,本研究对与果蝇睡眠时间相关的基因型进行了筛选.[方法]选择黑腹果蝇Drosophila melanogaster基因缺失系5601,8904,7061,7146,27327,669,8103,691,9697,24416,26525,5411,3096,5877和7682的7日龄成虫和野生CS品系7日龄成虫为研究对象,利用果蝇活动监测器系统(Drosophila Activity Monitoring System,DAMS),记录果蝇的睡眠时间,累计计算24h内果蝇睡眠时间,将测得的各品系果蝇睡眠时间进行对比分析.[结果]与野生型CS品系7日龄成虫相比,缺失Df(3R)Espl3/TM6C基因片段的5601品系7日龄成虫睡眠时间明显缩短(P<0.001).[结论]缺失Df(3R)Espl3/TM6C基因片段与果蝇睡眠有关.本研究结果为揭示影响果蝇睡眠时间的基因提供数据支持,进而为研究人类睡眠提供线索.

  16. INCIDENCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION IN THE OLTENIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author analyzes how identified factors influence the incidence and duration of unemployment spells in the Oltenia Region. The statistical data were obtained from the National Agency for Employment and the analyzed period is 1st January 2008-31st December 2010.

  17. INCIDENCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION IN THE OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes how identified factors influence the incidence and duration of unemployment spells in the Oltenia Region. The statistical data were obtained from the National Agency for Employment and the analyzed period is 1st January 2008-31st December 2010.

  18. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  19. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2004-10-01

    After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESCU GEORGE OCTAVIAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of industrialization and expansion of wage labor is the difference between work and employment. The rigidity of the labor supply and its persistent surplus is explained by the very high compensation or unemployment benefits, through trade union action or error preset number of employees, which leads to greater gap between supply and demand for labor. Adjustment policies of employment in the future will be increasingly less state policy, of general application, and increasingly more political will and enterprise branch, the subject of an active social dialogue between employers and trade unions, dialogue resulted in agreements of limited duration and subject to revision depending on the economic and social situation. The duration of work and organizational modalities they will depend on this social dialogue.

  1. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis...... is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate...... the business cycle. However, firms vary their skills requirements over the business cycle: our empirical analysis shows that, for a given wage offer, requirements are stricter in recessions and downturns. Separating between reasons for posting vacancies turned out important in explaining differences in vacancy...

  2. Monopoly, employment and wages

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that monopoly in the capital equipment market results in higher productivity and wages but lower employment in comparison with the benchmark of competition. The combined effect on workers' welfare is negative, for expected earnings (defined as the product of the probability of employment and the wage earned when employed) are lowered. Indeed, low skill workers suffer relatively greater declines in employment and expected earnings. Furthermore, the employment and expected earn...

  3. Auditory streaming of tones of uncertain frequency, level, and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chieh; Lutfi, Robert A; Lee, Jungmee

    2015-12-01

    Stimulus uncertainty is known to critically affect auditory masking, but its influence on auditory streaming has been largely ignored. Standard ABA-ABA tone sequences were made increasingly uncertain by increasing the sigma of normal distributions from which the frequency, level, or duration of tones were randomly drawn. Consistent with predictions based on a model of masking by Lutfi, Gilbertson, Chang, and Stamas [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2160-2170 (2013)], the frequency difference for which A and B tones formed separate streams increased as a linear function of sigma in tone frequency but was much less affected by sigma in tone level or duration.

  4. Procedures used for assessment of stuttering frequency and stuttering duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Leanne; Huckvale, Mark; Howell, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Frequency of stuttered syllables and their durations were assessed using different procedures. The experiment examined overall syllable counts, counts of stuttered syllables and measures of stutter durations when they were made simultaneously or successively. Samples of speech with associated syllable, stuttered syllable and duration measurements of stuttering events were employed in reference transcriptions. Samples contained a minimum of 200 syllables. Ten participants assessed these samples for syllables, stuttered syllables and duration in an experiment. The responses of these participants were stored in alignment with the speech recordings for analysis. Performance was significantly more accurate (relative to transcriptions) for measures other than duration when the successive procedure was used as opposed to the simultaneous procedure. Although the successive method was more accurate, accuracy of stutter event identification was low for most participants. The procedure that allowed listeners to replay a speech sample and count the syllables, stuttered syllables and durations in three passes yielded more accurate syllable and stuttered syllable counts than procedures that required these judgments to be made in one pass.

  5. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  6. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...

  7. Graduate Identity and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  8. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  9. 20 CFR 725.213 - Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. 725.213 Section 725.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.213 Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. (a)...

  10. Predictors of employment after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Amandeep; Zaghla, Hassan; Adkins, Rodney; Ramji, Alnoor; Lewis, Susan; Moser, Jennifer; Sher, Linda S; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Employment after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) indicates recipients' physical/psychosocial adjustment. Our aim was to determine clinical, socioeconomic and health-related quality of life parameters influencing employment after OLT. Questionnaire on demographics, medical conditions, alcohol and drug use before/after OLT, and a validated 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) were mailed to 126 adult OLT patients. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to identify best predictors of post-OLT employment. Among non-retirees, 49% were employed after OLT. The predictors of employment were: employment status, income, disability status before OLT and Model of End Stage Liver Disease score. These variables had prediction rate of 82%. Individuals working during the five yr prior to OLT were likely to return to work (p6 months prior to OLT (p$80 000 before OLT compared with or=6 months prior to OLT, were less likely to work (p=0.0005). Severity/duration of liver dysfunction prior to OLT did not correlate with employment. Sense of physical health was poorer in those employed after OLT than in unemployed (p=0.0003). Socioeconomic factors were the most important predictors of post-OLT employment.

  11. Density and duration of experimental human pneumococcal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritzfeld, J.F.; Cremers, A.J.H.; Ferwerda, G.; Ferreira, D.M.; Kadioglu, A.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Gordon, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The density and duration of pneumococcal carriage are considered to affect the likelihood of transmission and invasive disease. Because of its importance in both spreading and causing disease, carriage has been suggested as an endpoint in future vaccine studies. Culture is the current gold standard

  12. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  13. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  14. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out...... what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were...... relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association...

  15. Predicting Severity and Duration of Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict severity and duration of traffic accidents by employing Ordered Probit model and Hazard model, respectively. The models are estimated using traffic accident data collected in Jilin province, China, in 2010. With the developed models, three severity indicators, namely, number of fatalities, number of injuries, and property damage, as well as accident duration, are predicted, and the important influences of related variables are identified. The results indicate that the goodness-of-fit of Ordered Probit model is higher than that of SVC model in severity modeling. In addition, accident severity is proven to be an important determinant of duration; that is, more fatalities and injuries in the accident lead to longer duration. Study results can be applied to predictions of accident severity and duration, which are two essential steps in accident management process. By recognizing those key influences, this study also provides suggestive results for government to take effective measures to reduce accident impacts and improve traffic safety.

  16. Information Literacy and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...

  17. Marriage, Wealth, and Unemployment Duration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Rasmus; Tranæs, Torben

    This note presents evidence of the following gender asymmetry: the job-finding effort of married men and women is affected by the income of their spouses in opposite directions. For women, spouse income influences job finding negatively, just as own wealth does: the more the man earns and the wea......This note presents evidence of the following gender asymmetry: the job-finding effort of married men and women is affected by the income of their spouses in opposite directions. For women, spouse income influences job finding negatively, just as own wealth does: the more the man earns...... and the wealthier the woman is, the longer it takes for her to find a job. The contrary is the case for men, where spouse income affects job finding positively: the more the wife earns, the faster the husband finds a job. This is so despite the fact that greater own wealth also prolongs unemployment spells for men...

  18. Shorter duration of breastfeeding at elevated exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) affect the capability to breastfeed.In two Faroese birth cohorts (N = 1130), concentrations of five PFASs were measured in maternal serum during pregnancy or two weeks after term....... Duration of breastfeeding was assessed by questionnaire and clinical interview. In adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of maternal serum PFASs was associated with a reduction in duration of both total and exclusive breastfeeding, most pronounced for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) where...

  19. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  20. Listening to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalski, Jan; Riley, Alison; Aubrey, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Various government initiatives have highlighted the importance of employer engagement in schools, further education and higher education. However, speaking as a team of lecturers in HE the authors have found that there is a tension between the perceptions of government and those of employers. Clearly, it would be a good thing if, particularly in…

  1. Employment and Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    This report examines the effectiveness of employment and training programs in Minnesota and discusses the impact of the 1985 Jobs Bill state legislation. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to Minnesota's programs and to studies of employment and training programs conducted nationwide. Chapter 2 studies the use of Job Training Partnership Act funds…

  2. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; Gørtz, Mette

    2017-01-01

    -time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect...... on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect......We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008–2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over...

  3. 20 CFR 663.420 - Can the duration and amount of ITA's be limited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that is based on the needs identified in the individual employment plan; or (2) There may be a policy... limited? 663.420 Section 663.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Training Accounts § 663.420 Can the duration and amount of ITA's be limited? (a) Yes, the State or...

  4. Research on population and employment under the world employment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    , particularly those affecting fertility, migration behavior, and the employment structure.

  5. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  6. A Study on Affect Mechanism of Employment Quality in the New Period in China:An Empirical Analysis Based on Survey Data%我国新时期个人就业质量影响因素研究--基于调查数据的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽锋; 陈建伟

    2015-01-01

    从提升个人就业质量的视角出发,文章利用调查数据,通过多个指标对我国新时期个人就业质量进行了比较分析,并构建了包含个人就业满意度信息的就业质量指标,利用有序Logit模型对我国新时期个人就业质量的主要影响机制进行了实证分析。结果表明,劳动报酬因素对提升就业质量的作用明显;在工作时间因素中,工作生活平衡度对个人就业质量具有更为重要的影响;在职业发展方面,如果工作与专业匹配度越高,则劳动者的就业质量就越高;职业尊重因素的回归结果表明,所从事职业的受尊重程度,已成为新时期影响我国劳动者个人就业质量的最为重要的因素。该研究对我国制定新时期劳动力市场政策,实现更高质量就业目标具有现实意义。%From the point of view of improving employment quality , this article analyzed the employment quality of our country through a number of indicators using the survey data . We constructed an employment quality index containing personal job satisfaction information and tested empirically the main effecting mechanism to the employment quality through ordered Logit Model . The study found that the factors of labor remuneration significantly enhance the quality of employment .The balance between work and life has an important influence on the working time factors.To career development , the employment quality will be higher if the matching degree between work and professional technique is higher .Then the regression results showed that the career respect factors affect the quality of employment in the new period of China significantly .This research would be important to develop the labor market in the new period and achieve a higher quality of employment .

  7. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  8. Retail Employment Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Robert Walters, one of the world’s leading professional specialist recruitment consultancies, has recently released a report on employment opportunities in China’s consumer goods retail industry in the first half of this year. Excerpts follow:

  9. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  10. The interaction between duration, velocity and repetitive auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dillon, Joe; Perrin, Aimee; Mullet, Thomas; Jones, Luke A

    2012-03-01

    Repetitive auditory stimulation (with click trains) and visual velocity signals both have intriguing effects on the subjective passage of time. Previous studies have established that prior presentation of auditory clicks increases the subjective duration of subsequent sensory input, and that faster moving stimuli are also judged to have been presented for longer (the time dilation effect). However, the effect of clicks on velocity estimation is unknown, and the nature of the time dilation effect remains ambiguous. Here were present a series of five experiments to explore these phenomena in more detail. Participants viewed a rightward moving grating which traveled at velocities ranging from 5 to 15°/s and which lasted for durations of 500 to 1500 ms. Gratings were preceded by clicks, silence or white noise. It was found that both clicks and higher velocities increased subjective duration. It was also found that the time dilation effect was a constant proportion of stimulus duration. This implies that faster velocity increases the rate of the pacemaker component of the internal clock. Conversely, clicks increased subjective velocity, but the magnitude of this effect was not proportional to actual velocity. Through considerations of these results, we conclude that clicks independently affect velocity and duration representations.

  11. Incident duration modeling using flexible parametric hazard-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruimin; Shang, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  12. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  13. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS.The study included 213 (89.9% of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment.After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS and primary progressive (PPMS. Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed.Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  14. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards.

  15. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...... of sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) was approximately halved after adjustment for FM, but remained significant. The strength of this association was also markedly attenuated when adjusting for insulin mainly for the upper BMI quantiles (Q80, β = −0.36 vs. β = −0.26; Q95, β = −0.87 vs. β = −0...

  16. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  17. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  18. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review......, it becomes possible to specify employment relations parameters between the indirect and direct employer and employees in a manner that will ensure working conditions consistent with these traditions, substantially enhancing the prospect of authenticity in employment relations. This theology of the workplace...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  19. Botulinum toxin: examining duration of effect in facial aesthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy Corcoran

    2010-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with botulinum toxin treatment is a key success factor in aesthetic procedures and is governed by the interaction of numerous variables. Duration of effect is important because it influences retreatment intervals as well as affecting cost and convenience to the patient. In order to review the evidence on the duration of benefit associated with various commercial formulations of botulinum toxin, MEDLINE was searched using the following terms: 'botulinum' and 'duration'/'retreatment' (limits: 'clinical trials,' 'meta-analyses,' 'English'). I also searched my existing reference files, reference lists of identified articles, and meeting/conference abstracts to ensure completeness. The focus was on clinical medicine and aesthetic trials. To be eligible for the analysis, studies had to include efficacy assessments at multiple timepoints. To estimate duration of benefit, the following outcomes were examined and summarized: responder rates, mean wrinkle severity scores at various timepoints (with or without changes from baseline), and relapse rates. Duration at both repose and maximum attempted muscle contraction was considered when provided. Where possible, duration was assessed by formulation and dose. The initial search yielded 164 articles. Of these, 35 included an adequate measure of duration in aesthetic indications. The majority of these (22) were on the glabellar area. Study designs and endpoints were highly heterogeneous, and duration of effect varied between studies. Several studies with the BOTOX Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) formulation of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) included relapse rates, defined conservatively as return to baseline levels of line severity for two consecutive visits approximately 30 days apart (at repose and maximum contraction). In these studies, duration of effect ranged from 3 to 5 months in female patients and from 4 to 6 months in male patients. Individual patients had longer

  20. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  1. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...... an intended policy shift, there seems to be very little public discussion about them. Far-reaching policy changes become politically invisible and de-politicized. Our empirical case is the contracting out of the public employment services in Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main question is what...

  2. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  3. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications...

  4. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  5. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanthiran Veerasamy

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The main results of this study are: (1 Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2 volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3 self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4 job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5 current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  6. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  7. Valsalva maneuver: shortest optimal expiratory strain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Khurana, Md

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To quantitate the level of difficulty and determine consistency of hemodynamic responses with various expiratory strain (ES durations. Methods : Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the Valsalva maneuver (VM with an ES duration of 10, 12, and 15 seconds in random order. Level of difficulty after each trial was rated 1 to 10, with 10 being the most difficult. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously and non-invasively. Parameters studied were Valsalva ratio (VR, early phase II (IIE, late phase II (IIL, tachycardia latency (TL, bradycardia latency (BL, and overshoot latency (OV-L. Consistency of responses was calculated. Results : Difficulty increased significantly with increased ES duration: 5.1±0.1 (mean±SEM at 10 seconds, 5.9±0.1 at 12 seconds, and 6.8±0.1 at 15 seconds (p<0.001. Phase IIE, TL, BL, OV-L, and VR response did not differ statistically with increasing ES durations, and there were no differences in variability. Phase IIL response increased significantly with increasing ES duration. Phase IIL was poorly delineated in 14 of 102 trials with 10 seconds ES duration. Conclusions : ES duration of 10 seconds created a low level of difficulty in healthy individuals. This strain duration produced consistent hemodynamic response for all parameters tested except IIL phase. The absence of IIL phase with 10 seconds ES should not be interpreted as an indicator of sympathetic vasoconstrictor failure.

  8. Employability through covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    How can a sustainable employment insurance system be guaranteed as a major element of the ESM? First a summary overview of the Lisbon targets and their impact on the policies of and in the member states of the European Union is given. Then follow data and problems associated with the target of enhan

  9. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  10. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  11. Employer Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  12. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  13. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  14. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    analysis shows that ordinary and subsidized employment is positively correlated, i.e. employment of subsidized labour does not reduce ordinary employment. But an underlying similar movement in production levels might cause the correlation. Simple inclusion of a production level proxy in OLS estimations......Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...... does not sufficiently control for the underlying correlation, but additional control for the size of the change of production indicates that subsidized labour to some extent substitutes non-subsidized labour. But the substitution depends on the applied econometric specification, i.e. a cumulative logit...

  15. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  16. Investigation of various parameters influencing the duration of mucoadhesion of some polymer containing discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi SAR

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some important parameters on duration of adhesion of discs containing mucoadhesive polymers. For this purpose discs containing carbopol 934P (C934, polycarbophil (PC, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC were prepared and the duration of their in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated. Also the effect of the addition of various amounts of HPMC to other polymers, the effect of the test medium and prehydration of the test discs for 2 and 5 min prior to their placement in contact with the mucosal surface, on the duration of mucoadhesion of test discs were investigated. Results show that the addition of 25% HPMC increases the duration of mucoadhesion of all the tested polymers. The greatest duration of mucoadhesion with the anionic polymers CMC, C934 and PC was found to be at pH values above 4.0. The duration of mucoadhesion of HPMC containing discs were not greatly affected by the pH values above 2.2. However, at a pH value of 2.2 all of the investigated polymers showed the lowest duration of mucoadhesion. Finally, prehydration of discs containing HPMC, CMC or their combination before their placement on the mucosal surface resulted in a significant reduction in their duration of mucoadhesion. Discs containing only C934 or PC were far less affected by prehydration, especially after 2 min. Addition of HPMC to these discs greatly reduced their duration of mucoadhesion.

  17. A study of duration of digital dermatitis lesions after treatment in a Danish dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin adjacent to the claws. Disease dynamics of DD have been described to some extend, but we still need to quantify the duration of lesions and look into non-treatment factors affecting this. The aim of this study......- and multiparous cows and between different stages in lactation at onset of the lesion. The median duration of lesions were estimated to be 42 days, less than previous published estimates. The relatively aggressive regime of topical treatment in the study herd might have shortened the duration of the lesions...

  18. The effects of odour and body posture on perceived duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane eSchreuder

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odour and an upright body posture affect perceived duration.The experimental task was performed while participants were exposed to an odour and either sitting upright (arousing condition or lying down in a relaxing chair (relaxing condition. They were allocated to one of three experimental odour conditions: rosemary (arousing condition, peppermint (relaxing condition and no odour (control condition. The predicted effects of the odours were not borne out by the results. Self-reported arousal and pleasure states were measured before, during (after each body posture condition and post experimentally. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured before and during the experiment. As expected, odour had an effect on perceived duration. When participants were exposed to rosemary odour, they produced significantly shorter time intervals than in the no odour condition. This effect, however, could not be explained by increased arousal. There was no effect of body posture on perceived duration, even though body posture did induce arousal. The results do not support the proposed arousal mechanism of the internal clock model.

  19. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kidd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55 and illness duration (more or less than 10 years. The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients.

  20. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value......This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  1. Rebirth through supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, David C

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the author describes how supported employment was a conduit for employment for him, and allowed for a remarkable journey of recovery, involving discovery and empowerment, incorporation, purpose, and belonging. After two decades of unemployment or underemployment, he began to see that work was possible through supported education at college, where he excelled. Federal and state grants paid for two thirds of his college education. He periodically met with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, who was very encouraging. He also had a case manager through a private psychiatric organization who provided support. The author concludes that the root of his problems was the lack of supports to help him become incorporated into society-a lack that ushered in a host of problems, probably similar to what others experience. When supports were given, many of those symptoms disappeared.

  2. Small business & employment

    OpenAIRE

    Lieshout, Harm van

    2015-01-01

    Understanding SMEs is essential to our aspired succes as an economic partner. Small enterprises are not small big enterprises, and differ substantially among them The key ingredient to our help from education remains the education of a new highly skilled generation of workers … and entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs do not necessarily want to be employers, and are not necessarily good at it. But to ensure a healthy life in a healthy business, they need to be.

  3. Languages and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA; DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; FLISI SARA; SOTO CALVO ELENA

    2015-01-01

    This report reviews evidence regarding the foreign language competences of European citizens and presents new findings about the relationship between foreign language skills and the likelihood of being in employment. In view of providing research evidence that can inform European Union (EU) policy initiatives, it reviews studies that frame knowledge of languages as a form of human capital, presents descriptive statistics about language knowledge and investigates whether this knowledge is rela...

  4. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  5. 38 CFR 21.72 - Rehabilitation to the point of employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the level generally recognized as necessary for entry into employment in a suitable occupational... veteran with a serious employment handicap to train to a higher level than is usually required to qualify... Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.72 Rehabilitation to the...

  6. Flexible employment, economic insecurity and social policy preferences in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Burgoon; F. Dekker

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how flexible employment, particularly temporary and part-time employment, affect political support for social policy protection. Although their implications are a priori uncertain, the paper lays out how flexible employment conditions can be expected to generate various kinds of

  7. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola

    2014-01-01

    and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  8. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2012-12-23

    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor.

  9. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  10. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  11. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  12. Employment Change and Business Prospects in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosovka Đ Ognjenovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine whether some previous knowledge about business prospects affects companies’ decisions about new employment in Serbia. In order to investigate this assumption a set of firm level data for 2012 is used. Following the theoretical approach that put an employer in a position to make various decisions about employment within the company, the trichotomous logit model is employed for the estimation of outcomes of possible companies’ decisions with respect to a set of independent variables. We find that the level of employment in the year that precedes companies’ decisions and relative changes in the number of employees in two successive years, as well as age and size of the company to some extent, affect companies’ decisions about new employment. The most important finding of our research is that the companies that experienced fluctuations in the number of employees and upgraded their business opportunities in the previous period hesitate to make decisions on the engagement of new workers, whereas those companies that lost some business opportunities rather decide to downsize the total number of employees.

  13. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  14. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    -1998. We correct for selection into relocation to another municipality by joint estimation of the duration of the first non-employment spell and time until relocation. We find, first, that the hazard rate into first job is decreasing in the local population size and the local share of immigrants...

  15. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers duri

  16. EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the Lisbon Agenda, the Romanian Government drew up the National Programme for Reform for 2007-2010, which established national priorities, and ways and tools to achieve economic reform and growth. Transition in Romania implied a complex and extensive system of regulations and institutions for stimulating employment and creating a flexible system of social protection. The new regulations were focused on harmonisation with the Community labour law. Increasing investment in human capital is essential for a competitive and dynamic economy. Besides, labour market policies were formulated for correcting labour market imbalances.

  17. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong......Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... traditions of collective bargaining in the public sector. However, this restructuring is taking its toll on the work environment....

  18. Employment without Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less...... more work. There are no indication that growth at Western economies increases satisfaction or happiness. A new look at the full economy divides it into professional economy and amateur economy, and it is suggested that a reversal of the trend hitherto to draw still more of the whole economy...

  19. Employment Counseling and Organizational Ethical Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Employment counseling is commonly used in companies to assist employees with various personal and professional challenges that are confronted in the workplace. Such guidance could affect the degree to which employees believe a company proactively supports an ethical orientation; the purpose of this study was to explore this issue. A self-report…

  20. Effect of Accent and Dialect on Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Holly K.; McHenry, Monica A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how ethnicity, the amount of perceived accent or dialect, and comprehensibility affect a speaker's employability. Sixty human resource specialists judged 3 female potential applicants. The applicants represented speakers of Spanish-influenced English, Asian-influenced English, and African American Vernacular…

  1. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  2. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  3. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  4. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  5. EVIDENCE ON EMPLOYMENT RATE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia VĂCEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a causal relationship between employment rate and economic growth for European Union countries, in general, and produces a structural assessment of employment on the background of labour market dynamics. Economic growth is the key in economic theory and the main source of well-being and quality of life. Since the 2008 financial crisis, most European countries have experienced job shortage and unemployment problem, but today's European economic outlook is strengthening on the bases of a GDP growing momentum. Empirical data shows, regardless the GDP's moderate positive trend, the employment rate did not increase enough. Given this, the present analysis address the question: to what extent the employment rate is affected by economic growth?

  6. Duration reproduction with sensory feedback delay: Differential involvement of perception and action time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGanzenmüller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that voluntary action can attract subsequent, delayed feedback events towards the action, and adaptation to the sensorimotor delay can even reverse motor-sensory temporal-order judgments. However, whether and how sensorimotor delay affects duration reproduction is still unclear. To investigate this, we injected an onset- or offset-delay to the sensory feedback signal from a duration reproduction task. We compared duration reproductions within (visual, auditory modality and across audiovisual modalities with feedback signal onset- and offset-delay manipulations. We found that the reproduced duration was lengthened in both visual and auditory feedback signal onset-delay conditions. The lengthening effect was evident immediately, on the first trial with the onset delay. However, when the onset of the feedback signal was prior to the action, the lengthening effect was diminished. In contrast, a shortening effect was found with feedback signal offset-delay, though the effect was weaker and manifested only in the auditory offset-delay condition. These findings indicate that participants tend to mix the onset of action and the feedback signal more when the feedback is delayed, and they heavily rely on motor-stop signals for the duration reproduction. Furthermore, auditory duration was overestimated compared to visual duration in crossmodal feedback conditions, and the overestimation of auditory duration (or the underestimation of visual duration was independent of the delay manipulation.

  7. Employment in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  8. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  9. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  10. Employment Trajectories Beyond Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Carola; Hochfellner, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Within the political and academic debate on working longer, post-retirement employment is discussed as an alternative to maintain older workers in the labor market. Our article enhances this discussion by studying determinants of transitions into post-retirement jobs within differing work environments of birth cohorts 1940-1942. We estimate proportional subhazard models accounting for competing risks using unique German social security data linked to pension accounts. Our findings suggest that individuals' preferences to take up post-retirement jobs are not mutually exclusive. Our study provides evidence that taking up post-retirement jobs is related to seeking financial security, continuity, and work ability, suggesting that public policy has to develop target-oriented support through a public policy mix of different measures aligned to the different peer groups in the labor market.

  11. Sociosexuality, Morningness–Eveningness, and Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morningness–eveningness is the preference for different times of day for activity and sleep. Here, we addressed the effects of sleep behavior and morningness–eveningness on sociosexuality. Three hundred students (M age = 22.75 years, with 95% between 18 and 28 participated online, answering questions about morningness–eveningness (rMEQ [Reduced Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire], midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF, sleep duration, and the Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R. The SOI-R contains three subscales, Behavior, Attitude, and Desire. Evening orientation and short sleep duration were related to a higher total SOI-R and to the three subscales. Based on the linear models, the strongest effect on sociosexuality was produced by gender (27% explained variance while age accounted for 6% of variance. Nonadditive variance explained by sleep–wake behavior was 7% (MSF, 4% (sleep duration, and 4% (rMEQ scores; 3% rMEQ-based typology. Older age was related to less-restricted sociosexuality, and men were less restricted than women in Attitude and Desire. Sleep duration and rMEQ scores were associated with Attitude and Desire; but only MSF was significantly related to Behavior. The data show that sleep–wake variables are associated with sociosexuality, with evening orientation and shorter sleep duration being related to a less-restricted sociosexuality.

  12. Impact of response duration on multisensory integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Zachary P.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) have been shown to have large receptive fields that are heterogeneous in nature. These neurons have the capacity to integrate their different sensory inputs, a process that has been shown to depend on the physical characteristics of the stimuli that are combined (i.e., spatial and temporal relationship and relative effectiveness). Recent work has highlighted the interdependence of these factors in driving multisensory integration, adding a layer of complexity to our understanding of multisensory processes. In the present study our goal was to add to this understanding by characterizing how stimulus location impacts the temporal dynamics of multisensory responses in cat SC neurons. The results illustrate that locations within the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) of these neurons can be divided into those showing short-duration responses and long-duration response profiles. Most importantly, discharge duration appears to be a good determinant of multisensory integration, such that short-duration responses are typically associated with a high magnitude of multisensory integration (i.e., superadditive responses) while long-duration responses are typically associated with low integrative capacity. These results further reinforce the complexity of the integrative features of SC neurons and show that the large SRFs of these neurons are characterized by vastly differing temporal dynamics, dynamics that strongly shape the integrative capacity of these neurons. PMID:22896723

  13. Effect of temperature and heating duration of drying on quality of low amylose rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutarop Yardthaisong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processed food is mostly made from stale rice which contains high viscosity. However the storage of stale rice takes approximately 4-6 months, so acceleration aging of rice saves time and area in the warehouse. Therefore the study aims to observe effects of temperatures and heating duration on the quality of rice with initial low-amylose. Optimum temperature and heating duration of rice quality similar to stale rice were analyzed. The Khao Dok Mali 105 has been tested under controlled temperatures at 70, 80 and 90 °C with heating duration for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The results showed that final viscosity, color value, amylose content and grain cracking increased, but Breakdown decreased as temperature, heating duration and storage time increased. The optimum temperature at 90 °C and heating duration for 4 hours affected to rice quality in the experiment similar to stale rice after storage for 4 months.

  14. The Influence of Small Class Size, Duration, Intensity, and Heterogeneity on Head Start Fade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The researcher conducted a nonexperimental study to investigate and analyze the influence of reduced class sizes, intensity (all day and every day), duration (five years), and heterogeneity (random class assignment) on the Head Start Fade effect. The researcher employed retrospective data analysis using a longitudinal explanatory design on data…

  15. Analysis of the transitional dynamics and duration of unemployment in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Castro Vincenzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that explain the duration of unemployment spells and the transitional dynamics between the state of employment, unemployment and inactivity in Costa Rican labor market, using the Continuous Employment Survey for the period between the first quarter of 2012 and the third quarter of 2013. This research focuses mainly on supply-side factors and uses binominal and multinomial logit models in order to determine which variables determine that some people are more likely to be unemployed, Markov matrixes to estimate a series of transitional probabilities for different states in the labor market, and a survival model to characterize the duration of the unemployment spells. We conclude that women are more likely to be unemployed than men, and have smaller probabilities of changing from unemployed to employed. Also, the duration of their unemployment spells is longer. Furthermore, a higher academic level decreases the probabilities for an individual of being unemployed, but increases the duration of the unemployment spell. A correlation between the performance of the economic activity and the probabilities of becoming employed and of becoming inactive is observed.

  16. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  17. The Impact of Employment of Foreign Workers: Local Employability and Trade Union Roles in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of foreign workers has received increase media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and consequences of employment of foreign workers in Malaysia. Introduction of significant changes in recruitment phenomenon has ended in painful and traumatic atmosphere which barely acceptable by local workforce in Malaysia. This conceptual paper can be derived from the field of industrial relations which play a significant role in employment of foreign workers. The article reports on the preliminary findings on employment status of local workforce and trade union rights affected by employment of foreign workers. In addition, the research makes a number of recommendations, including the need for further development on reducing the employment of foreign workers and more refined targeting of vulnerable foreign workers linked with labor legislations.

  18. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  19. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Rubina Khan; Tazin Aziz Chaudhury

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as a...

  20. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRomei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  1. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  2. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  3. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola; Lipski, Silvia C

    2013-09-01

    In some languages (e.g. Czech), changes in vowel duration affect word meaning, while in others (e.g. Spanish) they do not. Yet for other languages (e.g. Dutch), the linguistic role of vowel duration remains unclear. To reveal whether Dutch represents vowel length in its phonology, we compared auditory pre-attentive duration processing in native and non-native vowels across Dutch, Czech, and Spanish. Dutch duration sensitivity patterned with Czech but was larger than Spanish in the native vowel, while it was smaller than Czech and Spanish in the non-native vowel. An interpretation of these findings suggests that in Dutch, duration is used phonemically but it might be relevant for the identity of certain native vowels only. Furthermore, the finding that Spanish listeners are more sensitive to duration in non-native than in native vowels indicates that a lack of duration differences in one's native language could be beneficial for second-language learning.

  4. Estimating the duration of speciation from phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Rampal S; Morlon, Hélène; Lambert, Amaury

    2014-08-01

    Speciation is not instantaneous but takes time. The protracted birth-death diversification model incorporates this fact and predicts the often observed slowdown of lineage accumulation toward the present. The mathematical complexity of the protracted speciation model has barred estimation of its parameters until recently a method to compute the likelihood of phylogenetic branching times under this model was outlined (Lambert et al. ). Here, we implement this method and study using simulated phylogenies of extant species how well we can estimate the model parameters (rate of initiation of speciation, rate of extinction of incipient and good species, and rate of completion of speciation) as well as the duration of speciation, which is a combination of the aforementioned parameters. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a primate phylogeny. The simulations show that phylogenies often do not contain enough information to provide unbiased estimates of the speciation-initiation rate and the extinction rate, but the duration of speciation can be estimated without much bias. The estimate of the duration of speciation for the primate clade is consistent with literature estimates. We conclude that phylogenies combined with the protracted speciation model provide a promising way to estimate the duration of speciation.

  5. Preventive maintenance at opportunities of restricted duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); E. Smeitink

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the problem of setting priorities for the execution of maintenance packages at randomly occurring opportunities. These opportunities are of restricted duration, implying that only a limited number of packages can be executed. The main idea proposed is to set up a

  6. Breathhold duration and response to marijuana smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, J P; Chait, L D

    1989-06-01

    Marijuana smokers are frequently observed to hold the smoke in their lungs for prolonged periods (10-15 sec) apparently in the belief that prolonged breathholding intensifies the effects of the drug. The actual influence of breathhold duration on response to marijuana smoke has not been studied. The present study examined the effects of systematic manipulation of breathhold duration on the physiological, cognitive and subjective response to marijuana smoke in a group of eight regular marijuana smokers. Subjects were exposed to each of three breathhold duration conditions (0, 10 and 20 sec) on three occasions, scheduled according to a randomized block design. A controlled smoking procedure was used in which the number of puffs, puff volume and postpuff inhalation volume were held constant. Expired air carbon monoxide levels were measured before and after smoking to monitor smoke intake. Typical marijuana effects (increased heart rate, increased ratings of "high" and impaired memory performance) were observed under each of the breathhold conditions, but there was little evidence that response to marijuana was a function of breathhold duration.

  7. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development:Requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while implementations are described bytimed transition systems (TTS). A link from implementati...

  8. Duration Properties of Timed Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development.The system requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties, and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while the implementation and refinement are described in termsof timed transition ...

  9. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards...

  10. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP About ODEP ... Youth in Transition Publications for Order and Download Disability Statistics October 2016 Disability Employment Statistics Ages 16 ...

  11. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  12. Employability of nursing care graduates:

    OpenAIRE

    Donik Barbara; Pajnkihar Majda; Bernik Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students and employers point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between th...

  13. Distribution of possible sunshine durations over rugged terrains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yan; QIU Xinfa; MIAO Qilong; LIU Changming

    2003-01-01

    Based on the digital elevation model (DEM), a new model for calculating possible sunshine duration (PSD) is completely described. Using this model, monthly PSD with resolution of 1 km×1 km for the rugged topography of China is calculated. Results suggest that terrain has robust effect on PSD, particularly in winter when a lower sun elevation angle exists. Besides, the proposed model taking the DEM data as the input has an ability to process mass of data and is applicable to satellite image processing platforms or Geographic Information System (GIS). The PSD (in hours) is provided in the same way as other kinds of spatial information and can be employed as basic geographic data for relevant studies as well.

  14. Global solar radiation estimation using sunshine duration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almorox, J.; Hontoria, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Edafologia

    2004-06-01

    Several equations were employed to estimate global solar radiation from sunshine hours for 16 meteorological stations in Spain, using only the relative duration of sunshine. These equations included the original Angstrom-Prescott linear regression and modified functions (quadratic, third degree, logarithmic and exponential functions). Estimated values were compared with measured values in terms of the coefficient of determination, standard error of the estimate and mean absolute error. All the models fitted the data adequately and can be used to estimate global solar radiation from sunshine hours. This study finds that the third degree models performed better than the other models, but the linear model is preferred due to its greater simplicity and wider application. It is also found that seasonal partitioning does not significantly improve the estimation of global radiation. (author)

  15. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock......-in effect, with low re-employment chances during program participation. Moreover, non-formal education (e.g., shorter courses) and subsidized internships have no or even negative employment effects....

  16. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  17. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  18. Regional flow duration curves: Geostatistical techniques versus multivariate regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessio; Farmer, William H.; Castellarin, Attilio; Archfield, Stacey A.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    A period-of-record flow duration curve (FDC) represents the relationship between the magnitude and frequency of daily streamflows. Prediction of FDCs is of great importance for locations characterized by sparse or missing streamflow observations. We present a detailed comparison of two methods which are capable of predicting an FDC at ungauged basins: (1) an adaptation of the geostatistical method, Top-kriging, employing a linear weighted average of dimensionless empirical FDCs, standardised with a reference streamflow value; and (2) regional multiple linear regression of streamflow quantiles, perhaps the most common method for the prediction of FDCs at ungauged sites. In particular, Top-kriging relies on a metric for expressing the similarity between catchments computed as the negative deviation of the FDC from a reference streamflow value, which we termed total negative deviation (TND). Comparisons of these two methods are made in 182 largely unregulated river catchments in the southeastern U.S. using a three-fold cross-validation algorithm. Our results reveal that the two methods perform similarly throughout flow-regimes, with average Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies 0.566 and 0.662, (0.883 and 0.829 on log-transformed quantiles) for the geostatistical and the linear regression models, respectively. The differences between the reproduction of FDC's occurred mostly for low flows with exceedance probability (i.e. duration) above 0.98.

  19. Joint modelling of annual maximum drought severity and corresponding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosunoglu, Fatih; Kisi, Ozgur

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the joint distribution properties of drought characteristics (e.g. severity, duration and intensity) have been widely evaluated using copulas. However, history of copulas in modelling drought characteristics obtained from streamflow data is still short, especially in semi-arid regions, such as Turkey. In this study, unlike previous studies, drought events are characterized by annual maximum severity (AMS) and corresponding duration (CD) which are extracted from daily streamflow of the seven gauge stations located in Çoruh Basin, Turkey. On evaluation of the various univariate distributions, the Exponential, Weibull and Logistic distributions are identified as marginal distributions for the AMS and CD series. Archimedean copulas, namely Ali-Mikhail-Haq, Clayton, Frank and Gumbel-Hougaard, are then employed to model joint distribution of the AMS and CD series. With respect to the Anderson Darling and Cramér-von Mises statistical tests and the tail dependence assessment, Gumbel-Hougaard copula is identified as the most suitable model for joint modelling of the AMS and CD series at each station. Furthermore, the developed Gumbel-Hougaard copulas are used to derive the conditional and joint return periods of the AMS and CD series which can be useful for designing and management of reservoirs in the basin.

  20. Regional flow duration curves: Geostatistical techniques versus multivariate regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessio; Farmer, William H.; Castellarin, Attilio; Archfield, Stacey A.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-10-01

    A period-of-record flow duration curve (FDC) represents the relationship between the magnitude and frequency of daily streamflows. Prediction of FDCs is of great importance for locations characterized by sparse or missing streamflow observations. We present a detailed comparison of two methods which are capable of predicting an FDC at ungauged basins: (1) an adaptation of the geostatistical method, Top-kriging, employing a linear weighted average of dimensionless empirical FDCs, standardised with a reference streamflow value; and (2) regional multiple linear regression of streamflow quantiles, perhaps the most common method for the prediction of FDCs at ungauged sites. In particular, Top-kriging relies on a metric for expressing the similarity between catchments computed as the negative deviation of the FDC from a reference streamflow value, which we termed total negative deviation (TND). Comparisons of these two methods are made in 182 largely unregulated river catchments in the southeastern U.S. using a three-fold cross-validation algorithm. Our results reveal that the two methods perform similarly throughout flow-regimes, with average Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies 0.566 and 0.662, (0.883 and 0.829 on log-transformed quantiles) for the geostatistical and the linear regression models, respectively. The differences between the reproduction of FDC's occurred mostly for low flows with exceedance probability (i.e. duration) above 0.98.

  1. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.; Escudero, P.; Lipski, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    In some languages (e.g. Czech), changes in vowel duration affect word meaning, while in others (e.g. Spanish) they do not. Yet for other languages (e.g. Dutch), the linguistic role of vowel duration remains unclear. To reveal whether Dutch represents vowel length in its phonology, we compared audito

  2. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  3. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  4. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  5. Job security provisions and employment. revised estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addision, John; Grosso, Jean-Luc

    1995-01-01

    the directional effect of severance pay on employment and unemployment, but report vety different results in respect of working hours. Also contrary to Lazear, longer notice intervals are associated with favorable labor market outcomes. Recalibrating the two job protection measures according to length of service...... does not materially affect these findings, nor are the results sensitive to the inclusion of a measure proxying the generosity of a country's unemployment insurance system...

  6. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  7. Sleep Duration and Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Bong Sun; An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min Suk; Choi, Yong Jun; Han, Seung Jin; Chung, Yoon-sok; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been reported to increase the risk of diabetes. However, the influence of sleep duration on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been clarified. In this study we evaluated the association between sleep duration and glycemic control in diabetic patients. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. Sleep duration was classified into five groups: <6, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c showed a U-shaped trend according to sleep duration. Sleep duration of 7 h/day had the lowest HbA1c (7.26%) among the subjects (P=0.026). In the older age group (≥65 yr), a sleep duration of 6 h/day was associated with the lowest HbA1c (7.26%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of worse glycemic control (HbA1c ≥7.0%) in group of sleep duration of ≥9 h/day was 1.48 (1.04-2.13) compared with the group of 7 h/day. This relationship disappeared after adjusting duration of diabetes (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.93-2.03). Our results suggest that sleep duration and glycemic control in diabetic patients has U-shaped relationship which was mainly affected by duration of diabetes. PMID:24015039

  8. Measuring precarious employment in times of crisis: the revised Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vives

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The revised version of the EPRES demonstrated good metric properties and improved sensitivity to worker vulnerability and employment instability among permanent workers. Furthermore, it was sensitive to increased levels of precariousness in some dimensions despite decreases in others, demonstrating responsiveness to the context of the economic crisis affecting the Spanish labour market.

  9. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  10. Checking Timed Automata for Linear Duration Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2000-01-01

    It is proved in this paper that checking a timed automaton M with respect to a linear duration property D can be done by investigating only the integral timed states of M. An equivalence relation is introduced in this paper to divide the infinite number of integral timed states into finite number of equivalence classes. Based on this, a method is proposed for checking whether M satisfies D. In some cases, the number of equivalence classes is too large for a computer to manipulate. A technique for reducing the search-space for checking linear duration property is also described. This technique is more suitable for the case in this paper than those in the literature because most of those techniques are designed for reachability analysis.

  11. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  12. Bayesian nonparametric duration model with censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hakizamungu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with nonparametric i.i.d. durations models censored observations and we establish by a simple and unified approach the general structure of a bayesian nonparametric estimator for a survival function S. For Dirichlet prior distributions, we describe completely the structure of the posterior distribution of the survival function. These results are essentially supported by prior and posterior independence properties.

  13. Treatment Duration of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    van der Starre, Willize E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5–7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven suscep...

  14. Fitting the empirical distribution of intertrade durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico

    2008-03-01

    Based on the analysis of a tick-by-tick data set used in the previous work by one of the authors (DJIA stocks traded at NYSE in October 1999), in this paper, we reject the hypothesis that tails of the empirical intertrade distribution are described by a power law. We further argue that the Tsallis q-exponentials are a viable tool for fitting and describing the unconditional distribution of empirical intertrade durations and they compare well to the Weibull distribution.

  15. Book review: The Oxford handbook of offshoring and global employment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "The Oxford Handbook of Offshoring and Global Employment." Ashok Bardhan, Dwight M Jafee & Cynthia A Kroll (eds.). Oxford University Press. May 2013. --- \\ud How do globalization, economic growth and technological developments interact to impact employment? This Handbook brings together eminent authors from a wide range of countries to assess how global economic changes have affected employment opportunities. Chapters cover both manufacturing and services sectors, and also address policy issu...

  16. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  17. 29 CFR 541.502 - Away from employer's place of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actually occurs, rather than just sales promotion, trade shows of short duration (i.e., one or two weeks... OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.502 Away from employer's place of business. An outside sales employee must be customarily and regularly engaged “away from the employer's place or...

  18. Fertility and Female Employment: Problems of Causal Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, James C.

    1980-01-01

    Considers multicollinearity in nonrecursive models, misspecification of models, discrepancies between attitudes and behavior, and differences between static and dynamic models as explanations for contradictory information on the causal relationship between fertility and female employment. Finds that initially fertility affects employment but that,…

  19. Letter: The Athena SWAN Charter and Good Employment Practice

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Both men and women benefit from good employment practice; however, women in particular are adversely affected by bad practice. UCL was one of ten founder members of the Athena SWAN Charter when it was launched in June 2005 to celebrate excellence, and to share good practice in the employment of women in academic science, engineering and technology, especially at senior levels.

  20. Path durations for use in the stochastic‐method simulation of ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation assumes that the energy in a target spectrum is spread over a duration DT. DT is generally decomposed into the duration due to source effects (DS) and to path effects (DP). For the most commonly used source, seismological theory directly relates DS to the source corner frequency, accounting for the magnitude scaling of DT. In contrast, DP is related to propagation effects that are more difficult to represent by analytic equations based on the physics of the process. We are primarily motivated to revisit DT because the function currently employed by many implementations of the stochastic method for active tectonic regions underpredicts observed durations, leading to an overprediction of ground motions for a given target spectrum. Further, there is some inconsistency in the literature regarding which empirical duration corresponds to DT. Thus, we begin by clarifying the relationship between empirical durations and DT as used in the first author’s implementation of the stochastic method, and then we develop a new DP relationship. The new DP function gives significantly longer durations than in the previous DP function, but the relative contribution of DP to DT still diminishes with increasing magnitude. Thus, this correction is more important for small events or subfaults of larger events modeled with the stochastic finite‐fault method.

  1. Employment strategy of the Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  2. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  3. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies. Part II: Empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2003-01-01

    to the Danish Dispersal Policy 1986-1998. We correct for selection into relocation to another municipality by joint estimation of the duration of the first non-employment spell and time until relocation. The main estimation results are as follows: First, the hazard rate into first job is increasing...... of refugees of the same ethnic origin across regions with low unemployment. Second, on average, geographical mobility had large, positive effects on the job finding rate, suggesting that either relocations were carried out to improve employment prospects, or they were carried out to improve place utility...

  4. Balancing work and family: effect of employment characteristics on breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanu, Chinelo; Glover, Saundra; Probst, Janice; Hussey, James; Liu, Jihong

    2011-08-01

    This article describes an investigation of the effect of postpartum employment and occupational type on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Postpartum employment status was classified as full-time, part-time, and not employed. Among postpartum workers, occupational type was classified as management, professional, service, sales, administrative, and "other." In adjusted analysis, professional women had a 20% greater likelihood of initiating breastfeeding than administrative workers (risk ratio [RR] 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.30). Full-time workers had a 10% lower likelihood of initiating breastfeeding than those not employed (RR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97). Among breastfeeding initiators, full-time workers had a 19% lower likelihood of any breastfeeding beyond 6 months than those not employed (RR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99). To improve breastfeeding initiation and duration in the United States, part-time options may be an effective solution for working mothers.

  5. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  6. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  7. Rational inattention and employer learning

    OpenAIRE

    Habermalz, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Research on employer learning has provided important insights into the dynamic process that determines individual wages, especially during the early part of a worker's career. However, the recent evidence on the absence of employer learning for college graduates by Arcidiacono et al. (2008) and results that economic conditions at labor market entry have persistent effects on wages (for example Oreopoulos et al. (2008)) cast doubt on the model's validity. This paper extends the employer learni...

  8. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  9. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  10. Survey questions about sleep duration: does asking separately about weekdays and weekends matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Diane S

    2014-03-04

    There is no standard way to ask about sleep duration in surveys, and little is known about the comparability of different questions. This article reports on a randomized survey experiment designed to test 1 type of variation: 1 question about usual sleep hours versus 2 questions separately asking about weekday and weekend sleep. Mean sleep duration was significantly shorter (7.03 hr vs. 7.28 hr) for the single question than a weighted average from 2 questions, and race and ethnicity contrasts differed by question format. Correlations between sleep duration and reported sleep need were significantly higher for the 2-question format. These results demonstrate that question wording can affect reported sleep duration in complicated ways, making it difficult to compare studies that use different questions.

  11. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  12. Effects of aligning pulse duration on the degree and the slope of nitrogen field-free alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fei; Jiang Hong-Bing; Gong Qi-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Through theoretical analysis,we show how aligning pulse durations affect the degree and the time-rate slope of nitrogen field-free alignment at a fixed pulse intensity.It is found that both the degree and the slope first increase,then saturate,and finally decrease with the increasing pump duration.The optimal durations for the maximum degree and the maximum slope of the alignment are found to be different.Additionally,they are found to mainly depend on the molecular rotational period,and are affected by the temperature and the aligning pump intensities.The mechanism of molecular alignment is also discussed.

  13. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  14. Geometric illusions in astronauts during long-duration spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Skinner, Anna; Richard, Ghislaine; Lathan, Corinna

    2012-10-24

    In our previous studies, we have shown that the occurrence of geometric illusions was reduced in vestibular patients who presented signs of otolith disorders and when healthy observers were tilted relative to gravity. We hypothesized that the alteration in the gravitational (otolith) input was responsible for this change, presumably because of a connection between vestibular and visual-spatial cognitive functions. In this study, we repeated similar experiments in astronauts during long-duration spaceflight. In agreement with the data of otolithic patients, the inverted-T geometric illusion was less present in the astronauts in 0 g than in 1g. In addition, the vertical length of drawings made by astronauts in orbit was shorter than that on the ground. This result is also comparable with the otolithic patients who perceived the vertical length of line drawings to be smaller than healthy individuals. We conclude that the impairment in the processing of gravitational input in long-duration astronauts affects their mental representation of the vertical dimension similar to the otolithic patients. The astronauts, however, recover to baseline levels within 1 week after returning to Earth.

  15. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents.

  16. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  17. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...... by foreign MNEs, but not in acquired Swedish MNEs....

  18. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  19. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  20. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  1. Innovation, Industry Evoluation and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of articles on the links between innovation, the evolution of industry and employment. These relations provide the building blocks of a new industrial policy. The articles are included in Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment pub

  2. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  3. Getting real: the duration of framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies test the effects of news framing on citizens’ understanding of politics. By employing experimental designs, these studies report significant effects for a multitude of issues and frames. However, what happens to the framing effect after initial exposure? Based on a ‘‘clas

  4. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  5. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  6. Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Edo

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) display a bimodal duration distribution, with a separation between the short- and long-duration bursts at about 2 sec. The progenitors of long GRBs have been identified as massive stars based on their association with Type Ic core-collapse supernovae, their exclusive location in star-forming galaxies, and their strong correlation with bright ultraviolet regions within their host galaxies. Short GRBs have long been suspected on theoretical grounds to arise from compact object binary mergers (NS-NS or NS-BH). The discovery of short GRB afterglows in 2005, provided the first insight into their energy scale and environments, established a cosmological origin, a mix of host galaxy types, and an absence of associated supernovae. In this review I summarize nearly a decade of short GRB afterglow and host galaxy observations, and use this information to shed light on the nature and properties of their progenitors, the energy scale and collimation of the relativistic outflow, and the properties ...

  7. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  8. Adaptation to an Illusory Duration: Nothing Like the Real Thing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hotchkiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that adapting to a visual or auditory stimulus of a particular duration leads to a repulsive distortion of the perceived duration of a subsequently presented test stimulus. This distortion seems to be modality-specific and manifests itself as an expansion or contraction of perceived duration dependent upon whether the test stimulus is longer or shorter than the adapted duration. It has been shown (Berger et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3, 406–412 that perceived events can be as effective as actual events in inducing improvements in performance. In light of this, we investigated whether an illusory visual duration was capable of inducing a duration after-effect in a visual test stimulus that was actually no different in duration from the adaptor. Pairing a visual stimulus with a concurrent auditory stimulus of subtly longer or shorter duration expands or contracts the duration of the visual stimulus. We mapped out this effect and then chose two auditory durations (one long, one short that produced the maximum distortion in the perceived duration of the visual stimulus. After adapting to this bimodal stimulus, our participants were asked to reproduce a visual duration. Group data showed that participants, on average, reproduced the physical duration of the visual test stimulus accurately; in other words, there was no consistent effect of adaptation to an illusory duration.

  9. Crossmodal duration perception involves perceptual grouping, temporal ventriloquism, and variable internal clock rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. Christiaan; Montijn, Jorrit S.; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we investigate how audiovisual context affects perceived event duration with experiments in which observers reported which of two stimuli they perceived as longer. Target events were visual and/or auditory and could be accompanied by nontargets in the other modality. Our results demonstrate th

  10. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state f

  11. Effects of Excerpt Tempo and Duration on Musicians' Ratings of High-Level Piano Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel; Ryan, Charlene; Campbell, Louise; Deek, Patricia; Lemire, Renata; Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how judgments of solo performances recorded at an international piano competition might be affected by excerpt duration (20 versus 60 seconds) and tempo (slow versus fast). Musicians rated performances on six test items. Results indicated that piano majors rated slow excerpts higher than they rated fast…

  12. Effect of flushing velocity and flushing duration on sediment transport in microirrigation driplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dripline flushing is a maintenance procedure that is recommended for all microirrigation systems. However, flushing velocity and flushing duration, which particularly affect the design and management of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems, have not been studied extensively. For a better underst...

  13. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching.

  14. Toward the Employability-Link Model: Current Employment Transition to Future Employment Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Johannes G.L.; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2008-01-01

    This article goes into a critical analysis of the concept of employability, its development across historical periods, its components, and different strategic approaches to enhance workers' employability throughout their career. Given the need for a systematic analysis and more empirical research in

  15. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise. PMID:26957934

  16. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  17. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  18. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  19. Economic Conditions and Employment Dynamics of Immigrants versus Natives: Who Pays the Costs of the “Great Recession”?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies how unemployment and employment durations for immigrants and natives respond differently to changes in the economic conditions due to the 2008 crisis and to the receipt of unemployment benefits when the economy declines. Using administrative data for Spain, we estimate multi-state multi-spell duration models that disentangle unobserved heterogeneity from true duration dependence. Our findings suggest that immigrants are more sensitive to changes in economic conditions, both...

  20. 性别差异对IT类研究生就业情况影响的调查报告——以北京大学信息科学技术学院2010年毕业研究生为个案%A Survey and Analysis of Gender Difference Affecting the Employment of IT Graduates——Based on the Case of Employment for the Graduates of School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science in Peking University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 许凝; 郁苗苗

    2011-01-01

    Based on the statistical results obtained from the questionnaire for the graduates of School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science in Peking University,this paper indicates that gender differences in the Employment of IT Graduates are mainly reflected in the psychological perception and career options.There are no significant differences in job search behavior and job search outcomes between men and women.Through the analysis,we find that the individual reason of the gender differences is not the differences in the work ability,but is mainly in the self-expectation.Propose career guidance and suggestions for IT female graduates.%以北京大学信息科学技术学院2010届毕业研究生调查问卷的统计结果为基础,指出IT类研究生就业性别差异主要体现在求职心理感受和职业定位方面,而较少体现在具体的求职成本与求职结果上。分析造成这种性别差异的个人主体原因不在于女性求职者智力上或者能力上劣于男性,而在于主观方面,最后,对IT类女性毕业生的职业指导提出建议。

  1. Employer health insurance and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    Theory suggests that an employer's decisions about the amount of health insurance included in the compensation package may be influenced by the practices of other employers in the market. We test the role of local market conditions on decisions of small employers to offer insurance and their dollar contribution to premiums using data from two large national surveys of employers. These employers are more likely to offer insurance and to make greater contributions in communities with tighter labor markets, less concentrated labor purchasers, greater union penetration, and a greater share of workers in big business and a small share in regulated industries. However, our data do not support the notion that marginal tax rates affect employers' offer decision or contributions.

  2. Does Duration of Preoperative Sciatica Impact Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In lumbar disc herniation, most authors recommend nonoperative treatment for the first few weeks of presentation, but what about the upper limit of this golden period? The aim of this study is to assess the effect of preoperative sciatica duration on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated 240 patients (124 males and 116 females with a mean age of 36.4±5.9 years (range 16 to 63 surgically treated due to primary stable L4-L5 disc herniation. The patients were placed into two groups: with more and less than 12-month duration of preoperative sciatalgia. Disability and pain were measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Results. Total mean duration of preoperative sciatalgia and follow-up period were 13.3 months (range 2 to 65 and 33.7±5.1 months (range 24 to 72, respectively. Comparison between the groups showed that duration of preoperative sciatalgia either less or more than 12 months did not affect the surgical outcomes significantly. Conclusions. More or less than 12-month duration of preoperative sciatalgia may not affect the surgical outcomes of simple lumbar disc herniation in the patients undergoing discectomy.

  3. Effects of ripening duration and rosemary powder addition on salchichon modified sausage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Shim, Kwan-Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2015-05-01

    The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i) 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii) 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii) 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv) 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS) ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw) of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  4. The roles of pitch and duration in sentence accent of Chinese discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Jianjun; YANG Yufang; LU Shinan

    2012-01-01

    Relying on a corpus of thirty narrative discourses, the roles of pitch and duration of prosodic words in sentence accent were studied in discourse context. At first, the pitch was normalized. Then according to the pitch range, the sentence and prosodic word were classified into three ranks of strengthened, normal and weakened respectively. In the same time the sentence accent was classified into two levels of primary and secondary by perceptual evaluation. The results showed that the relative pitch range of prosodic words in opposition to sentence contributed dominantly to sentence accent. Furthermore, the roles of pitch and duration in sentence accent were affected interactively by the rank of sentence and prosodic words. In normal prosodic words, primary sentence accents were realized by the mutual performance of pitch and duration while secondary sentence accents mainly depended on the variation of pitch. In strengthened prosodic words, the role of duration in sentence accent was more significant when the pitch range of the sentence was more compressed. Finally, it was found that the correlation between pitch and duration was influenced primarily by the strength of prosodic words, and in weakened, normal and strengthened prosodic words, the correlations between pitch and duration were positive, null, and negative respectively.

  5. Sleep quality and duration are related to microvascular function: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsen, Thomas; Wijnstok, Nienke J; Hoekstra, Trynke; Eringa, Etto C; Serné, Erik H; Smulders, Yvo M; Twisk, Jos W R

    2015-04-01

    Sleep and sleep disorders are related to cardiovascular disease, and microvascular function is an early cardiovascular disease marker. Therefore, the relationship of sleep (measured in sleep quality and duration) with microvascular function was examined in healthy adults. Sleep quality was assessed with the validated Sleep Wake Experience List (SWEL) questionnaire. Duration of sleep was self-reported in an additional question. Microvascular function was measured using nailfold capillaroscopy. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between sleep and microvascular function. Potential confounders included physical activity, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index and several biochemical parameters. Analyses were performed in 259 participants (116 men). For women reporting insufficient (sleep duration, microvascular function (post-ischaemic capillary recruitment) was significantly lower (b = -11.17; P = 0.04) compared to women reporting sufficient sleep duration. There was no relationship between sleep quality and microvascular function in females. In males, a trend towards lower capillary recruitment was found in those reporting a combination of poor sleep quality and insufficient duration (b = -7.54; P = 0.09), compared to those reporting good sleep quality as well as sufficient duration. This study suggests an association between sleep and microvascular function. Which aspects of sleep exactly affect microvascular function, and if indeed the association is different between males and females in other samples, needs further research.

  6. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  7. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  8. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Careers Women Who Served Programs & Services Transition GPS Frequently Asked Questions Hire a Veteran Find qualified Veterans Policy & Compliance Employer Toolkit Strengthening Military Families Apprenticeships Service Providers Grants & Opportunities Compliance Assistance ...

  9. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Youth employment and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  12. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  13. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  14. QT-Interval Duration and Mortality Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2012-01-01

    Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (≥439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. PMID:22025428

  15. The impact of aging on regional employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Kangasharju, Aki;

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a key challenge for many countries. The purpose of this paper is to simulate how ageing affects future regional labour market outcomes. We develop a simulation procedure based on data for 71 Nordic regions in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The procedure combines spatial econometrics...... and population projections for scenario analyses of future employment patterns up to 2021. Compared to a “benchmark scenario” based on projections of the working age population, we find that predicted regional labour market outcomes tell a much richer story if a combination of estimation results and population...

  16. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  17. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  18. Visual Scanning in the Recognition of Facial Affect in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Vassallo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the visual scanning strategy employed by a group of individuals with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI during a facial affect recognition task. Four males with a severe TBI were matched for age and gender with 4 healthy controls. Eye movements were recorded while pictures of static emotional faces were viewed (i.e., sad, happy, angry, disgusted, anxious, surprised. Groups were compared with respect to accuracy in labelling the emotional facial expression, reaction time, number and duration of fixations to internal (i.e., eyes + nose + mouth, and external (i.e., all remaining regions of the stimulus. TBI participants demonstrated significantly reduced accuracy and increased latency in facial affect recognition. Further, they demonstrated no significant difference in the number or duration of fixations to internal versus external facial regions. Control participants, however, fixated more frequently and for longer periods of time upon internal facial features. Impaired visual scanning can contribute to inaccurate interpretation of facial expression and this can disrupt interpersonal communication. The scanning strategy demonstrated by our TBI group appears more ‘widespread’ than that employed by their normal counterparts. Further work is required to elucidate the nature of the scanning strategy used and its potential variance in TBI.

  19. Mixed Messages: Illusory Durations Induced by Cue Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Aaen-Stockdale

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pairing a visual stimulus with a concurrent auditory stimulus of subtly longer or shorter duration expands or contracts the duration of that visual stimulus, even when the observer is asked to ignore the irrelevant auditory component. Here we map out this relationship and find a roughly linear relationship between perceived duration of the visual component and the duration of the irrelevant auditory component. Beyond this ‘window of integration’ the obligatory combination of cues breaks down rather suddenly, at durations 0.2 log units longer or shorter than baseline. Conversely, a visual duration has virtually no effect on the perceived duration of a concurrently presented auditory duration. A model is presented based on obligatory combination of visual and auditory cues within a window defined by the respective JNDs of vision and audition.

  20. A Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance Daniel Gartenberg1, Bella Veksler2, Glenn Gunzelmann2, J. Gregory Trafton3...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance 5a...with shorter signal durations (see Figure 1). There is currently no process model that explains the signal duration effect found in vigilance

  1. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  2. Urban development and employment in Abidjan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

    1975-04-01

    The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between

  3. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  4. The determinants of shopping duration on workdays in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanen, T.

    2004-01-01

    While many studies of the duration of shopping episodes have considered the impact of sociodemographic variables, such as gender or income, few if any have considered spatial variation in the duration of shopping activities. This paper reports a study seeking to establish how the duration of shoppin

  5. Predictive Models to Determine Imagery Strategies Employed by Children to Judge Hand Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Steffie Spruijt; Marijtje L A Jongsma; John van der Kamp; Bert Steenbergen

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, repr...

  6. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George

    2013-01-01

    Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends...

  7. Exploration Of The Dendritic Cell Algorithm Using The Duration Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    As one of the newest members in Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) has been applied to a range of problems. These applications mainly belong to the field of anomaly detection. However, real-time detection, a new challenge to anomaly detection, requires improvement on the real-time capability of the DCA. To assess such capability, formal methods in the research of rea-time systems can be employed. The findings of the assessment can provide guideline for the future development of the algorithm. Therefore, in this paper we use an interval logic based method, named the Duration Calculus (DC), to specify a simplified single-cell model of the DCA. Based on the DC specifications with further induction, we find that each individual cell in the DCA can perform its function as a detector in real-time. Since the DCA can be seen as many such cells operating in parallel, it is potentially capable of performing real-time detection. However, the analysis process of the standard DCA constrict...

  8. Europlat Employability Survey: Core findings and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek Stanislav; Mareš Jan; Neusar Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents the core findings of the Europlat employability survey focusing on employability issues related to the post-Bologna transformations of psychology study programmes across the European Union. The objectives of the survey were to find out: (1) how relevant the employability/employment issue is; (2) what the current problems are in the employability/employment area; and (3) to explore the best practices in dealing with employability/employment issues. Findings cover both the nation...

  9. THE DURATION OF RIGHTS CONFERRED BY COPYRIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The duration of copyright protection has been a controversial issue. And yet never completed. It was and is the key issue of copyright, the same as are those concerning the recognition of their nature and content. If the first law to protect a new creation, gave the exclusive right for the author as long as a year, today its duration is, basically the whole life of the author’s plus 70 years for the heirs. Some argue that it is unwise. Others that should not be as such at all. In reality, the copyright in the widest sense of the term of copyright for the purposes of law complex that regulates the relations between the author with his work and of the relations between the authors and others on his work, this right never ceases. The oldest sculpture (Venus Wilfredo, paintings of Ardeche, Vezere and Altamira, even if you do not know who created them, will belong forever, not just in the consciousness of humanity as a whole, but also according to unwritten rules of law before the law was created by humans, to whose who created them. Even if you do not know who created them and say that they belong to the universal culture. As everyone’s works that were created right after the rules of law were created by humans, but before the recognition of copyright by special laws, will belong forever to the universal culture as well. As for the right created by and after recognizing and codifying copyright notice that he is trying to harmonize the interests of authors and those of the public and to make peace between the author with his audience in a more general interest, and the solution for reconciliation and / or harmonization was limiting the length of some of the attributes of copyright. A solution that makes copyright law without a right to have the benefits after a while, that every owner has of his property. Furthermore, the link between the author and his work remains eternal because none other than the author may not claim ever to be the author of

  10. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  11. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  12. China's Employment Promotion Law Guarantees Right to Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU XUEYUN

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's legislature is soliciting comments and suggestions to the draft of Employment Promotion Law as an endeavor to democratize its process of legislation. Up to April 25 the National People's Congress had received over 11,000items of comments and suggestions.

  13. Graduates' Employability: What Do Graduates and Employers Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsouka, Kyriaki; Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the views of university graduates and human resource managers (HRMs) on graduates' employability in terms of the soft skills required by the labour market. Soft skills (personal attributes that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance and career prospects) are necessary in the labour…

  14. Inference in Hidden Markov Models with Explicit State Duration Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, Michael; Wood, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we borrow from the inference techniques developed for unbounded state-cardinality (nonparametric) variants of the HMM and use them to develop a tuning-parameter free, black-box inference procedure for Explicit-state-duration hidden Markov models (EDHMM). EDHMMs are HMMs that have latent states consisting of both discrete state-indicator and discrete state-duration random variables. In contrast to the implicit geometric state duration distribution possessed by the standard HMM, EDHMMs allow the direct parameterisation and estimation of per-state duration distributions. As most duration distributions are defined over the positive integers, truncation or other approximations are usually required to perform EDHMM inference.

  15. Higher Education as an Extended Duration Service: An Investigation of the Determinants of Vietnamese Overseas Student Loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hiep-Hung; Lai, Sue Ling

    2016-01-01

    Regarding higher education as a type of extended duration service, this article proposes a framework considering adjusted expectation, disconfirmation, satisfaction, and commitment in a conceptual model to explain international student loyalty. Employing a structure equation model to the sample data collected from 252 Vietnam overseas students…

  16. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...

  17. Development of time sensitivity: duration ratios in time bisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Zélanti, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of children's abilities to discriminate durations as a function of their ratio and examined whether the ability to discriminate durations that differed by a very difficult ratio is related to the development of attention capacities. Children aged 5 and 8 years, as well as adults, performed a series of temporal bisection tasks with a ratio between the short and the long anchor duration that was changed to control the difficulty of the task (5:6, 2:3, and 1:2) in two duration ranges (3 s). In addition, they completed neuropsychological tests in order to assess their short-term memory, working memory, and visual attention abilities. The results showed that, at ratios of 2:3 and 1:2, most participants were able to discriminate the anchor durations in bisection. However, their sensitivity to time improved, whatever the duration range, both as the distance between the anchor durations increased and with increasing age. For the smallest duration ratio (5:6), few of the children were able to discriminate the anchor durations in the bisection task in comparison to adults. Hierarchical regression analyses performed on the neuropsychological tests revealed that, for the 2:3 ratio between anchor durations, the participants' visual attention scores explained a large part of the variance in time sensitivity. The children's lower temporal sensitivity was probably due to their limited visual attention abilities, thus explaining the difficulty they experienced in discriminating very close durations (5:6).

  18. Global Employer and Business Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business...... coordination. This study analyses all the global peak associations (International Chamber of Commerce, International Organisation of Employers, World Chambers Federation, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD, B20 Coalition, World Economic Forum and World Business Council for Sustainable...... implications for our understanding of global politics where new approaches are needed to analyse the institutionalisation of business interests....

  19. Re-employment Is Crucial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S.-led global financial turmoil is weighing down China’s real economy, which has relied heavily on exports of labor-intensive products for growth. China’s employment suffers when the world economy succumbs to a recession. A large number of migrant workers in southeastern coastal areas are returning home because of factory closures and production suspension. Du Yang, a labor expert at the Institute of Population and Labor Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, published an article in China Finance that argued boosting employment, especially in rural areas, should be the primary goal of economic recovery. Edited excerpts follow:

  20. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...... to re-export them afterwards....

  1. Initial Implementation of a Couples-Focused Employment Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Zaveri; Alan Hershey

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the initial implementation of the Couples Employment (CE) project in Baltimore, Maryland, a voluntary intervention to simultaneously address employment, financial literacy, and relationship issues, to capitalize on the ways that success in each might affect the other. Initial experiences highlighted the importance of defining a program model integrating family stability and economic success; identifying a strong program director; achieving an appropriate staff mix; and ma...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  3. Depression Care Management: Can Employers Purchase Improved Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rost

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen vendors are currently selling depression care management products to US employers after randomized trials demonstrate improved work outcomes. The research team interviewed 10 (71.4% of these vendors to compare their products to four key components of interventions demonstrated to improve work outcomes. Five of 10 depression products incorporate all four key components, three of which are sold by health maintenance organizations (HMOs; however, HMOs did not deliver these components at the recommended intensity and/or duration. Only one product delivered by a disease management company delivered all four components of care at the recommended intensity and duration. This “voltage drop,” which we anticipate will increase with product implementation, suggests that every delivery system should carefully evaluate the design of its depression product before implementation for its capacity to deliver evidence-based care, repeating these evaluations as new evidence emerges.

  4. Breastfeeding and maternal employment: results from three national nutritional surveys in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal employment and breastfeeding (both duration and status) in Mexican mothers using data from three National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1999, 2006 and 2012. We analyzed data from the 1999 National Nutrition Survey, the 2006 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the 2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNS-1999, NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012) on 5,385 mothers aged 12-49 years, with infants under 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between breastfeeding and maternal employment adjusted for maternal and infant's socio-demographic covariates. Maternal formal employment was negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers with infants under 1 year. Formally employed mothers were 20 % less likely to breastfeed compared to non-formally employed mothers and 27 % less likely to breastfeed compared to unemployed mothers. Difference in median duration of breastfeeding between formally employed and unemployed mothers was 5.7 months for NNS-1999, 4.7 months for NNHS-2006 and 6.7 months for NNHS-2012 respectively (p breastfeeding duration. Maternal employment has been negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers of <1 year infants at least for the last 15 years. For Mexicans involved in policy design, implementation or modification, these data might offer robust evidence on this negative association, and can be used confidently as basis for conceiving a more just legislation for working lactating women.

  5. Maintenance Duration Estimate for a DEMO Fusion Power Plant, based on the EFDA WP12 pre-conceptual studies

    CERN Document Server

    Crofts, O

    2014-01-01

    The erosion and high neutron flux in a fusion power plant results in the need for frequent remote replacement of the plasma facing components. This is a complex and time consuming remote handling operation and its duration directly affects the availability and therefore the commercial viability of the power plant. A tool is needed to allow the maintenance duration to be determined so that developments in component design can be assessed in terms of their effect on the maintenance duration. This allows the correct balance to be drawn between component cost and performance on the one hand and the remote handling cost and plant availability on the other.

  6. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand f

  7. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  8. Making sense of employer collectivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    – rather than accurate – rational strategies among many alternatives through so-called sensemaking. Sensemaking refers to the process by which employers continuously make sense of their competitive environment by building causal stories of competitive advantages. The article therefore tries to provide...

  9. Employment Effects of Trade Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydall, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    The study to estimate the employment effects of an increase of manufactured and semi-manufactured products exported from developing to developed countries concluded that the lower the degree of development, the greater the number of jobs generated. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211, Geneva 22, Switzerland.…

  10. Towards a New Employment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroque, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    International employment policy must change in order to provide people with work suited to their abilities at every life stage. If technology fails to create sufficient jobs, available work should be redistributed to ensure that large numbers of people do not remain inactive at the community's expense. (Author/CH)

  11. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  12. Employment and Unemployment in Lagos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Fapohunda (Olanrewaju)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractWage-earning employment was non-existent in Nigeria before the advent of the white man and the British administration. The average Nigerian engaged in subsistence agriculture or some cottage industry like weaving, pottery or carving. The first wage earners in Nigeria were probably the po

  13. The employer's perspective on retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Henkens; H.P. van Dalen

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the literature with respect to the role of employers in retirement processes of older workers and provide suggestions for future research. In the first part of this chapter we will review existing theoretical insights regarding the employers’ actions and attitudes toward o

  14. The employer's perspective on retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, C.J.I.M.; van Dalen, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the literature with respect to the role of employers in retirement processes of older workers and provide suggestions for future research. In the first part of this chapter we will review existing theoretical insights regarding the employers’ actions and attitudes toward o

  15. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings. Nex

  16. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  17. INDISPENSABILITY OF ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun K Behera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how English acts as a binding language across the world. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. Moreover, the impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries has also been taken up. Growing desires of the people, coupled with a deep - rooted need to have an improved standard of living has been touched upon. Attempts have been made here how these factors play a vital role in employability. The economic and cultural change in the third world countries and how it has impacted the employment opportunities, plus the reasons why English plays a vital role in all these are also covered in the paper. I have tried to deal with the attitudinal change in the government organizations and their role in adding to the burgeoning employment opportunities and the accompanying importance of English.

  18. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  19. The impact of diabetes on employment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuring, Till; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of diabetes on employment in Mexico using data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) (2005), taking into account the possible endogeneity of diabetes via an instrumental variable estimation strategy. We find that diabetes significantly decreases employment probabilities for men by about 10 percentage points (pdiabetes being endogenous. Further analysis shows that diabetes mainly affects the employment probabilities of men and women above the age of 44 and also has stronger effects on the poor than on the rich, particularly for men. We also find some indication for more adverse effects of diabetes on those in the large informal labour market compared to those in formal employment. Our results highlight--for the first time--the detrimental employment impact of diabetes in a developing country.

  20. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers' strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed.

  1. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers.

  2. Comparing preference and resistance to change in constant- and variable-duration schedule components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, R C; Nevin, J A

    2000-09-01

    Two experiments explored preference and resistance to change in concurrent chains in which the terminal links were variable-interval schedules that ended either after a single reinforcer had been delivered (variable duration) or after a fixed period of access to the schedule (constant duration). In Experiment 1, pigeons' preference between the same pair of terminal links overmatched relative reinforcement rate when the terminal links were of constant duration, but not when they were of variable duration. Responding during the richer terminal link decreased less, relative to baseline, when response-independent food was presented during the initial links according to a variable-time schedule. In Experiment 2, all subjects consistently preferred a terminal link that consisted of 20-s access to a variable-interval 20-s schedule over a terminal link that ended after one reinforcer had been delivered by the same schedule. Results of resistance-to-change tests corresponded to preference, as responding during the constant-duration terminal link decreased less, relative to baseline, when disrupted by both response-independent food during the initial links and prefeeding. Overall, these data extend the general covariation of preference and resistance to change seen in previous studies. However, they suggest that reinforcement numerosity, including variability in the number of reinforcers per terminal-link entry, may sometimes affect preference and resistance to change in ways that are difficult to explain in terms of current models.

  3. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia

    2005-01-01

    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  4. Effect of Gender, Disease Duration and Treatment on Muscle Strength in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirak, Gülsenay; Cejvanovic, Sanja; Andersen, Henning; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this observational, cross-sectional study was to quantify the potential presence of muscle weakness among patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG). The influence of gender, treatment intensity and disease duration on muscle strength and disease progression was also assessed. Methods Muscle strength was tested in 8 muscle groups by manual muscle testing and by hand-held dynamometry in 107 patients with gMG and 89 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Disease duration, severity and treatment history were reviewed and compared with muscle strength. Results Patients had reduced strength in all tested muscle group compared to control subjects (p<0.05). Women with gMG were stronger than men (decrease in strength 22.6% vs. 32.7% in men, P<0.05). Regional differences in muscle weakness were also evident, with proximal muscles being more affected. Interestingly, muscle strength did not correlate with disease duration and treatment intensity. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with gMG; 1) there is significant muscle weakness, 2) muscle weakness is more pronounced in men than women, 3) shoulder abductors, hip flexors, and neck muscles are the most affected muscle groups and 4) disease duration or treatment intensity alone are not predictors of loss of muscle strength in gMG. PMID:27741232

  5. Duration of cisplatin excretion in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Karen E; Ryu, Rachel J; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Reed, Eddie; McManus, Terry; Rybeck, Blanche; Petros, William P; Hebert, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapy agent, is commonly used in treating cancers that may affect women of childbearing age, including cervical cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, and pediatric tumors in adolescents. The authors found that platinum was undetectable in breast milk at 66 hours and beyond following a 70-mg dose of intravenous cisplatin. Relative infant dose of platinum was calculated to be between 0.29% and 0.40% of the maternal dose corrected for body weight. This case demonstrates minimal exposure to platinum via breast milk, following a single 70-mg intravenous dose of cisplatin.

  6. Employment trends: an international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DELL’ARINGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in employment trend forecasts has grown significantly in recent years, especially those related to the long term. What is surprising is the large differences in trends that emerge from country to country, even from estimates by international organisations that compare the experiences of various countries. It is unclear if the reasons for such differences lie in differing effects of general phenomena that characterise the experience of all countries, such as technical progress, or rather specific phenomena peculiar to each country. What seems clear, however, is the extrapolative nature of the forecasts. The present note looks at the difficult task of identifying the historical determinants of the evolution of employment in the long run, in order to better understand the way in which forecasts are devised today.

  7. Maintenance of employment on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgon, S; James-Rogers, A; Chemleski, B; Ledezma, M; Mercado, L; Besario, M; Trivedi, J; Miller, M; Dee, L; Pryor, L; Yeoh, H

    1997-04-01

    This article describes the components of a multidisciplinary effort focused on promoting, among other goals, continued employment during end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment. The education and guidance of the patient begin during the pre-ESRD period, intensify through dialysis treatment, and continue even through posttransplantation follow-up. Such focused programs support patients in retaining their usual lifestyle, staying in their current jobs where possible, and maximizing self-esteem and quality of life.

  8. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  9. Measures Taken to Secure Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The background In 2008, the financial crisis has swept the globe and its tentacles went across the Pacific Ocean to mainland China. Along with the global economic recession and the slowdown of domestic economic growth, the unemployed and the new em-ployees have become the direct victims of this economic cold wave. The issue of employment is the focus of attention of society from all walks of life.

  10. Duration of immunity induced by companion animal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Spickler, Anna Rovid

    2010-12-01

    Concerns about possible adverse effects from annual vaccination have prompted the reanalysis of vaccine protocols for cats and dogs. In the last decade, several veterinary advisory groups have published protocols that recommend extended revaccination intervals for certain 'core' vaccines. In addition, practicing veterinarians have been asked to consider vaccination as an individualized medical procedure, based on an analysis of risks and benefits for each vaccine in an individual animal. The calls for extended revaccination intervals prompted considerable debate in USA and internationally. Areas of concern include the amount of evidence to support prolonged immunity from various vaccines, the risk of poor responses in individual animals and the possible effects on population immunity. This review examines how the duration of immunity (DOI) to a vaccine is established in animals and humans. It reviews factors that can affect the DOI in an individual animal, including the types of immune defenses stimulated by the pathogen, and the vaccine, host factors such as age and the level of exposure to the pathogen. In addition, it examines DOI studies that were published for canine and feline core vaccines.

  11. The Association of Urbanicity with Infant Sleep Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Bottino, Clement J.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Oken, Emily; Redline, Susan; Gold, Diane; Schwartz, Joel; Melly, Steven J.; Koutrakis, Petros; Matthew W. Gillman; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with multiple adverse child outcomes. We examined associations of the built environment with infant sleep duration among 1226 participants in a pre-birth cohort. From residential addresses, we used a geographic information system to determine urbanicity, population density, and closeness to major roadways. The main outcome was mother’s report of her infant’s average daily sleep duration at 1 year of age. We ranked urbanicity and population density as quintil...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... been determined by VA to have limitations affecting employability arising from the effects of the... case manager finds the child has attained sufficient skills to be employable; or (3) VA determines during evaluation that the child already has the skills necessary for suitable employment and does...

  13. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments.

  14. GENERALIZED STOCHASTIC DURATION IN MARKOVIAN HEATH-JARROW-MORTON FRAMEWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简志宏; 李楚霖

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on how to measure the interest rate risk. The conventional measure methods of interest rate risk arc reviewed and the duration concept is generalized to stochastic duration in the Markovian HJM framework. The generalized stochastic duration of the coupon bond is defined as the time to maturity of a zero coupon bond having the same instantaneous variance as the coupon bond. According to this definition, the authors first present the framework of Markovian HJM model, then deduce the measures of stochastic duration in some special cases which cover some extant interest term structure.

  15. The effects on employment of the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Thomas

    An analysis of how the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector in Finland has affected the employment development in the telecommunications sector......An analysis of how the liberalisation process in the telecommunications sector in Finland has affected the employment development in the telecommunications sector...

  16. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  17. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  18. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without... Temporary Employment Certification AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the approval for...

  19. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  20. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  1. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quality, child care, health care, education, crime prevention and control, prisoner rehabilitation... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a)...

  2. ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS OF EMPLOYERS, EMPLOYEES AND PARENTS ABOUT THE EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja STANKOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights in all developed countries around the world. The employment, actually the right to work of persons with disability is the final phase of the long and complex process of their rehabilitation that affects the possibility of their integration in the community.The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of employment of people with autism, based on the attitudes and opinions of employers, employees and parents of the children with autism.The basic tasks of this research are: to determine whether the employers would employ a person with autism; weather employers and the employees know what autism is; weather according to employers and employees people with autism are able to perform their job duties in complete and weather the parents of children with autism would like their child to be employed.We conducted this research in a period of 3 months and included 130 respondents. Obtained data were collected, grouped, tabled and processed with standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Exact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and the interpretation of the results, we concluded that in the Republic of Macedonia do not exist positive atmosphere, for employment of the persons with autism, the employers do not want to employ a person with autism. The professionals must engage more deeply in this problematic in order to achieve a complete integration of the people with autism in the society.

  3. Student Perceptions of the Employability of the First Degree in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree's reduced duration after the implementation of the…

  4. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. Method. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociod

  5. INDISPENSABILITY OF ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Arun K Behera

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how English acts as a binding language across the world. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. Moreover, the impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries has also been taken up. Growing desires of the people, coupled wit...

  6. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  7. Employment Protection and Misallocation of Resources across Plants : International Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2013-01-01

    Employment protection affects aggregate productivity via several channels in potentially contradicting ways, which makes it difficult to establish the relationship between the two. This study focuses on the misallocation of production factors across plants, which has been shown in past studies to su

  8. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  9. Malignant Ureteral Obstruction: Functional Duration of Metallic versus Polymeric Ureteral Stents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ming Chow

    Full Text Available Ureteral obstruction caused by extrinsic compression is often associated with intra-abdominal cancers. Internal drainage with ureteral stents is typically the first-line therapy to relieve such obstructions. Novel designs of ureteral stents made of different materials have been invented to achieve better drainage. In this study, we described the functional outcomes of a Resonance metallic ureteral stent (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, USA in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and compare the functional duration of Resonance stents with regular polymeric stents in the same cohort.Cancer patients who received polymeric stents and subsequent Resonance stents for ureteral obstruction between July 2009 and November 2012 were included in a chart review. Stent failure was detected by clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and renal function tests. The functional durations of each stent were calculated, and possible factors affecting stent patency were investigated.A total of 50 stents were successfully inserted into 50 ureteral units in 42 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. There were 7 antegrade stents and 43 retrograde stents. There were no major complications. Stent-related symptoms were similar in both kinds of stents. After polymeric stents were replaced with Resonance metallic stents, hydronephrosis subsided or remained stable in 90% (45/50 of the ureteral units. Serum creatinine decreased or remained stable in 90% (38/42 of these patients. The Resonance stent exhibited a mean increase in functional duration of 4 months compared with the polymeric stents (p<0.0001, and 50% (25/50 of the Resonance stents exhibited a significant increase in functional duration (more than 3 months. Pre-operative serum creatinine < 2 was associated with a substantial increase in stent duration.Resonance stents are effective and safe in relieving malignant ureteral obstructions after polymeric stents failure. Resonance stents can provide a

  10. Towards estimating the true duration of dendritic cell interactions with T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Henrickson, Sarah E; von Andrian, Ulrich H; de Boer, Rob J; Marée, Athanasius F M

    2009-08-15

    To initiate an adaptive immune response, T cells need to interact with dendritic cells (DCs), and the duration of these interactions plays an important role. In vitro and in vivo experiments have generally tried to estimate the required period of opportunity for T cell stimulation rather than the duration of individual T cell-DC interactions. Since the application of multi-photon microscopy (MPM) to living lymphoid tissues, the interactions between immune cells, as well as the duration thereof, can directly be observed in vivo. Indeed, long-lasting interactions between T cells and DCs were shown to be important for the onset of immune responses. However, because MPM imaging is typically restricted to experiments lasting 1 h, and because T cell-DC conjugates frequently move into and out of the imaged volume, it is difficult to estimate the true duration of interactions from MPM contact data. Here, we present a method to properly make such an estimate of (the average of) the distribution of contact durations. We validate the method by applying it to spatially explicit computer simulations where the true distribution of contact duration is known. Finally, we apply our analysis to a large experimental data set of T-DC contacts, and predict an average contact time of about three hours. However, we identify a mismatch between the experimental data and the model predictions, and investigate possible causes of the mismatch, including minor tissue drift during imaging experiments. We discuss in detail how future experiments can be optimized such that MPM contact data will be minimally affected by these factors.

  11. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  12. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  13. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  14. 40 CFR 176.11 - Duration of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of a tolerance. 176.11... TIME-LIMITED TOLERANCES FOR EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS § 176.11 Duration of a tolerance. (a) Tolerances... specified by the Administrator. (b) Unless extended, tolerances will automatically expire and be...

  15. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  16. 14 CFR 437.11 - Duration of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of an experimental permit. 437.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information § 437.11 Duration of an experimental permit. An experimental permit lasts for one year from the date it is issued. A permittee...

  17. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  18. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the...

  19. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  20. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  1. Astronomical duration of polarity Chron C31r (lower Maastrichtian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothee; Galbrun, Bruno; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2012-01-01

    The duration of polarity Chron C31r is estimated with a cyclostratigraphic approach. Two sites are investigated: ODP Site 762 (Indian Ocean) and the Contessa Highway section (Gubbio, Italy). Cyclostratigraphic analysis is performed on greyscale variations (Site 762) and magnetic susceptibility...... gives an estimate of the duration of polarity Chron C31r of about 2.09 ± 0.03 Ma....

  2. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  3. P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Kühl, Jørgen T; Pietersen, Adrian;

    2015-01-01

    for very short (≤89 ms; HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.34), long (120-129 ms; HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.19), and very long P-wave duration (≥130 ms; HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.21-1.40) compared with the reference group (106-111 ms). Similar but weaker associations were found between P-wave duration and the risk of putative...... ischemic stroke. CONCLUSION: In a large primary care population we found both short and long P-wave duration to be robustly associated with an increased risk of AF.......BACKGROUND: Results on the association between P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a detailed description of the relationship between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. METHODS: Using computerized analysis...

  4. Duration-Distribution-Based HMM for Speech Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zuo-ying; XIAO Xi

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the defects of the duration modeling in the homogeneous Hidden Markov Model (HMM)for speech recognition,a duration-distribution-based HMM (DDBHMM) is proposed in this paper based on a formalized definition of a left-to-right inhomogeneous Markov model.It has been demonstrated that it can be identically defined by either the state duration or the state transition probability.The speaker-independent continuous speech recognition experiments show that by only modeling the state duration in DDBHMM,a significant improvement (17.8% error rate reduction) can be achieved compared with the classical HMM.The ideal properties of DDBHMM give promise to many aspects of speech modeling,such as the modeling of the state duration,speed variation,speech discontinuity,and interframe correlation.

  5. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  6. Employment among Working-Age Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Frain, Michael P.; Tansey, Timothy N.; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Strauser, David; Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States. Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20-65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was…

  7. 20 CFR 655.510 - Employer attestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... completed Form ETA 9033, which shall be signed by the employer (or the employer's designated agent or... address of the employer's designated agent or representative). Copies of Form ETA 9033 are available at... shall accompany the Form ETA 9033, and any underlying documentation which supports the employer's...

  8. 14 CFR 1253.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.500 Employment. (a) General. (1... receives Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1253.500 Section...

  9. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 54.500 Section...

  10. 34 CFR 104.13 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 104.13 Section 104.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Employment Practices § 104.13 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment test...

  11. 40 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... Federal financial assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section...

  12. TMD pain: the effect on health related quality of life and the influence of pain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenvergert Elisabeth M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives As impact of literature concerning this subject is scarce, the objectives of this study were to assess whether the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is decreased in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders as compared to the HRQoL in the general population, and to evaluate to what extent pain duration affects HRQoL. Methods Data concerning physical and mental health were retrieved from patients with painful temporomandibular disorders. Assessment tools used were: the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Schedule (HADS, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. In order to examine the influence of the duration of pain on HRQoL, the total sample was divided into three different subgroups. Subgroup 1 consisted of patients with complaints existing less than one year. Patients with complaints from 1 to 3 years were allocated to the second group. The 3rd subgroup included patients with complaints longer than 3 years. Results The total sample consisted of 95 patients (90 females and 5 males. On most physical and social functioning items, groups 2 and 3 scored significantly worse than the general population. On the other hand, none of the groups differed from the general population when comparing the mental items. Duration of pain was significantly correlated with SF-36 subscale physical functioning and the mandibular impairment. Conclusion Patients with TMD pain less than one year score better than compared to the population norm. With a longer duration of pain, mental health scores and role limitations due to emotional problems do not appear to be seriously affected by reduced physical health, while social functioning appears to be considerably affected.

  13. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  14. Evaluation of the importance of employment pacts and the case study - Moravian-Silesian employment pact in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Šárká Prudká

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool that is used in the world and Europe to a comprehensive and systematic solution of the employment at the regional level. These are the so-called employment pacts. The theme is the more up-to-date due to the onset of the global economic crisis since 2008, which brought a deepening of socio-economic problems in the labour market, with negative implications upon an increasing rate of unemployment. The Moravian-Silesian Employment Pact has been chosen for the case study. It was established as the first one of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the structurally affected region of Silesia. The result is the finding that employment pacts are generally a useful tool to resolve problems in regional labor markets.

  15. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of...

  16. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  17. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  18. Effect of various temperature and storage duration on setting time of OREGA sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunarko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the right rigid material and root canal paste are crucial in the success of root canal obturation. N2 is a root canal paste containing formaldehyde, which is toxic and carcinogenic. Whilst zinc oxide, resorcin, eugenol, glycerin, and hydrochloric acid, abbreviated as OREGA, are considered a safer root canal paste. In order to perform good obturation, root canal paste’s setting time plays an important role. This is connected with how long and in what temperature the paste’s substances are stored. Purpose: This experiment was performed to find out the effect of various temperature and storage duration on the setting time of OREGA sealer. Method: OREGA and N 2sealers were used as samples. Eighty sealer samples were produced for both sealers providing 10 samples foe each testing category. Each of these samples were stored in 27°C room temperature, 4°C refrigerator temperature, and put into storage for the duration of 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. After these treatments, the samples were tested and analyzed. Result: Data collected were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing no significant difference of the setting time among temperature and storage duration (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Temperature and storage duration do not affect the setting time of OREGA root canal paste.

  19. Unintended Consequences Of Equal Employment Opportunity: Unequal Parties In The Selection Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Orife

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There arevarious regulations that are intended to promote equal employment opportunityand avoid illegal discrimination in the employment process. These regulationsdetermine what information employers may seek, and require that informationsought be job-related or it is illegal to seek such information as age, maritalstatus, or religion. Information that is not a bona fide occupationalqualification (BFOQ is usually out of bounds as employers gather informationto determine the suitability of applicants for employment.  Since one of thebedrock laws affecting the employment relationship is the “at will” doctrinethat assumes both employer and applicant come together as equal partners in theformation of the employment contract, this paper raises the issues aboutwhether such regulations unintentionally leave the employer at an informationdisadvantage by negating the concept of equality assumed by the “at will”doctrine. Some suggestions for practical ways of reducing the identifiedemployer information disadvantages are provided.

  20. Effects of grapheme-to-phoneme probability on writing durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J; Kandel, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    The relative involvement of the lexical and sublexical routes across different writing tasks remains a controversial topic in the field of handwriting production research. The present article reports two experiments examining whether or not the probability of a grapheme-to-phoneme (G-P) mapping affected production during copy of polyvalent graphemes embedded in French (Exps. 1a and 1b) and Spanish (Exp. 2) known words. The relative probabilities of two different G-P mappings associated with the same polyvalent grapheme were manipulated (higher vs. lower probability). In Experiment 1a, we used the polyvalent French grapheme E. Writing durations revealed that the interletter intervals (ILIs) located before and after this letter were shorter and that the letter itself was executed faster in the condition of higher probability of the G-P mapping (e.g., S E RVICE, "service") than in the lower-probability condition (e.g., S E MAINE, "week"). In Experiment 1b, we used the sequence TI (e.g., VIC TI ME-MAR TI EN, "victim-Martian"), which is less frequent. In this case, we failed to observe significant differences between the conditions. In Experiment 2, effects similar to those obtained in Experiment 1a were found with Spanish words using different pronunciations of the letter C (e.g., DES C ANSO-DES C ENSO, "rest-descent"). Altogether, these results reveal that the link between a grapheme and a phoneme is weighted according to its probability in the language. Moreover, they suggest that a two-phase route linking graphemes to phonemes and phonemes to graphemes is functional during copy.

  1. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  2. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  3. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  4. The effect of observing session duration on OPUS-RS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer Dogru, A.; Ugur Sanli, D.; Hayal, Adem G.; Berber, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Online GPS positioning software has now a widespread interest among practitioners and researchers. Researchers rescently use online software to monitor natural hazards such as landslides. The fact that this software usually employs continuously operating GPS stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) as reference stations in the processing, the community of world-wide users is growing day by day. In the monitoring of landslides, rapid static mode of a GPS surveying is usually preferred because it is possible to have wider field coverage with only a few minutes of data and low cost ground markers. Results comparable to static positioning can be obtained with careful network design and processing strategies. Some online software such as OPUS-RS developed by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of the USA provides rapid static positioning engine that processes GPS data from sessions of only a few minutes. 15-minute is the recommended/standard observing session duration for OPUS-RS processing. In this study, using the CORS data operating in the US, we carried out some tests in which the observing session duration is changed from 8 through 118 minutes, and observed the accuracy change on the OPUS-RS solutions. Then we compared the results with the accuracy levels given for 15-min solutions by the NGS. We determined that there is the effect of changing observing session duration on the obtained results, and we report them in this study.

  5. A weeding-duration model for Abies sachalinensis plantations in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    I developed a weeding-duration model for Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis (Fr.Schmidt) Masters) plantations that employs a generalized linear model.The number of years following planting that weeding is necessary is the response variable,and elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,geology,soil,site index,slope aspect,and vegetation type are explanatory variables.Among the explanatory variables,geology,soil,slope aspect,and vegetation type are categorical data.A Poisson distribution is assumed for the response variable,with a log-link function.Elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,site index,and vegetation type had a significant effect on weeding duration.Among the eight models with the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC),I chose the model with no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables.The weeding-duration model includes site index,maximum snow depth,slope steepness (angle)and vegetation type as explanatory variables; elevation and annual precipitation were not included in the selected model because of multicollinearity with maximum snow depth.This model is useful for cost-benefit analyses of afforestation or reforestation with Abies sachalinensis.

  6. A Mathematical Model on Employment versus Several Factors in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shpresa Syla; Sadri Alija

    2013-01-01

    In this study is made an attempt to analyze the conjunction of several indicators on the employment of citizens in the Republic of Macedonia. In this regard the logistic regression and odds ratios were used in order to see how certain factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, education, area of residence and the number of family members affect employment at citizens. This study is based on data from a survey organized by the Center for Economic Analyses in December 2011, by 400 citizens of the ...

  7. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Moult, Ian; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in $4$- and $d$-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard m...

  8. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    function. The dynamic properties of the model as well as an assessment of the estimation quality is investigated in a Monte Carlo study. It is illustrated that the model is a useful approach to estimate conditional failure probabilities based on (persistent) serial dependent duration data which might......This paper proposes a dynamic proportional hazard (PH) model with non-specified baseline hazard for the modelling of autoregressive duration processes. A categorization of the durations allows us to reformulate the PH model as an ordered response model based on extreme value distributed errors....... In order to capture persistent serial dependence in the duration process, we extend the model by an observation driven ARMA dynamic based on generalized errors. We illustrate the maximum likelihood estimation of both the model parameters and discrete points of the underlying unspecified baseline survivor...

  9. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  10. Impact of type 2 diabetes and duration of type 2 diabetes on cardiac structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Magnus T; Mogelvang, Rasmus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has improved patient outcome and may also have affected myocardial structure and function. We aimed to describe the effect of T2D and T2D duration on cardiac structure and function in a large outpatient population. METHODS: We performed...... dysfunction persisted after multivariable adjustment (P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D, LV structural and functional alterations persist and are accentuated with increasing diabetes duration despite reductions in overall risk of cardiovascular disease in this patient population....... comprehensive echocardiography on a representative sample of 1004 persons including a representative sample of 770 patients with T2D without known heart disease and 234 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: T2D was associated with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses and decreased LV internal...

  11. Decreased sleep duration is associated with increased fMRI responses to emotional faces in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Brooke L; Hamann, Stephan; Inman, Cory; Johnson, Katrina C; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    In adults and children, sleep loss is associated with affective dysregulation and increased responsivity to negative stimuli. Adult functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated associations between restricted sleep and neural alterations in the amygdala and reward circuitry when viewing emotional picture and face stimuli. Despite this, few studies have examined the associations between short sleep duration and emotional responsivity in typically developing children, and no studies have investigated this relationship using fMRI. The current study examined the relationship between sleep duration and fMRI activation to emotional facial expressions in 15 male children (ages 7-11 years). During fMRI scanning, subjects viewed and made perceptual judgments regarding negative, neutral, and positive emotional faces. Maternal reported child sleep duration was negatively associated with (a) activation in the bilateral amygdala, left insula, and left temporal pole activation when viewing negative (i.e., fearful, disgust) vs. neutral faces, (b) right orbitofrontal and bilateral prefrontal activation when viewing disgust vs. neutral faces, and (c) bilateral orbitofrontal, right anterior cingulate, and left amygdala activation when viewing happy vs. neutral faces. Consistent with our prediction, we also noted that emotion-dependent functional connectivity between the bilateral amygdala and prefrontal cortex, cingulate, fusiform, and occipital cortex was positively associated with sleep duration. Paralleling similar studies in adults, these findings collectively suggest that decreased sleep duration in school-aged children may contribute to enhanced reactivity of brain regions involved in emotion and reward processing, as well as decreased emotion-dependent functional connectivity between the amygdala and brain regions associated with emotion regulation.

  12. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Albo

    Full Text Available In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings. Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability.

  13. The Amplitude-Duration Relation of Observed El Nifio Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yu-Jie; DUAN Wan-Suo

    2012-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that the E1 Nifio events in the pre- and post-1976 periods show two ampli- tude-duration relations. One is that the stronger E1 Nifio events have longer durations, which is robust for the moderate E1 Nifio events; the other is that the stronger E1 Nifio events have shorter durations but for strong E1 Nifio events. By estimating the sign and amplitude of the nonlinear dynamical heating (NDH) anomalies, the au- thors illustrate that the NDH anomalies are negligible for moderate E1 Nifio events but large for strong E1 Nifio events. In particular, the large NDH anomalies for strong E1 Nifio events are positive during the growth and mature phases, which favor warmer E1 Nifio events. During the decay phase, however, the negative NDH anomalies start to arise and become increasingly significant with the evolution of the E1 Nifio events, in which the negative NDH anomalies dampen the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and cause the E1 Nifio events to reach the SST normal state earlier. This pattern suggests that the nonlinearity tends to increase the intensities of strong E1 Nifio events and shorten their duration, which, together with the previous results showing a positive correlation between the strength of E1 Nifio events and the signifi- cance of the effect of nonlinear advection on the events (especially the suppression of nonlinearity on the SSTA during the decay phase), shows that the strong E1 Nifio events tend to have the amplitude-duration relation of the stronger E1 Nifio events with shorter durations. This result also lends support to the assertion that moderate E1 Nifio events possess the amplitude-duration relation of stronger E1 Nifio events with longer durations.

  14. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  15. Sleep Duration and Child Wellbeing: A Nonlinear Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sarah; Hale, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although numerous studies among adults have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and health outcomes, fewer studies have investigated the theory that children also have an optimal sleep duration range, with both lower and upper limits. We evaluated whether children's sleep duration at ages 5 and 9 has a U-shaped association with both behavioral problems and physical health at age 9. Method We analyzed data from 1,965 participants in a longitudinal birth cohort, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. This sample of children was 52% male and approximately 22% non-Hispanic white, 52% non-Hispanic black, 23% Hispanic, and 3% some other race/ethnicity. The child's primary caregiver reported the predictor of interest: sleep duration at age 5 and age 9. Both children and primary caregivers reported on outcomes of the child's behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) and overall physical health. Results We found that the association between children's sleep duration and wellbeing was typically nonlinear and U-shaped. Adjusting for their sleep duration at age 5, children who sleep either too much or too little at age 9 had higher levels of behavior problems and scored lower on a global measure of physical health. These non-linear patterns were similar whether children or primary caregivers reported child outcomes, with the exception that there was a linear and increasing association of longer sleep duration and caregiver-rated child health. Conclusions This study highlights that both short and long sleep duration may be risk factors for adverse behavioral and health outcomes in school-aged children. PMID:27654036

  16. Adaptive Introspection and Deployment for Robust Long Duration Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Duration Autonomy Nathan Michael, Sebastian Scherer Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh PA, 15213-3890 phone: (412) 268...7816 fax: (412) 268-1338 email: nmichael@cmu.edu, scherer@cmu.edu Award Number: N000141310821 LONG-TERM GOALS Long duration autonomy ...integrative experimental framework toward evaluating the approaches developed through the first two tasks. Task 1: Introspection for Robust Autonomy

  17. [[The duration of postpartum amenorrhea in a Sundanese village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaka, K

    1988-06-01

    "The duration of postpartum amenorrhea of women in a Sundanese agricultural village [in Indonesia] whose last pregnancy resulted in live birth in the past six years was studied. Data were collected from 197 women from September through November 1983....[The] results suggest that the duration of postpartum amenorrhea of women in a Sundanese agricultural village although relatively long, has recently become shorter." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons.

  19. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  20. Employer-sponsored health insurance: down but not out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christanson, Jon B; Tu, Ha T; Samuel, Divya R

    2011-10-01

    Rising costs and the lingering fallout from the great recession are altering the calculus of employer approaches to offering health benefits, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Employers responded to the economic downturn by continuing to shift health care costs to employees, with the trend more pronounced in small, mid-sized and low-wage firms. At the same time, employers and health plans are dissatisfied and frustrated with their inability to influence medical cost trends by controlling utilization or negotiating more-favorable provider contracts. In an alternative attempt to control costs, employers increasingly are turning to wellness programs, although the payoff remains unclear. Employer uncertainty about how national reform will affect their health benefits programs suggests they are likely to continue their current course in the near term. Looking toward 2014 when many reform provisions take effect, employer responses likely will vary across communities, reflecting differences in state approaches to reform implementation, such as insurance exchange design, and local labor market conditions.

  1. Flexible employment, precarious employees? Job-, employer- and institutional explanations for numerical flexibility, and its relation to precarious employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of numerical flexibility and its relation to precarious employment in contemporary labour markets. Precarious employment is defined as the situation in which an employee has both insecure employment and insecure finances. More specifically, precarious employees are

  2. Association of sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jiunn-Kae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short sleep duration has been reported to associate with increased insulin resistance. However, no studies have investigated whether such association exists in vegetarians. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians. Methods A total of 1290 individuals were recruited from a regional hospital in south Taiwan during their regular routine physical examination. Only individuals who described themselves as Buddhist vegetarians were included in the study. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were collected and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance. Results A total of 433 vegetarians were included in the study. Results from univariate logistic regression indicated that insulin resistance was significantly associated with male sex, greater waist circumference, higher triglyceride levels, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, higher plasma creatinine levels, higher alanine transaminase levels, greater energy expenditure, and sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night. Multiple logistic regression revealed that insulin resistance was significantly and independently associated with sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night (odd ratios = 2.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.24, 4.11 after adjusting for waist circumference and levels of alanine transaminase. Conclusions Sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night is an independent risk factor associated with increased insulin resistance in vegetarians.

  3. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  4. Time-Order Errors in Duration Judgment Are Independent of Spatial Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Charlotte; Binetti, Nicola; Mareschal, Isabelle; Johnston, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Time-order errors (TOEs) occur when the discriminability between two stimuli are affected by the order in which they are presented. While TOEs have been studied since the 1860s, it is unknown whether the spatial properties of a stimulus will affect this temporal phenomenon. In this experiment, we asked whether perceived duration, or duration discrimination, might be influenced by whether two intervals in a standard two-interval method of constants paradigm were spatially overlapping in visual short-term memory. Two circular sinusoidal gratings (one standard and the other a comparison) were shown sequentially and participants judged which of the two was presented for a longer duration. The test stimuli were either spatially overlapping (in different spatial frames) or separate. Stimulus order was randomized between trials. The standard stimulus lasted 600 ms, and the test stimulus had one of seven possible values (between 300 and 900 ms). There were no overall significant differences observed between spatially overlapping and separate stimuli. However, in trials where the standard stimulus was presented second, TOEs were greater, and participants were significantly less sensitive to differences in duration. TOEs were also greater in conditions involving a saccade. This suggests there is an intrinsic memory component to two interval tasks in that the information from the first interval has to be stored; this is more demanding when the standard is presented in the second interval. Overall, this study suggests that while temporal information may be encoded in some spatial form, it is not dependent on visual short-term memory.

  5. Determination of Optimum Formalin Fixation Duration for Prostate Needle Biopsies for Immunohistochemistry and Quantum Dot FISH Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka G; Birch, Chandler; Nagle, Raymond B; Tomlins, Scott A; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is the key clinical specimen for disease diagnosis. However, various conditions used during biopsy processing for histologic analysis may affect the performance of diagnostic tests, such as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), or in situ hybridization (ISH). One such condition that may affect diagnostic test performance is fixation duration in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF). For example, prostate needle biopsies are often <1 mm in diameter and thus overfixed. It is important to understand the impact of tissue fixation duration on diagnostic test performance to enable optimized assay procedures. This study was designed to study the effect of 10% NBF fixation duration of prostate needle biopsy on multiplexed quantum dot (QD) ISH assay of ERG and PTEN, 2 genes commonly altered in prostate cancer. The samples were also evaluated for H&E staining and ERG and PTEN IHC. H&E staining and ERG and PTEN IHC were acceptable for all the durations of fixation tested. For QD ISH, we observed good signals with biopsy samples fixed from 4 to 120 hours. Biopsy specimens fixed between 8 and 72 hours gave the best signal as scored by the study pathologist. In a separate cohort of 18 routinely processed prostate biopsy cores, all cores were stained successfully with the QD ISH assay, and results were 100% concordant to ERG and PTEN IHC. We conclude that 8 to 72 hours duration of fixation for prostate needle biopsies in 10% NBF results in optimal QD ISH assay performance.

  6. Effect of duration of active or passive recovery on performance and muscle oxygenation during intermittent sprint cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, T; Aramaki, Y; Kitagawa, K

    2013-07-01

    We compared the effect of recovery condition and durations on performance and muscle oxygenation during short-duration intermittent sprint exercise. 8 subjects performed a graded test and ten 5-s maximal sprints with 25-, 50-, and 100-s passive recovery (PR) or active recovery (AR) on a cycle ergometer. Peak power and percent decrease in power were determined. Oxygen uptake and blood lactate were measured during the sprint exercise. Oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Peak power values were higher for PR than AR for the 25-s (2-9 sprints) and 50-s (2-6, 9, or 10 sprints) but not for the 100-s durations. Percentage decrease in peak power was lower for PR than AR in the 25-s (8.5±2.5 vs. 11.5±3.6%, P=0.008, ES=0.66) and 50-s (2.7±1.4 vs. 6.2±3.5%, P=0.007, ES=0.67) but not 100-s durations (2.1±1.3 vs. 3.1±2.6%, P>0.05). O2Hb variations were significantly higher for PR than AR for the 25-s and 50-s durations. AR was associated with reduced sprint performance and lower muscular reoxygenation. Performance was not affected over longer recovery durations regardless of recovery condition.

  7. EmploymentWoaftgeerormesaotuicrscetescohfntohloegUiepspfoerTtehme pisque River evaluation of risks ofWfloaotedrshaesdc,oCnosestqauReniccae(oTef ctnhiecal Note climatic change and the affectations to phytodiversity Empleo de tecnologías de geomática para la evaluación de riesgos de inundaciones como consecuencia del cambio climático y las afectaciones a la fitodiversidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Márquez Gurri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global climatic change that takes place in the current times has diverse origins, not causing few polemics and declarations from different areas of knowledge.The floods are part of the consequences of the phenomena that take place when crisis are accentuated and the environment deteriorates. This research presents some experiences in the employment of the geomatics tools for the minimi- zation of risks when there is the possibility of the occurrence of extraordinary events: strong rains in short periods of time and floods, as a consequence of the climatic change, particularizing in the com- munication roads, as antropics elements and the interruption of the natural course of the waters on the topographical relief and the impacts on phito- diversity.El cambio climático global que tiene lugar en los tiempos actuales tiene diversos orígenes, provo- cando no pocas polémicas y declaraciones prove- nientes de diferentes áreas del conocimiento. Las inundaciones son parte de las consecuencias de los fenómenos que ocurren en momentos en que las crisis se acentúan y el medio ambiente se deteriora. En este trabajo se presentan algunas experiencias en el empleo de las herramientas geomáticas para la minimización de riesgos, ante la posibilidad de la ocurrencia de eventos extraordinarios: fuertes llu- vias en cortos periodos de tiempo e inundaciones, como consecuencia del cambio climático, particula- rizando en las vías de comunicación como elemen- tos antrópicos, la interrupción del curso natural de las aguas sobre el relieve topográfico y los impactos sobre la fitodiversidad que acontecen como resulta- do de las mismas.

  8. Effects among healthy subjects of the duration of regularly practicing a guided imagery program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakawa Taro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined a large number of healthy adults in the general community who had individually participated in a guided imagery (GI program daily and for various durations, to examine the psychophysiological effects of a GI program within a healthy group. Methods We studied 176 subjects who had participated in sessions that were part of a guided imagery program, and who had practiced GI at home for 20 minutes once daily in a quiet place after mastering GI in the group sessions. The average duration of GI practiced at home was 6.88 ± 14.06 months (n = 138, range: 0 to 72. The Multiple Mood Scale (MMS, Betts (1909 Shortened Questionnaire on Mental Imagery (QMI, and a visual analog scale (VAS of imagery vividness, salivary cortisol (CS levels, general stress and general health were used in the sessions. Results We examined the relationship between the duration of daily GI practiced at home and MMS, QMI, CS, general health, and general stress at baseline. The subjects who had practiced GI at home longer had lower negative mood scores at baseline and lower severity of stress, and higher positive mood at baseline (both at a session and at home, general health, and QMI scores at baseline. The MMS change during a session and the duration of daily GI practiced at home were not correlated. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance showed that the duration of daily GI practiced as the covariate was not associated with changes in the three CS levels. Conclusion Although regularly practicing a GI program daily for 20 min did not affect the CS level or mood during a GI session for several hours, it kept a good condition of the general mental, physical well-being and their overall stress of the practitioners as they had practiced it for long duration. We postulate that subjects who have the high ability of imaging vividness showed the better mood, health status and less stress than those subjects who have the low ability of it did. The ability

  9. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  10. SEEMP: A Networked Marketplace for Employment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celino, Irene; Cerizza, Dario; Cesarini, Mirko; Valle, Emanuele Della; de Paoli, Flavio; Estublier, Jacky; Fugini, Mariagrazia; Pérez, Asuncion Gómez; Kerrigan, Mick; Guarrera, Pascal; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ramìrez, Jaime; Villazon, Boris; Zhao, Gang

    Human capital is more and more the key factor of economic growth and competitiveness in the information age and knowledge economy. But due to a still fragmented employment market compounded by the enlargement of the EU, the human resources are not effectively exchanged and deployed. The business innovation of SEEMP1 develops a vision of an Employment Mediation Marketplace (EMM) for market transparency and effic ient mediation. Its technological innovation provides a federated marketplace of employment agencies through a peer-to-peer network of employment data and mediation services. In other words, the solution under development is a de-fragmentation of the employment market by a web-based collaborative network. The SEEMP-enabled employment marketplace will strengthen the social organization of public employment administration, maximize the business turnover of private employment agencies, improve citizens' productivity and welfare, and increase the competitiveness and performance of business.

  11. Employer's Perceptions of Agribusiness Placement SOE Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gregory W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the benefits derived from agribusiness supervised occupational experience programs and to identify factors important in planning and/or conducting students' agribusiness employment experiences as perceived by employers of vocational agriculture students. (CT)

  12. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  13. Employment Characteristics of Indochinese Refugees: January 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes Immigration and Naturalization Service data on demographic characteristics and employment of Indochinese refugees. Reports that employment increases with time in the United States, and that refugee dependence on public assistance will be reduced. (ST)

  14. Automatic detection of volcano-seismic events by modeling state and event duration in hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Sohail Masood; Khan, Muhammad Salman; Wuth, Jorge; Huenupan, Fernando; Curilem, Millaray; Franco, Luis; Yoma, Nestor Becerra

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic volcano event detection system based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with state and event duration models. Since different volcanic events have different durations, therefore the state and whole event durations learnt from the training data are enforced on the corresponding state and event duration models within the HMM. Seismic signals from the Llaima volcano are used to train the system. Two types of events are employed in this study, Long Period (LP) and Volcano-Tectonic (VT). Experiments show that the standard HMMs can detect the volcano events with high accuracy but generates false positives. The results presented in this paper show that the incorporation of duration modeling can lead to reductions in false positive rate in event detection as high as 31% with a true positive accuracy equal to 94%. Further evaluation of the false positives indicate that the false alarms generated by the system were mostly potential events based on the signal-to-noise ratio criteria recommended by a volcano expert.

  15. Investigation of the prefrontal cortex in response to duration-variable anagram tasks using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Chance, Britton; Liu, Hanli

    2009-02-01

    The Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) in response to anagram tasks was investigated using multi-channel, functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). The study focused on the variability of PFC response with variable anagram durations (executing time). The duration of the anagram ranged from a few seconds to over one minute. The topographic image of PFC showed high lateral consistency across different anagram durations and did not show remarkable discrimination between two difficulty levels: 4-letter and 6-letter anagrams. The superposition principle of a linear system model was employed to investigate the possible non-linearity between three discrete duration subgroups (D1 = 2 +/- 0.33, D2 = 4 +/- 0.67, and D3 = 8 +/- 1.00 sec) and their resultant fNIR readings. Such analysis showed clearly a nonlinear behavior in fNIRS signals within the duration range of less than 4 sec, agreeing with the previous studies on cognitive response measured with functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the nonlinearity of cognitive response using fNIRS.

  16. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfilippo De Sanctis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  17. Strategies to improve English major graduates’ employability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Qi

    2012-01-01

    Universities’strategies to improve English major graduates’s employability are as follows:update teaching concept,optimize the arrangement of majors, improve teaching methods and increase educational efficiency, strengthen career guidance, ect. Students should improve their employability through making career planning,renewing employment idea and change employment psychology,enhance their own core competitive ness as well as grasp job-hunting skills,ect.

  18. Removing the impact of water abstractions on flow duration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoero, Alessandro; Ganora, Daniele; Galeati, Giorgio; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    on few easy-access parameters, of correction of the water abstraction impact. The model, based on an exponential form of the river Flow Duration Curve (FDC), allows completely analytical solutions. Hence the method can be applied extensively. This is particularly relevant when working on a general outlook on water resources (regional or basin scale), given the high number of water abstractions that should be considered. The correction method developed is based on only two hard data that can be easily found: i) the design maximum discharge of the water intake and ii) the days of exercise, between a year. Following the same correction hypothesis also the abstracted discharge statistics have been reconstructed analytically and combined with the statistics of the receiving reach, that can be different from the original one. This information can be useful when we are assessing water availability in a river network interconnected by derivation channels. The goodness of the correction method proposed is proven by the application to a case study in North-West Italy, along a second order tributary of the Po River. Flow values recorded at the river gauge station were affected, significantly, by the presence of a 5 MW hydropower plant. Knowing the amount of water abstracted daily by the power plant we are able to reconstruct, empirically, the natural discharge on the river and compare its main statistics with the ones computed analytically using the proposed correction model. An extremely low difference between empirical and analytical reconstructed mean discharge and L-moment of variation was founded. Also, the importance of the day of exercise information was highlighted. The correction proposed in this work is able to give a correct indication of the non-impacted natural streamflows characteristics, especially in alpine regions where water abstraction impact is a main issue.

  19. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  20. 24 CFR 8.12 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant's or employee's job skills, aptitude, or whatever other factor the test purports to measure... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Employment § 8.12 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not use any employment test... any class of individuals with handicaps unless: (1) The recipient demonstrates that the test score...

  1. 7 CFR 15a.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and...) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 15a.51 Section 15a.51 Agriculture...

  2. 14 CFR 1253.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.505 Employment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment criteria. 1253.505 Section...

  3. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500...

  4. 22 CFR 146.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment criteria. 146.505 Section 146.505 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  5. 22 CFR 229.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment criteria. 229.505 Section 229.505 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  6. 22 CFR 229.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 229.500 Section 229.500...

  7. 28 CFR 54.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.505 Employment criteria. A... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 54.505 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 5.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.505 Employment... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 5.505 Section...

  9. 75 FR 43615 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Education 34 CFR Part 668 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education... against the education and training (and increased employment income) that higher education can provide....

  10. 45 CFR 1151.33 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sensory, manual, or speaking skills, the test results accurately reflect the applicant's or employee's job... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.33 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment...

  11. Employer Engagement in Education: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education. In this, the authors consider the range of different ways that employers can support the learning and progression of young people in British schools. The paper draws on a wide range of source material to ask: What are the typical benefits of different types of employer engagement? Do…

  12. Does self-employment reduce unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurik, A.R.; Carree, M.A.; van Stel, A.; Audretsch, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between self-employment and unemployment rates. On the one hand, high unemployment rates may lead to start-up activity of self-employed individuals (the "refugee" effect). On the other hand, higher rates of self-employment may indicate increased entre

  13. The Employer-Led Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Patricia A; Mecklenburg, Robert S; Martin, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    To tame its soaring health care costs, intel tried many popular approaches: "consumer-driven health care" offerings such as high-deductible/low-premium plans, on-site clinics and employee wellness programs. But by 2009 intel realized that those programs alone would not enable the company to solve the problem, because they didn't affect its root cause: the steadily rising cost of the care employees and their families were receiving. Intel projected that its health care expenditures would hit a whopping $1 billion by 2012. So the company decided to try a novel approach. As a large purchaser of health services and with expertise in quality improvement and supplier management, intel was uniquely positioned to drive transformation in its local health care market. The company decided that it would manage the quality and cost of its health care suppliers with the same rigor it applied to its equipment suppliers by monitoring quality and cost. It spearheaded a collaborative effort in Portland, Oregon, that included two health systems, a plan administrator, and a major government employer. So far the Portland collaborative has reduced treatment costs for certain medical conditions by 24% to 49%, improved patient satisfaction, and eliminated over 10,000 hours worth of waste in the two health systems' business processes.

  14. Labour Taxation and Its Impact on Employment Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primoz Dolenc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess the characteristics of labour taxation for fivedifferent groups of workers and labour market performance (in termsof employment and unemployment rate in the EU and to examinewhether tax wedge affects employment growth in the EU. The descriptiveempirical estimates show that the level of labour taxation variesgreatly across EU Member States, by which the tax wedge tends to behigher among NewMember States (excluding Cyprus andMalta. Furthermore,the panel regression analyses confirm statistically significantnegative relationship between tax wedge and employment growth inthe EU as a whole. Therefore, the empirical analysis suggests that theEU-27 should continue with the trend of reducing tax wedge, as thiswould have favourable effects on labour market performance, especiallyamong New Member States.

  15. A Mathematical Model on Employment versus Several Factors in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpresa Syla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study is made an attempt to analyze the conjunction of several indicators on the employment of citizens in the Republic of Macedonia. In this regard the logistic regression and odds ratios were used in order to see how certain factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, education, area of residence and the number of family members affect employment at citizens. This study is based on data from a survey organized by the Center for Economic Analyses in December 2011, by 400 citizens of the Republic of Macedonia. Results show that young males of Macedonian nationality, those with higher education, ones that live on urban areas and the families that have greater number of members are more likely to be employed. For data processing is used software Med Calc.

  16. MCOs: cost centers or profit partners for employers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Although health insurance has traditionally been a cost center for employers, and they are ever striving to reduce such costs, MCOs have the opportunity to become a means for employers to save costs rather then suffer more. By focusing on the total health-related costs affecting businesses' bottom lines, MCOs can become "account managers, " where the "account" reflects all the costs that they can positively affect through their own initiatives, and thereby become true solutions rather than costs. This method will enable them to differentiate themselves from competitors and generate "solution pricing"-based new revenue focusing on outcomes versus coverage. This article covers the rationale for and basics of such a strategy.

  17. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  18. Sedimentary characteristics and their effects on hatching success and incubation duration of Caretta caretta (Testudines: Cheloniidae in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauana Schneider Fadini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The beaches of Espírito Santo encompass the most important nesting sites of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous research has shown that, unlike other nesting sites in Brazil, Espírito Santo harbors a large percentage of male individuals, which play an important role in maintaining the equilibrium of C. caretta populations in the South Atlantic. During the 2006/2007 reproductive season, four beaches presenting considerable geologic differences were monitored. The sedimentary features of the nesting sites (mineral composition, albedo, and grain size, nesting dates, and clutch sizes were correlated with hatching success and incubation duration. Results show that hatching success is mostly affected by clutch size _ and to a lesser extent, by grain size and albedo. Incubation duration is more sensitive to the characteristics of the nesting site, being affected by nesting date, clutch size, mineral composition, and grain size. However, results from one nesting site cannot be generalized or extended to other sites, because sediment properties are functions of the geological framework of the area and the interaction among environmental variables is far too complex. Our results reveal the importance of protecting areas with large geologic diversity, since sedimentary characteristics may affect incubation duration and embryo survival. Our findings are important in the scope of management activities, as nest transfer may alter nest microenvironment, impacting incubation duration and hatching success.

  19. Strategies for improving performance in long duration events: Olympic distance triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on strategic aspects that may affect performance in a long-duration Olympic event, the Olympic distance triathlon. Given the variety of races during the Olympic Games triathlon, strategic aspects include improving technological features as well as energetics factors affecting overall triathlon performance. During the last decade, many studies have attempted to identify factors reducing the metabolic load associated (or not) with the development of fatigue process by analysing the relationship between metabolic and biomechanical factors with exercise duration. To date, a consensus exists about the benefit of adopting a drafting position during the swimming or the cycling part of the triathlon. Other potential strategic factors, such as the production of power output or the selection of cadence during the cycling or the running leg, are likely to affect the overall triathlon performance. Within this approach, pacing strategies are observed by elite athletes who swim or cycle in a sheltered position, inducing several changes of pace, intensity or stochastic shifts in the amplitude of the physiological responses. The analysis of these parameters appears to arouse some experimental and practical interest from researchers and coachers, especially for long-distance Olympic events.

  20. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  1. Earth-Space Links and Fade-Duration Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, fade-duration statistics have been the subject of several experimental investigations. A good knowledge of the fade-duration distribution is important for the assessment of a satellite communication system's channel dynamics: What is a typical link outage duration? How often do link outages exceeding a given duration occur? Unfortunately there is yet no model that can universally answer the above questions. The available field measurements mainly come from temperate climatic zones and only from a few sites. Furthermore, the available statistics are also limited in the choice of frequency and path elevation angle. Yet, much can be learned from the available information. For example, we now know that the fade-duration distribution is approximately lognormal. Under certain conditions, we can even determine the median and other percentiles of the distribution. This paper reviews the available data obtained by several experimenters in different parts of the world. Areas of emphasis are mobile and fixed satellite links. Fades in mobile links are due to roadside-tree shadowing, whereas fades in fixed links are due to rain attenuation.

  2. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-10-01

    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved.

  3. The Association of Urbanicity with Infant Sleep Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Clement J.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Oken, Emily; Redline, Susan; Gold, Diane; Schwartz, Joel; Melly, Steven J.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with multiple adverse child outcomes. We examined associations of the built environment with infant sleep duration among 1226 participants in a pre-birth cohort. From residential addresses, we used a geographic information system to determine urbanicity, population density, and closeness to major roadways. The main outcome was mother’s report of her infant’s average daily sleep duration at 1 year of age. We ranked urbanicity and population density as quintiles, categorized distance to major roads into 8 categories, and used linear regression adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, fetal growth, and television viewing at 1 year. In this sample, mean (SD) sleep duration at age 1 year was 12.8 (1.6) hours/day. In multivariable adjusted analyses, children living in the highest quintile of urbanicity slept −19.2 minutes/day (95% CI: −37.0, −1.50) less than those living in the lowest quintile. Neither population density nor closeness to major roadways was associated with infant sleep duration after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that living in more urban environments may be associated with reduced infant sleep. PMID:22795497

  4. Effects of organic farming duration on field boundary vegetation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune; Axelsen, Jørgen A.; Tybirk, Knud;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether organic dairy farming has increased the biological diversity of field boundary vegetation when compared to conventional dairy farming, and if increasing organic farming duration affected diversity. The diversity of plant species in field boundaries...... was found to be higher under organic than under conventional farming. Analysis of community patterns revealed that ruderal species and species with affinity to nutrient rich conditions were most common in conventional field borders, whereas stress-tolerant species were more abundant around organic farming...

  5. 29 CFR 1604.10 - Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.10 Employment policies relating to pregnancy..., or insurance program which is in effect on October 31, 1978, which does not treat women affected...

  6. Adaptive Sensing and Transmission Durations for Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Afifi, Wessam; Nafie, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    In a cognitive radio setting, secondary users opportunistically access the spectrum allocated to primary users. Finding the optimal sensing and transmission durations for the secondary users becomes crucial in order to maximize the secondary throughput while protecting the primary users from interference and service disruption. In this paper an adaptive sensing and transmission scheme for cognitive radios is proposed. We consider a channel allocated to a primary user which operates in an unslotted manner switching activity at random times. A secondary transmitter adapts its sensing and transmission durations according to its belief regarding the primary user state of activity. The objective is to maximize a secondary utility function. This function has a penalty term for collisions with primary transmission. It accounts for the reliability-throughput tradeoff by explicitly incorporating the impact of sensing duration on secondary throughput and primary activity detection reliability. It also accounts for thro...

  7. Towards a Denotational Semantics of Timed RSL Using Duration Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎

    2001-01-01

    The Timed RAISE Specification Language (Timed RSL) is an extension of RAISE Specification Language by adding time constructors for specifying real-time applications. Duration Calculus (DC) is a real-time interval logic, which can be used to specify and reason about timing and logical constraints on duration properties of Boolean states in a dynamic system. This paper gives a denotational semantics to a subset of Timed RSL expressions, using Duration Calculus extended with super-dense chop modality and notations to capture time point properties of piecewise continuous states of arbitrary types. Using this semantics, the paper presents a proof rule for verifying Timed RSL iterative expressions and implements the rule to prove the satisfaction by a sample Timed RSL specification of its real-time requirements.

  8. Fade durations in satellite-path mobile radio propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Robert G.; Bostian, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    Fades on satellite to land mobile radio links are caused by several factors, the most important of which are multipath propagation and vegetative shadowing. Designers of vehicular satellite communications systems require information about the statistics of fade durations in order to overcome or compensate for the fades. Except for a few limiting cases, only the mean fade duration can be determined analytically, and all other statistics must be obtained experimentally or via simulation. This report describes and presents results from a computer program developed at Virginia Tech to simulate satellite path propagation of a mobile station in a rural area. It generates rapidly-fading and slowly-fading signals by separate processes that yield correct cumulative signal distributions and then combines these to simulate the overall signal. This is then analyzed to yield the statistics of fade duration.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins....... SETTING: Academic clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). DESIGN: Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (... twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data...

  10. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte Louise; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    In spiders, copulations often take much longer than needed to fertilize the female’s complement of eggs, and the likelihood that a female mates again may depend on the duration of the first male’s copulation since the mating itself may induce lack of receptivity in the female. Also, the result...... of sperm competition often depends on the relative mating duration of a female’s mating partners. Since linyphiid spiders load their pedipalps with sperm several times during a normal mating sequence, paternity and female receptivity can be related not only to mating duration but also to the behavioural...... phases of the mating sequence. We performed sperm competition experiments (sterile-male technique) with the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the highly ritualized mating sequence, while...

  11. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech.

  12. Neural circuitry underlying perception of duration depends on language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, Jack; Wong, Donald; Lowe, Mark; Dzemidzic, Mario; Satthamnuwong, Nakarin; Tong, Yunxia; long, Yunxia; Lurito, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Thai, a language which exhibits a phonemic opposition in vowel length, allows us to compare temporal patterns in linguistic and nonlinguistic contexts. Functional MRI data were collected from Thai and English subjects in a speeded-response, selective attention paradigm as they performed same/different judgments of vowel duration and consonants (Thai speech) and hum duration (nonspeech). Activation occurred predominantly in left inferior prefrontal cortex in both speech tasks for the Thai group, but only in the consonant task for the English group. The Thai group exhibited activation in the left mid superior temporal gyrus in both speech tasks; the English group in the posterior superior temporal gyrus bilaterally. In the hum duration task, peak activation was observed bilaterally in prefrontal cortex for both groups. These crosslinguistic data demonstrate that encoding of complex auditory signals is influenced by their functional role in a particular language.

  13. PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND CORRELATION WITH DURATION AND GLYCEMIC INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an alarming increase in incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians, since diabetes is a multisystem disorder which may affect many organs of the body it becomes important to study long term effect of diabetes mellitus on lung functions and also correlate the glycemic index with lung functions. Hence the present study was undertaken to establish the correlation between duration of diabetic mellitus and glycemic index with pulmonary function test. METHODOLOGY: 40 Type 2 diabetics taken as cases and controls and PFT was performed and documented and statically analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: there was a decline in pulmonary functions FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75 and PEFR with increasing duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (P <0.05, however there was no changes seen with respect to Glycemic index and was not significant. In Type 2 Diabetes mellitus there is a mixed pattern of abnormality seen, restrictive and obstructive type of pulmonary pathology with increasing duration of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

  14. White matter microstructure in schizophrenia: effects of disorder, duration and medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard; Barker, Gareth; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent; Shergill, Sukhwinder; Woolley, James; Picchioni, Marco; Toulopoulou, Timothea; McGuire, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. Aims To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using optimised diffusion tensor imaging in a large patient sample, and to consider the effects of illness duration and medication exposure. Method Scans from 76 patients with schizophrenia and 76 matched controls were used to compare fractional anisotropy, a measure of white matter microstructural integrity, between the groups. Results We found widespread clusters of reduced fractional anisotropy in patients, affecting most major white matter tracts. These reductions did not correlate with illness duration, and there was no difference between age-matched chronically and briefly medicated patients. Conclusions The finding of widespread fractional anisotropy reductions in our larger sample of patients with schizophrenia may explain some of the inconsistent findings of previous, smaller studies. PMID:19252154

  15. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  16. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich administ......We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  17. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  18. Oil price shocks, stock market, economic activity and employment in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papapetrou, E. [University of Athens and Bank of Greece, Economic Research Department, Bank of Greece, 21, El. Venizelos Avenue, 102 50, Athens (Greece)

    2001-09-01

    Using a multivariate vector-autoregression (VAR) approach, this paper attempts to shed light into the dynamic relationship among oil prices, real stock prices, interest rates, real economic activity and employment for Greece. The empirical evidence suggests that oil price changes affect real economic activity and employment. Oil prices are important in explaining stock price movements. Stock returns do not lead to changes in real activity and employment.

  19. The 'employability gap': long-term unemployment and barriers to work in buoyant labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald W; Colin Lindsay

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the main barriers limiting the employability of long-term unemployed job seekers within a local labour market characterised by generally high levels of demand. We use four key elements of employability (employability assets, the deployment of assets, the presentation of assets, and context) as an analytical framework in order to analyse the manner in which job seekers' personal characteristics, social and family circumstances, and perceptions of the labour market affect their abili...

  20. Lamb's Hydrostatic Adjustment for Heating of Finite Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotack, Timothy; Bannon, Peter R.

    1999-01-01

    Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem for the linear response of an infinite, isothermal atmosphere to an instantaneous heating of infinite horizontal extent is generalized to include the effects of heating of finite duration. Three different time sequences of the heating are considered: a top hat, a sine, and a sine-squared heating. The transient solution indicates that heating of finite duration generates broader but weaker acoustic wave fronts. However, it is shown that the final equilibrium is the same regardless of the heating sequence provided the net heating is the same.A Lagrangian formulation provides a simple interpretation of the adjustment. The heating generates an entropy anomaly that is initially realized completely as a pressure excess with no density perturbation. In the final state the entropy anomaly is realized as a density deficit with no pressure perturbation. Energetically the heating generates both available potential energy and available elastic energy. The former remains in the heated layer while the latter is carried off by the acoustic waves.The wave energy generation is compared for the various heating sequences. In the instantaneous case, 28.6% of the total energy generation is carried off by waves. This fraction is the ratio of the ideal gas constant R to the specific heat at constant pressure cp. For the heatings of finite duration considered, the amount of wave energy decreases monotonically as the heating duration increases and as the heating thickness decreases. The wave energy generation approaches zero when (i) the duration of the heating is comparable to or larger than the acoustic cutoff period, 2/NA 300 s, and (ii) the thickness of the heated layer approaches zero. The maximum wave energy occurs for a thick layer of heating of small duration and is the same as that for the instantaneous case.The effect of a lower boundary is also considered.