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Sample records for affect employment duration

  1. Do changes in regulation affect employment duration in temporary help agencies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoni, Manfred; Jahn, Elke

    2009-01-01

    The employment duration of workers in temporary help agencies is seen as an important indicator of their job quality. Most of the countries that regulate temporary agency employment do so to insure at least a minimal level of employment stability. Over the past three decades Germany has repeatedly...... liberalized the law on temporary agency employment. These successive reforms should have affected the employment duration in the temporary employment sector. Based on informative administrative data, we use a mixed proportional hazard rate model to examine whether employment duration has changed in response...... to these reforms. We find that the repeated prolongation of the maximum assignment period has significantly increased average employment duration, while the possibility to conclude fixed-term contracts and further liberalizations have reduced employment tenure....

  2. How unemployment insurance savings accounts affect employment duration : evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nagler, P.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISA) in Chile in October 2002 brought in more comprehensive unemployment protection while decreasing the opportunity costs of job change. Being the first to empirically investigate the effect of UISA on employment duration, this paper examines (i) whether the introduction of UISA affected employment duration among formal private sector workers, and (ii) the magnitude of this effect. The analysis is performed on longitudinal social ...

  3. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  4. The Effect of Motivation on Self-Employment Duration in Germany: Necessity versus Opportunity Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Joern; Sandner, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (GSOEP), we analyze whether necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs differ in terms of self-employment duration. We find that the two types of entrepreneurs differ regarding their duration in self-employment. Once controlled for educational variables however, this effect turns out to be no longer significant. We therefore conclude that the difference observed is no original effect but is due to selection. We then go on to discuss the impli...

  5. Unemployment Duration in Germany: Individual and Regional Determinants of Local Job Finding, Migration and Subsidized Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz, Melanie; Wilke, Ralf Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent labour market reforms in Germany aim, among other things, at reducing unemployment by restricting passive unemployment measures, emphasizing local labour market policies and re-structuring public employment services. This paper uses extensive individual administrative and regional aggregate data to explore the extent to which these factors are likely to contribute to the shortening of unemployment duration. For this purpose, we estimate a semi-parametric duration mo...

  6. How tax progression affects effort and employment

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Schöb, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    Within an efficiency wage framework, we study the effects of two revenue-neutral tax reforms that change the progressivity of the labour tax system. A revenue-neutral increase in both the wage tax and tax exemption and a revenue-neutral change in the composition of labour taxation towards the tax with the smaller tax base will lead to the same results: they moderate wages, workers' effort, effective labour input and aggregate output. Whether employment rises or falls, however, depends in both...

  7. Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs and their Duration in Self-employment: Evidence from German Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jörn H.; Sandner, Philipp G.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (GSOEP), we analyze whether necessity entrepreneurs differ from opportunity entrepreneurs in terms of self-employment duration. Using univariate statistics, we find that opportunity entrepreneurs remain in self-employment longer than necessity entrepreneurs. However, after controlling for the entrepreneurs’ education in the professional area where they start their venture, this effect is no longer significant. We therefore conclude that th...

  8. Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter JM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54, no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46, having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60, self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24 and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54. Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction.

  9. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  10. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  11. Affective, Cognitive and Vocational Skills: The Employers' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiong-Hock

    1986-01-01

    Compares public and private sector recruitment behavior in Malaysia, focusing on employers' perspectives of higher education's functions. The public sector values academic records, whereas private industry seeks workers with experience and good affective skills. Both sectors want universities to produce graduates with problem-solving abilities.…

  12. Leaving Unemployment for Self-employment : A Discrete Duration Analysis of Determinants and Stability of Self-employment among Former Unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Reize, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants and the success of self-employment among former unemployed. Self-employment has become an important re-employment opportunity during the last decade due to increasing subsidies. The econometric analysis is carried out using discrete hazard rate models on 14 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel, covering the period from 1983 to 1996. I do not find any effects of unemployment duration on the transition from unemployment to selfemployment. Moreover, un...

  13. Job durations with worker and firm specific effects: MCMC estimation with longitudinal employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume HORNY; Mendes, Rute; van den Berg, Gerard J.

    2009-01-01

    We study job durations using a multivariate hazard model allowing for worker-specific and firm-specific unobserved determinants. The latter are captured by unobserved heterogeneity terms or random effects, one at the firm level and another at the worker level. This enables us to decompose the variation in job durations into the relative contribution of the worker and the firm. We also allow the unobserved terms to be correlated. For the empirical analysis we use a Portuguese longitudinal matc...

  14. Unraveling the mystery of sleep duration dynamics – Sleep in the objective and subjective lives of employed men and women

    OpenAIRE

    William Michelson

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the place of sleep duration - objectively and subjectively - in the lives of employed men and women in Canada, based on data in Statistics Canada's 2010 General Social Survey no. 24, with an emphasis on time use. It addresses the mystery of how public opinion reflects a view that night-time sleep has declined in duration during a decade when surveys show that it has increased. A further mystery is why women in particular feel sleep deprived when comparable surveys show gr...

  15. Beyond the employment agency: The effect of social capital on the duration of unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Philipp; Damm, Benjamin; Su, Tong-Yaa

    2015-01-01

    This paper relates an individual's social capital and the length of unemployment spells of the very same individual. For this purpose, we analyze several facets of an agent's social activities as determinants of her social capital. Social activities lead to social interactions within organizational settings, which build up social capital at the group level. Via social interactions an exchange of knowledge emerges, including information on opportunities to get a job. An econometric duration mo...

  16. Duration of low wage employment: A study based on a survival model

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, António M. S.; Silva, Francisco J. F.; Vieira, José A. Cabral

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes a survival analysis which attempts to explain the duration, as in the number of years a worker remains in a low wage situation. Explanatory variables take into account the characteristics of the employee, such as education, age, tenure with the company, gender and nationality, and the characteristics of the job and the company such as industry affiliation, number of employees, age of the company and location.

  17. Has the Spanish economic crisis affected the duration of sickness absence episodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia López, Guillermo; Delclós Clanchet, Jordi; Ubalde López, Mònica; Calvo Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-07-01

    The global economic crisis has had particularly intense effects on the Spanish labor market. We investigated whether the duration of non-work related sickness absence (SA) episodes in salaried workers had experienced any changes before and after the crisis started. This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis conducted in a dynamic cohort in 2006 and 2010. Database was provided by eight mutual insurance companies, covering 983,108 workers and 451,801 SA episodes. Descriptive analysis and crude, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed, to quantify the changes in duration of SA episodes between 2006 and 2010, stratified by sex. There was a higher number of episodes in 2010 for both sexes, but especially for women. Unadjusted median duration in men was similar for both years, while for women it was shorter in 2010. Final multivariate models show a greater risk of longer episode duration for men in 2010 (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.95), but a shorter one for women (HR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Once the economic crisis started affecting the Spanish labor market, the number of SA episodes in women equalized with those in men. There was a decrease of episodes in the youngest age groups, in the construction and in temporary contracts. The relative ranking of leading diagnoses was similar in both years with an increase in infectious, nervous system and respiratory diseases and in mental disorder episodes for both sexes, but especially for women. The risk of longer episode duration was greater in 2010 among men, but smaller in women. PMID:27209364

  18. Out of mind, out of heart: attention affects duration of emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negative performance feedback in a cognitive task to induce unpleasant affect and included three experimental groups (waiting condition, continuing with the same cognitive task, distraction by a different cognitive task). Results converged to show that distracting attention away from the emotion-eliciting event leads to a shorter duration of the emotional experience. These findings support the attention-focus hypothesis. PMID:22963519

  19. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affect the inflow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became unemployed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic made it attractive for workers to enter unemployment shortly after age 57.5 rather than shortly before. Indeed, we find a peak in the inflow into unemployment for workers after age 57.5. From Aug...

  20. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  1. The prognostic ability of the STarT Back Tool was affected by episode duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Kongsted, Alice; Hestbaek, Lise; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prognostic ability of the STarT Back Tool (SBT) reportedly varies, but the factors affecting this are unclear. This study investigated the influences of care setting (chiropractic, GP, physiotherapy, spine centre), episode duration (0-2, 3-4, 4-12, >12 weeks), and outcome time period...... (3, 6, 12 months) on SBT prognostic ability. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from three primary care cohorts [chiropractic (n = 416), GP (n = 265), and physiotherapy (n = 200) practices] and one cohort from a secondary care outpatient spine centre (n = 974) in Denmark. Care pathways...... were not systematically affected by SBT risk subgroup (non-stratified care). Using generalised estimating equations, we investigated statistical interactions between SBT risk subgroups and potentially influential factors on the prognostic ability of the SBT subgroups, when Roland Morris Disability...

  2. The Impact of Employer Branding on Employees: The Role of Employment Offering in the Prediction of Their Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Hanin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies dedicated to the examination of employer branding in industrial/ organisational psychology investigated it using samples of applicants. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the employer branding of a company on its employees’ attitudes. More precisely, we examined the interactive effect of the employment offering as portrayed by organisational communications and the employment experience as lived by employees on their affective commitment (AC. Furthermore, we analysed the mechanisms underlying these relationships, i.e. perceived organisational support (POS and psychological contract violation (PCV. One-hundred eighty-six department managers of a large multinational retailing company involved in employer branding practices were surveyed. Results indicated that employment offering and lived employment experience interact in the prediction of both POS and PCV and this interactive effect carries over to AC. Implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  3. Maximum lying bout duration affects the occurrence of shoulder lesions in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Rebecka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shoulder lesions are caused by tissue breakdown of the skin and/or underlying tissue as a result of long lasting pressure. The lesions are commonly seen in sows during the period of lactation and contribute to poor animal welfare as well as affecting the consumers' attitudes towards the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between prolonged recumbency during early lactation and development of shoulder lesions, in particular the lying bout time. Eighteen sows of Swedish Landrace were observed for 24 hours during the day of farrowing and day 2, 4, 9 and 11 after farrowing in May 2009. The data were analysed for correlations between the duration of the longest observed uninterrupted lying bout and the prevalence of shoulder lesions recorded at weaning (week 5. In the study, shoulder lesions were observed in eight of the eighteen sows at the time of weaning. The total lying time of the sows was highest on day 0 and day 2, when the proportion of time spent in lateral recumbency over the 24-hour period was on average 80 percent. The longest lying bout had an average duration of 6,3 hours (right side and 7,2 hours (left side. A significant correlation (Spearman rank coefficient = 0,88; P

  4. Affective commitment to the employer brand: development and validation of a scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Lores, Susana; Gavilánn Bouzas, Diana; Avello Iturriagagoitia, María; Blaso López, Francis

    2016-01-01

    In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labor market. We develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee´s affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Study 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB) scale was developed and tested for its factor s...

  5. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinková, T.; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, M.; Jansa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  6. Acute Mountain Sickness, Hypoxia, Hypobaria and Exercise Duration each Affect Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, D M; Strangman, G E; Harris, N S; Muza, S R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantified the changes in post-exercise resting heart rate (HRrst) associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS), and compared the effects of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on HRrst. We also examined the modulating roles of exercise duration and exposure time on HRrst. Each subject participated in 2 of 6 conditions: normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH (4 400 m altitude equivalent) combined with either 10 or 60 min of moderate cycling at the beginning of an 8-h exposure. AMS was associated with a 2 bpm higher HRrst than when not sick, after taking into account the ambient environment, exercise duration, and SpO2. In addition, HRrst was elevated in both NH and HH compared to NN with HRrst being 50% higher in HH than in NH. Participating in long duration exercise led to elevated resting HRs (0.8-1.4 bpm higher) compared with short exercise, while short exercise caused a progressive increase in HRrst over the exposure period in both NH and HH (0.77-1.2 bpm/h of exposure). This data suggests that AMS, NH, HH, exercise duration, time of exposure, and SpO2 have independent effects on HRrst. It further suggests that hypobaria exerts its own effect on HRrst in hypoxia. Thus NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. PMID:25837245

  7. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinková, Tereza; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, Milan; Jansa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  8. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  9. Juggling Work and Motherhood: The Impact of Employment and Maternity Leave on Breastfeading Duration: A Survival Analysis on Growing Up in Scotland Data

    OpenAIRE

    Skafida, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and otherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004–2005 was used. Multivariate p...

  10. How residency duration affects the outcome of a territorial contest: Complementary game-theoretic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N

    2016-04-01

    While the first individuals to discover and maintain territories are generally respected as owners, under some conditions there may be ambiguity as to who got there first. Here we attempt to understand the evolutionary consequences of this ambiguity by developing a pair of game-theoretic models in which we explicitly consider rival residency-based claims to ownership. Following earlier qualitative explanations for residency effects, we assume that either the value of the territory (Model A) or an interloper׳s self-belief that it is the owner (Model B) increases with duration of residency. Model A clearly demonstrates that if the value of a territory increases to a resident over time, so should its motivation to fight in terms of the effort it invests in fighting. Indeed, only a small increase in territory value with residency duration can be sufficient for longer established residents to win disputes, even without any arbitrary convention or other form of priority effect. Likewise, Model B shows that the observed increase in fighting persistence with residency duration can be readily explained as a consequence of increasing confidence on behalf of the interloper that it is the rightful owner. Collectively, the models help to explain some general findings long observed by empiricists, and shed light on the nature of conflicts that can arise when individuals do not have complete information about rival claims to ownership. PMID:26807804

  11. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  12. Timing and Duration of Drug Exposure Affects Outcomes of a Drug-Nutrient Interaction During Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Alcorn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant drug-nutrient interactions are possible when drugs and nutrients share the same absorption and disposition mechanisms. During postnatal development, the outcomes of drug-nutrient interactions may change with postnatal age since these processes undergo ontogenesis through the postnatal period. Our study investigated the dependence of a significant drug-nutrient interaction (cefepime-carnitine on the timing and duration of drug exposure relative to postnatal age. Rat pups were administered cefepime (5 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously according to different dosing schedules (postnatal day 1-4, 1-8, 8-11, 8-20, or 1-20. Cefepime significantly reduced serum and heart L-carnitine levels in postnatal day 1-4, 1-8 and 8-11 groups and caused severe degenerative changes in ventricular myocardium in these groups. Cefepime also altered the ontogeny of several key L-carnitine homeostasis pathways. The qualitative and quantitative changes in levels of hepatic γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase mRNA and activity, hepatic trimethyllysine hydroxlase mRNA, intestinal organic cation/carnitine transporter (Octn mRNA, and renal Octn2 mRNA depended on when during postnatal development the cefepime exposure occurred and duration of exposure. Despite lower levels of heart L-carnitine in earlier postnatal groups, levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase mRNA and activity, heart Octn2 mRNA and ATP levels in all treatment groups remained unchanged with cefepime exposure. However, changes in other high energy phosphate substrates were noted and reductions in the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio were found in rat pups with normal serum L-carnitine levels. In summary, our data suggest a significant drug-nutrient transport interaction in developing neonates, the nature of which depends on the timing and duration of exposure relative to postnatal age.

  13. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    OpenAIRE

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. ...

  14. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...... quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive...

  15. Late Sleeping Affects Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh G.Kathrotia1,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, there is a tendency to sleep late andsleep less because of altered psychosocial and life-stylechanges. Recent studies have demonstrated the link betweensleeping less and gaining weight in children, adolescents, andadults. We studied the effect of late sleeping and sleepingless on body mass index (BMI in medical college freshmen.All participants were adolescents (104 male and 38 femaleadolescents, mean age 17.77±0.79 years. After obtaininginformed consent, they filled out a questionnaire about theirsleeping habits. Height and weight were measured after abrief history taking and clinical examination. BMI increasedsignificantly with decrease in total sleep duration and withdelayed bedtime. Late sleeping individuals (after midnighthad significantly less sleep duration (6.78 hours v 7.74 hours,P<0.001, more day time sleepiness (85.2% v 69.3%,P=0.033 and more gap between dinner time and going tosleep (234.16 min v 155.45 min, P<0.001. Increased BMI inlate sleepers may be explained by low physical activity duringthe day caused by excess sleepiness and increased calorieintake with a gap of 5-6 hours between dinner and sleep.Sleep habits of late sleeping and sleeping less contribute toincrease BMI in adolescents.

  16. Mismatch Negativity Affects Muscle Fatigue during Repeated Contraction Trials of Different Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Shestakova, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of involuntary attention switching (related to mismatch negativity generation in the oddball paradigm) on fatigue development during trials of different durations. The experiment consisted of two trials, long (40 min) and short (15 min), and two experimental conditions in each trial: the simple reaction task (deviants-only paradigm) and the stimuli recognition task (oddball paradigm). In each condition, a participant responded to each target acoustic stimulus by squeezing a handgrip dynamometer. We found the significantly lower rates of fatigue development in the short-trial deviants-only paradigm compared to the long trial. The short- and the long-trial oddball paradigms differed significantly from both the short- and the long-trial deviants-only paradigms. The results demonstrated that the fatigue developed differently depending on the expected trial duration. The involuntary activation of attention broke this subconscious regulative mechanism leading to increase of the compression force during the long trial and its decrease during the short. PMID:26869932

  17. Out of mind, out of heart: Attention affects duration of emotional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negativ...

  18. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Baklouti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test.Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan.The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  19. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Folke Larsen; John Rand; Nina Torm

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruit...

  20. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  1. Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Radil, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is aimed at the problems of labour-law relations. The main topic is the employment, its legal modification and functioning in practice. The Labour Code is often the subject of amendments and it is necessary to immediately apply all the changes into the practice. Based on finding from the legal theory there has been analysed a specific organisation, verified a functionality of personnel procedures in connection with the legal modification of the employment set in the Labo...

  2. Does School Duration Affect Student Performance? Findings from Canton-Based Variation in Swiss Educational Length

    OpenAIRE

    Skirbekk, V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates Swiss canton-based regulations to determine the number of school years required to graduate from academic track secondary school. The results show that the variation (12, 12.5 or 13 years) does not affect human capital levels (TIMSS math and science performance). This suggests that one could decrease school length from 13 to 12 years without decreasing student performance levels. A younger school leaving age could extend the working life, soften the burden of populatio...

  3. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm2 irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  4. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejeh Mir, Arash Poorsattar [School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar [Private Practice of Orthodontics, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  5. Addictive drugs and their duration affecting on trace elements levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the drug addiction the blood biochemistry particularly level of trace elements in blood is widely affected. Eighty male addicts of various age groups along with seventeen normal subjects were studied. The plasma Zinc and manganese concentration was high in addict person as compared to normal subjects. Where as a significant decrease in iron concentration was observed in addicts. The plasma copper concentration was also low in addicts as compared to normal subjects. In conclusion drug addiction leads to many biochemical changes that may have detritus effects on health status of addicts. (author)

  6. Criteria of immobilization duration of the affected foot in diabetic Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gennadyevna Demina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term offloading is the key factor in the treatment of the acute stage of Charcot foot. The indication for remobilization and transition of the affected foot to weight-bearing activities is believed to be based on two factors: the absence of the clinical signs of inflammation and results of the objective diagnostic tests. At the present time, consensus about appropriate methods sufficient for initiating weight-bearing activities after immobilization is absent. This paper discusses current data on clinical and laboratory tests and methods and describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  7. 基于审查回归模型的失业持续期影响因素分析%Based on the Censored Regression Model to Analyze the Factors Affecting of Unemployment Duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹; 裴晓敏

    2012-01-01

    针对我国失业人员的失业持续期问题,运用审查回归模型(Censored regression model)对影响失业持续时阍因素进行分析。结果显示:男性失业持续时问明显较女性短,教育对一个人再次就业有着明显的促进作用。个人进行人力资本的投资不但能够缩短失业持续时间,而且在当前我国就业形势严峻的局面下,个人受教育年限的多少对于一个人的成功就业也具有重要的意义。对于社会网络、家庭背景等影响劳动力就业的非市场因素,政府创造公平合理的就业竞争机制具有非常重要的作用。%In view of the unemployed duration of unemployment problem, using Censored regression model to analyze the factors affecting of unemployment duration. The results show that male unemployment duration was significantly shorter than that of women, education of a people once again have a significant role in promoting employment. Personal investment in human capital will not only shorten the duration of unemployment, but also in the current situation of China's employment situation is grim, the individual number of years of education for the employment of a person's success is also of great significance. For social networks, family background and other effects of non - market factors, labor employment, government employment and creating a fair competition mechanism has a very important role.

  8. DOES LOCATION AFFECT EMPLOYMENT? EVIDENCE FROM THE HIGH NORTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina GILTMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Local labour markets within one country can be characterized by different outcomes because of their geographical and economic peculiarities. The unique features of the labour markets of the High North regions of Russia include compensative differentials and specific labour protection legislation together with the specific geographical characteristics. The aim of the paper is to investigate what peculiarities arise in employment as a result of location in the areas of the High North of Russia. Using aggregate regional data for the northern regions of Russia from 2005 to 2014 we estimated the dynamic fixed effects models for the number of employees and net migration. It was discovered that geographical characteristics affect employment in the High North of Russia more than wages. Labour supply exceeds labour demand in the northern regions of Russia because of strong positive wage elasticity of net migration. We can surmise that regulation of wages and migration should be a part of common economic policy in the High North regions of Russia.

  9. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Groningen; Case study in a lagging rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Groningen since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Groningen increased by 36,000 jobs or with one quarter in

  10. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Groningen; Case study in a lagging rural region in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Groningen since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Groningen increased by 36,000 jobs or with one quarter in the period 1984-1995. This employment growth mainly consisted of part time jobs. Nearly 40% of employment growth occurred in the community, social and personal services sector, 30% in the financial...

  11. The minimum wage affects them all: Evidence on employment spillovers in the roofing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Aretz, Bodo; Arntz, Melanie; Gregory, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the sparse literature on employment spillovers on minimum wages by exploiting the minimum wage introduction and subsequent increases in the German roofing sector that gave rise to an internationally unprecedented hard bite of a minimum wage. We look at the chances of remaining employed in the roofing sector for workers with and without a binding minimum wage and use the plumbing sector that is not subject to a minimum wage as a suitable benchmark sector. By estimatin...

  12. Does early maternal employment affect non-cognitive children outcomes? - A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskó, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing research-findings in the field of early maternal employment and children's psychological development. We are concentrating on maternal work during the first 4-5 years of children's life, and look at research investigating linkages between maternal employment and various aspects of children's psychological functioning in these early years or later. Most articles discussed here came from the Journal of Marriage and the Family, although some other journals are als...

  13. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  14. Storage temperature and duration affect Steinernema scarabaei dispersal and attraction, virulence, and infectivity to a white grub host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Ebssa, Lemma; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2013-02-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei has exceptional potential for the control of many white grub species. Initial studies suggested this species to have a widely ranging foraging strategy based on its attraction to hosts in soil columns, however, with a generally low but very variable dispersal rate even in the presence of hosts. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the dispersal behavior of S. scarabaei IJs and the influence of storage conditions on its dispersal and infectivity. We found that storage temperature and duration had a strong effect on S. scarabaei IJ dispersal, virulence, and infectivity. But even under conditions conducive to movement only a small proportion of IJs moved towards a host. IJ dispersal declined with storage time by a factor of around 100 between 1 week and 12 weeks of storage whether the IJs were stored at room temperature or 8°C; however, the decline was more than twice as fast after storage at 8°C. Host attraction also diminished with storage duration. IJ virulence and infectivity declined with storage time for IJs stored at room temperature. In contrast, for IJs stored at 8°C virulence remained high and infectivity increased over time. The decrease in dispersal and infectivity when stored at room temperature may reflect an adaptation to conserve energy in the absence of hosts since S. scarabaei IJs have to persist through extended periods in summer during which infections are unlikely to occur. The even faster decrease in dispersal rate when stored at 8°C may suggest a cold-induced dormancy that may serve as an overwintering strategy. The parallel increase in infectivity, however, seems to contradict such a strategy. Future studies should examine whether and how S. scarabaei IJs 'inactivated' by the absence of hosts can be 'reactivated' and whether this behavior could be used to improve the efficacy of nematode applications against insect pests. PMID:23201455

  15. Factors Affecting the Successful Employment of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; Crudden, Adele

    2009-01-01

    The following variables were found to be associated with employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments who are served by vocational rehabilitation agencies: work experience, academic competence, self-determination, use of assistive technology, and locus of control. Self-esteem and involvement with the counselor were not associated…

  16. Does Offshoring of Materials and Business Services Affect Employment? Evidence from a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Bernhard; Rycx, François

    2009-01-01

    The fear of massive job losses has prompted a fast-growing literature on offshoring and its impact on employment in advanced economies. This paper examines the situation for Belgium. It improves the offshoring intensity measure by computing a volume measure of the share of imported intermediates in output and it is among the first to address both materials and business services offshoring to high-wage and low-wage countries. Estimations of static and dynamic industry-level labour demand equat...

  17. 20 CFR 655.737 - What are “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrants, and how does their employment affect the additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... academic degree cannot be established through experience or through demonstration of expertise in the... does their employment affect the additional attestation obligations of H-1B-dependent employers and willful violator employers? 655.737 Section 655.737 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  18. Employing Textual and Facial Emotion Recognition to Design an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Chien, Ming-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Emotional expression in Artificial Intelligence has gained lots of attention in recent years, people applied its affective computing not only in enhancing and realizing the interaction between computers and human, it also makes computer more humane. In this study, emotional expressions were applied into intelligent tutoring system, where learners'…

  19. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, they show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories, and different worker...

  20. Duration of Breastfeeding and Its Correlates in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Shamima; Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breastfeeding and the sociodemographic factors affecting it. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. In total 5,364 mothers were included in the study. The life table and Cox's proportional hazards model were employed for the analysis of breastfeeding-related data, which showed that the average duration of breastfeeding was 31.9 months. Cox regression analysis revealed that the duration of br...

  1. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Schillo, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Objective To determine if partial CIA produce differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies using bar and restaurant employment per capita. Design, setting, and subjects Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003 to 2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Results Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with a partial CIA policies (p=0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p=0.36). Conclusion There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:19184432

  2. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  3. Factors affecting cerebral oxygenation in hemodialysis patients: cerebral oxygenation associates with pH, hemodialysis duration, serum albumin concentration, and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyonori Ito

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients.Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan.The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35, HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33, and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28. Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05.In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM.

  4. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  5. Quality Management and Job Quality: How the ISO 9001 Standard forQuality Management Systems Affects Employees and Employers

    OpenAIRE

    David I. Levine; Michael W. Toffel

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have examined how the ISO 9001 quality management systems standard predicts changes in organizational outcomes such as profits. This is the first large-scale study to explore how employee outcomes such as employment, earnings, and health and safety change when employers adopt ISO 9001. We analyzed a matched sample of nearly 1,000 companies in California. ISO 9001 adopters subsequently had far lower organizational death rates than a matched control group of nonadopters. Among s...

  6. Modeling Labor Market Behavior of the Population of a Large Industrial City: Duration of Registered Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Nivorozhkin Evgeny; Nivorozhkina Ludmila; Shukhmin Andrey

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors affecting the duration of registered unemployment and the intensity of the individuals' transition from unemployment to alternative states. The results will help evaluate the process of the population's adaptation to the government's system of employment assistance in Russia and the effects of this system on the duration of job searchers and the relative chances of employment for various socio-demographic groups of population. We also explore the effect of the legi...

  7. Shelf-life of Roasted Cashew Nuts as Affected by Relative Humidity, Thickness of Polythene Packaging Material and Duration of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Irtwange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity, thickness of polythene packaging material and duration of storageon the shelf life of roasted cashew was determined to provide inform ation for packaged roasted cashew nutsmarketers. For this study, split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design was used with a total number of180 observations (3 relative humidity x 4 polythene thicknesses x 5 duration levels of storage x 3 replicationseach for moisture content, microbial count and quality index, which w ere measured using standard procedures.The initial mean moisture content, total fungal counts and percentage quality index of the nuts were found tobe 1.17%db, 30CFU/g and 100% respectively, which were all deemed appropriate in comparison with the setacceptable storage moisture content of 5.8%db, tolerable fungal levels of 103 and 104/g and acceptablepercentage quality index of 45% for roasted cashew nuts which did not exceed its shelf-life and still deemedfit for human consumption. The results of the study indicates that relative humidity, polythene thickness andduration of storage have a highly significant effect (P≤0.01 on moisture content and quality index while forthe microbial count, polythene thickness and duration of storage has significant effect (P≤0.05 with relativehumidity showing non-significance. For all levels of relative humidity and polythene thickness, moisturecontent and microbial count increased with increase in duration of storage w hile quality index decreased withincrease in duration of storage. As the polythene thickness increased at constant storage duration, the moisturecontent decreased. The moisture content of all the samples increased with increase in duration of storage atconstant polythene thickness level. As the thickness of the polythene packaging material increased, the amountof moisture absorbed over time (in days decreases; the total fugal growth decreases, and the percentage qualityindex increases. It is recommended that

  8. Employment and SMEs during crises

    OpenAIRE

    Varum, C.A.; Rocha, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The persistent increasing duration of unemployment has become an issue during economic crises. Although lay-offs at large firms normally make headlines during crises, we still know little about the potential impact of firm size on adjustment behavior in a crisis. We studied effects of firm size on employment growth during economic slowdowns using a rich microeconomic database for the 1988-2007 period in Portuguese manufacturing industry. The results show that economic downturns affect firm gr...

  9. 浅议就业形势的影响因素%On the Factors Affecting Employment Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠信

    2015-01-01

    From the economic development, employment and environmental values and social entrepreneurship perspective to analyze current phenomenon of college students'' employment. Describe the accumulation of talent, to achieve policy in-novation, education, innovation and improving the living environment in rural China, the business environment is the effec-tive way to solve the difficult employment.%本文从经济发展、就业观念和社会创业环境等角度分析当前大学生就业难现象.阐述积累人才、实现政策创新、教育创新和改善中国农村生存环境、创业环境才是解决就业难的有效途径.

  10. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus: effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days. The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  11. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...

  12. Unemployment duration and personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Selver; Pohlmeier, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role personality traits play in determining individual unemployment duration. We argue that a worker's job search intensity is decisively driven by her personality traits, reflected in her propensity to motivate and control herself while searching for a job. Moreover, personality traits, in as far as they can be signaled to a potential employer, may also enhance the probability of receiving and accepting a job offer. For our econometric duration analysis, we use the ...

  13. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting. PMID:22664582

  14. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25-75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  15. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  16. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Said AlMakadma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS, mortality, and morbidity. Methods: Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK. These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed same approach, known as the Ivor-Lewis procedure. Results: The duration of One Lung Ventilation (OLV during TSE was found to be critical for patient′s outcome. Statistical analysis suggested a potentially strong effect of the duration of OLV (range: 90-320 minutes on the ILOS (P=0.001. The ratio OLV: Total duration of surgery (TOT was significantly different in early post-operative (PO deaths (within 3 months and late deaths after the third month (P=0.032. The POSSUM value (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality correlated well with ILOS (P=0.05. Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the two variables (P=0.03. An excellent to good quality of PO analgesia allowed for shorter ILOS (P=0.023. Conclusions: Duration of the OLV appears as an important factor in the outcome of patients. POSSUM value could help in planning the post-operative critical care need of patients undergoing TSE. A well managed post-operative pain allowed to reduce the ILOS.

  17. Investigate the Affect of Post-natal Care Intervention on Breastfeeding Rates and Duration%浅谈进行产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雅铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果。方法收集我院2013年1月~2014年6月收治的1600例产妇按是否愿意接受产后护理干预分为两组。对照组产妇给予常规护理,实验组产妇加施产后护理,比较两组产妇母乳喂养率、母乳喂养持续时间与自信心情况等。结果实验组产妇母乳喂养率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组产妇母乳喂养持续时间与BSES评分高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果显著。%Objective Investigate the affect of post-natal care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration.MethodsColected in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2014 were treated 1 600 cases of maternal press are wiling to accept post-natal care interventions into two groups. Control groups were given routine care,the experimental groups were applied on post-natal care,maternal breastfeeding rates between the two groups,duration of breastfeeding and self-confidence and so on.ResultsExperimental groups were significantly higher than the rate of breastfeeding,there was a significant difference statisticaly significant(P< 0.01),the experimental groups were breastfeeding duration and BSES score significantly higher,there was a significant difference,statisticaly significant(P< 0.01).Conclusion Postpartum care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration affect the results significantly.

  18. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    samples were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A...... significant mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50...... years of loading. SL50 was found to be of the order 0.60 for MC = 11 %, 0.50 for MC = 20 % and 0.44 MC varying be-tween 11 % and 20 %. The test results revealed no evidence of a threshold stress level. A reliability based cali-bration of load-duration factors was performed using probabilistic models of...

  19. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  20. The Impacts of Postdoctoral Training on Scientists' Academic Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuhong

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of postdoctoral training affecting scientists' academic employment, focusing on timing and prestige dimensions. Postdoc training proves beneficial to academic employment--more so in less prestigious departments than in top ones. Postdoc duration is subject to diminishing returns. The benefits of training…

  1. Employment Expectations:Factors Affecting the Employment of Economics Majors%就业期望:经济学类大学生就业影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚楠; 华磊; 饶武元

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data of 14 universities in Jiangxi Provence, this paper uses Logistic model to analyze the impact of employment expectation on employment of Economics major graduates. The conclusions show that the employment pressure of Economics majors is generally larger. Financial and Economics and other popular majors own higher employment expectations , but lower employment rates; while the employment expectations and employment rate of International Economics and Trade and other less popular majors are relatively balanced. The employment expectation has a significant negative impact on the employment of Economics major graduates, the higher the expectation of employment, the less satisfactory employment situation is. The majors, acknowledge of the career prospects and the choice on the work type can have great impacts on their employment expectation of Economics major graduates.%基于江西省14所高等院校的问卷调查数据,运用Logistic模型就影响经济学类专业本科毕业生就业期望的主要因素进行分析,结论表明:经济学类专业大学生的就业压力普遍较大;金融和经济等热门专业大学生就业期望高,但就业率较低,国际经济与贸易等冷门专业的大学生就业期望与就业率相对均衡;就业期望与就业率成反比,就业期望越高,就业情况就越不理想;就业期望变量中的三个因素:就业前景认知,就业形势认知以及对工作类型的选择对大学生就业有着显著影响。

  2. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials. PMID:25979999

  3. The Duration of Unemployment in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gogran, L.; Berg, van den, V.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal survey data to assess factors affecting the duration of unemployment in Russia. We examine four types of marginalised labour force participants, according to ILO guidelines and survey responses, and we estimate duration models for each type. It turns out that the sets of characteristics with the strongest effects on the duration are remarkably similar across the different unemployment definitions and model specifications. Therefore, despite the formidable practica...

  4. Income determinants and factors affecting the choice of self-employed Canadians to invest in RRSPs and health-related benefits: An empirical analysis and policy reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Delic, Senada

    2006-01-01

    Self-employment in Canada has risen dramatically over the past three decades, accounting for a disproportionate share ofjobs created in the early 1990s. The macroeconomic gains from selfemployment have inspired much research, with numerous studies examining driving Forces behind the engagement in entrepreneurship. A very few studies have examined entrepreneurs' socio-economic security. Using microdata files from the Survey of Self-Employment, 2000, this study employs a series of binomial logi...

  5. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  6. Time perception: paradigms, methods, target duration and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Henriett A

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the role of the time judgement paradigms of prospective and retrospective durations, the length of durations and the effects of the states of mood and arousal in time perception. The role of the biological variable of circadian types was also assessed. Long target durations were judged as shorter than whereas short target durations were judged as longer. Duration judgement paradigms did not affect perception of time and neither did mood and circa...

  7. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret;

    2011-01-01

    on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada......Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact......, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In...

  8. Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marchezan

    2003-04-01

    time: [A1] - 1999, [A2] 2000 and [A3] - 2001. The red rice seed bank estimation was made using 12 soil samples by plot, in April 1999, April 2000 and April 2001, using a 10 cm diameter cylinder soil sampler. The sampling depths were 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm. After being extracted from the soil, the grains of red rice were counted and submitted to a tetrazolium test to estimate seed viability. Cattle trampling did not affect seed distribution in the soil profile and the dynamics of the red rice seed bank. Fallow duration affected the seed bank of red rice; the regression equation fit that best explains the correlation between number of viable seeds and fallow duration in months was the exponential equation: y = 1382.15 exp (-0.1988*x p<0.05, showing a decrease in the number of seeds within 12 months, from 1,448 to 151 (90% reduction, and 38 (98% reduction viable seeds per square meter in 24 months of fallow. Regarding the red rice seed burial depths, seed bank reduction was greater on the soil surface in 2000, with no difference between the depths in 2001. The seeds located on the soil surface lost their viability rapidly, with an average of 99% within one year fallow with or without cattle trampling. It can be concluded that cattle trampling does not affect red rice seed bank dynamics in fallow areas. Soil fallow, with or without cattle trampling, reduces in the red rice seed bank.

  9. Duration Analysis of Interest Rate Spells : Cross-National Study of Interest Rate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yingwen; Zhou Z.F., Sherry

    2011-01-01

    A duration analysis is adopted in this study to investigate the determinants of the "interest rate spells" across ten countries (or area) . Both parametric and nonparametric methods are employed for the analysis. It is found that the length of "interest rate spells" is affected by both the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. In contrast, the influence of exchange and unemployment rates proved to be insignificant and the lagged interest rate is significant only for Denmark. The ...

  10. Employing graduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittaway, Luke; Clark, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides managers in the tourism sector with guidance on the likely effects for their business of employing graduates, tourism being a sector with a currently low level of graduate employment.

  11. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars;

    2005-01-01

    . A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p < 0.0001) with a hazard ratio of 1.045 (95% CI 1.023, 1.069). Other significant factors included tumor stage and radiation dose, whereas duration of treatment time was borderline significant (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of symptoms was statistically...

  12. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  13. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

  14. Employment persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischman, Charles A.; Joshua H. Gallin

    2001-01-01

    The recent U.S. expansion has provided employment experience to individuals at tail of the skill distribution. Will these opportunities bestow persistent benefits in the form of greater future employability? Using synthetic cohorts constructed from the CPS, this paper estimates the degree of persistence in cohort-level employment rates in excess of persistence in aggregate macroeconomic conditions. This approach is in some ways superior to testing for hysteresis in the aggregate unemployment ...

  15. What Happens to the Employment of Native Co-Workers when Immigrants are Hired?

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj

    2007-01-01

    While immigration is unlikely to affect the employment of native workers in the long run, employment of immigrants may be associated with significant short-run adjustment costs for native workers as they have to fi nd alternative employment or are temporarily pushed into unemployment. In this paper, we therefore study the impact of immigrants at the workplace on the employment of native co-workers using a rich matched worker-fi rm data set for Denmark. Estimation of a single risk duration mod...

  16. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic....

  17. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  18. Employer Support for Employee Voluntarism

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Constantine

    1999-01-01

    This study uses the microdata from the 1997 National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (NSGVP) and from a comparable survey for 1987 to answer a number of key questions pertaining to the role of employers in support of employee voluntarism: (a) How extensive is employer support? (b) How has employer support change over the last 10 years? (c) What organizations or activities do employer support the most? (d) How employer support affects employee volunteers?

  19. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore, this...... paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance and...... positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  20. Welfare benefits and the duration of single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J; Wright, R E

    1989-11-01

    The authors examine the contention that the provision of welfare benefits to single parents increases the number of single parents and the duration of single parenthood. Data are from the Women and Employment Survey, which collected marital, childbearing, and employment data from 5,320 women aged 16-59 in the United Kingdom in 1980. The results indicate that welfare benefits exercise no significant effect on the duration of single parenthood. PMID:12342958

  1. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de...... eksternt kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  2. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  3. Road Congestion and Incident Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Martin W.; van Ommeren, Jos; Rietveld, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Non-recurrent congestion is frequently caused by accidents and other incidents. We estimate the causal effect of incident duration on drivers’ time losses through changes in non-recurrent road congestion on Dutch highways. We demonstrate that incident duration has a strong positive, but concave, effect on non-recurrent congestion. The duration elasticity of non-recurrent congestion is about 0.40 implying that a one minute duration reduction generates a €60 gain per incident. We also show that...

  4. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José

    1997-01-01

    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  5. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Said AlMakadma; Tamer Hunein Riad; Ayad, Ismaei I.; Tamer Hussein Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC) while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS), mortality, and morbidity. Methods: Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK). These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed s...

  6. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene

    used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further....... Furthermore, the wage equations do not capture the sorting of workers into different occupations and industries. Using an equilibrium search model, this paper takes search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account, when looking at firm behavior. Addition- ally, a logit model is...

  7. Employment Values of Patients with Schizophrenia or Affective Disorder and Predictive Factors%精神分裂症和情感障碍患者的就业价值观及其预测因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永爱; 曹平; 李娜; 任向明; 唐争艳; 师建国

    2012-01-01

    To compare the employment values between the patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder and their- predictive factors. Methods The simple random sampling was taken to enroll 755 patients with convalescent schizophrenia and affective disorders, who had received rehabilitation treatments in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Shanxi Province. The Job Value Rating Scale, Protectors' Expectation Rating Scale, Sense of Self - respect Rating Scale, Friends' Support Rating Scale, Experts' Support Rating Scale, and Activity of Daily Living scale (ADL) were used for survey. And the X2 test, t test and multiple linear regression analysis were taken statistically. Results (1) There was statistical significance between patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders ( P 0. 05 ). ( 2 ) Employment value prediction models of patients with schizophreni-a and affective disorders were statistically different ( P < 0. 05 ). The factors influencing employment values of the schizophrenia patients ranged in sense of self — respect, experts support, protectors expectation, friends support, employment expectation, general ability and age; and the total cogency was 66. 0% . The factors influencing employment values of the affective disorder-patients ranged in protectors' expectation, general ability, experts' support, sense of self-respect, friends' support, employment expectation, and life quality; and the total cogency amounted to 69. 0%. Conclusion The common predictive factors for patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders are sense of self- respect, experts' support, protectors' expectation, friends' support, employment expectation, and general ability, which suggests the cognition, motivation and social support in employment value of the patients play an important role for the improvement of their social rehabilitation and life quality.%目的 研究精神分裂症和情感障碍患者的就业价值观及其预测因素.方法 利用简单随机抽

  8. Barriers Affecting Employment and Work Intention among the People with Disabilities%影响伤残人员就业及工作意愿的障碍因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓平; 丁洪流

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The employment of people with disabilities is an important social and public health challenge.Although the life of this population could be significantly improved if they are employed and a large part of disabled people are able to work,many of them are currently unemployed.In the present study,we investigated the barriers affecting employment as well as work intention among the participants of the Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) Employment and Disability Survey.[ Methods] A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2003 on a total of 2 952 people with disabilities who were members of MassHealth plans.[Results] Our results demonstrated that while disabilities and health problems had a strong influence on the employment of disabled people,these factors were not major determinants of their work intention.Instead,socioeconomic status,work related activities,and policies/special programs were associated with both employment and work intention.[Conclusion] Since the barriers affecting work intention are more policy-associated,policy changes or new programs tailored specifically to encourage disabled people to work will be critical to achieve success in helping them in gaining employment and improving their quality of life as well.%[目的]伤残人员就业是一项重要的社会和公共卫生挑战.尽管该人群中大部分能够工作,并且就业可以明显改善他们的生活,很多伤残人员目前处于失业状态.本研究对影响"麻萨诸塞州就业与伤残调查"参试者就业及工作意愿的障碍因素加以探讨.[方法]基于一项开展于2003年在总数为2952名加入麻萨诸塞州医疗计划的伤残人员的横断面(crosssectional)调查.[结果]虽然伤残及健康问题对伤残人员就业有重要影响,这些并非决定该类人员工作意愿的主要因素.然而,社会经济地位,与工作有关的活动,以及有关政策或专项计划与就业和工作意愿二者皆为相关.[结论]由于影响

  9. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  10. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    InciAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  11. Performance of Local Employment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hanell, Tomas; Persson, Lars Olof

    2003-01-01

    At the national level the employment system consists of the set of institutions, and policies affecting institutions, which together moderate the level of production, employment and unemployment in the country (Schmid, G. & Gazier, B. eds. 2002. The Dynamics of Full Employment. Edward Elgar). These institutions include employment legislation, taxation policy and the education and training systems. However, the dynamics and the complexity of the national labour markets could only be understood...

  12. Science employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    Rapid growth in private sector high-technology companies coupled with the expected unprecedented U.S. peacetime defense buildup paint an optimistic picture for future employment in scientific and engineering fields, according to forecasts by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Between 1982 and 1987, up to nearly 750,000 new positions will be created in scientific, engineering, or technical fields, a new NSF report states. By 1987 these occupations will account for 4 million jobs, or 3.5% of the total U.S. work force. New positions in the earth sciences are predicted to increase about 2% per year.

  13. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Eliane; Hoeksma, Marco R.; Smeets, Monique A M; Semin, Gün R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  14. 29 CFR 401.5 - Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer. 401.5 Section 401.5 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.5 Employer. Employer means any employer or any group or association of employers engaged in an industry affecting commerce (a) which is, with respect to...

  15. 高职护生社区护理职业情感和就业意向的调查%Investigation on professional affection about community nursing and employment intention of the associate nursing students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑婉玉; 胡蓉芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To learn the professional affection about community nursing and employment intention of the associate nursing students. Methods 109 associate nursing students were investigated with selfdesigned questionnaires. Results Most students felt high pressure about employment, only 30. 3 percent students were willing to be community nurses, the data revealed that inferior personal prospect, lower salary and insufficiency knowledge about community nursing influenced the participants' career choice, they were passive to community nursing,70.6 percents students thought that community nursing education at school was not enough to meet the needs of community work. Conclusions Nursing schools should pay more attention to cultivate the professional affection about community nursing and the communication ability of the students, develop the professional guidance and improve the teaching environment of community nursing.%目的 了解高职毕业护生社区护理的职业情感和就业意向状况,为高职护生的培养提供参考.方法 采用自制问卷对109名高职毕业护生进行问卷调查.结果 高职护生多数感到就业压力大,仅30.3%表示愿意选择社区护理岗位,其影响因素有个人发展前景不好、社区护士待遇低、人们对社区护理的认识不够等;护生对社区护理的职业情感负性情绪较多,70.6%的护生认为学校的社区护理教育不能够满足社区护理工作的需要.结论 学校应加强培养高职护生正确的职业认知,开展适当的职业指导,加强社区护理实习教学环境的建设,重视护生人文沟通能力的培养.

  16. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  17. Duration of an elastic collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values. (paper)

  18. Duration of an elastic collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-07-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  19. Employment in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Forni, Lorenzo; Giordano, Raffaela

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model of wage-employment determination in private and public sectors, which allows us to analyze the effects of different institutional arrangements on labor market equilibria. In particular, it focuses on how different degrees of coordination in decision processes affect hiring and wage setting outcomes. Cooperation in unions’ behavior results in wage increases and employment reduction in the private sector, whereas it induces wage moderation and employment expansion in...

  20. Task duration in contextual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J K

    2002-12-01

    Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

  1. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device the...... physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... relation for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration...

  2. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses. PMID:23333698

  3. Graduates and initial employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon, Sharon Elizabeth; Rolleston, Anna; Mackie, Joan

    2008-07-01

    This research project was undertaken to inform nurse educators in the Department of Nursing and Health Studies of Manukau Institute of Technology of the employment opportunities for new graduate nurses emerging from the three year degree and registration programme. The research study aimed to contribute evidence for informed discussion when issues around curriculum development arose, particularly those issues that affect employment success of graduates. A literature review was undertaken of local and international studies and this highlighted a number of studies that examined the experience of new graduates in employment. There was however little evidence that studies had focused on the experiences of graduates as they initially sought employment or their perceptions of how their ability to successfully gain employment was linked to the nursing programme they were exiting from. The data collection tool was a survey consisting of a number of closed questions which required respondents to indicate the option most closely fitting their experience. Analysis of these results was undertaken using SPSS. The last section of the survey invited respondents to comment on any aspect of the focus of the study and qualitative analysis was undertaken of these comments. Graduates from the programme for the previous three years were targeted and names and addresses were available from departmental and institute databases. The research was submitted to the MIT Research and Ethics Committee who stated that the project did not require ethical approval as a retrospective, anonymous survey. 89.8% of graduates across the three years were successful in gaining employment in the first three months post registration. The number of graduates employed within a District Health Board (DHB) declined across the three years but there were no significant differences between cohorts. Overall, 73% of graduates were employed into new graduate positions. The majority of graduates felt that their

  4. Die Another Day: Duration in German Import Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2007-01-01

    International trade patterns at the product level are surprisingly dynamic. The majority of trade relationships exist for just a few, often only one to three, years. In this paper, I examine empirically the duration in German import trade at the 8-digit product level from 1995 to 2005. I find that survival probabilities are affected by exporter characteristics, product type and market structure. Specifically, I show that the duration of exporting a product to Germany is longer for products ob...

  5. 20 CFR 655.158 - Duration of positive recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of positive recruitment. 655.158 Section 655.158 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... recruitment. Except as otherwise noted, the obligation to engage in positive recruitment described in §§...

  6. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has completed the academic curriculum requirements for that first undergraduate baccalaureate course... employment as a teacher in an elementary or secondary school in that State; (2) The postbaccalaureate program... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section...

  7. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  8. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  9. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational...... level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in......, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported...

  10. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2004-10-01

    After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  11. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffie Spruijt

    Full Text Available A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92 judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, representing different strategies to successfully perform the hand laterality judgment task. The first model predicted systematic changes in response duration as a function of rotation angle of the displayed hand. The second model predicted that response durations are affected by biomechanical constraints of hand rotation. If observed data could be best described by the first model, this would argue for a mental imagery strategy that does not involve motor processes to solve the task. The second model reflects a motor imagery strategy to solve the task. In line with previous research, we showed an age-related increase in response accuracy and decrease in response duration in children. Observed data for both back and palm view showed that motor imagery strategies were used to perform hand laterality judgments, but that not all the children use these strategies (appropriately at all times. A direct comparison of response duration patterns across age sheds new light on age-related differences in the strategies employed to solve the task. Importantly, the employment of the motor imagery strategy for successful task performance did not change with age.

  13. Episodes of non-employment among immigrants from developing countries in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Ahmed Aboubacar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID, we analyze non-employment episodes for immigrants from developing countries, and compare their situation to that of immigrants from developed countries and Canadian-born individuals between 1996 and 2006. The methods used allowed us to draw the following conclusion: significant differences exist between these three groups in labour market mobility, the average duration of a non-employment episode, and the factors that affect the propensity to exit from a non-employment episode. These differences demonstrate a particular disadvantage for immigrants from developing countries. In fact, they tend to spend more time in non-employment episodes compared to their counterparts from developed countries, and compared to Canadian-born individuals.

  14. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate......Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis is...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over the...

  15. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESCU GEORGE OCTAVIAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of industrialization and expansion of wage labor is the difference between work and employment. The rigidity of the labor supply and its persistent surplus is explained by the very high compensation or unemployment benefits, through trade union action or error preset number of employees, which leads to greater gap between supply and demand for labor. Adjustment policies of employment in the future will be increasingly less state policy, of general application, and increasingly more political will and enterprise branch, the subject of an active social dialogue between employers and trade unions, dialogue resulted in agreements of limited duration and subject to revision depending on the economic and social situation. The duration of work and organizational modalities they will depend on this social dialogue.

  17. The True Durations of Starbursts: HST Observations of Three Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ~200 - ~400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales of...

  18. Optimal duration of magazine promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Esteban-Bravo; Jose M. Mugica; Jose M. Vidal-Sanz

    2005-01-01

    The planning of promotions and other marketing events frequently requires manufacturers to make decisions about the optimal duration of these activities. Yet manufacturers often lack the support tools for decision making. We assume that customer decisions at the aggregated level follow a state-dependent Markov process. On the basis of the expected economic return associated with dynamic response to stimuli, we determine the ideal length of marketing events using dynamic programming optimizati...

  19. EMPLOYERS EXPECTATIONS AND STUDENTS EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sudha;

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the increased competition and rapid changing economy, entry and survival of graduates in industries is tougher than ever before. The employers' expectations are changing day by day and graduates have to obtain new skills for their sustainability. Mere academic skill alone will not help the graduates for better employment. Due to lack of employability skills graduates are not employable even though there are opportunities. In this study an attempt is made to find out the organiz...

  20. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  1. Age differences in graduate employment across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Brenda; Tang, Win-Yee

    2008-01-01

    The report is based on the results of a major international study of graduate employment some five years after graduation. The report examines differences between European and UK graduates' patterns of employment and characteristics of their current work when age differences are taken into account. Overall UK graduates were both younger and older at entry to higher education compared with Europe as a whole. Such differences, when aligned with the longer duration of courses elsewhere in Europe...

  2. Converting unemployment benefits into employment subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of giving unemployed people -- particularly the long-term unemployed -- the opportunity to use part of their unemployment benefits to provide employment vouchers to the firms that hire them. The vouchers would depend positively on unemployment duration and training. The paper argues that this policy would give unemployed people and their potential employers an expanded domain of choices in the labour market and thereby reduce the market failures generated ...

  3. Employer's investments in hospital workers' employability and employment opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, E.J.; Knies, E.; Leisink, P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employer’s investments (through job characteristics and managerial support) and employees’ employment opportunities, with employability, conceptualized as perceived up-to-date expertise and willingness to change, as a mediati

  4. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  5. Rail commuting duration and passenger stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Wener, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Over 100 million Americans commute to work every weekday. Little is known, however, about how this aspect of work, which may indeed be the most stressful aspect of the job for some, affects human health and well-being. The authors studied a sample of 208 male and female suburban rail commuters who took the train to Manhattan, New York. The greater the duration of the commute, the larger the magnitude of salivary cortisol elevations in reference to resting baseline levels, the less the commuter's persistence on a task at the end of the commute, and the greater the levels of perceived stress. These effects were not moderated by gender. Commuting stress is an important and largely overlooked aspect of environmental health. PMID:16719613

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Phone Duration Models for Greek Emotional Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Lazaridis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we cope with the task of phone duration modeling for Greek emotional speech synthesis. Approach: Various well established machine learning techniques are applied for this purpose to an emotional speech database consisting of five archetypal emotions. The constructed phone duration prediction models are built on phonetic, morphosyntactic and prosodic features that can be extracted only from text. We employ model and regression trees, linear regression, lazy learning algorithms and meta-learning algorithms using regression trees as base classifiers, trained on a Modern Greek emotional database consisting of five emotional categories: anger, fear, joy, neutral and sadness. Results: Model trees based on the M5’ algorithm and meta-learning algorithms using as base classifier regression trees based on the M5’ algorithm proved to perform better. Conclusion: It was observed that the emotional categories of the speech database with the most uniform distribution of phone durations built the most accurate models.

  7. Employment Polarization and Immigrant Employment Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Wielandt, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Building on the task-based approach of technological change, this paper discusses the interaction between occupational polarization (e.g. a gradual increase of native employment in the lowest and highest-paying jobs) and employment opportunities of immigrant workers. Using high quality administrative data for Germany, I first show that technological change is positively related to employment growth of natives in low-paying occupations that are also typically held by immigrant workers. In...

  8. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  9. Finite Duration Shocks on Discrete Laminate Composite Al/W /

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Navarro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of strong shock wave compression of Al-W laminate materials with different cell size ranging from 1 mm to 4 mm were conducted. Finite element simulations using LS-DYNA were employed with two different durations of loading pulse tailored by changing the length of the impactor. The results of the numerical simulations for homogeneous materials were used for validation of our code by comparing the results of the pressure, the temperature and the final volume with the availa...

  10. Equity Duration, Growth Options and Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornell, Bradford

    1999-01-01

    Because much of the value of equity depends on the option characteristics of investment projects, it is not feasible to calculate equity duration directly. As a result, recent literature has focused on estimating equity duration empirically. By using 25 size and book-to-market portfolios, this paper shows that estimates of equity duration are critically dependent on the specifications of the regression model used to estimate equity duration. In particular, including all three Fama-French fact...

  11. Instrumental variable estimation for duration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we focus on duration data with an endogenous variable for which an instrument is available. In duration analysis the covariates and/or the effect of the covariates may vary over time. Another complication of duration data is that they are usually heavy censored. The

  12. Employability-miles and worker employability awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, R.; Grip, A. de; Witlox, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the use and impact of a firm-sponsored training ("Employability-miles") voucher scheme that aims to stimulate employees to develop a more active attitude toward their own employability. Using data from two surveys of the firm's workforce, we find that voucher use is related to various personality traits and personal characteristics. In particular, a worker's ambition, goal setting, and education level are positively related to voucher use. In addition, women and those wit...

  13. 75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Register on April 28, 2009 (74 FR 19164), we proposed to amend VA's regulations concerning self-employment... employability arising from the effects of the individual's spina bifida or other covered birth defects, which... affecting employability arising from the effects of each individual's service-connected...

  14. Incident duration modeling using flexible parametric hazard-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruimin; Shang, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  15. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  16. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent vari...

  18. Modeling Pay and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunberg, Barbara; Green, Amanda; Reid, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Bank support for civil service reform (CSR) in developing countries used to focus mainly on improving government pay, and employment practices. In recent years, CSR programs have sought a broader set of management improvements. But getting public pay and employment right is still fundamental: establishing appropriate civil service employment dimensions, and providing rewarding-but affordab...

  19. Great opportunities or poor alternatives: self-employment, unemployment and paid employment over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ludo Visschers; Ana Millan; Matthias Kredler

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the flows between self-employment, unemployment and paid employment, and how these vary over the business cycle. First, we document these flows in the data, paying particular attention to previous labor market outcomes for workers entering self-employment, and subsequent labor market outcomes for those leaving self-employment, and how these are affected by cyclical conditions. Second, we construct a two-ladder equilibrium model of a frictional labor market capturing th...

  20. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  1. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards. PMID:26893033

  2. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  3. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or... way that adversely affects their opportunities or status because of handicap. (c) A recipient...

  4. Dual Employment Protection Legislation : A Framework for Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dolado, Juan José; Jansen, Marcel; Juan F. Jimeno

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) establishes different regulations for certain groups of workers who face more disadvantages in the labour market (young workers, women, unskilled workers, etc.) with the aim of improving their employability. Well-known examples are the introduction of atypical employment contracts (e.g. temporary and determined-duration contracts), which ease firing restrictions for some, but not all, workers. This paper discusses the effects of EPL v...

  5. Duration of nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the duration of strong ground shaking that results from nuclear explosions and identifies some of the problems associated with its determination. Knowledge of the duration of horizontal ground shaking is important out to epicentral distances of about 44 km and 135 km, the approximate distances at which the ground shaking level falls to 0.01 g for nuclear explosions having yields of about 100 kt and 1,000 kt, respectively. Evaluation of the strong ground motions recorded from the event STRAIT (M/sub L/ = 5.6) on a linear array of five, broad-band velocity seismographs deployed in the distance range 3.2 to 19.5 km provides information about the characteristics of the duration of ground shaking. The STRAIT data show that: (1) the definition that is used for defining duration is very important; (2) the duration of ground acceleration, as defined in terms of 90% of the integral of the squared time history, increased from about 4 to 26 sec over the approximately 20-km distance range; and (3) the duration of ground velocity and displacement were slightly greater because of the effect of the alluvium layer on the propagating surface waves. Data from other events augment the STRAIT data and show that: (1) duration of shaking is increased by frequency-dependent site effects and (2) duration of shaking, as defined by the integral of the squared time history, does not increase as rapidly with increase in yield as is indicated by other definitions of duration that are stated in terms of an amplitude threshold (e.g., bracketed duration, response envelopes). The available data suggest that the duration of ground acceleration, based on the integral definition, varies from about 4 to 40 sec for a 100-kt range explosion and from about 4 to 105 sec for a megaton range explosion in the epicentral distance range of 0 to 44 km and 0 to 135 km, respectively

  6. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social se...

  7. Valsalva maneuver: shortest optimal expiratory strain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Khurana, Md

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To quantitate the level of difficulty and determine consistency of hemodynamic responses with various expiratory strain (ES durations. Methods : Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the Valsalva maneuver (VM with an ES duration of 10, 12, and 15 seconds in random order. Level of difficulty after each trial was rated 1 to 10, with 10 being the most difficult. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously and non-invasively. Parameters studied were Valsalva ratio (VR, early phase II (IIE, late phase II (IIL, tachycardia latency (TL, bradycardia latency (BL, and overshoot latency (OV-L. Consistency of responses was calculated. Results : Difficulty increased significantly with increased ES duration: 5.1±0.1 (mean±SEM at 10 seconds, 5.9±0.1 at 12 seconds, and 6.8±0.1 at 15 seconds (p<0.001. Phase IIE, TL, BL, OV-L, and VR response did not differ statistically with increasing ES durations, and there were no differences in variability. Phase IIL response increased significantly with increasing ES duration. Phase IIL was poorly delineated in 14 of 102 trials with 10 seconds ES duration. Conclusions : ES duration of 10 seconds created a low level of difficulty in healthy individuals. This strain duration produced consistent hemodynamic response for all parameters tested except IIL phase. The absence of IIL phase with 10 seconds ES should not be interpreted as an indicator of sympathetic vasoconstrictor failure.

  8. Enhancing duration processing with parietal brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormal, Valérie; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Pesenti, Mauro; Walsh, Vincent; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2016-05-01

    Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates. Whether these observed neuronal specificities can be accounted for by differences in automaticity or presentation-mode is however not clear. To address this issue, we used brain stimulation (transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS) to the right parietal cortex or the SMA combined with experimental stimuli differing in their level of automaticity (numerosity and duration) and presentation mode (sequential or simultaneous). Compared to a no stimulation group, performance changed in duration but not in numerosity categorisation following right parietal but not SMA stimulation. These results indicate that the right parietal cortex is critical for duration processing, and suggest that tRNS has a stronger effect on less automatic processes such as duration. PMID:27037043

  9. Disability employment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mont, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series aimed at analyzing disability employment policy, and developing recommendations for policy reform in middle income countries. As the first paper in this series, this study provides a general overview of the relationship between disability and employment, focusing primarily on disability employment policies in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. It discusses how well these policies address the dual functions of integration...

  10. Assessing employment in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Aaron George

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the total number of employed and the full-time equivalent employment in Malta are estimated for the last three decades. These series give a new picture of the historical development of employment and productivity in Malta. The estimated full-time equivalent time series, in spite of its limitations, is a first step on the way towards a comprehensive statistical measure of labour input in Malta

  11. Deficiency of employability capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.

    2012-01-01

    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  12. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all current outside employment held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officers) approved by the Ethics Commission....

  13. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...

  14. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  15. 7 CFR 201.58 - Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain other specific directions for testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 201.58, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.58 Substrata, temperature, duration...

  16. Fiscal policy and the duration of financial crises

    OpenAIRE

    Craigwell, Roland; Lorde, Troy; Moore, Winston

    2011-01-01

    Financial systems across the world have all come under pressure due to the on-going financial crisis. One of the most often asked questions during a collapse is how long and how deep will the decline be as well as what policy initiatives can be employed to shorten the recession. This study estimates a model of the duration of financial crises in an attempt to identify whether fiscal policy can reduce the time to recovery. The results suggest that fiscal shocks, which could provoke an overreac...

  17. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education. PMID:3836324

  18. Gender Promotion Differences in Economics Departments in Japan: A Semi-parametric Duration Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shingo Takahashi; Ana Maria Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    By using a unique data set of academic economists in Japanese universities, we conduct the first detailed study of gender differences in the duration of promotion within Japanese academia. We employ a duration model that simultaneously allows: a non-parametric estimation of the baseline hazard function; a non-parametric unobserved heterogeneity component; and the estimation of parameterized coefficients for the observed explanatory variables. Our results show that there are no gender promotio...

  19. Individual and Plant-level Determinants of Job Durations in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Boockmann, Bernhard; Steffes, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    We examine job durations of German workers using a linked employeremployee dataset. The descriptive evidence suggests that firm characteristics have a substantial influence on the job exit rate. However, the extent of dispersion in durations is not substantially lower at the firm level than for the sample as a whole, pointing to the presence of segmentation between long and short employment spells within establishments. Using the Cox partial likelihood estimator, we then examine the determina...

  20. THE DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION: THE CASE OF MALAYSIAN GRADUATES

    OpenAIRE

    Hock-Eam Lim

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates determinants of individual unemployment duration of Malaysian graduates. Estimation result suggests that lack of proficiency in English, a mismatch between the type of graduation degree and the requirements for the available jobs in the labor market, family background, state of happiness in overall life, self-expectation on one’s employability and some socio-demographic characteristics (such as ethnicity) are significant determinants of graduate unemployment duration in M...

  1. Employment of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Robert A., Comp.

    This document presents Pennsylvania guidelines for interpreting child labor legislation. In Section I employment certification of minors under the child labor law, the school laws of Pennsylvania, and the federal law are discussed. In Section II the issuing officers responsible for issuing employment certificates are identified, procedures for…

  2. Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene M.; Lacombe, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...

  3. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  4. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2012-12-23

    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor. PMID:22915631

  5. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism. PMID:24194894

  6. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanthiran Veerasamy

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The main results of this study are: (1 Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2 volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3 self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4 job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5 current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  7. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present an employer's view of the recent trends in occupational radiation exposure and discuss their implications as to the effectiveness of the existing system of radiation protection. Future needs are considered from the perspective of those employers operating in a global context. The general conclusions do not support major changes, but a change in emphasis and presentation to give greater clarity for the benefit of all stakeholders. The views presented are derived from discussions within industry, but do not represent the views of any particular employer

  8. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France and...... Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  9. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  10. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  11. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khawaja; Santosh Rao; Li Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P = 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P = 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after...

  12. Performance Sampling and Bimodal Duration Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Jerker Denrell; Zur Shapira

    2006-01-01

    Performance sampling models of duration dependence in employee turnover and firm exit predict that hazard rates will initially be low, gradually rise to a maximum, and then fall. As we note in this paper, however, several empirical duration distributions have bimodal hazard rates. This paper shows that such bimodal hazard rates can be derived from existing models of performance sampling by small changes in the assumptions. In particular, bimodal hazard rates emerge if the mean or the variance...

  13. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AZEM BARDHI1; BESNIK GJONGECAJ

    2014-01-01

    The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluvi...

  14. Analysis on the Factors Affecting the Employment of Accounting Majors of Higher Vocational Colleges:Based on the Study of Logistic Regression%高职会计专业就业影响因素分析--基于Logistic回归的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏芳

    2015-01-01

    For binary dichotomy variable, the Logistic regression analysis method is suitable for researching the influence of independent variable on the dependent variable. There are two kinds of employment status, they are"employment"and"unemployed". Both qualitative factors and quantitative factors have impact on employment. Firstly, the stronger correlation factors should be filtrated by the crossover method of contingency table, then, the other factors should be analyzed by Logistic regression to find out the influencing factors of the employment of higher vocational accounting majors and the main influencing factors by the investigation and study analysis. On the one hand, these can provide a reference for graduate employment, at the same time, let freshman sophomore students have correct understanding on the affecting factors of employment and prepare ahead of time. These also can provide reference for the education teaching workers, such as the talent training scheme should be improved of accounting profession, the problems should be paid attention to and the improvement of course and practical aspects in the revision of the talent training scheme and so on.%对二分类变量,研究自变量对因变量的影响时,比较适用的方式是Logistic回归分析方法。就业状态有两种即“就业”和“未就业”,影响就业的因素中既有定性因素又有定量因素,因此首先用交叉列联表方法筛选出关联性较强因素,再用Logistic回归分析其他因素,找出影响高职会计专业就业的因素。期望通过本项目的调查研究分析找到主要影响因素,一方面为应届毕业生就业提供参考,同时让大一大二学生对就业影响因素有正确的认识与定位,提早做好准备,另外可为教育教学工作者提供借鉴,比如会计专业人才培养方案应该改进的地方,修订人才培养方案时应注意的问题及课程和实训方面如何改进等。

  15. Inconsistencies in reported employment characteristics among employed stayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bassi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement error, and its potentially distorting role, in information on industry and professional status collected by labour force surveys. The focus of our analyses is on inconsistent information on these employment characteristics resulting from yearly transition matrices for workers who were continuously employed over the year and who did not change job. As a case-study we use yearly panel data for the period from April 1993 to April 2003 collected by the Italian Quarterly Labour Force Survey. The analysis goes through four steps: (i descriptive indicators of (disagreement; (ii testing whether the consistency of repeated information significantly increases when the number of categories is collapsed; (iii examination of the pattern of inconsistencies among response categories by means of Goodman’s quasi-independence model; (iv comparisons of alternative classifications jointly by professional status and occupation. Results document sizable measurement error, which is only moderately reduced by more aggregated classifications. They suggest that even cross-section estimates of employment by industry and/or professional status are affected by non-random measurement error.

  16. Retail Employment Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Robert Walters, one of the world’s leading professional specialist recruitment consultancies, has recently released a report on employment opportunities in China’s consumer goods retail industry in the first half of this year. Excerpts follow:

  17. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  18. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  19. Employer's liability for damage

    OpenAIRE

    Baštýřová, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse and clarify in detail the issue of liability for damage in Labour law with focus on liability for damage of employer. At first the thesis defines conception of liability and liability in Labour law in general. The thesis also deals with characteristic features, functions and prevention of liability for damage in Labour law as well. The main part is devoted to liability for damage of employer with regards to judicial decision. It explains gener...

  20. English for Employability: India

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Gore, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper situates the issue of employability skills in India in relation to the world economic changes and their impact on the job market. An overview of the last decade's government policies shows numerous initiatives trying to address the skills gap. In 2013, large scale India-based employability studies started to show the criticality of the skills situation in the Indian upcoming workforce (Wheebox 2013, Aspiring Minds 2014). This summary from the latest reports has been frequently quot...

  1. International Production and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Anca-Mihaela TEAU; Cristina Elena PROTOPOPESCU

    2013-01-01

    The present article analyses the impact of an integrated international production system on the quantity and quality of employment, human resource development and, more generally, to the organization of work. As created assets have become more and more important in international competitiveness, employment effects (e.g., human resource development, industrial relations) associated with transnational corporations are of great interest to all host countries, in particular developing countries.

  2. Employability through covenants

    OpenAIRE

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    How can a sustainable employment insurance system be guaranteed as a major element of the ESM? First a summary overview of the Lisbon targets and their impact on the policies of and in the member states of the European Union is given. Then follow data and problems associated with the target of enhancing employability by means of pushing continuous vocational training (CVT). Next, some Dutch experiences are sketched with covenants, and point to critical success factors. The contribution elabor...

  3. Employment by Lotto Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Bettina; Klijn, Flip

    2006-01-01

    We study employment by lotto (Aldershof et al., 1999), a procedurally fair matching algorithm for the so-called stable marriage problem. We complement Aldershof et al.'s (1999) analysis in two ways. First, we give an alternative and intuitive description of employment by lotto in terms of a probabilistic serial dictatorship on the set of stable matchings. Second, we show that Aldershof et al.'s (1999) conjectures are correct for small matching markets but not necessarily correct for large mat...

  4. Informal Employment in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maligalig, Dalisay; Cuevas, Sining; Rosario, Aleli

    2009-01-01

    The paper developed a methodology for classifying workers into formal and informal employment using the 2005 Bangladesh Labor Force Survey (LFS). Although the 2005 LFS was not designed to collect data for this purpose, it included questions that can be used to determine whether workers are engaged in formal or informal employment. However, the process of identifying the combination of questions that could distinguish between formal and informal workers was hampered by data inconsistencies tha...

  5. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  6. Contemporary psychological contracts: how both employer and employee are changing the employment relationship

    OpenAIRE

    van der Smissen, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; Freese, Charissa

    2013-01-01

    The employment relationship between employer and employee has gone through fundamental changes in the last decades, influencing psychological contracts. It is unclear, however, exactly how psychological contracts are changing. This article offers a comprehensive model that focuses on two factors affecting changes in psychological contracts: organizational change and generational differences between employees.

  7. The Effect of Different Recovery Duration on Repeated Anaerobic Performance in Elite Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbili Sultan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of recovery duration on repeated anaerobic performance in elite cyclists. The study followed a cross-over design protocol. Twelve elite male cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups (with recovery duration of 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively. All the subjects performed 4 repeated Wingate tests (4 × 30 s WT at 48 h intervals for three different recovery periods. No significant interaction was observed between the effects of recovery duration and repetition (p>0.05, whereas there was a significant main effect of repetition on peak power, mean power, and a fatigue index (p0.05. In contrast, mean power decreased significantly in repeated WTs with 1, 2 and 3 min recovery duration (p0.05. In a 4 × 30 s WT, peak power decreased in cycles with 1 and 2 min recovery duration, but remained unchanged with 3 min recovery duration, whereas mean power decreased in all recovery duration procedures. The WT with 1 min recovery duration caused greater fatigue. Although recovery duration affected both peak power and mean power, the effect on peak power was greater.

  8. Duration reproduction with sensory feedback delay: Differential involvement of perception and action time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGanzenmüller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that voluntary action can attract subsequent, delayed feedback events towards the action, and adaptation to the sensorimotor delay can even reverse motor-sensory temporal-order judgments. However, whether and how sensorimotor delay affects duration reproduction is still unclear. To investigate this, we injected an onset- or offset-delay to the sensory feedback signal from a duration reproduction task. We compared duration reproductions within (visual, auditory modality and across audiovisual modalities with feedback signal onset- and offset-delay manipulations. We found that the reproduced duration was lengthened in both visual and auditory feedback signal onset-delay conditions. The lengthening effect was evident immediately, on the first trial with the onset delay. However, when the onset of the feedback signal was prior to the action, the lengthening effect was diminished. In contrast, a shortening effect was found with feedback signal offset-delay, though the effect was weaker and manifested only in the auditory offset-delay condition. These findings indicate that participants tend to mix the onset of action and the feedback signal more when the feedback is delayed, and they heavily rely on motor-stop signals for the duration reproduction. Furthermore, auditory duration was overestimated compared to visual duration in crossmodal feedback conditions, and the overestimation of auditory duration (or the underestimation of visual duration was independent of the delay manipulation.

  9. Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members

  10. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...

  11. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review......, it becomes possible to specify employment relations parameters between the indirect and direct employer and employees in a manner that will ensure working conditions consistent with these traditions, substantially enhancing the prospect of authenticity in employment relations. This theology of the workplace...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  12. Workers, Firms, or Institutions: What Determines Job Duration for Male Employees in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Boockmann, Bernhard; Steffes, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine job durations of German workers using the Linked Employer-Employee Data of the Institute for Employment Research (LIAB). Results indicate that exit rates are strongly influenced by firm characteristics, such as the existence of works councils and the opportunity for further training. The effects of these characteristics, however, are limited to jobs held by blue-collar workers or by those possessing vocational-educational skills. Changes in coefficients across specificatio...

  13. Effect of temperature and heating duration of drying on quality of low amylose rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutarop Yardthaisong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processed food is mostly made from stale rice which contains high viscosity. However the storage of stale rice takes approximately 4-6 months, so acceleration aging of rice saves time and area in the warehouse. Therefore the study aims to observe effects of temperatures and heating duration on the quality of rice with initial low-amylose. Optimum temperature and heating duration of rice quality similar to stale rice were analyzed. The Khao Dok Mali 105 has been tested under controlled temperatures at 70, 80 and 90 °C with heating duration for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The results showed that final viscosity, color value, amylose content and grain cracking increased, but Breakdown decreased as temperature, heating duration and storage time increased. The optimum temperature at 90 °C and heating duration for 4 hours affected to rice quality in the experiment similar to stale rice after storage for 4 months.

  14. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  15. Cooperation between employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidance is given on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organisation have the potential to expose to ionising radiation the employees of another. One of the Regulations of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. OWRs give more detailed requirements for the performance of the duties where one employers' classified employee works in another employer's controlled area. This document explains the separate responsibilities of site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required, and gives guidance on how it can be achieved. It also gives guidance to nuclear site licence holders regarding their duties under IRR 85 in such circumstances. (Author)

  16. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  17. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  18. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  19. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications of...

  20. Employer-to-Employer Flows in the United States: Estimates Using Linked Employer-Employee Data

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Bjelland; Bruce Fallick; John Haltiwanger; Erika McEntarfer

    2008-01-01

    We use administrative data linking workers and firms to study employer-to-employer flows. After discussing how to identify such flows in quarterly data, we investigate their basic empirical patterns. We find that the pace of employer-to-employer flows is high, representing about 4 percent of employment and 30 percent of separations each quarter. The pace of employer-to-employer flows is highly procyclical, and varies systematically across worker, job and employer characteristics. Our findings...

  1. A study of duration of digital dermatitis lesions after treatment in a Danish dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital dermatitis (DD is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin adjacent to the claws. Disease dynamics of DD have been described to some extend, but we still need to quantify the duration of lesions and look into non-treatment factors affecting this. The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of lesions due to DD and to evaluate parity and lactation stage as potential risk factors for longer duration of such lesions. An estimate of the duration of lesions will be a valuable parameter in the evaluation of the economic impact of the disease and will additionally allow estimates of incidence based on prevalence figures. From May 2007 until November 2008, lesions associated with DD in the hind legs of 151 Danish Holstein cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre were clinically scored on fifteen occasions. The mean interval between recordings was 39 days. Onset and end of each new case were estimated as midway between recordings prior to a change in the presence or absence of a lesion. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed to estimate the duration and analyse differences in the duration of lesions between primi- and multiparous cows and between different stages in lactation at onset of the lesion. The median duration of lesions were estimated to be 42 days, less than most previous published estimates. The relatively aggressive regime of topical treatment in the study herd might have shortened the duration of the lesions. Furthermore the comparatively long interval between recordings introduced an element of uncertainty in this estimate. No significant effects of parity or days in milk at lesion onset on the duration of DD were found using these data though lesions developed earlier in the lactation may have a longer duration. Further data would be needed to confirm the latter.

  2. Employment effects of multinational enterprises: the case of the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawa D

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on employment effects of multinational enterprises, comprising a case study of the USA - covers the theoretical perspective, employment opportunity losses and gains, quality of employment created, unemployment duration etc. Of both USA multinationals and foreign enterprises based in the USA. References and statistical tables.

  3. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  4. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  5. Unemployment, Underemployment, and Employment Opportunities: Results from a Correspondence Audit

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Nunley; Adam Pugh; Nicholas Romero; Richard Alan Seals, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We use data from a résumé audit to estimate the impact of unemployment and underemployment on the employment prospects facing recent college graduates. We find no statistical evidence of negative duration dependence associated with unemployment spells for recent college graduates. Alternatively, college graduates who are underemployed have callback rates that are 30 percent lower than that for applicants who are adequately employed. The adverse effects of underemployment are robust across cit...

  6. Generational status and duration of residence predict diabetes prevalence among Latinos: the California Men's Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sternfeld Barbara; Caan Bette; Quinn Virginia P; Ahmed Ameena T; Haque Reina; Van Den Eeden Stephen K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes disproportionately affects Latinos. However, examining Latinos as one group obscures important intra-group differences. This study examined how generational status, duration of US residence, and language preference are associated with diabetes prevalence and to what extent these explain the higher prevalence among Latinos. Methods We determined nativity, duration of US residence, language preference, and diabetes prevalence among 11 817 Latino, 6109 black, and 52 ...

  7. Terrorism and cabinet duration: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gassebner, Martin; Jong-A-Pin, Richard; Mierau, Jochen O.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between terrorism and cabinet duration. Our data set includes more than 2,400 cabinets in over 150 countries in the period 1968-2002. We find a small, but significant effect of terrorism on the probability of government failure. Furthermore, we find that the impact of terrorism depends on the type of attack and is larger in case of more severe attacks. Marginal effect calculations show that the impact of terror on cabinet duration is larger than the impact of econo...

  8. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed

  9. Employer Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  10. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  11. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  12. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  13. Competing with Your Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    Eleventh in a series featuring the 22 principles of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Code of Ethics, this article presents a scenario: A training consultant decides to start his own company and convince 5 of his employers's clients to contract with him. Suggests that the complex ethical issues involved warrant seeking…

  14. Employment without Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less...

  15. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  16. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen;

    2011-01-01

    employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  17. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen;

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark, the...

  18. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  19. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRomei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  20. Short-term memory for event duration: modality specificity and goal dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-11-01

    Time perception is involved in various cognitive functions. This study investigated the characteristics of short-term memory for event duration by examining how the length of the retention period affects inter- and intramodal duration judgment. On each trial, a sample stimulus was followed by a comparison stimulus, after a variable delay period (0.5-5 s). The sample and comparison stimuli were presented in the visual or auditory modality. The participants determined whether the comparison stimulus was longer or shorter than the sample stimulus. The distortion pattern of subjective duration during the delay period depended on the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus but was not affected by that of the sample stimulus. When the comparison stimulus was visually presented, the retained duration of the sample stimulus was shortened as the delay period increased. Contrarily, when the comparison stimulus was presented in the auditory modality, the delay period had little to no effect on the retained duration. Furthermore, whenever the participants did not know the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus beforehand, the effect of the delay period disappeared. These results suggest that the memory process for event duration is specific to sensory modality and that its performance is determined depending on the sensory modality in which the retained duration will be used subsequently. PMID:22810560

  1. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  2. Analysis of the transitional dynamics and duration of unemployment in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Castro Vincenzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that explain the duration of unemployment spells and the transitional dynamics between the state of employment, unemployment and inactivity in Costa Rican labor market, using the Continuous Employment Survey for the period between the first quarter of 2012 and the third quarter of 2013. This research focuses mainly on supply-side factors and uses binominal and multinomial logit models in order to determine which variables determine that some people are more likely to be unemployed, Markov matrixes to estimate a series of transitional probabilities for different states in the labor market, and a survival model to characterize the duration of the unemployment spells. We conclude that women are more likely to be unemployed than men, and have smaller probabilities of changing from unemployed to employed. Also, the duration of their unemployment spells is longer. Furthermore, a higher academic level decreases the probabilities for an individual of being unemployed, but increases the duration of the unemployment spell. A correlation between the performance of the economic activity and the probabilities of becoming employed and of becoming inactive is observed.

  3. 4 CFR 7.2 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 7.2 Section 7.2 Accounts... opportunity. (a) Policy. All personnel actions affecting employees or applicants for employment in GAO shall... status or handicapping condition. (d) Authorities granted thereunder to the Equal Employment...

  4. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A.-J.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-04-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271 virtual catchments that differ only in climate type. For these virtual catchments we studied the bivariate distribution of drought duration and standardized deficit for the variables precipitation, soil moisture, and discharge. We found that for meteorological drought (below-normal precipitation), the bivariate distributions of drought characteristics have a linear shape in all climates and are thus not affected by seasonality in climate. Despite the linear shape of meteorological drought, soil moisture drought (below-normal storage in the unsaturated zone) and hydrological drought (below-normal water availability in aquifers, lakes, and/or streams) show strongly nonlinear shapes in drought characteristics in climates with a pronounced seasonal cycle in precipitation and/or temperature. These seasonality effects on drought propagation are found in monsoonal, savannah, and Mediterranean climate zones. In these regions, both soil moisture and discharge show deviating shapes in drought characteristics. The effect of seasonality on drought propagation is even stronger in cold seasonal climates (i.e., at high latitudes and altitudes), where snow accumulation during winter prevents recovery from summer hydrological drought, and deficit increases strongly with duration. This has important implications for water resources management in seasonal climates, which cannot solely rely on meteorology-based indices as proxies for hydrological drought duration and deficit and need to include seasonal variation in both precipitation and temperature in hydrological drought forecasting.

  5. Employer-Sponsored Child Care: A Movement or a Mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Valora; Oyemade, Ura Jean

    1984-01-01

    Reviews trends in family life-styles that affect the workplace. Identifies employer trends affecting employee expectations. Examines the prevalence, success, and limitations of employer-sponsored child care and government-sponsored initiatives. Finally, discusses the permanence of the trend. (SK)

  6. Duration distributions for different softness groups of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Qinx, Y -P; Fan, J H; Su, C -Y; Lu, R -J

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes according to their durations. We investigate if the softness of bursts plays a role in the conventional classification of the objects. We employ the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) catalog and analyze the duration distributions of different groups of GRBs associated with distinct softness. Our analysis reveals that the conventional classification of GRBs with the duration of bursts is influenced by the softness of the objects. There exits a bimodality in the duration distribution of GRBs for each group of bursts and the time position of the dip in the bimodality histogram shifts with the softness parameter. Our findings suggest that the conventional classification scheme should be modified by separating the two well-known populations in different softness groups, which would be more reasonable than doing so with a single sample. According to the relation between the dip position and the softness parameter, we get an empirical function that can...

  7. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on acoustic duration reproduction assessed via the “dual klepsydra model”

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Meissner; Dharol Tankersley; Marc Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We report results of an acoustic duration reproduction task with stimulus duration of 2, 4 and 6 s, using 45 emotionally negative, positive, and neutral sounds from the International Affective Digitized Sounds System, in a sample of 31 young healthy participants. To investigate the influence of induced emotions on perceived duration, the effects of emotional modulation were quantified in two ways: (i) via model-free indices (aggregated ratios of reproduced times), and (ii) via dual klepsydra ...

  8. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khawaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P=0.032, particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P=0.018. This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P=0.052, but it remained statistically significant (P=0.049 among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings.

  9. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...

  10. Duration of asynchronous operations in distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Makhaniok, Mikhail; Männer, Reinhard

    1995-01-01

    A distributed asynchronous system is investigated. Its processing elements execute common operations concurrently and distributively. They are implemented as combinatorial circuits and exchange data via open collector bus lines. A method is presented to identify and to minimize the duration of an operation and therefore to increase the performance of the system. No hardware modifications are required.

  11. Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    -, - (2015). ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : price durations * long memory * multifractal models * realized volatility * Whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.189, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434201.pdf

  12. Duration of untreated psychiatry affecting white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia%精神病未治疗期对首发未服药精神分裂症脑白质完整性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 朱康顺; 王相兰; 张晋碚; 康庄; 国效峰; 韩自力; 赵靖平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of duration of untreated psychiatry (DUP) on the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. Methods The Chinese version of Nottingham Onset Schedule was used to assess the DUP of 39 first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. According to the median of DUP, the 39 patients were grouped into long-DUP group and short-DUP group. Diffusion weighted images of the 39 patients' whole brains were acquired with a Half-Fourier Acquired Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) sequence.After being preprocessed with DTI-studio and statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5), the fractional anisotropy (FA) images of the 2 groups were compared by two-sample t-test with SPM5 software. The differences of gender, age, education level and total scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores between the 2 groups were also detected. Results No significant difference was noted on gender, age, education level, PANSS scores between the 2 groups (P>0.05).Subjects of long-DUP group showed significantly reduced FA value in the right anterior cingulate fasciculus (x=8, y=40, z=24) and left prefrontal white matter thresholded (x=32, y=34, z=4) as compared with that of short-DUP group at a level of P<0.001 (uncorrected). Conclusion Extension of the duration of DUP will reduce the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia.%目的 探讨精神病未治疗期(DUP)对首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑白质完整性的影响.方法 应用汉化的诺丁汉发病症状量表评定39例首发未服药精神分裂症患者的DUP,以其中位数为界将患者分为长DUP组和短DUP组,同时比较两组患者的性别构成、年龄、受教育年限、阳性和阴性症状量表总分.采用自旋回波序列得到弥散张量磁共振成像资料,以DTI-Studi0软件和统计参数图软件(SPM5)对所得图像进行预处理,得到的分子

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980B-9 - Business reorganizations and employer withdrawals from multiemployer plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business reorganizations and employer...-9 Business reorganizations and employer withdrawals from multiemployer plans. The following... affected qualified beneficiaries in the context of business reorganizations and employer withdrawals...

  14. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  15. EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIEL CLAUDIU MURSA

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses the relationship between the education degree of the working force and employment. The recent studies show that the major causes of the contemporary unemployment constitute the absence of knowledge, aptitudes, qualifications supposed by the dynamics of the modern economic system. The work demonstrates that the education gathers a more and more important economic value because of the increase in the complexity of the productive process imposed by the necessity to provide a...

  16. The concept of employability

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald W.; Lindsay, Colin Dale

    2005-01-01

    The concept of ‘employability’ plays a crucial role in informing labour market policy in the UK, the EU and beyond. This paper analyses current and previous applications of the term and discusses its value as an exploratory concept and a framework for policy analysis. It then traces the development of the concept, discusses its role in current labour market and training strategies (with particular reference to the UK) and seeks to identify an approach to defining employability that can better...

  17. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Minh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students’ core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how differences in levels of competencies which are expected to outperform the job expectations and competencies possessed by ex-students, and any differences in...

  18. Protection against employment claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, R P; Pendrak, R F

    1998-01-01

    Risk managers already deal with a great many issues in today's complex, managed-care driven, healthcare environment. Now they must add expertise in handling ever more complicated employment issues. This article addresses areas risk managers need to both know and understand concerning this area of law, and some steps they can take to minimize loss or provide for insurance protection for any loss. PMID:10176547

  19. Exclusion, employment and opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Tony; Hills, John

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between employment, education, opportunity, social exclusion and poverty are central to current policy debates. Atkinson argues that the concepts of poverty, unemployment and social exclusion are closely related, but are not the same. People may be poor without being socially excluded, and vice versa. Unemployment may cause poverty, but this can be prevented. Equally, marginal jobs do not ensure social inclusion. Britton argues that convential economic analysis misses a key ...

  20. Employment without Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less work over more income and consumption. Lower work input to production can take many differnet forms, such as job sharing, lowering production efficiency, reduction in labor force, etc. In this light...

  1. Are Franchises Bad Employers?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cappelli; Monika Hamori

    2007-01-01

    Franchise jobs are often viewed as epitomizing a “low-road†employee-management approach characterized by high turnover and several practices that are deemed unsophisticated, such as low investment in training, deskilling of work, and little encouragement of employee involvement. Research on franchise operations suggests, however, that the basic operating principles and practices of franchises tend to be more sophisticated than those of equivalent independent operators. Might their employe...

  2. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  3. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Chládková; P. Escudero; S.C. Lipski

    2013-01-01

    In some languages (e.g. Czech), changes in vowel duration affect word meaning, while in others (e.g. Spanish) they do not. Yet for other languages (e.g. Dutch), the linguistic role of vowel duration remains unclear. To reveal whether Dutch represents vowel length in its phonology, we compared audito

  4. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... will not, by doing so, adversely affect wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed...: 104,500. Estimated Total Burden Hours: 469,004. Total Burden Cost (capital/startup): $1,752,700. Total Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): 0. The Department will summarize and/or include comments...

  5. 5 CFR 900.706 - Employment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Employer sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and (ix) Any other term... that screens out or tends to screen out handicapped persons or any class of handicapped persons in any... limit, segregate, or classify applicants or employees in any way that adversely affects...

  6. Employment Counseling and Organizational Ethical Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Employment counseling is commonly used in companies to assist employees with various personal and professional challenges that are confronted in the workplace. Such guidance could affect the degree to which employees believe a company proactively supports an ethical orientation; the purpose of this study was to explore this issue. A self-report…

  7. Outage rates and outage durations of opportunistic relaying systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzi-Velkov, Zoran; 10.1109/LCOMM.2010.02.091683

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying is a simple yet efficient cooperation scheme that achieves full diversity and preserves the spectral efficiency among the spatially distributed stations. However, the stations' mobility causes temporal correlation of the system's capacity outage events, which gives rise to its important second-order outage statistical parameters, such as the average outage rate (AOR) and the average outage duration (AOD). This letter presents exact analytical expressions for the AOR and the AOD of an opportunistic relaying system, which employs a mobile source and a mobile destination (without a direct path), and an arbitrary number of (fixed-gain amplify-and-forward or decode-and-forward) mobile relays in Rayleigh fading environment.

  8. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  9. Incapacity benefits and employment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Jonathan Michael; Snower, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the employment implications of allowing people the opportunity of using a portion of their incapacity benefits to provide employment vouchers for employers that hire them. The analysis indicates that introducing this policy could increase employment, raise the incomes of incapacity benefit recipients, and reduce employers? labor costs. The analysis explicitly derives the optimal voucher, i.e. the voucher that maximizes employment at no extra budgetary cost. This voucher is ...

  10. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  11. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. PMID:22622096

  12. EVIDENCE ON EMPLOYMENT RATE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia VĂCEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a causal relationship between employment rate and economic growth for European Union countries, in general, and produces a structural assessment of employment on the background of labour market dynamics. Economic growth is the key in economic theory and the main source of well-being and quality of life. Since the 2008 financial crisis, most European countries have experienced job shortage and unemployment problem, but today's European economic outlook is strengthening on the bases of a GDP growing momentum. Empirical data shows, regardless the GDP's moderate positive trend, the employment rate did not increase enough. Given this, the present analysis address the question: to what extent the employment rate is affected by economic growth?

  13. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  14. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer, employee, and employ. 779.19 Section 779.19 Labor... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.19 Employer, employee, and employ. The Act's major provisions impose certain requirements and prohibitions on every “employer” subject...

  15. EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the Lisbon Agenda, the Romanian Government drew up the National Programme for Reform for 2007-2010, which established national priorities, and ways and tools to achieve economic reform and growth. Transition in Romania implied a complex and extensive system of regulations and institutions for stimulating employment and creating a flexible system of social protection. The new regulations were focused on harmonisation with the Community labour law. Increasing investment in human capital is essential for a competitive and dynamic economy. Besides, labour market policies were formulated for correcting labour market imbalances.

  16. Checking Timed Automata for Linear Duration Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2000-01-01

    It is proved in this paper that checking a timed automaton M with respect to a linear duration property D can be done by investigating only the integral timed states of M. An equivalence relation is introduced in this paper to divide the infinite number of integral timed states into finite number of equivalence classes. Based on this, a method is proposed for checking whether M satisfies D. In some cases, the number of equivalence classes is too large for a computer to manipulate. A technique for reducing the search-space for checking linear duration property is also described. This technique is more suitable for the case in this paper than those in the literature because most of those techniques are designed for reachability analysis.

  17. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  18. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEM BARDHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluviometric deficit. For this, the dependencies of potential evapotranspiration and rainfall, respectively, over time are determined by applying the regression analysis, after the data on sun radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation are collected from 56 meteorological stations throughout Albania and over six years. All of these functions are plotted in individual graphs and the duration of pluviometric deficit is determined by equalizing the function of potential evapotranspiration over time with the respective function of rainfall over time. The results are going to be used to classify the Albanian climate on humidity and aridity scales.

  19. Dependent self-employment: workers between employment and self-employment in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Mühlberger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    "Analysing the British Labour Force Survey, we highlight that dependent self-employed workers constitute a group distinct from both employees and independent self-employed workers in the labour market group. Dependent self-employed workers show characteristics of a more volatile labour market attachment than employed or self-employed workers. We provide empirical evidence that dependent self-employed workers are rather pushed than pulled into this labour market status, making dependent self-e...

  20. How much variation in the moult duration of passerines can be explained by the growth rate of tail feathers?

    OpenAIRE

    De la Hera, I., Unanue, A., Aguirre, I.; Schaper, S.V.; Diaz, J.A.; J. Pérez-Tris; Bensch, S.; J.L. Tellería

    2011-01-01

    In birds, molt duration is an important parameter that can affect plumage functionality and consequently the fitness of individuals. However, our knowledge about the factors affecting variation in molt speed is scarce, mostly because of the methodological difficulties of studying avian molt. In this study, we used a ptilochronology-based approach to estimate the growth rate at which tail feathers were produced during molt, and hence to shed light on the relationship between molt duration and ...

  1. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  2. From Employment to Employability: the Role of Active Labor Market Policies in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Barkovic

    2009-01-01

    High unemployment represents striking economic failures that are costly not only to individuals directly affected, but also to the economy and society as a whole. Measures of Active Labor Market Policy (ALMP) - such as training, wage subsidies, public employment measures, and job search assistance - are widely used in European countries to combat unemployment. Croatia, as an EU candidate country, also has a long tradition in ALMP since rising employment is continuously at the top of the Gover...

  3. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  4. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  5. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  6. Analysis of dependence among size, rate and duration in internet flows

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Cheolwoo; Marron, J S; Jeffay, Kevin; Smith, F Donelson; 10.1214/09-AOAS268

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine rigorously the evidence for dependence among data size, transfer rate and duration in Internet flows. We emphasize two statistical approaches for studying dependence, including Pearson's correlation coefficient and the extremal dependence analysis method. We apply these methods to large data sets of packet traces from three networks. Our major results show that Pearson's correlation coefficients between size and duration are much smaller than one might expect. We also find that correlation coefficients between size and rate are generally small and can be strongly affected by applying thresholds to size or duration. Based on Transmission Control Protocol connection startup mechanisms, we argue that thresholds on size should be more useful than thresholds on duration in the analysis of correlations. Using extremal dependence analysis, we draw a similar conclusion, finding remarkable independence for extremal values of size and rate.

  7. The True Durations of Starbursts: HST Observations of Three Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Cannon, John M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ~200 - ~400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales often derived observationally with the longer timescales derived from dynamical arguments. If these three starbursts are typical of starbursts in dwarf galaxies, then the short timescales (3 - 10 Myr) associated with starbursts in previous studies are best understood as "flickering" events which are simply small components of the larger starburst. In this sample of three nearby dwarfs, the bursts are not localized events. All three systems show bursting levels of star formation in regions of both high and low stellar densit...

  8. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and sheltered employment. This chapter describes the various instruments supporting employment of disabled people applied in the EU Member States and the USA. Their effectiveness is assessed, based on...

  9. Employment patterns in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nickell, Stephen; Nunziata, Luca

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of labour demand and the determinants of employment rates across the OECD. We find: (i) labour demand adjusts less rapidly when employment protection is more strict and union density is higher; (ii) there is no evidence that overall job turnover is influenced by employment protection; (iii) union density and coverage are negatively related to employment/population ratios, although this effect can be entirely offset by coordination; (iv) strict employment protec...

  10. Rural employment in industrialised countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, John Marshall; Bollman, Ray D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the recent changes in rural employment in the OECD countries, highlighting the growing role of employment in services and, in some cases, manufacturing activity. In many, but not all, rural areas the secular decline in agricultural employment has been more than counterbalanced by growing employment in these other sectors. However, the diversity of employment growth within and between rural areas is stressed, as are the implications of this diversity for policy. A range of ...

  11. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  12. The Impact of Employment of Foreign Workers: Local Employability and Trade Union Roles in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of foreign workers has received increase media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and consequences of employment of foreign workers in Malaysia. Introduction of significant changes in recruitment phenomenon has ended in painful and traumatic atmosphere which barely acceptable by local workforce in Malaysia. This conceptual paper can be derived from the field of industrial relations which play a significant role in employment of foreign workers. The article reports on the preliminary findings on employment status of local workforce and trade union rights affected by employment of foreign workers. In addition, the research makes a number of recommendations, including the need for further development on reducing the employment of foreign workers and more refined targeting of vulnerable foreign workers linked with labor legislations.

  13. How long depends on how fast--perceived flicker dilates subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Herbst

    Full Text Available How do humans perceive the passage of time and the duration of events without a dedicated sensory system for timing? Previous studies have demonstrated that when a stimulus changes over time, its duration is subjectively dilated, indicating that duration judgments are based on the number of changes within an interval. In this study, we tested predictions derived from three different accounts describing the relation between a changing stimulus and its subjective duration as either based on (1 the objective rate of changes of the stimulus, (2 the perceived saliency of the changes, or (3 the neural energy expended in processing the stimulus. We used visual stimuli flickering at different frequencies (4-166 Hz to study how the number of changes affects subjective duration. To this end, we assessed the subjective duration of these stimuli and measured participants' behavioral flicker fusion threshold (the highest frequency perceived as flicker, as well as their threshold for a frequency-specific neural response to the flicker using EEG. We found that only consciously perceived flicker dilated perceived duration, such that a 2 s long stimulus flickering at 4 Hz was perceived as lasting as long as a 2.7 s steady stimulus. This effect was most pronounced at the slowest flicker frequencies, at which participants reported the most consistent flicker perception. Flicker frequencies higher than the flicker fusion threshold did not affect perceived duration at all, even if they evoked a significant frequency-specific neural response. In sum, our findings indicate that time perception in the peri-second range is driven by the subjective saliency of the stimulus' temporal features rather than the objective rate of stimulus changes or the neural response to the changes.

  14. Transports Regulators of Networks with Junctions Detected by Durations Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study advocates a mathematical framework of ''transport relations'' on a network. They single out a subset of ''traffic states'' described by time, duration, position and other traffic attributes (called ''monads'' for short). Duration evolutions are non-negative, decreasing toward zero for incoming durations, increasing from zero for outgoing durations, allowing the detection of ''junction states'' defined as traffic states with ''zero duration''. A ''junction relation'' (crossroads, sy...

  15. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  16. Working multiple jobs over a day or a week: Short-term effects on sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Lombardi, David A; Willetts, Joanna L

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the employed population in the United States works in multiple jobs. They are more likely to work long hours and in nonstandard work schedules, factors known to impact sleep duration and quality, and increase the risk of injury. In this study we used multivariate regression models to compare the duration of sleep in a 24-hour period between workers working in multiple jobs (MJHs) with single job holders (SJHs) controlling for other work schedule and demographic factors. We used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics US American Time Use Survey (ATUS) pooled over a 9-year period (2003-2011). We found that MJHs had significantly reduced sleep duration compared with SJHs due to a number of independent factors, such as working longer hours and more often late at night. Male MJHs, working in their primary job or more than one job on the diary day, also had significantly shorter sleep durations (up to 40 minutes less on a weekend day) than male SJHs, even after controlling for all other factors. Therefore, duration of work hours, time of day working and duration of travel for work may not be the only factors to consider when understanding if male MJHs are able to fit in enough recuperative rest from their busy schedule. Work at night had the greatest impact on sleep duration for females, reducing sleep time by almost an hour compared with females who did not work at night. We also hypothesize that the high frequency or fragmentation of non-leisure activities (e.g. work and travel for work) throughout the day and between jobs may have an additional impact on the duration and quality of sleep for MJHs. PMID:27092404

  17. Duration of pneumoperitoneum in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duration of pneumoperitoneum was examined in 12 adult and 4 immature dogs. Four dogs were given intra-abdominal injections of 110 ml of air/kg (group 1), 4 were given 55 ml of air/kg (group 2), and 4 were given 27.5 ml of air/kg (group 3). Also, 4 immature dogs were given 110 ml of air/kg (group 4). The number of days from creation of pneumoperitoneum until the radiographic absence of pneumoperitoneum averaged 25 days for group 1, 14 days for group 2, 9 days for group 3, and 17 days for group 4

  18. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  19. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  20. The Employment Impact of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Paul W.; Register, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the macro employment effects of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act as amended. The results indicate mixed effects on the legislation on older workers and workers of traditional retirement age.

  1. Relationships among timing of moult, moult duration and feather mass in long-distance migratory passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pérez-Tris, J.; Tellería, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Moult is a costly but necessary process in avian life, which displays two main temporal patterns within the annual cycle of birds (summer and winter moult). Timing of moult can affect its duration and consequently the amount of material invested in feathers, which could have a considerable influence

  2. Effects of Excerpt Tempo and Duration on Musicians' Ratings of High-Level Piano Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel; Ryan, Charlene; Campbell, Louise; Deek, Patricia; Lemire, Renata; Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how judgments of solo performances recorded at an international piano competition might be affected by excerpt duration (20 versus 60 seconds) and tempo (slow versus fast). Musicians rated performances on six test items. Results indicated that piano majors rated slow excerpts higher than they rated fast…

  3. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  4. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  5. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  6. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  7. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  8. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP About ODEP ... State Policy Youth in Transition Publications for Order Disability Statistics August 2016 Disability Employment Statistics Ages 16 ...

  9. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards of...

  10. Employability: wat beweegt de werknemer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luken, T.

    2003-01-01

    Dit artikel biedt een samenvatting van twee onderzoeksrapporten: een algemeen literatuuronderzoek rond employability en interviews bij een aantal bedrijven in de Metalektro. Hoofdvragen waren: hoe staat het met de employability? En hoe kan deze bevorderd worden?

  11. Single-employer pension plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  12. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  13. Employer Training Needs in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Woodbury

    1992-01-01

    The Survey of Employer Training Needs in Hawaii was undertaken to gather information and data on the needs and preferences of employers in Hawaii regarding government assistance with training. The need for such information was created by passage of Act 68, Session Laws of Hawaii 1991, which created the Hawaii Employment and Training Fund "to assist employers and workers through innovative programs to include, but not be limited to, business-specific training, upgrade training, new occupationa...

  14. Employability of nursing care graduates:

    OpenAIRE

    Donik Barbara; Pajnkihar Majda; Bernik Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students and employers point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between th...

  15. Ethnic minority self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, ethnic minority groups are over-represented in self-employment compared with the majority community. The kind of work done by minority entrepreneurs can therefore be an important driver of the economic well-being of their ethnic group. Furthermore, growing the self-employment sector is a policy objective for many governments, which see it as a source of innovation, economic growth, and employment. While self-employment might offer economic opportunities to minority groups, ...

  16. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise. PMID:26957934

  17. Multinationals, Foreign Market Entry, and Employment Security

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Daniel; Bachmann, Ronald; Stiebale, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We analyze how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects employment security. Using administrative micro data for German employees allows us to follow individual workers over time. FDI intensity is measured at the sectoral level, which enables us to take into account direct as well as indirect (spillover) effects of FDI. Furthermore, we are able to account for both inward and outward FDI and to distinguish between FDI at the intensive margin and FDI at the extensive margin in the form of Greenf...

  18. Human resource management in triangular employment relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Fontinha, Ana Rita Ramos

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the triangular employment relationships of agency workers and outsourced workers. In particular, the aim was to investigate the relationship between employees’ perceptions and attributions of human resource management (HRM) practices and their dual affective organisational commitment, i.e., their commitment towards both the agency/outsourcer and the client organisation. We developed three empirical studies. In the first study, we found that commitmentfocused HRM att...

  19. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  20. The role of the murine motor cortex in action duration and order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H Yin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the contributions of the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2 to action differentiation and sequencing in mice. In Experiment 1, mice with excitotoxic lesions of M1 and M2 and sham controls learned to emit lever presses exceeding a criterion duration to earn food rewards. Duration differentiation obeys Weber’s law—i.e. the spread of the distribution is proportional to the average duration. M1 or M2 lesions did not affect differentiation of press durations. Experiment 2 studied the effects of the same lesions on the learning of a simple sequence consisting of two lever presses, one distal, and the other proximal, to the reward. M2 lesions impaired the acquisition and reversal of this sequence. M1 lesions, by contrast, had no effect on acquisition but impaired sequence reversal. Moreover, duration of the first press in a sequence was on average twice as long as that of the second press, though this ratio was not affected by motor cortex lesions. Together these results offer a first glimpse into the cortical substrates of instrumental differentiation in mice.

  1. Factors contributing to the treatment duration of diphenylcyclopropenone immunotherapy for periungual warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Joung Soo

    2016-03-01

    Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) immunotherapy has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of warts, especially periungual warts for which destructive techniques are limited. However, factors affecting the duration of treatment of periungual warts have not been studied. A total of 61 patients with periungual warts who were completely cured with DPCP immunotherapy were included in this study. Age, sex, disease duration, location (fingernail, toenail, or both), number of warts, diameter of the largest wart, application number for sensitization and two types of sensitization reactions, erythema and blister index (EBI), and pruritus index were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find correlations of these variables with the treatment duration. Of the nine variables, application number for sensitization (regression coefficient = 3.251 and 2.428, respectively) and EBI (regression coefficient = -9.950 and -9.694, respectively) were independent factors significantly affecting both the total duration of treatment and the duration of treatment after sensitization (p < 0.05, respectively). The sample size was limited. A shorter sensitization period and more severe EBI of the sensitization reaction contribute to a shorter time required for a complete cure in the treatment of periungual warts with DPCP immunotherapy. PMID:26556040

  2. THE TRUE DURATIONS OF STARBURSTS: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THREE NEARBY DWARF STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ∼200 to ∼400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales often derived observationally with the longer timescales derived from dynamical arguments. If these three starbursts are typical of starbursts in dwarf galaxies, then the short timescales (3-10 Myr) associated with starbursts in previous studies are best understood as 'flickering' events which are simply small components of the larger starburst. In this sample of three nearby dwarfs, the bursts are not localized events. All three systems show bursting levels of star formation in regions of both high and low stellar density. The enhanced star formation moves around the galaxy during the bursts and covers a large fraction of the area of the galaxy. These massive, long-duration bursts can significantly affect the structure, dynamics, and chemical evolution of the host galaxy and can be the progenitors of 'superwinds' that drive much of the recently chemically enriched material from the galaxy into the intergalactic medium.

  3. A Longitudinal Investigation of Employment among Low-Income Youth: Patterns, Predictors, and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtell, Kelly M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on previous research linking patterns of adolescent employment--defined in terms of duration and intensity--to educational and occupational outcomes later in life (Staff & Mortimer, 2008), the present study (a) examined positive social behavior and academic variables as longitudinal predictors of patterns of adolescent employment during…

  4. The roles of pitch and duration in sentence accent of Chinese discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Jianjun; YANG Yufang; LU Shinan

    2012-01-01

    Relying on a corpus of thirty narrative discourses, the roles of pitch and duration of prosodic words in sentence accent were studied in discourse context. At first, the pitch was normalized. Then according to the pitch range, the sentence and prosodic word were classified into three ranks of strengthened, normal and weakened respectively. In the same time the sentence accent was classified into two levels of primary and secondary by perceptual evaluation. The results showed that the relative pitch range of prosodic words in opposition to sentence contributed dominantly to sentence accent. Furthermore, the roles of pitch and duration in sentence accent were affected interactively by the rank of sentence and prosodic words. In normal prosodic words, primary sentence accents were realized by the mutual performance of pitch and duration while secondary sentence accents mainly depended on the variation of pitch. In strengthened prosodic words, the role of duration in sentence accent was more significant when the pitch range of the sentence was more compressed. Finally, it was found that the correlation between pitch and duration was influenced primarily by the strength of prosodic words, and in weakened, normal and strengthened prosodic words, the correlations between pitch and duration were positive, null, and negative respectively.

  5. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  6. Measuring precarious employment in times of crisis: the revised Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vives

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The revised version of the EPRES demonstrated good metric properties and improved sensitivity to worker vulnerability and employment instability among permanent workers. Furthermore, it was sensitive to increased levels of precariousness in some dimensions despite decreases in others, demonstrating responsiveness to the context of the economic crisis affecting the Spanish labour market.

  7. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1 Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥ 7 hrs and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (< 7 hrs groups. Student′s unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05 existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  8. Interspecific Variations in Duration of Tail Regression in Two Tropical Anurans

    OpenAIRE

    Cuckoo Mahapatra; Pravati Kumari Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Anurans breed in an array of habitats and hence employ a variety of evolutionary strategies to adapt to the variable conditions. Particularly, since they undergo a larval phase they develop mechanisms to overcome unfavourable conditions like desiccation, extreme temperatures, and so forth. The anurans, Polypedates maculatus and Duttaphrynus melanostictus, show noticeable variation in the duration of larval period and tadpole tail regression. D. melanostictus breeds throughout the year and hen...

  9. Clinical-Pharmacokinetic Aspects of Prolonged Effect Duration as Illustrated by β2-Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenborg, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Regularity is a key element of maintenance drug treatment; compliance is crucial for treatment success. Once- or twice-daily intake of a drug is always easier to comply with than regimens requiring more frequent dosing. Bronchodilating treatment was used as an example to illustrate how sustained duration of effect can be achieved by two different approaches: oral administration of the terbutaline prodrug bambuterol and inhalation of formoterol. Bioanalytical methods were employed to monitor t...

  10. Effect of gender and call duration on customer satisfaction in call center big data

    OpenAIRE

    Quim Llimona; Jordi Luque; Xabier Anguera; Zoraida Hidalgo; Souneil Park; Nuria Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Customer center call data is typically collected by organizations and corporations in order to improve customer experience through the analysis of such call data. In this paper, we report our findings when analysing more than 26 thousand calls to the call centers of a large corporation in a Latin American country. We focus on the impact of gender and call duration on selfreported customer satisfaction. Speech-based gender detection technology is employed to automatically detect the gender...

  11. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers...

  12. Book review: The Oxford handbook of offshoring and global employment

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    "The Oxford Handbook of Offshoring and Global Employment." Ashok Bardhan, Dwight M Jafee & Cynthia A Kroll (eds.). Oxford University Press. May 2013. --- How do globalization, economic growth and technological developments interact to impact employment? This Handbook brings together eminent authors from a wide range of countries to assess how global economic changes have affected employment opportunities. Chapters cover both manufacturing and services sectors, and also address policy issu...

  13. The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jody L

    2011-01-01

    Transgender residents of Massachusetts have reported experiencing discrimination in employment. Loss of employment due to anti-transgender bias often means lost wages, lost health insurance coverage, and housing instability. Therefore, employment discrimination might affect the budget of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in several ways: reduced income tax revenues, higher public assistance expenditures, and other costs. For instance, if a worker is fired for being transgender and loses wages...

  14. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  15. Employed Mothers: Job Satisfaction and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore-Guinn, Ada L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how certain demographic variables affect job satisfaction and self-esteem in a sample of 138 employed mothers from a major U.S. city. Results indicate that age, race, and employment status were significantly related to job satisfaction and self-esteem, whereas time, education level, number and age of children, and marital status were not.…

  16. Letter: The Athena SWAN Charter and Good Employment Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ashdown

    2008-01-01

    Both men and women benefit from good employment practice; however, women in particular are adversely affected by bad practice. UCL was one of ten founder members of the Athena SWAN Charter when it was launched in June 2005 to celebrate excellence, and to share good practice in the employment of women in academic science, engineering and technology, especially at senior levels.

  17. 39 CFR 3000.735-104 - Outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination that the outside employment is not prohibited by law or regulation, including 5 CFR part 2635 or 5 CFR part 5601. (c) An employee who has been assigned to a particular matter which affects the financial interests of a prospective employer and who is required, in accordance with 5 CFR 2635.604(a),...

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DURATION OF BOTTEL FEEDING AND OCCLUSION IN PRIMARY DENTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Anisyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottle-feeding period more than one year may influence the occlusion and will disturb the formation of strong muscle jaw. This effect will give an adverse result to permanent teeth. The type of malocclusion resulted from bad oral habit, may vary, depends on the type of oral habit, intensity, duration and frequency. The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between duration of bottle-feeding and occlusion of primary teeth. The following occlusion relationships examined were overbite, overjet, canine relationship, and terminal plane. The design of this was cross-sectional analytic, which was carried out in pre-school children aged between 3-5 years old. The duration of bottle-feeding was categorized in 24 months, 25-36 months, 37-48 months, and >48 months. Overbite and overjet were measured from the cast using a digital caliper. Canine relationship and terminal plane were also measured from the cast. The result of Pearson Correlation test revealed a weak relationship between the period of bottle-feeding and overbite (0,329 and overjet (r=0,372, whereas the result of Chi-Square test, used to investigate the correlation between canine (r=0,111 and terminal plane was not statistically significant (r=0,170. Anova test was carried out to observe the difference of overbite and overjet affected by duration of bottle-feeding. The result demonstrated an increase of overbite and overjet if duration of bottle-feeding was prolonged. Tukey HSD test result on bottle-feeding duration and overbite shows significant differences between group of ≤ 24 months, 25-36 months, and group of 37-48 months. Meanwhile Tukey HSD test result on bottle-feeding duration on overjet shows significant differences between group of ≤ 24 months, group of 37-48 months, and >48 months duration.

  19. Respiratory frequency is strongly associated with perceived exertion during time trials of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Andrea; Marcora, Samuele M; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide further insight into the link between respiratory frequency (fR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), the present study investigated the effect of exercise duration on perceptual and physiological responses during self-paced exercise. Nine well-trained competitive male cyclists (23 ± 3 years) performed a preliminary incremental ramp test and three randomised self-paced time trials (TTs) differing in exercise duration (10, 20 and 30 min). Both RPE and fR increased almost linearly over time, with a less-pronounced rate of increase when absolute exercise duration increased. However, when values were expressed against relative exercise duration, no between-trial differences were found in either RPE or fR. Conversely, between-trial differences were observed for minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]E), [Formula: see text]O2 and heart rate (HR), when values were expressed against relative exercise duration. Unlike the relationship between RPE and both [Formula: see text]E and HR, the relationship between RPE and fR was not affected by exercise duration. In conclusion, fR, but not [Formula: see text]E, HR or [Formula: see text]O2, shows a strong relationship to RPE and a similar time course, irrespective of exercise duration. These findings indicate that fR is the best correlate of RPE during self-paced exercise, at least among the parameters and for the range of durations herein investigated. PMID:26503587

  20. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  1. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  2. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth. It...... reviews the theoretical rationale, presents the growth patterns in GSDP and employment, and estimates the employment-productivity components of GSDP growth per capita using the Shapley decomposition analysis. The results show that Punjab has slipped in terms of GSDP per capita over this period but...... structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out to be...

  3. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichao Zhang; Kangkang He; Sheng Dong; Jibiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing), for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental d...

  4. ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS OF EMPLOYERS, EMPLOYEES AND PARENTS ABOUT THE EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    STANKOVA Tanja; Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2010-01-01

    The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights in all developed countries around the world. The employment, actually the right to work of persons with disability is the final phase of the long and complex process of their rehabilitation that affects the possibility of their integration in the community.The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of employment of people with autism, based on the attitudes and opinions of employers, employees and parents of t...

  5. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  6. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  7. Duration of Load Effects on Different Sized Timber Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report submitted to EC in connection with a project on duration of load. The report contains the results of the experimental work on duration of load for beams and notched beams of LVL and of glulam. The report also contains experimental results from duration of load experiments...

  8. Beyond Lifetime Employment: Re-fabricating Japan's Employment Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Matanle, P

    2006-01-01

    Japanese working cultures have for many decades been dominated by the so-called system of lifetime employment in large organizations. Although the proportion of the working population employed under this system is often in dispute,1 it dominates the employment horizon. Moreover, the system radiates out beyond the boundaries of the Japanese firm. For example, it is the system to which the secondary and higher education systems are geared and towards which Japan's most academically successful s...

  9. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Gao; Lunqu Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on ...

  10. How Do Intensity and Duration of Rehabilitation Services Affect Outcomes from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2016-01-01

    treatments were estimated per discipline using a structured interview administered to patients and/ or caregivers at 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FIM, Glasgow Outcome Scale- Extended, Disability Rating Scale, Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective, Perceived Quality of Life, SF-12......, Brief Symptom Inventory-18 item version. RESULTS: Despite identical inclusion criteria, patient severity on admission was greater at the DK site. After adjustment for patient/ injury characteristics, there were no site differences in either functional or emotional outcome at 12 months. Significantly...... dose with extent of early disability suggests that dose was driven by unmeasured factors reflecting need for services. Improved measures of injury-related factors driving treatment allocation are needed to model the independent effects of treatment on outcomes....

  11. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: duration of its cell cycle and phases at growth rates affected by light intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Umysová, Dáša; Hlavová, Monika; Kawano, S.; Zachleder, Vilém; Čížková, Mária

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2011), s. 75-86. ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200614; GA ČR GA525/09/0102; GA ČR GA204/09/0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Cell division timing * Cell cycle phases * Chlamydomonas Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2011

  12. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  13. Dauer geringfügiger Beschäftigungen (Duration of “marginal“ part-time jobs)

    OpenAIRE

    Jungbauer-Gans, Monika; Hönisch, Petra

    1998-01-01

    "On the basis of both labour market policy and social policy considerations, the development and composition of the group of 'marginal' part-time workers is discussed again and again. Not only the volume of these employment relationships is important for assessing the relevance of marginal part-time employment, but also their particular duration. After summarising the results of available studies on the number of marginal part-time workers this report therefore uses the data of the socio-econ...

  14. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, J; Vives, A; Amable, M; Vanroelen, C; Tarafa, G; Muntaner, C

    2014-01-01

    Employment precariousness is a social determinant that affects the health of workers, families, and communities. Its recent popularity has been spearheaded by three main developments: the surge in "flexible employment" and its associated erosion of workers' employment and working conditions since the mid-1970s; the growing interest in social determinants of health, including employment conditions; and the availability of new data and information systems. This article identifies the historical, economic, and political factors that link precarious employment to health and health equity; reviews concepts, models, instruments, and findings on precarious employment and health inequalities; summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of this literature; and highlights substantive and methodological challenges that need to be addressed. We identify two crucial future aims: to provide a compelling research program that expands our understanding of employment precariousness and to develop and evaluate policy programs that effectively put an end to its health-related impacts. PMID:24641559

  15. Intervention impact on depression product appraisal and purchasing behavior by employers: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rost, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Donna; Xu, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Background Employers can purchase high quality depression products that provide the type, intensity and duration of depression care management shown to improve work outcomes sufficiently for many employers to achieve a return on investment. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to test an intervention to encourage employers to purchase a high quality depression product for their workforce. Methods Twenty nine organizations recruited senior health benefit professional members rep...

  16. THE DURATION OF RIGHTS CONFERRED BY COPYRIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The duration of copyright protection has been a controversial issue. And yet never completed. It was and is the key issue of copyright, the same as are those concerning the recognition of their nature and content. If the first law to protect a new creation, gave the exclusive right for the author as long as a year, today its duration is, basically the whole life of the author’s plus 70 years for the heirs. Some argue that it is unwise. Others that should not be as such at all. In reality, the copyright in the widest sense of the term of copyright for the purposes of law complex that regulates the relations between the author with his work and of the relations between the authors and others on his work, this right never ceases. The oldest sculpture (Venus Wilfredo, paintings of Ardeche, Vezere and Altamira, even if you do not know who created them, will belong forever, not just in the consciousness of humanity as a whole, but also according to unwritten rules of law before the law was created by humans, to whose who created them. Even if you do not know who created them and say that they belong to the universal culture. As everyone’s works that were created right after the rules of law were created by humans, but before the recognition of copyright by special laws, will belong forever to the universal culture as well. As for the right created by and after recognizing and codifying copyright notice that he is trying to harmonize the interests of authors and those of the public and to make peace between the author with his audience in a more general interest, and the solution for reconciliation and / or harmonization was limiting the length of some of the attributes of copyright. A solution that makes copyright law without a right to have the benefits after a while, that every owner has of his property. Furthermore, the link between the author and his work remains eternal because none other than the author may not claim ever to be the author of

  17. Exploration Of The Dendritic Cell Algorithm Using The Duration Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    As one of the newest members in Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) has been applied to a range of problems. These applications mainly belong to the field of anomaly detection. However, real-time detection, a new challenge to anomaly detection, requires improvement on the real-time capability of the DCA. To assess such capability, formal methods in the research of rea-time systems can be employed. The findings of the assessment can provide guideline for the future development of the algorithm. Therefore, in this paper we use an interval logic based method, named the Duration Calculus (DC), to specify a simplified single-cell model of the DCA. Based on the DC specifications with further induction, we find that each individual cell in the DCA can perform its function as a detector in real-time. Since the DCA can be seen as many such cells operating in parallel, it is potentially capable of performing real-time detection. However, the analysis process of the standard DCA constrict...

  18. Suprasegmental Duration Modelling with Elastic Constraints in Automatic Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Laurence; Isard, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a method of integrating a model of suprasegmental duration with a HMM-based recogniser at the post-processing level is presented. The N-Best utterance output is rescored using a suitable linear combination of acoustic log-likelihood (provided by a set of tied-state triphone HMMs) and duration log-likelihood (provided by a set of durational models). The durational model used in the post-processing imposes syllable-level elastic constraints on the durational behaviour of speech se...

  19. Protective clothing ensembles and physical employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Havenith, George

    2016-06-01

    Physical employment standards (PESs) exist for certain occupational groups that also require the use of protective clothing ensembles (PCEs) during their normal work. This review addresses whether these current PESs appropriately incorporate the physiological burden associated with wearing PCEs during respective tasks. Metabolic heat production increases because of wearing PCE; this increase is greater than that because of simply the weight of the clothing and can vary 2-fold among individuals. This variation negates a simple adjustment to the PES for the effect of the clothing on metabolic rate. As a result, PES testing that only simulates the weight of the clothing and protective equipment does not adequately accommodate this effect. The physiological heat strain associated with the use of PCEs is also not addressed with current PESs. Typically the selection tests of a PES lasts less than 20 min, whereas the requirement for use of PCE in the workplace may approach 1 h before cooling strategies can be employed. One option that might be considered is to construct a heat stress test that requires new recruits and incumbents to work for a predetermined duration while exposed to a warm environmental temperature while wearing the PCE. PMID:27277562

  20. Geostatistical prediction of flow-duration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, A.; Castellarin, A.; Brath, A.

    2013-11-01

    We present in this study an adaptation of Topological kriging (or Top-kriging), which makes the geostatistical procedure capable of predicting flow-duration curves (FDCs) in ungauged catchments. Previous applications of Top-kriging mainly focused on the prediction of point streamflow indices (e.g. flood quantiles, low-flow indices, etc.). In this study Top-kriging is used to predict FDCs in ungauged sites as a weighted average of standardised empirical FDCs through the traditional linear-weighting scheme of kriging methods. Our study focuses on the prediction of period-of-record FDCs for 18 unregulated catchments located in Central Italy, for which daily streamflow series with length from 5 to 40 yr are available, together with information on climate referring to the same time-span of each daily streamflow sequence. Empirical FDCs are standardised by a reference streamflow value (i.e. mean annual flow, or mean annual precipitation times the catchment drainage area) and the overall deviation of the curves from this reference value is then used for expressing the hydrological similarity between catchments and for deriving the geostatistical weights. We performed an extensive leave-one-out cross-validation to quantify the accuracy of the proposed technique, and to compare it to traditional regionalisation models that were recently developed for the same study region. The cross-validation points out that Top-kriging is a reliable approach for predicting FDCs, which can significantly outperform traditional regional models in ungauged basins.

  1. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  2. Employability und WerkerInnen

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Diese qualitative Studie untersucht das Employabilitykonzept am Beispiel von Werkern eines deutschen Werkes eines deutschen Automobilherstellers. Ihre Wahrnehmung des Konzepts Employability und die Hintergründe dieser Wahrnehmung sind im Fokus. Einem triangulativen Ansatz folgend wird weiterhin die Perspektive betrieblicher Vertreter auf das Konzept Employability erhoben. Es werden zudem betriebliche Prozesse und Strukturen erhoben, die als bedeutsam für auf Employability bezogene Wahrnehmung...

  3. Wage Bargaining and Employer Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Falch, Torberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares union wage bargaining outcomes across different types of employers. Five different employer objectives are discussed; profit–, welfare– and output maximization, and two specifications of a Leviathan. The model shows that the ordering of the union wage level across employer types depends on the functional form of product demand. With constant elasticity of product demand, the wage tends to be lowest in the output maximization case, while with a linear product demand, the wa...

  4. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Šlaus; Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of populati...

  5. Should firms employ personalized pricing?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments in information technology (IT) have enabled firms to employ personalized pricing. Should all firms employ personalized pricing even though the adaptation costs of such pricing strategies are not high? This paper theoretically demonstrates a situation in which all firms do not always employ personalized pricing even though the fixed costs to do so is zero. The model is based on those of Thisse and Vives (1988) and Shaffer and Zhang (2002). Our model incorporates the fac...

  6. Unions and Equal Employment Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. Leonard

    1984-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in the growth of minority and female employment between union and non-union manufacturing plants in California during the late 1970's, In this sector, unionized plants do not exhibit anymore gross employment discrimination than do nonunion plants against black or Hispanic men, or against black or white women, despite ther ecessions of the 1970's that displaced low seniority workers. Black males actually enjoy faster growth of employment share in unionized plant...

  7. Illegal Drug Use and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between employment and the use of marijuana and cocaine for males in National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 1984 and 1988. Previous studies yielding mixed evidence may have inadequately accounted for the simultaneity between drug consumption and employment. I implement an instrumental variable procedure that identifies drug use with variables that are empirically unrelated to employment, including the regional cocaine price and a state marij...

  8. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  9. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  10. Response-Stimulus Interval Duration Modulates Interference Effects in the Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Galer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Stroop task, incongruent stimuli (e.g. “red” printed in blue induce a robust interference effect. The impact of both the changes in the duration of the interval between the subject’s response and the next stimulus (RSI and the development from childhood to adulthood on the size of the interference have not been systematically studied. We have therefore tested the modulation of within-task RSI (from 1000 to 5000 ms on the interference effect in 8–10 years old children and young adults. Results disclose a stronger interference effect for the shortest RSI duration (1000 ms in both adults and children, indicating more effective inhibitory processses for longer RSI durations. Moreover, similar interference effect were found between children and adults suggesting that both groups are similarly affected by interference. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibitory processes require a certain amount of time to develop. 

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  12. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  13. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  14. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems that the...... employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over...

  15. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Volkov; Kelly J. Rohan; Yousufi, Samina M.; Minh-Chau Nguyen; Jackson, Michael A.; Thrower, Courtney M.; Stiller, John W.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans repor...

  16. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  17. What Can the Duration of Discovered Cartels Tell Us About the Duration of Cartels?

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph E. Harrington, Jr.; Yanhao Wei

    2014-01-01

    There are many data sets based on the population of discovered cartels and it is from this data that average cartel duration and the annual probability of cartel death are estimated. It is recognized, however, that these estimates could be biased because the population of discovered cartels may not be a representative sample of the population of cartels. This paper constructs a simple birth-death-discovery process to theoretically investigate what it is we can learn about cartels from data on...

  18. Maintenance Duration Estimate for a DEMO Fusion Power Plant, based on the EFDA WP12 pre-conceptual studies

    CERN Document Server

    Crofts, O

    2014-01-01

    The erosion and high neutron flux in a fusion power plant results in the need for frequent remote replacement of the plasma facing components. This is a complex and time consuming remote handling operation and its duration directly affects the availability and therefore the commercial viability of the power plant. A tool is needed to allow the maintenance duration to be determined so that developments in component design can be assessed in terms of their effect on the maintenance duration. This allows the correct balance to be drawn between component cost and performance on the one hand and the remote handling cost and plant availability on the other.

  19. 77 FR 4577 - Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park-Based Youth Education and Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... programs that provide continuous education and employment experience opportunities for diverse students in... Youth Education and Employment Experience Programs. Type of Request: This is a new collection. Affected... National Park Service Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park- Based Youth...

  20. Duration of disease does not equally influence all aspects of quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benge, Jared F; Kekecs, Zoltán; Encarnacion, Elmyra; Ainslie, Melissa; Herff, Christina; Elkins, Gary; Herath, Priyantha

    2016-06-01

    Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is negatively impacted in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). For the specific components that comprise HRQoL, the relationship between clinical variables, such as disease duration, is not fully characterized. In this cross-sectional study (n=302), self-reported HRQoL on the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) was evaluated as a global construct as well as individual subscale scores. HRQoL was compared in three groups: those within 5years of diagnosis, those within 6-10years of diagnosis, and those greater than 11years since diagnosis. Non-parametric analyses revealed lower HRQoL with increasing disease duration when assessed as a global construct. However, when subscales were evaluated, difficulties with bodily discomfort and cognitive complaints were comparable in individuals in the 1-5years and 6-10year duration groups. Exploratory regression analyses suggested disease duration does explain unique variance in some subscales, even after controlling for Hoehn and Yahr stage and neuropsychiatric features. Our findings show that HRQoL domains in PD patients are affected differentially across the duration of the disease. Clinicians and researchers may need to tailor interventions intended to improve HRQoL at different domains as the disease progresses. PMID:26778512

  1. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

  2. Perceived time and temporal structure: Neural entrainment to isochronous stimulation increases duration estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Ninja K; Wimber, Maria; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2016-05-15

    Distortions of perceived duration can give crucial insights into the mechanisms that underlie the processing and representation of stimulus timing. One factor that affects duration estimates is the temporal structure of stimuli that fill an interval. For example, regular filling (isochronous interval) leads to an overestimation of perceived duration as compared to irregular filling (anisochronous interval). In the present article, we use electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the neural basis of this subjective lengthening of perceived duration with isochrony. In a two-interval forced choice task, participants judged which of two intervals lasts longer - one always being isochronous, the other one anisochronous. Response proportions confirm the subjective overestimation of isochronous intervals. At the neural level, isochronous sequences are associated with enhanced pairwise phase consistency (PPC) at the stimulation frequency, reflecting the brain's entrainment to the regular stimulation. The PPC over the entrainment channels is further enhanced for isochronous intervals that are reported to be longer, and the magnitude of this PCC effect correlates with the amount of perceptual bias. Neural entrainment has been proposed as a mechanism of attentional selection, enabling increased neural responsiveness toward stimuli that arrive at an expected point in time. The present results support the proposed relationship between neural response magnitudes and temporal estimates: An increase in neural responsiveness leads to a more pronounced representation of the individual stimuli filling the interval and in turn to a subjective increase in duration. PMID:26883062

  3. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  4. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  5. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  6. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  7. Employment-Related Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  8. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  9. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  10. Other Forms of Employment: Temporary Employment Agencies and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Wadensjö, Eskil; Andersson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the majority of employed people are full-time employees with a non-temporary job and work at a workplace of the company in which they are employed. They are making careers at the employer they are employed by and most work-place changes are to other jobs of the same type. But it does not include large groups in the labour market. Many of those who have tenured positions work part-time, not full-time, and many both full-time and part-time workers have fixed-per...

  11. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia

    2005-01-01

    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  12. Duration of cisplatin excretion in breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Karen; Ryu, Rachel J.; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Reed, Eddie; McManus, Terry; Rybeck, Blanche; Petros, William P.; Hebert, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapy agent, is commonly used in treating cancers that may affect women of childbearing age, including cervical cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, and pediatric tumors in adolescents. The authors found that platinum was undetectable in breast milk at 66 hours and beyond following a 70 mg dose of intravenous cisplatin. Relative infant dose of platinum was calculated to be between 0.29% and 0.40% of the maternal dose corrected for body weight. This case de...

  13. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  14. Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer and the Ethnic Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Magnus; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minorities have lower wages compared to the ethnic majority in most EU-countries. However, to what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. This study sets out to examine what role prejudice play in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe's most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer. O...

  15. Greater Springfield employment challenges: findings of employer survey and interviews

    OpenAIRE

    David Plasse; Marques Benton; Lynn E. Browne; Prabal Chakrabarti; DeAnna Green; Yolanda Kodrzycki; Ana Patricia Muñoz; Richard Walker; Bo Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from in-depth interviews and a survey of employers in the Greater Springfield area regarding (a) employment opportunities for entry-level workers with limited skills and (b) barriers that residents of Springfield's low-income neighborhoods face in accessing these jobs. The survey and interviews indicate that entry-level jobs that do not require college are available in the Springfield area. However, even entry-level jobs require the ability to perform a variet...

  16. Duration distributions for different softness groups of gamma-ray bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA; A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) are divided into two classes according to their durations.We investigate if the softness of bursts plays a role in the conventional classification of the objects.We employ the BATSE(Burst and Transient Source Experiment) catalog and analyze the duration distributions of different groups of GRBs associated with distinct softness.Our analysis reveals that the conventional classification of GRBs with the duration of bursts is influenced by the softness of the objects.There exists a bimodality in the duration distribution of GRBs for each group of bursts and the time position of the dip in the bimodality histogram shifts with the softness parameter.Our findings suggest that the conventional classification scheme should be modified by separating the two well-known populations in different softness groups,which would be more reasonable than doing so with a single sample.According to the relation between the dip position and the softness parameter,we get an empirical function that can roughly set apart the short-hard and long-soft bursts:SP =(0.100 ± 0.028) T-(0.85 0.18) 90,± where SP is the softness parameter adopted in this paper.

  17. Interspecific Variations in Duration of Tail Regression in Two Tropical Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuckoo Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans breed in an array of habitats and hence employ a variety of evolutionary strategies to adapt to the variable conditions. Particularly, since they undergo a larval phase they develop mechanisms to overcome unfavourable conditions like desiccation, extreme temperatures, and so forth. The anurans, Polypedates maculatus and Duttaphrynus melanostictus, show noticeable variation in the duration of larval period and tadpole tail regression. D. melanostictus breeds throughout the year and hence is subjected to different environmental conditions as compared to P. maculatus which breeds only during the rainy season. Thus, the tadpoles of D. melanostictus have selected to undergo a shorter larval period and duration of tail regression to suit their breeding habits. The present study correlates the interspecific difference in the duration of tail regression with the morphological variations in the tails of the two species. D. melanostictus shortens the duration of larval tail regression by having comparatively larger and more number of melanocytes and a thinner notochord than P. maculatus.

  18. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments. PMID:26761147

  19. Climatic changes and flooding durations in relation with public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, A.; Roumieux, C.; Trouillet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic Changes, and more generaly Global Changes, play a major role in environmental modifications in relation with public health. Modifications of temperatures, precipitations... influence ecological habitats. These habitats can be adapted for some animals species, responsable of certain pandemics. Mosquitoes and birds represent for certain pandemics the essential elements of virus transmission. Abundance of mosquitoes and birds species, is heavily conditioned by flooded areas extent and specific habitats and their variations. The study we carried, has been done in South of France. We show present status of ecological habitats and flooded durations and future previsions. We reach environment impact for certain virus like West Nile virus. This virus affects bird, horse and sometimes man. Presence of the virus is conditioned by different factors, primarily including vector distribution (mosquitoes). We show how it's possible to localise favorable areas for the virus and to predict its future expansion areas. We present maps of the possibilities for future concerning previsions of bioclimatic steps variations. Thanks to the latest remote sensing and spatial analysis techniques. Our maps may be used as precious tools to help decision makers when faced with mosquito related problems.

  20. 29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... employment relationship with a different employer. A determination of whether the employment by the employers... the employee by the other joint employer or employers. 4 Walling v. Friend, et al., 156 F. 2d 429...

  1. Bayesian comparison of different rainfall depth-duration-frequency relationships

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Depth-duration-frequency curves estimate the rainfall intensity patterns for various return periods and rainfall durations. An empirical model based on the generalized extreme value distribution is presented for hourly maximum rainfall, and improved by the inclusion of daily maximum rainfall, through the extremal indexes of 24 hourly and daily rainfall data. The model is then divided into two sub-models for the short and long rainfall durations. Three likelihood formulations are proposed to m...

  2. Dual-Priced Modal Transition Systems with Time Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems are a well-established specification formalism for a high-level modelling of component-based software systems. We present a novel extension of the formalism called modal transition systems with durations where time durations are modelled as controllable or uncontrollable...... cheapest long-run average reward. We give an algorithm for computing such optimal implementations via a reduction to a new extension of mean payoff games with time durations and analyse the complexity of the algorithm....

  3. Inference in Hidden Markov Models with Explicit State Duration Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Michael; Wiggins, Chris; Wood, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we borrow from the inference techniques developed for unbounded state-cardinality (nonparametric) variants of the HMM and use them to develop a tuning-parameter free, black-box inference procedure for Explicit-state-duration hidden Markov models (EDHMM). EDHMMs are HMMs that have latent states consisting of both discrete state-indicator and discrete state-duration random variables. In contrast to the implicit geometric state duration distribution possessed by the standard HMM, ...

  4. Regional development - rural employment opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.

  5. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  6. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  7. Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Duration Dependency Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR......We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR...

  8. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a...

  9. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state factors are hard to simulate on earth. Scenario-based evaluation might make the users feel as if they are in the eventual context of use, and are actually taking part in a scenario. In addition game...

  10. Muscle activity, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Sanusi, Junedah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and “very hard”. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time leve...

  11. LOFAR Observations of Swift J1644+57 and Implications for Short-Duration Transients

    OpenAIRE

    Cendes, Y.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Rowlinson, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Carbone, D.; Broderick, J. W.; Staley, T. D.; Stewart, A. J.; Molenaar, G.; Huizinga, F.; Alexov, A.; Bell, M. E.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We have analyzed low frequency radio data of tidal disruption event (TDE) Swift J1644+57 to search for a counterpart. We consider how brief transient signals (on the order of seconds or minutes) originating from this location would appear in our data. We also consider how automatic radio frequency interference (RFI) flagging at radio telescope observatories might affect these and other transient observations in the future, particularly with brief transients of a few seconds duration. Me...

  12. The Evolutionary Ecology of Human Lactation: Correlates of Duration of Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    McKerracher, Luseadra

    2016-01-01

    Humans breastfeed our infants for less time than expected for primates of our size. Additionally, human breastfeeding duration appears more variable than in nonhuman species. This early and flexible weaning pattern affects maternal fertility as well as infant health and survivorship, from both within- and across- species perspectives. So, understanding what factors enabled humans to wean relatively early and flexibly is an important goal for human evolutionary demography. Yet, what these fact...

  13. 45 CFR 400.76 - Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment services, participation in employability service programs, and acceptance of appropriate offers of... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment General Requirements § 400.76 Criteria for exemption from registration for employment services, participation in employability...

  14. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  15. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RSS Email Share Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS) Menu About VETS Who We Are & What We ... VETERANS SERVICE PROVIDERS TRANSITIONING SERVICE MEMBERS WOMEN VETERANS VETS NEWS & BLOG September 2, 2016 Veteran Unemployment Continues ...

  16. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  19. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  20. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  1. Planetary radars have announced our presence - Thoughts on short duration signals, verification and responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Peter B.

    1991-10-01

    The idea is set forth that criteria are developed to assess whether a particular limited-duration signal is evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The nature of short-duration signals is discussed to set the stage for a description of the NASA Microwave Observing Program. Criteria for evaluating the possibility of ETI origin for a signal include length, strength, band width, and accompaniment by a pseudorandom repetition. SETI is described as an educational document that can be employed to illustrate the real difficulties of interstellar communication. It is concluded that to avoid the negative aspects of SETI activities such as the notion of fashioning a return signal the intergenerational nature of interstellar communication be emphasized for the public.

  2. Employment and hours of work

    OpenAIRE

    Kudoh, Noritaka; Sasaki, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model of the labor market in which the degree of substitution between employment and hours of work is determined as part of a search equilibrium. Each firm chooses its demand for working hours and number of vacancies, and the earnings profile is determined by Nash bargaining. The earnings profile is generally nonlinear in hours of work, and defines the trade-off between employment and hours of work. Concave production technology induces firms to overemploy and, a...

  3. Pension investments in employer stock

    OpenAIRE

    Even, William E.; David A. MacPherson

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of a pension fund investing in the stock of the sponsoring firm. Using a merger of data on pension asset holdings from IRS Form 5500 filings and financial data on the company's stock from CRSP, two broad questions are addressed: First, what factors influence the extent of a pension fund's investments in the employer's stock? Second, when a pension invests in the employer's stock, how much is lost as a result of poor diversification? The empirical results s...

  4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - RURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-01-01

    The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...

  5. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  6. Employer branding - Living the brand

    OpenAIRE

    Rebrovic, Luna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study aims to link the body of knowledge on employer branding with the concept of organizational identity. Given the power of potentially instructing and directing organizational members, employer branding is not only seen as a marketing tool but also as a tool for forming and expressing key values of an organization (Alvesson, 2009; Kärreman and Rylander, 2008:103). The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between an employee and an organization's b...

  7. Graduate employability in transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bydanova, Elisaveta

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses higher education graduates' employability in Russia. We seek to find out what demands are placed on graduates by the modern labour market in Russia, in order to know how higher education should perform to prepare the employable professional. The transition from the communist economy to a labour market one generated important transformations on graduate labour market. A quasi-total abolition of the public regulating mechanisms in study to work transition, changes in social...

  8. Domestic Violence, Employment, and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Audra Bowlus; Shannon Seitz

    2005-01-01

    Using unique, representative data on domestic violence, we document several stylized facts on abuse: the average characteristics of abused wives and abusive husbands are markedly different than the characteristics of individuals in non-violent marriages, the vast majority of violent marriages end in divorce, and employment rates are lower for women who experience abuse. We then construct a sequential model of employment, marriage and abuse. The results indicate abuse is the primary factor in ...

  9. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  10. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  11. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  12. Malignant Ureteral Obstruction: Functional Duration of Metallic versus Polymeric Ureteral Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Po-Ming; Chiang, I-Ni; Chen, Chia-Yen; Huang, Kuo-How; Hsu, Jui-Shan; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ureteral obstruction caused by extrinsic compression is often associated with intra-abdominal cancers. Internal drainage with ureteral stents is typically the first-line therapy to relieve such obstructions. Novel designs of ureteral stents made of different materials have been invented to achieve better drainage. In this study, we described the functional outcomes of a Resonance metallic ureteral stent (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and compare the functional duration of Resonance stents with regular polymeric stents in the same cohort. Methods Cancer patients who received polymeric stents and subsequent Resonance stents for ureteral obstruction between July 2009 and November 2012 were included in a chart review. Stent failure was detected by clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and renal function tests. The functional durations of each stent were calculated, and possible factors affecting stent patency were investigated. Results A total of 50 stents were successfully inserted into 50 ureteral units in 42 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. There were 7 antegrade stents and 43 retrograde stents. There were no major complications. Stent-related symptoms were similar in both kinds of stents. After polymeric stents were replaced with Resonance metallic stents, hydronephrosis subsided or remained stable in 90% (45/50) of the ureteral units. Serum creatinine decreased or remained stable in 90% (38/42) of these patients. The Resonance stent exhibited a mean increase in functional duration of 4 months compared with the polymeric stents (p<0.0001), and 50% (25/50) of the Resonance stents exhibited a significant increase in functional duration (more than 3 months). Pre-operative serum creatinine < 2 was associated with a substantial increase in stent duration. Conclusions Resonance stents are effective and safe in relieving malignant ureteral obstructions after polymeric stents failure

  13. Manifestation of arsenicosis patients and factors determining the duration of arsenic symptoms in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzed a total of 1482 arsenicosis patients living in 6 of 496 upzilas (sub-districts) of Bangladesh, who were identified through household screening and then confirmed by a trained medical team headed by medical officer. Melanosis was common (97%) among them but about two-thirds (68.7%) of the patients were suffering from keratosis. Average age was 36 years and average duration of arsenic symptoms was 3 (median) years. About 50% of the patients had been drinking tubewell water more than 24 years. Melanosis was significantly associated with younger patients (P = 0.031), shallower tubewell (P = 0.005), and complication of conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Keratosis was also significantly associated with older age (P 0.022), shallower tubewell (P < 0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P < 0.001), bronchitis (P < 0.001), loss of appetite (P < 0.001), and wasting (P < 0.001). Duration of arsenic symptoms was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), male (P = 0.002), married (P < 0.001), smoking (P 0.002), longer duration of consuming tubewell water (P < 0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P = 0.002), loss of appetite (P < 0.001), wasting (P 0.006), and social problem faced having arsenicosis (P = 0.040). Multivariate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) indicated that keratosis (OR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.56-2.56) was significantly associated with longer duration of arsenic symptoms; loss of appetite (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12-1.74) was a significant complication for longer duration. Similarly smoking (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.68) was positively associated with longer duration of arsenic symptom. These findings will help the policy makers of Bangladesh to understand about the factors that may affect the severity condition of the patients through prolongation of arsenic symptoms

  14. Employer attractiveness from a generational perspective: Implications for employer branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the employer attractiveness factors prioritized by different generations: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. The survey was conducted with a sample of 937 professionals, working in various areas and companies, most of them were managers and had a high education level. The Employer Attractiveness Scale proposed by Berthon et al. (2005 was adopted and the results indicate that, when choosing a company, the generations under study have specific features regarding the attractiveness attributes they prioritize. It was also observed that Generation Y discriminates and ranks such attributes more clearly than the others. Possible implications for employer branding and research limitations are discussed at the end of the article.

  15. Termination of spiral wave breakup in a Fitzhugh-Nagumo model via short and long duration stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A.

    2002-09-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in a variety of nonlinear biological and physical systems. Spiral waves are found in excitable and oscillatory systems and can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves (a process called "spiral wave breakup"). In the heart, spiral wave breakup is thought to be the underlying mechanism of cardiac fibrillation. The spatiotemporal complexity of multiple unstable spiral waves is difficult to control or terminate. Here, the mechanisms of the termination of spiral wave breakup in response to global stimulation are investigated. A modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model was used to represent cellular kinetics to study the role of the fast (activation) and slow (recovery) variables. This simplified model allows a theoretical analysis of the termination of spiral wave breakup via both short and long duration pulses. Simulations were carried out in both two-dimensional sheets and in a three-dimensional geometry of the heart ventricles. The short duration pulses affected only the fast variable and acted to reset wave propagation. Monophasic pulses excited tissue ahead of the wave front thus reducing the amount of excitable tissue. Biphasic shocks did the same, but they also acted to generate new wave fronts from the pre-existing wave tails by making some active regions excitable. Thus, if the short duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to fill in excitable tissue via propagating wave fronts and terminated all activity. The long duration wave forms were selected such that they had a frequency spectrum similar to that of the pseudoelectrocardiograms recorded during fibrillation. These long duration wave forms affected both the recovery and activation variables, and the mechanism of unstable multiple spiral wave termination was different compared to the short duration wave forms. If the long duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to alter the "state" (i.e., combination of fast and slow

  16. P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B.; Kühl, Jørgen T.; Pietersen, Adrian;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results on the association between P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a detailed description of the relationship between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. METHODS: Using computerized analysis o...

  17. Instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects for duration outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we propose and implement an instrumental variable estimation procedure to obtain treatment effects on duration outcomes. The method can handle the typical complications that arise with duration data of time-varying treatment and censoring. The treatment effect we defi

  18. Grammatical aspect influences event duration estimations: Evidence from Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.; Gerwien, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of grammatical aspect marking in Dutch sentences, on speakers' estimations of the duration of highly familiar, everyday events. We first established the 'inherent' or natural duration of different events (Exp. 1). This was then used for the manipulation of aspect (

  19. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price...

  20. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  1. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  2. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive payments. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, DOE shall make incentive payments under...

  3. Memory disorder related to coma duration after head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkki, J; Poropudas, K; Servo, A

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of memory and intelligence test performances to coma duration was studied in 51 head injured patients who had not been operated on for intracranial haematoma. Memory defect was related to coma duration, and was not secondary to impaired perceptual or conceptual analysis of the material to be remembered.

  4. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  7. 46 CFR 189.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 189.60-40 Section... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for...

  8. 46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 91.60-40 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for...

  9. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing, for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental duration corresponding to 75% degree were then calculated. On this basis, the radioactive decay law from physics was used to establish a theoretical model for the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration. The data on public bicycle rental duration in Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing were used to test the model and produce a corrected theoretical model. The results indicate that the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration obeys the decay law. The study results provide important theoretical support for the rental station planning of bicycle sharing systems, as well as the allocation, operation, and dispatch of public bicycles.

  10. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy... Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a specified... criteria are met under § 52.103(g) or allowing operation during an interim period under the...

  11. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the...

  12. Employment profiles in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L

    1997-01-01

    Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may

  13. Europlat Employability Survey: Core findings and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek Stanislav; Mareš Jan; Neusar Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents the core findings of the Europlat employability survey focusing on employability issues related to the post-Bologna transformations of psychology study programmes across the European Union. The objectives of the survey were to find out: (1) how relevant the employability/employment issue is; (2) what the current problems are in the employability/employment area; and (3) to explore the best practices in dealing with employability/employment issues. Findings cover both the nation...

  14. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research. PMID:27372108

  15. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary of this...... logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints on their...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  16. Attracting graduates: employer branding in the war for the talent

    OpenAIRE

    Geh, Giselda

    2009-01-01

    Background – The war for talent and employer branding have become topical issues in recent years in popular press, as organizations are preparing themselves for major changes in labor market and expected labor shortage, which is likely to affect organizations’ success and survival particularly in knowledge intensive sectors. Literature suggests that organizations can differentiate themselves from competitors with a distinct employer brand, and consequently enhance their position when competin...

  17. Education and the welfare gains from employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Charlot, Olivier; Malherbet, Franck

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the study of the return to education undertaken in e.g. Laing, Palivos and Wang (1995) or Burdett and Smith (2002) to an environment where the link between education and employment stability is taken into account. This enables us to study how an European-like and Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) with heavily regulated long-term contracts and more flexible short-term contracts affects the return to schooling, equilibrium unemployment and welfare. In this con...

  18. Seasonality in Tourism Employment : Case: Grecotel Kos Imperial Thalasso

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomiets, Arina

    2011-01-01

    Seasonality is recognized as one of the most distinctive and determinant features of international tourism, affecting all aspects of supply-side behavior in tourism including the labor market. Hospitality industry is considered to be unprestigious and temporary employment. Nevertheless, the image of career in the industry may change due to emerging tourism business and new markets. While seasonality and its challenges are inalienable parts of international tourism, tourism employment with app...

  19. Foreign Direct Investment in cohesion to employment : case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Todoroski, Hristijan

    2008-01-01

    This Thesis Work has examined the FDI effects on employment in the case of Poland. The main objective is proving how foreign capital inflows affect on job creation and recent unemployment rate (from 1991-2007) in different economic sectors. Valuable foundation has been discovered that indicate the consistent movement between foreign capital inflows and employment/unemployment in the years observed. FDI were hoisting from year to year, but the unemployment rate still remains on high level. It ...

  20. Labour taxation and its impact on employment growth:

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Primož; Laporšek, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to assess the characteristics of labour taxation for five different groups of workers and labour market performance (in terms of employment and unemployment rate) in the EU and to examine whether tax wedge affects employment growth in the EU. The descriptive empirical estimates show that the level of labour taxation varies greatly across EU Member States, by which the tax wedge tends to be higher among New Member States (excluding Cyprus and Malta). Furthermore, the panel regre...

  1. Intermarriage and immigrant employment: the role of networks

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, D; Theodoropoulos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The social integration of immigrants is believed to be an important determinant of immigrants' labor market outcomes. Using 2000 U.S. Census data, we examine how and why marriage to a native, one measure of social assimilation, affects immigrant employment rates. We show that even when controlling for a variety of human capital and assimilation measures, marriage to a native increases the probability that an immigrant is employed. An instrumental variables approach which exploits variation in...

  2. Using the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative Data to conduct a genome-wide association study of sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Gharani, Neda; Kasper, Rachel S; Schmidlen, Tara J; Gordon, Erynn S; Jarvis, Joseph P; Delaney, Susan; Kronenthal, Courtney J; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is critical to health and functionality, and several studies have investigated the inherited component of insomnia and other sleep disorders using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, genome-wide studies focused on sleep duration are less common. Here, we used data from participants in the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) (n = 4,401) to examine putative associations between self-reported sleep duration, demographic and lifestyle variables, and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to better understand genetic contributions to variation in sleep duration. We employed stepwise ordered logistic regression to select our model and retained the following predictive variables: age, gender, weight, physical activity, physical activity at work, smoking status, alcohol consumption, ethnicity, and ancestry (as measured by principal components analysis) in our association testing. Several of our strongest candidate genes were previously identified in GWAS related to sleep duration (TSHZ2, ABCC9, FBXO15) and narcolepsy (NFATC2, SALL4). In addition, we have identified novel candidate genes for involvement in sleep duration including SORCS1 and ELOVL2. Our results demonstrate that the self-reported data collected through the CPMC are robust, and our genome-wide association analysis has identified novel candidate genes involved in sleep duration. More generally, this study contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of human sleep. PMID:26333835

  3. 49 CFR 382.411 - Employer notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer notifications. 382.411 Section 382.411... Employer notifications. (a) An employer shall notify a driver of the results of a pre-employment controlled... being notified of the disposition of the employment application. An employer shall notify a driver...

  4. TMD pain: the effect on health related quality of life and the influence of pain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenvergert Elisabeth M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives As impact of literature concerning this subject is scarce, the objectives of this study were to assess whether the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is decreased in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders as compared to the HRQoL in the general population, and to evaluate to what extent pain duration affects HRQoL. Methods Data concerning physical and mental health were retrieved from patients with painful temporomandibular disorders. Assessment tools used were: the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Schedule (HADS, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. In order to examine the influence of the duration of pain on HRQoL, the total sample was divided into three different subgroups. Subgroup 1 consisted of patients with complaints existing less than one year. Patients with complaints from 1 to 3 years were allocated to the second group. The 3rd subgroup included patients with complaints longer than 3 years. Results The total sample consisted of 95 patients (90 females and 5 males. On most physical and social functioning items, groups 2 and 3 scored significantly worse than the general population. On the other hand, none of the groups differed from the general population when comparing the mental items. Duration of pain was significantly correlated with SF-36 subscale physical functioning and the mandibular impairment. Conclusion Patients with TMD pain less than one year score better than compared to the population norm. With a longer duration of pain, mental health scores and role limitations due to emotional problems do not appear to be seriously affected by reduced physical health, while social functioning appears to be considerably affected.

  5. Immigration and suicide: the role of marital status, duration of residence, and social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J; McElvain, James P; Breault, Kevin D

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of immigration on suicide. An unmatched case-control design was employed. Data on cases were obtained on suicides in Riverside County, California, 1998 to 2001. Information on controls was obtained from the 2000 Census. Immigration increased suicide risk. Immigrant divorced persons were over 2 times more likely to commit suicide than natives. Single immigrants were nearly 2.6 times more likely to kill themselves than the native born. Shorter duration of residence was associated with higher suicide risk. Integration of immigrants in receiving societies is important for decreasing suicide. Policies aimed at reducing suicide should target more recent immigrants. PMID:18240038

  6. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  7. China's Employment Promotion Law Guarantees Right to Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU XUEYUN

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's legislature is soliciting comments and suggestions to the draft of Employment Promotion Law as an endeavor to democratize its process of legislation. Up to April 25 the National People's Congress had received over 11,000items of comments and suggestions.

  8. International employment policies: employment and stabilisation in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens L

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of stabilization and adjustment policies (economic policy) on employment, Mexico, prospects for the 1980s - examines the transition from import substitution industrialization to an economic model based on export oriented industry, structural changes and subsequent financial collapse (financial policy), economic growth performance, 1978-1981, the external debt crisis, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  9. Dependence of elemental concentrations in Alzheimer brain tissue on disease duration and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recent interest in determining elemental concentrations of brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease and comparing these with concentrations in 'normal' brain tissue. Although age and sex influences on elemental concentrations are often allowed for, the duration for which a patient was suffering from Alzheimer's disease is a factor rarely considered. In the work presented the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chlorine and bromine in the frontal lobe of the Alzheimer brain are determined using the techniques of particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Concentrations of Na, Cl and Br were found to be high in Alzheimer brain tissue compared with 'normal' tissue, with concentrations lowest in brain tissue of long disease duration. Potassium, on the other hand, was found to have low concentrations in Alzheimer brain tissue but exhibited the highest concentrations in brain tissue of longest disease duration. The implication of this is that for concentrations from different sources to be compared, the disease duration is an important factor. (author)

  10. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-07-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration.

  11. Effect of various temperature and storage duration on setting time of OREGA sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunarko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the right rigid material and root canal paste are crucial in the success of root canal obturation. N2 is a root canal paste containing formaldehyde, which is toxic and carcinogenic. Whilst zinc oxide, resorcin, eugenol, glycerin, and hydrochloric acid, abbreviated as OREGA, are considered a safer root canal paste. In order to perform good obturation, root canal paste’s setting time plays an important role. This is connected with how long and in what temperature the paste’s substances are stored. Purpose: This experiment was performed to find out the effect of various temperature and storage duration on the setting time of OREGA sealer. Method: OREGA and N 2sealers were used as samples. Eighty sealer samples were produced for both sealers providing 10 samples foe each testing category. Each of these samples were stored in 27°C room temperature, 4°C refrigerator temperature, and put into storage for the duration of 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. After these treatments, the samples were tested and analyzed. Result: Data collected were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing no significant difference of the setting time among temperature and storage duration (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Temperature and storage duration do not affect the setting time of OREGA root canal paste.

  12. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration. PMID:27364998

  13. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  14. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods to...

  15. EmploymentWoaftgeerormesaotuicrscetescohfntohloegUiepspfoerTtehme pisque River evaluation of risks ofWfloaotedrshaesdc,oCnosestqauReniccae(oTef ctnhiecal Note) climatic change and the affectations to phytodiversity Empleo de tecnologías de geomática para la evaluación de riesgos de inundaciones como consecuencia del cambio climático y las afectaciones a la fitodiversidad

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Márquez Gurri; Nicolás Quintana Bernabe; Marta Margarita Pérez Rojas; Freddy Araya Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    The global climatic change that takes place in the current times has diverse origins, not causing few polemics and declarations from different areas of knowledge.The floods are part of the consequences of the phenomena that take place when crisis are accentuated and the environment deteriorates. This research presents some experiences in the employment of the geomatics tools for the minimi- zation of risks when there is the possibility of the occurrence of extraordinary events: strong rains i...

  16. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h. Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. Conclusions. In this

  17. Cognitive Assessment During Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.

  18. Factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Filipin, Douglas; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Meyer, Carolina; Louzada, Fernando Mazilli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents from Maravilha – Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 516 adolescents aged 10–19 years of both genders. Issues associated with short sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status were investigated. Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (<8h on school days) was 53.6%. Adolescents aged 17–19 years showed a 2.05-fold (95%CI: 1.20–3.50) greater prevalence of short sleep duration than those aged 10–12 years. The ones studying in morning and evening shifts had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration compared to those in the afternoon shift. Older age and school shift were the main factors associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescents from Maravilha showed high prevalence of short sleep duration, and older adolescents that studied in the morning and evening shifts showed reduced sleep. PMID:26559604

  19. Landing a Permanent Contract: Do Job Interruptions and Employer Diversification Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Rebollo Sanz

    2009-01-01

    A discrete-time multivariate hazard model is applied to investigate whether an individual’s employment history conditions her chances of eventually obtaining a permanent contract in the Spanish labour market. This study differentiates the incidence of lagged duration dependence from occurrence dependence and individual employment history conditions are not exclusively defined in terms of the number of temporary contracts and job interruptions experienced by the worker, but also by the diversi...

  20. 76 FR 72977 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  1. 76 FR 55948 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  2. 77 FR 76074 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  3. 77 FR 20436 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  4. 77 FR 51579 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring veterans....

  5. 77 FR 30330 - Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO): Meeting AGENCY: Veterans..., Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO). The ACVETEO will discuss Department of Labor's Veterans... Veterans seeking employment and raise employer awareness as to the advantages of hiring Veterans....

  6. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkstra, A M; Daan, S

    1997-03-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experimentally manipulated: the animals were induced to arouse by gentle handling after torpor of less then 1 day (n = 3), 1-2 days (n = 6), 3-4 days (n = 9) and 5-12 days (n = 9). The animals slept 71.5% of euthermic time, of which 61.4% NREM and 10.2% REM sleep. NREM percentage was slightly positively and REM percentage negatively correlated with prior torpor duration (TD). Spectral analysis showed changes in EEG activity during the euthermic phase in the slow wave frequency range (1-4 Hz) and in higher frequencies. Prior TD specifically affected the slow waves. Slow wave activity decreased exponentially during the euthermic phase. The initial slow wave activity showed a systematic increase with prior TD, which could be described by an exponentially saturating function, albeit with a relatively small time constant compared with spontaneous torpor duration. It is concluded that sleep during arousal episodes following torpor at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C is affected both in structure and intensity by prior TD. The results are consistent with the proposition that torpor inhibits the restorative function of sleep. PMID:9125697

  7. INDISPENSABILITY OF ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun K Behera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how English acts as a binding language across the world. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. Moreover, the impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries has also been taken up. Growing desires of the people, coupled with a deep - rooted need to have an improved standard of living has been touched upon. Attempts have been made here how these factors play a vital role in employability. The economic and cultural change in the third world countries and how it has impacted the employment opportunities, plus the reasons why English plays a vital role in all these are also covered in the paper. I have tried to deal with the attitudinal change in the government organizations and their role in adding to the burgeoning employment opportunities and the accompanying importance of English.

  8. Strategies Employed in Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛

    2008-01-01

    Idioms which are regarded as the essence of language have drawn great attention from scholars.Most of them just focus Oil its cultural consideration.In this thesis the author intends to make a comprehensive study on practical strategies employed in idiom translation.

  9. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  10. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  11. A Theory of Employment Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Brenda

    1990-01-01

    In the form of a poem, a pregnant mother of a small child tells her experiences during employment interviews with a number of law firms, ranging from the perceived errors of the interviewers to the surprises and the mistakes made by the applicant. (MSE)

  12. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Graaf-Zijl

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  13. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online education"…

  14. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents…

  15. Transnational Education and Employability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…

  16. Physical attractiveness, employment and earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  17. Forecasting the duration of volcanic eruptions: an empirical probabilistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, L. S.; Blake, S.; Jones, M. C.; Rymer, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to forecast future volcanic eruption durations would greatly benefit emergency response planning prior to and during a volcanic crises. This paper introduces a probabilistic model to forecast the duration of future and on-going eruptions. The model fits theoretical distributions to observed duration data and relies on past eruptions being a good indicator of future activity. A dataset of historical Mt. Etna flank eruptions is presented and used to demonstrate the model. The data have been compiled through critical examination of existing literature along with careful consideration of uncertainties on reported eruption start and end dates between the years 1300 AD and 2010. Data following 1600 is considered to be reliable and free of reporting biases. The distribution of eruption duration between the years 1600 and 1669 is found to be statistically different from that following it and the forecasting model is run on two datasets of Mt. Etna flank eruption durations: 1600-2010 and 1670-2010. Each dataset is modelled using a log-logistic distribution with parameter values found by maximum likelihood estimation. Survivor function statistics are applied to the model distributions to forecast (a) the probability of an eruption exceeding a given duration, (b) the probability of an eruption that has already lasted a particular number of days exceeding a given total duration and (c) the duration with a given probability of being exceeded. Results show that excluding the 1600-1670 data has little effect on the forecasting model result, especially where short durations are involved. By assigning the terms `likely' and `unlikely' to probabilities of 66 % or more and 33 % or less, respectively, the forecasting model based on the 1600-2010 dataset indicates that a future flank eruption on Mt. Etna would be likely to exceed 20 days (± 7 days) but unlikely to exceed 86 days (± 29 days). This approach can easily be adapted for use on other highly active, well

  18. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages: the case of Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper; Svedin, Dick

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...

  19. Maternal Employment and Children's Academic Achievement: Parenting Styles as Mediating Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    1995-01-01

    Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…

  20. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421