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Sample records for affect development motility

  1. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

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    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  2. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

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    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  3. Exosome secretion affects social motility in Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Dror Eliaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV secreted by pathogens function in a variety of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, exosome secretion is induced by stress that affects trans-splicing. Following perturbations in biogenesis of spliced leader RNA, which donates its spliced leader (SL exon to all mRNAs, or after heat-shock, the SL RNA is exported to the cytoplasm and forms distinct granules, which are then secreted by exosomes. The exosomes are formed in multivesicular bodies (MVB utilizing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT, through a mechanism similar to microRNA secretion in mammalian cells. Silencing of the ESCRT factor, Vps36, compromised exosome secretion but not the secretion of vesicles derived from nanotubes. The exosomes enter recipient trypanosome cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that cells secreting exosomes or purified intact exosomes affect social motility (SoMo. This study demonstrates that exosomes are delivered to trypanosome cells and can change their migration. Exosomes are used to transmit stress signals for communication between parasites.

  4. Aging and intestinal motility: a review of factors that affect intestinal motility in the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis

    2012-02-03

    Normal aging is associated with significant changes in the function of most organs and tissues. In this regard, the gastrointestinal tract is no exception. The purpose of this review is to detail the important age-related changes in motor function of the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight some of the important motility changes that may occur, either in relation to common age-related disorders, or as a result of certain drugs commonly prescribed in the aged. A major confounding factor in the interpretation of motor phenomena throughout the gastrointestinal tract in this age group is the frequent coexistence of neurological, endocrinological and other disease states, which may be independently associated with dysmotility. Overall, current data are insufficient to implicate normal aging as a cause of dysmotility in the elderly. Normal aging is associated with various changes in gastrointestinal motility, but the clinical significance of such changes remains unclear. More important is the impact of various age-related diseases on gastrointestinal motility in the elderly: for example, long-standing diabetes mellitus may reduce gastric emptying in up to 50% of patients; depression significantly prolongs whole-gut transit time; hypothyroidism may prolong oro-caecal transit time; and chronic renal failure is associated with impaired gastric emptying. In addition, various, frequently used drugs in the elderly cause disordered gastrointestinal motility. These drugs include anticholinergics, especially antidepressants with an anticholinergic effect, opioid analgesics and calcium antagonists.

  5. Sperm cryopreservation affects postthaw motility, but not embryogenesis or larval growth in the Brazilian fish Brycon insignis (Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, A T M; Isaú, Z A; Caneppele, D; Leal, M C

    2012-09-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is an important method for preserving genetic information and facilitating artificial reproduction. The objective was to investigate whether the cryopreservation process affects postthaw sperm motility, embryogenesis, and larval growth in the fish Brycon insignis. Sperm was diluted in methyl glycol and Beltsville Thawing solution, frozen in a nitrogen vapor vessel (dry shipper) and stored in liquid nitrogen. Half of the samples were evaluated both subjectively (% of motile sperm and motility quality score-arbitrary grading system from 0 [no movement] to 5 [rapidly swimming sperm]) and in a computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA; percentage of motile sperm and velocity). The other half was used for fertilization and the evaluation of embryogenesis (cleavage and gastrula stages), hatching rate, percentage of larvae with normal development and larval growth up to 112 days posthatching (dph). Fresh sperm was analyzed subjectively (percentage of motile sperm and motility quality score) and used as the control. In the subjective analysis, sperm motility significantly decreased from 100% motile sperm and quality score of 5 in fresh sperm to 54% motile sperm and quality score of 3 after thawing. Under computer-assisted sperm analyzer evaluation, postthaw sperm had 67% motile sperm, 122 μm/sec of curvilinear velocity, 87 μm/sec of straight-line velocity and 103 μm/sec of average path velocity. There were no significant differences between progenies (pooled data) for the percentage of viable embryos in cleavage (62%) or gastrula stages (24%) or in the hatching rate (24%), percentage of normal hatched larvae (93%), larval body weight (39.8 g), or standard length (12.7 cm) at 112 days posthatching. Based on these findings, cryopreserved sperm can be used as a tool to restore the population of endangered species, such as B. insignis, as well as for aquaculture purposes, without any concern regarding quality of the offspring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  6. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

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    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  7. Depression and embodiment: phenomenological reflections on motility, affectivity, and transcendence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    This paper integrates personal narratives with the methods of phenomenology in order to draw some general conclusions about 'what it means' and 'what it feels like' to be depressed. The analysis has three parts. First, it explores the ways in which depression disrupts everyday experiences of spatial orientation and motility. This disruption makes it difficult for the person to move and perform basic functional tasks, resulting in a collapse or contraction of the life-world. Second, it illustrates how depression creates a situational atmosphere of emotional indifference that reduces the person's ability to qualitatively distinguish what matters in his or her life because nothing stands out as significant or important anymore. In this regard, depression is distinct from other feelings because it is not directed towards particular objects or situations but to the world as a whole. Finally, the paper examines how depression diminishes the possibility for 'self-creation' or 'self-making'. Restricted by the illness, depression becomes something of a destiny, preventing the person from being open and free to access a range of alternative self-interpretations, identities, and possible ways of being-in-the-world.

  8. How the motility pattern of bacteria affects their dispersal and chemotaxis.

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    Johannes Taktikos

    Full Text Available Most bacteria at certain stages of their life cycle are able to move actively; they can swim in a liquid or crawl on various surfaces. A typical path of the moving cell often resembles the trajectory of a random walk. However, bacteria are capable of modifying their apparently random motion in response to changing environmental conditions. As a result, bacteria can migrate towards the source of nutrients or away from harmful chemicals. Surprisingly, many bacterial species that were studied have several distinct motility patterns, which can be theoretically modeled by a unifying random walk approach. We use this approach to quantify the process of cell dispersal in a homogeneous environment and show how the bacterial drift velocity towards the source of attracting chemicals is affected by the motility pattern of the bacteria. Our results open up the possibility of accessing additional information about the intrinsic response of the cells using macroscopic observations of bacteria moving in inhomogeneous environments.

  9. Colchicine affects cell motility, pattern formation and stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium by altering calcium signaling.

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    Poloz, Yekaterina; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-04-01

    Previous work, verified here, showed that colchicine affects Dictyostelium pattern formation, disrupts morphogenesis, inhibits spore differentiation and induces terminal stalk cell differentiation. Here we show that colchicine specifically induces ecmB expression and enhances accumulation of ecmB-expressing cells at the posterior end of multicellular structures. Colchicine did not induce a nuclear translocation of DimB, a DIF-1 responsive transcription factor in vitro. It also induced terminal stalk cell differentiation in a mutant strain that does not produce DIF-1 (dmtA-) and after the treatment of cells with DIF-1 synthesis inhibitor cerulenin (100 μM). This suggests that colchicine induces the differentiation of ecmB-expressing cells independent of DIF-1 production and likely through a signaling pathway that is distinct from the one that is utilized by DIF-1. Depending on concentration, colchicine enhanced random cell motility, but not chemotaxis, by 3-5 fold (10-50 mM colchicine, respectively) through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving phospholipase C, calmodulin and heterotrimeric G proteins. Colchicine's effects were not due to microtubule depolymerization as other microtubule-depolymerizing agents did not have these effects. Finally normal morphogenesis and stalk and spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 10 mM colchicine were rescued through chelation of Ca2+ by BAPTA-AM and EDTA and calmodulin antagonism by W-7 but not PLC inhibition by U-73122. Morphogenesis or spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 50 mM colchicine could not be rescued by the above treatments but terminal stalk cell differentiation was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, EDTA and W-7, but not U-73122. Thus colchicine disrupts morphogenesis and induces stalk cell differentiation through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving specific changes in gene expression and cell motility. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B

  10. O-GlcNAcylation affects β-catenin and E-cadherin expression, cell motility and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer.

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    Harosh-Davidovich, Shani Ben; Khalaila, Isam

    2018-03-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to Ser/Thr residues, is a sensor of the cell metabolic state. Cancer diseases such as colon, lung and breast cancer, possess deregulated O-GlcNAcylation. Studies during the last decade revealed that O-GlcNAcylation is implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and proliferation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cadherin-mediated adhesion are also implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key cellular process in invasion and cancer metastasis. Often, deregulation of the Wnt pathway is caused by altered phosphorylation of its components. Specifically, phosphorylation of Ser or Thr residues of β-catenin affects its location and interaction with E-cadherin, thus facilitating cell-cell adhesion. Consistent with previous studies, the current study indicates that β-catenin is O-GlcNAcylated. To test the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on cell motility and how O-GlcNAcylation might affect β-catenin and E-cadherin functions, the enzyme machinery of O-GlcNAcylation was modulated either with chemical inhibitors or by gene silencing. When O-GlcNAcase (OGA) was inhibited, a global elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation and increase in the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin were noted. Concomitantly with enhanced O-GlcNAcylation, β-catenin transcriptional activity were elevated. Additionally, fibroblast cell motility was enhanced. Stable silenced cell lines with adenoviral OGA or adenoviral O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were established. Consistent with the results obtained by OGA chemical inhibition by TMG, OGT-silencing led to a significant reduction in β-catenin level. In vivo, murine orthotropic colorectal cancer model indicates that elevated O-GlcNAcylation leads to increased mortality rate, tumor and metastasis development. However, reduction in O-GlcNAcylation promoted survival that could be attributed to attenuated tumor and metastasis development. The results described herein provide

  11. Keratinocyte Motility Is Affected by UVA Radiation—A Comparison between Normal and Dysplastic Cells

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    Cristina M. Niculiţe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available UVA radiation induces multiple and complex changes in the skin, affecting epidermal cell behavior. This study reports the effects of UVA exposure on normal (HaCaT and dysplastic (DOK keratinocytes. The adherence, spreading and proliferation were investigated by time-lapse measurement of cell layer impedance on different matrix proteins. Prior to UVA exposure, the time required for adherence and spreading did not differ significantly for HaCaT and DOK cells, while spreading areas were larger for HaCaT cells. Under UVA exposure, HaCaT and DOK cells behavior differed in terms of movement and proliferation. The cells’ ability to cover the denuded surface and individual cell trajectories were recorded by time-lapse videomicroscopy, during wound healing experiments. Dysplastic keratinocytes showed more sensitivity to UVA, exhibiting transient deficiencies in directionality of movement and a delay in re-coating the denuded area. The actin cytoskeleton displayed a cortical organization immediately after irradiation, in both cell lines, similar to mock-irradiated cells. Post-irradiation, DOK cells displayed a better organization of stress fibers, persistent filopodia, and new, stronger focal contacts. In conclusion, after UVA exposure HaCaT and DOK cells showed a different behavior in terms of adherence, spreading, motility, proliferation, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, with the dyplastic keratinocytes being more sensitive.

  12. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  13. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  14. How Delisea pulchra furanones affect quorum sensing and swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Manefield, M.; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2000-01-01

    Halogenated furanones produced by the benthic marine macroalga Delisea pulchra inhibit swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1. This study demonstrates that exogenously added furanones control transcription of the quorum sensing regulated gene swrA in competition with the cognate signal...

  15. Dietary probiotic supplement positively affects sperm motility in obese murine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in adult men in recent years has inconsistently been associated with low semen quality and sub-fecundity. Probiotics have gained high interest as alternatives to pharmacological compounds. However, their possible effect on male fertility has been less investigated. This study aimed...... dose (1x109CFU) of L.Rhamnusus (test group) or physiological saline (control group) for 4 weeks. Sperm motility and kinematics were assessed by the Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA). The control group maintained a raising trend in weight gain leading to a significant difference on week 5 continuing to week 8...... whereas the DIO mice in the test group did not gain significant weight after the start of probiotic test. The test group showed a significantly higher progressive motility compared to the control group after 4 weeks of receiving the probiotic treatment. L.Rhamnusus supplementation demonstrated a higher...

  16. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  17. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon, 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a hypothesis for the UV-B protective/adaptive mechanism in Euglena agilis. After moderate levels of UV-B radiation, ROS plays a signaling role to shut down photosynthetic system for protection against harmful UV radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E. agilis exposed to excessive UV appears to become animal-like, investing all its stored energy into movement rather than into sustaining its photosynthetic machinery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This adaptation allows E. agilis to avoid harmful UV and seek a safe place where the organism may regain its photosynthetic capacity for survival. - Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B; 295-320 nm) radiation on certain vital physiological (photosynthesis), biochemical (production of reactive oxygen species - ROS) and behavioral (motility and orientation) characteristics were investigated in the unicellular photoautotroph, Euglena agilis Carter. The photosynthetic performance of E. agilis was recorded after exposure of between 15 and 60 min followed by a period of recovery lasting 6-24 h under dim light (5-10 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). The maximum quantum yield of PS II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was reduced to 65% and 14% of initial values immediately following 15 and 30 min UV-B exposure, but recovered to 100 and 86% of the initials, respectively. Values of rETR{sub max} in E. agilis exposed to 15 min UV-B were similar to those of the initials, but a 30 min UV exposure resulted in 75% reduction of rETR{sub max} with only a 43% recovery as compared with the initial after 24 h recovery. After a 60 min UV-B exposure, there were no Chl a fluorescence signals, and hence no F{sub v}/F{sub m} or rETR{sub max}. A UV dose-dependent increase in DCFH-DA fluorescence was found in E. agilis cells, reflecting an increase in ROS production. After exposures to UV-B for between 15 and 60 min, the percentages of motile cells in the population decreased to 76, 39 and 15

  18. Development of a methodology to measure the effect of ergot alkaloids on forestomach motility using real-time wireless telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Amanda; Klotz, James; McLeod, Kyle; Harmon, David

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of these experiments were to characterize rumen motility patterns of cattle fed once daily using a real-time wireless telemetry system, determine when to measure rumen motility with this system, and determine the effect of ruminal dosing of ergot alkaloids on rumen motility. Ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (n = 8) were fed a basal diet of alfalfa cubes once daily. Rumen motility was measured by monitoring real-time pressure changes within the rumen using wireless telemetry and pressure transducers. Experiment 1 consisted of three 24-h rumen pressure collections beginning immediately after feeding. Data were recorded, stored, and analyzed using iox2 software and the rhythmic analyzer. All motility variables differed (P content samples were taken on d 15. Baseline (P = 0.06) and peak (P = 0.04) pressure were lower for E+ steers. Water intake tended (P = 0.10) to be less for E+ steers the first 8 hour period after feeding. The E+ seed treatment at this dosage under thermoneutral conditions did not significantly affect rumen motility, ruminal fill, or dry matter of rumen contents.

  19. Turning off sacral nerve stimulation does not affect gastric and small intestinal motility in patients treated for faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsøe, J; Fassov, J; Schlageter, V; Rijkhoff, N J M; Laurberg, S; Krogh, K

    2012-10-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) reduces symptoms in up to 80% of patients with faecal incontinence (FI). Its effects are not limited to the distal colon and the pelvic floor. Accordingly, spinal or supraspinal neuromodulation have been suggested as part of the mode of action. The effect of SNS on gastric and small-intestinal motility was studied. Using the magnet tracking system, MTS-1, a small magnetic pill was tracked twice through the upper gastrointestinal tract of eight patients with FI successfully treated with SNS. Following a randomized double-blind crossover design, the stimulator was either left active or was turned off for 1 week before investigations with MTS-1. The median (range) frequency of gastric con-tractions was 3.05 (2.83-3.40) per min during SNS and 3.04 (2.79?-3.76) per min without (P=NS). The median (range) frequency of contractions in the small intestine during the first 2h after pyloric passage was 10.005 (9.68-10.70) per min during SNS and 10.09 (9.79-10.29) per min without SNS (P=NS). The median (range) velocity of the magnetic pill during the first 2h in the small intestine was 1.6 (1.2-2.8) cm/min during SNS and 1.7 (0.8-3.7) cm/min without SNS (P=NS). Small-intestinal propagation mainly occurred during very fast movements (>15cm/min), accounting for 51% (42-60%) of the distance 3% (2-4%) of the time during SNS and for 53% (18-73%) of the distance 3% (1-8%) of the time without SNS (P=NS). Turning off SNS for 1week did not affect gastric or small-intestinal motility patterns. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Differentiation-Dependent Motility-Responses of Developing Neural Progenitors to Optogenetic Stimulation

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    Tímea Köhidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During neural tissue genesis, neural stem/progenitor cells are exposed to bioelectric stimuli well before synaptogenesis and neural circuit formation. Fluctuations in the electrochemical potential in the vicinity of developing cells influence the genesis, migration and maturation of neuronal precursors. The complexity of the in vivo environment and the coexistence of various progenitor populations hinder the understanding of the significance of ionic/bioelectric stimuli in the early phases of neuronal differentiation. Using optogenetic stimulation, we investigated the in vitro motility responses of radial glia-like neural stem/progenitor populations to ionic stimuli. Radial glia-like neural stem cells were isolated from CAGloxpStoploxpChR2(H134-eYFP transgenic mouse embryos. After transfection with Cre-recombinase, ChR2(channelrhodopsin-2-expressing and non-expressing cells were separated by eYFP fluorescence. Expression of light-gated ion channels were checked by patch clamp and fluorescence intensity assays. Neurogenesis by ChR2-expressing and non-expressing cells was induced by withdrawal of EGF from the medium. Cells in different (stem cell, migrating progenitor and maturing precursor stages of development were illuminated with laser light (λ = 488 nm; 1.3 mW/mm2; 300 ms in every 5 min for 12 h. The displacement of the cells was analyzed on images taken at the end of each light pulse. Results demonstrated that the migratory activity decreased with the advancement of neuronal differentiation regardless of stimulation. Light-sensitive cells, however, responded on a differentiation-dependent way. In non-differentiated ChR2-expressing stem cell populations, the motility did not change significantly in response to light-stimulation. The displacement activity of migrating progenitors was enhanced, while the motility of differentiating neuronal precursors was markedly reduced by illumination.

  1. How Helicobacter pylori urease may affect external pH and influence growth and motility in the mucus environment: evidence from in-vitro studies.

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    Sidebotham, Ramon L; Worku, Mulugeta L; Karim, Q Najma; Dhir, Nirmal K; Baron, J Hugh

    2003-04-01

    Survival of Helicobacter pylori is dependent upon urease in the cytoplasm and at the bacterial surface. We have sought to clarify how alkaline ammonium salts, released from urea by this enzyme, might alter mucus pH and so affect growth and motility of the bacterium in the gastric mucus environment. Experiments were conducted in vitro to determine how the growth and motility of H. pylori are affected by changes in external pH, and how the bacterium, by hydrolysing urea, alters the pH of the bicarbonate buffer that occurs at the gastric mucosal surface. These data were fitted into experimental models that describe how pH varies within the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach. H. pylori was motile between pH 5 and 8, with optimal motility at pH 5. It grew between pH 6 and 8, with optimal growth at pH 6. The bacterium had urease activity between pH 2.7 and 7.4, as evidenced by pH rises in bicarbonate-buffered solutions of urea. Changes in buffer pH were dependent upon initial pH and urea concentration, with the greatest rate of pH change occurring at pH 3. Modelling experiments utilizing these data indicated that (1) in the absence of urease, H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer would be restricted severely by low mucus pH in the acid-secreting stomach, and (2) urease will sometimes inhibit H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer by elevating the pH of the mucus environment above pH 8. Urease is essential to the growth and motility of H. pylori in the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach, but, paradoxically, sometimes it might suppress colonization by raising the mucus pH above 8. This latter effect may protect the bacteria from the adverse consequences of overpopulation.

  2. A mutation in Ccdc39 causes neonatal hydrocephalus with abnormal motile cilia development in mice.

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    Abdelhamed, Zakia; Vuong, Shawn M; Hill, Lauren; Shula, Crystal; Timms, Andrew; Beier, David; Campbell, Kenneth; Mangano, Francesco T; Stottmann, Rolf W; Goto, June

    2018-01-09

    Pediatric hydrocephalus is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is one of the most common congenital brain abnormalities. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating CSF flow in the developing brain. Through whole-genome sequencing analysis, we report that a homozygous splice site mutation in coiled-coil domain containing 39 ( Ccdc39 ) is responsible for early postnatal hydrocephalus in the progressive hydrocephal us ( prh ) mouse mutant. Ccdc39 is selectively expressed in embryonic choroid plexus and ependymal cells on the medial wall of the forebrain ventricle, and the protein is localized to the axoneme of motile cilia. The Ccdc39 prh/prh ependymal cells develop shorter cilia with disorganized microtubules lacking the axonemal inner arm dynein. Using high-speed video microscopy, we show that an orchestrated ependymal ciliary beating pattern controls unidirectional CSF flow on the ventricular surface, which generates bulk CSF flow in the developing brain. Collectively, our data provide the first evidence for involvement of Ccdc39 in hydrocephalus and suggest that the proper development of medial wall ependymal cilia is crucial for normal mouse brain development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin αvβ3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin αvβ3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin αvβ3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with β1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin αvβ3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin αvβ3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin αvβ3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin αvβ3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  4. Down-regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase affects glycosaminoglycans synthesis and motility in HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tsung-Pao; Pan, Yun-Ru; Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@life.nthu.edu.tw

    2010-10-15

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific small interference RNA to treat HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells, a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of UGDH, as well as the cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and GAG production was observed. Treatment of HCT-8 cells with either UGDH-specific siRNA or HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone effectively delayed cell aggregation into multicellular spheroids and impaired cell motility in both three-dimensional collagen gel and transwell migration assays. The reduction in cell aggregation and migration rates could be restored by addition of exogenous HA. These results indicate that UGDH can regulate cell motility through the production of GAG. The enzyme may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancers.

  5. Next generation sequencing analysis reveals that the ribonucleases RNase II, RNase R and PNPase affect bacterial motility and biofilm formation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobre, Vânia; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2015-02-14

    The RNA steady-state levels in the cell are a balance between synthesis and degradation rates. Although transcription is important, RNA processing and turnover are also key factors in the regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli there are three main exoribonucleases (RNase II, RNase R and PNPase) involved in RNA degradation. Although there are many studies about these exoribonucleases not much is known about their global effect in the transcriptome. In order to study the effects of the exoribonucleases on the transcriptome, we sequenced the total RNA (RNA-Seq) from wild-type cells and from mutants for each of the exoribonucleases (∆rnb, ∆rnr and ∆pnp). We compared each of the mutant transcriptome with the wild-type to determine the global effects of the deletion of each exoribonucleases in exponential phase. We determined that the deletion of RNase II significantly affected 187 transcripts, while deletion of RNase R affects 202 transcripts and deletion of PNPase affected 226 transcripts. Surprisingly, many of the transcripts are actually down-regulated in the exoribonuclease mutants when compared to the wild-type control. The results obtained from the transcriptomic analysis pointed to the fact that these enzymes were changing the expression of genes related with flagellum assembly, motility and biofilm formation. The three exoribonucleases affected some stable RNAs, but PNPase was the main exoribonuclease affecting this class of RNAs. We confirmed by qPCR some fold-change values obtained from the RNA-Seq data, we also observed that all the exoribonuclease mutants were significantly less motile than the wild-type cells. Additionally, RNase II and RNase R mutants were shown to produce more biofilm than the wild-type control while the PNPase mutant did not form biofilms. In this work we demonstrate how deep sequencing can be used to discover new and relevant functions of the exoribonucleases. We were able to obtain valuable information about the

  6. Curriculum for neurogastroenterology and motility training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, C P; Savarino, E; Lazarescu, A

    2018-01-01

    Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders are some of the most frequent disorders encountered by practicing gastroenterologists, a structured competency-based training curriculum developed by NGM experts is lacking. The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society (ANMS) ...

  7. Tenascin-C enhances pancreatic cancer cell growth and motility and affects cell adhesion through activation of the integrin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Paron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC is characterized by an abundant fibrous tissue rich in Tenascin-C (TNC, a large ECM glycoprotein mainly synthesized by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs. In human pancreatic tissues, TNC expression increases in the progression from low-grade precursor lesions to invasive cancer. Aim of this study was the functional characterization of the effects of TNC on biologic relevant properties of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Proliferation, migration and adhesion assays were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with TNC or grown on a TNC-rich matrix. Stable transfectants expressing the large TNC splice variant were generated to test the effects of endogenous TNC. TNC-dependent integrin signaling was investigated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition. RESULTS: Endogenous TNC promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. A TNC-rich matrix also enhanced migration as well as the adhesion to the uncoated growth surface of poorly differentiated cell lines. In contrast, adhesion to fibronectin was significantly decreased in the presence of TNC. The effects of TNC on cell adhesion were paralleled by changes in the activation state of paxillin and Akt. CONCLUSION: TNC affects proliferation, migration and adhesion of poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell lines and might therefore play a role in PDAC spreading and metastasis in vivo.

  8. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  9. Motility Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurko, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal motility disorders in the pediatric population are common and can range from benign processes to more serious disorders. Performing and interpreting motility evaluations in children present unique challenges. There are primary motility disorders but abnormal motility may be secondary due to other disease processes. Diagnostic studies include radiographic scintigraphic and manometry studies. Although recent advances in the genetics, biology, and technical aspects are having an important impact and have allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy for gastrointestinal motility disorders in children, further research is needed to be done to have better understanding of the pathophysiology and for better therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

  11. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol

    2001-01-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy

  12. Chronic alcohol consumption affects gastrointestinal motility and reduces the proportion of neuronal NOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the murine jejunum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagyanszki, M.; Krecsmarik, M.; de Winter, B.Y.; de Man, J.G.; Fekete, E.V.A.; Pelckmans, P.A.; Adriaensen, D.; Kroese, A.B.A.; van Nassauw, L.; Timmermans, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption interferes with gastrointestinal transit causing symptoms in alcoholic patients. Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in the control of gastrointestinal motility. Our aim was to investigate whether chronic alcohol intake

  13. The contribution of cell-cell signaling and motility to bacterial biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrout, Joshua D; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many bacteria grow attached to a surface as biofilms. Several factors dictate biofilm formation, including responses by the colonizing bacteria to their environment. Here we review how bacteria use cell-cell signaling (also called quorum sensing) and motility during biofilm formation. Specifically...... gene expression important to the production of polysaccharides, rhamnolipid, and other virulence factors. Surface motility affects the assembly and architecture of biofilms, and some aspects of motility are also influenced by quorum sensing. While some genes and their function are specific to P....... aeruginosa, many aspects of biofilm development can be used as a model system to understand how bacteria differentially colonize surfaces....

  14. A Putative O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase Is Essential for Hormogonium Development and Motility in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatan, Behzad; Bains, Divleen K; Cheng, Monica H; Cho, Ye Won; Huynh, Jessica; Kim, Rachelle; Omoruyi, Osagie H; Pantoja, Adriana P; Park, Jun Sang; Peng, Julia K; Splitt, Samantha D; Tian, Mason Y; Risser, Douglas D

    2017-05-01

    Most species of filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility, likely via a conserved type IV pilus-like system that may also secrete a motility-associated polysaccharide. In a subset of these organisms, motility is achieved only after the transient differentiation of hormogonia, which are specialized filaments that enter a nongrowth state dedicated to motility. Despite the fundamental importance of hormogonia to the life cycles of many filamentous cyanobacteria, the molecular regulation of hormogonium development is largely undefined. To systematically identify genes essential for hormogonium development and motility in the model heterocyst-forming filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme , a forward genetic screen was employed. The first gene identified using this screen, designated ogtA , encodes a putative O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). The deletion of ogtA abolished motility, while ectopic expression of ogtA induced hormogonium development even under hormogonium-repressing conditions. Transcription of ogtA is rapidly upregulated (1 h) following hormogonium induction, and an OgtA-GFPuv fusion protein localized to the cytoplasm. In developing hormogonia, accumulation of PilA but not HmpD is dependent on ogtA Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis indicated equivalent levels of pilA transcript in the wild-type and Δ ogtA mutant strains, while a reporter construct consisting of the intergenic region in the 5' direction of pilA fused to gfp produced lower levels of fluorescence in the Δ ogtA mutant strain than in the wild type. The production of hormogonium polysaccharide in the Δ ogtA mutant strain is reduced compared to that in the wild type but comparable to that in a pilA deletion strain. Collectively, these results imply that O -GlcNAc protein modification regulates the accumulation of PilA via a posttranscriptional mechanism in developing hormogonia. IMPORTANCE Filamentous cyanobacteria are among

  15. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  16. Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703

  17. Stochastic models of cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradinaru, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Cell motility and migration are central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and errors during this process can lead to major diseases. Consequently, the mechanisms and phenomenology of cell motility are currently under intense study. In recent years, a new...... interdisciplinary field focusing on the study of biological processes at the nanoscale level, with a range of technological applications in medicine and biological research, has emerged. The work presented in this thesis is at the interface of cell biology, image processing, and stochastic modeling. The stochastic...... models introduced here are based on persistent random motion, which I apply to real-life studies of cell motility on flat and nanostructured surfaces. These models aim to predict the time-dependent position of cell centroids in a stochastic manner, and conversely determine directly from experimental...

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  19. Esophageal motility in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Iorio, N; Schey, R

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus and is a potential cause of dysphagia and food impaction, most commonly affecting young men. Esophageal manometry findings vary from normal motility to aperistalsis, simultaneous contractions, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It remains unclear whether esophageal dysmotility plays a significant role in the clinical symptoms of EoE. Our aim is to review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and effect of treatment on esophageal dysmotility in EoE. A literature search utilizing the PubMed database was performed using keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, esophageal dysmotility, motility, manometry, impedance planimetry, barium esophagogram, endoscopic ultrasound, and dysphagia. Fifteen studies, totaling 387 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis were identified as keeping in accordance with the aim of this study and included in this review. The occurrence of abnormal esophageal manometry was reported to be between 4 and 87% among patients with EoE. Esophageal motility studies have shown reduced distensibility, abnormal peristalsis, and hypotonicity of the LES in patients with EoE, which may also mimic other esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia or nutcracker esophagus. Studies have shown conflicting results regarding the presence of esophageal dysmotility and symptoms with some reports suggesting a higher rate of food impaction, while others report no correlation between motor function and dysphagia. Motility dysfunction of the esophagus in EoE has not been well reported in the literature and studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding the clinical significance of dysmotility seen in EoE. The correlation between esophageal dysmotility and symptoms of EoE remains unclear. Larger studies are needed to investigate the incidence of esophageal dysmotility, clinical implications, and effect of treatment on

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor activation affects the C13NJ microglia cell line proteome leading to alterations in glycolysis, motility, and cytoskeletal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, Eva; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Heinemann, Akos; Schratl, Petra; Hallström, Seth; Wintersperger, Andrea; Nusshold, Christoph; DeVaney, Trevor; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the CNS, are rapidly activated in response to injury and microglia migration towards and homing at damaged tissue plays a key role in CNS regeneration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in signaling events evoking microglia responses through cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Here we show that human immortalized C13NJ microglia express LPA receptor subtypes LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 on mRNA and protein level. LPA activation of C13NJ cells induced Rho and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and enhanced cellular ATP production. In addition, LPA induced process retraction, cell spreading, led to pronounced changes of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced cell motility, which could be reversed by inhibition of Rho activity. To get an indication about LPA-induced global alterations in protein expression patterns a 2-D DIGE/LC-ESI-MS proteomic approach was applied. On the proteome level the most prominent changes in response to LPA were observed for glycolytic enzymes and proteins regulating cell motility and/or cytoskeletal dynamics. The present findings suggest that naturally occurring LPA is a potent regulator of microglia biology. This might be of particular relevance in the pathophysiological context of neurodegenerative disorders where LPA concentrations can be significantly elevated in the CNS. PMID:19899077

  1. Social motility in african trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberholzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies of trypanosome biology generally consider these protozoan parasites as individual cells in suspension cultures or in animal models of infection. Here we report that the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei engages in social behavior when cultivated on semisolid agarose surfaces. This behavior is characterized by trypanosomes assembling into multicellular communities that engage in polarized migrations across the agarose surface and cooperate to divert their movements in response to external signals. These cooperative movements are flagellum-mediated, since they do not occur in trypanin knockdown parasites that lack normal flagellum motility. We term this behavior social motility based on features shared with social motility and other types of surface-induced social behavior in bacteria. Social motility represents a novel and unexpected aspect of trypanosome biology and offers new paradigms for considering host-parasite interactions.

  2. Esophageal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E.; Wuttge-Hannig, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [de

  3. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  4. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  5. Complex Interplay between FleQ, Cyclic Diguanylate and Multiple σ Factors Coordinately Regulates Flagellar Motility and Biofilm Development in Pseudomonas putida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Jiménez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Most bacteria alternate between a free living planktonic lifestyle and the formation of structured surface-associated communities named biofilms. The transition between these two lifestyles requires a precise and timely regulation of the factors involved in each of the stages that has been likened to a developmental process. Here we characterize the involvement of the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the second messenger cyclic diguanylate in the coordinate regulation of multiple functions related to motility and surface colonization in Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of fleQ caused strong defects in flagellar motility, biofilm formation and surface attachment, and the ability of this mutation to suppress multiple biofilm-related phenotypes associated to cyclic diguanylate overproduction suggests that FleQ mediates cyclic diguanylate signaling critical to biofilm growth. We have constructed a library containing 94 promoters potentially involved in motility and biofilm development fused to gfp and lacZ, screened this library for FleQ and cyclic diguanylate regulation, and assessed the involvement of alternative σ factors σN and FliA in the transcription of FleQ-regulated promoters. Our results suggest a dual mode of action for FleQ. Low cyclic diguanylate levels favor FleQ interaction with σN-dependent promoters to activate the flagellar cascade, encompassing the flagellar cluster and additional genes involved in cyclic diguanylate metabolism, signal transduction and gene regulation. On the other hand, characterization of the FleQ-regulated σN- and FliA-independent PlapA and PbcsD promoters revealed two disparate regulatory mechanisms leading to a similar outcome: the synthesis of biofilm matrix components in response to increased cyclic diguanylate levels.

  6. The relationship between gastrointestinal motility and gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Krista M; Nelson, Laura L

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a devastating disease that most commonly affects large and giant-breed dogs. Though a number of risk factors have been associated with the development of GDV, the etiology of GDV remains unclear. Abnormal gastric motility patterns and delayed gastric emptying have been previously described in dogs following GDV. Work evaluating the effects of gastropexy procedures and changes to gastric motility after experimental GDV has not found the same changes as those found in dogs with naturally occurring GDV. Although the role of abnormal gastric motility in dogs with GDV will need to be clarified with additional research, such study is likely to be facilitated by improved access to and development of noninvasive measurement techniques for the evaluation of gastric emptying and other motility parameters. In particular, the availability of Food and Drug Administration-approved wireless motility devices for the evaluation of gastrointestinal motility is particularly promising in the study of GDV and other functional gastrointestinal diseases of large and giant-breed dogs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Physical models of cell motility

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book surveys the most recent advances in physics-inspired cell movement models. This synergetic, cross-disciplinary effort to increase the fidelity of computational algorithms will lead to a better understanding of the complex biomechanics of cell movement, and stimulate progress in research on related active matter systems, from suspensions of bacteria and synthetic swimmers to cell tissues and cytoskeleton.Cell motility and collective motion are among the most important themes in biology and statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems, and crucial for morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response in eukaryotic organisms. It is also relevant for the development of effective treatment strategies for diseases such as cancer, and for the design of bioactive surfaces for cell sorting and manipulation. Substrate-based cell motility is, however, a very complex process as regulatory pathways and physical force generation mechanisms are intertwined. To understand the interplay between adhesion, force ...

  8. HEATR2 plays a conserved role in assembly of the ciliary motile apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P Diggle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD. Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme.

  9. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  10. The Effect of Curcumin on Intracellular pH (pHi), Membrane Hyperpolarization and Sperm Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-04-01

    Curcumin has shown to affect sperm motility and function in vitro and fertility in vivo. The molecular mechanism(s) by which curcumin affects sperm motility has not been delineated. Since modulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and plasma membrane polarization is involved in sperm motility, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of curcumin on these sperm (human and murine) parameters. The effect of curcumin on sperm forward motility was examined by counting percentages of forward moving sperm. The effect of curcumin on intracellular pH (pHi) was measured by the fluorescent pH indicator 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM). The effect of curcumin on plasma membrane polarization was examined using the fluorescence sensitive dye bis (1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC4(3)]. Curcumin caused a concentration-dependent (ppHi) in both human and mouse sperm. Curcumin induced significant (ppHi and membrane polarization that affect sperm forward motility. These exciting findings will have application in deciphering the signal transduction pathway involved in sperm motility and function and in development of a novel non-steroidal contraceptive for infertility.

  11. Cell motility assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Angela; Jones, Gareth E

    2008-10-01

    This report summarises practical aspects to measuring cell motility in culture. The methods described here were discussed at a 1-day European Tissue Culture Society (ETCS-UK) workshop organised by John Masters and Gareth E Jones that was held at University College London on 19th April 2007.

  12. Sphincter of Oddi motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P; Ebbehøj, N

    1996-01-01

    Gastroenterology. RESULTS: The SO is a zone with an elevated basal pressure with superimposed phasic contractions. It acts mainly as a resistor in the regulation of bile flow. Neurohormonal regulation influences the motility pattern. The contractions are under the control of slow waves. Clinical subgroups show...

  13. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  14. Mitochondrial PKA mediates sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Rashel; Breitbart, Haim

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of ATP to power sperm motility. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has been proposed as a major regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted analyzer, protein detection by western blotting, membrane potential by tetramethylrhodamine, cellular ATP by luciferase assay and localization of PKA by immuno-electron microscopy. Bicarbonate is essential for the creation of mitochondrial electro-chemical gradient, ATP synthesis and sperm motility. Bicarbonate stimulates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of two 60kDa proteins identified as Tektin and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by respiration inhibition and phosphorylation could be restored by glucose in the presence of bicarbonate. However, this effect of glucose cannot be seen when the mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger was inhibited indicating that glycolytic-produced ATP is transported into the mitochondria and allows PKA-dependent protein phosphorylation inside the mitochondria. Bicarbonate activates mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) which catalyzes cAMP production leading to the activation of mitochondrial PKA. Glucose can overcome the lack of ATP in the absence of bicarbonate but it cannot affect the mitochondrial sAC/PKA system, therefore the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the 60kDa proteins does not occur in the absence of bicarbonate. Production of CO2 in Krebs cycle, which is converted to bicarbonate is essential for sAC/PKA activation leading to mitochondrial membrane potential creation and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  16. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B; Byrn, Matthew W; Russell, Matthew H; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell–cell or cell–surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell–cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense. (paper)

  17. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B.; Byrn, Matthew W.; Russell, Matthew H.; Bible, Amber N.; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell-cell or cell-surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell-cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense.

  18. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect

  19. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Patra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher's equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase-a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics.

  20. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pintu; Kissoon, Kimberley; Cornejo, Isabel; Kaplan, Heidi B; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2016-06-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S) motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher's equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase-a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics.

  1. Regulatory challenges affecting ICT development in Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretova, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    in the region in terms of network readiness (64th place out of 139 economies) and global competitiveness (79th place out of 140 economies) in 2016. The significance of ICT policies is broadly understood at the highest political level in Ukraine, however their implementation has always posed a challenge....... And the chapter is organized as follows. Section 2.1 is the introduction; section 2.2 presents an overview of policies and regulations influencing ICTs in Ukraine; section 2.3 presents a snapshot of the national ICT sector which is dominated by the mobile market and the Broadband Access Technology market; Section...... 2.4 provides an insight into the various ICT regulations, how it affected the markets and the challenges in implementing these policies; section 2.5 highlights the role , successes and challenges of implementing regulations aimed at implementing e-government; and section 2.7 concludes this chapter...

  2. The Small RNA ErsA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Contributes to Biofilm Development and Motility through Post-transcriptional Modulation of AmrZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, Marilena; Ferrara, Silvia; Rossi, Elio

    2018-01-01

    . In this study, we show that a knock-out ersA mutant strain forms a flat and uniform biofilm, not characterized by mushroom-multicellular structures typical of a mature biofilm. Conversely, the knock-out mutant strain showed enhanced swarming and twitching motilities. To assess the influence of ErsA on the P....... aeruginosa transcriptome, we performed RNA-seq experiments comparing the knock-out mutant with the wild-type. More than 160 genes were found differentially expressed in the knock-out mutant. Parts of these genes, important for biofilm formation and motility regulation, are known to belong also to the Amr...

  3. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  4. Achalasia and Esophageal Motility Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Mediastinal Tumors Achalasia and Esophageal Motility Disorders Pleural Diseases Mesothelioma Achalasia and Esophageal Motility Disorders Overview The esophagus (ĕ-sof´ah-gus) is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from your mouth to your stomach. If the ...

  5. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.carotenuto@unina.it [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  6. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Formiggini, Fabio; Marco, Nadia De; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos

  7. Live Imaging of Influenza Infection of the Trachea Reveals Dynamic Regulation of CD8+ T Cell Motility by Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert Emo, Kris; Hyun, Young-Min; Reilly, Emma; Barilla, Christopher; Gerber, Scott; Fowell, Deborah; Kim, Minsoo; Topham, David J

    2016-09-01

    During a primary influenza infection, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells need to infiltrate the infected airways and engage virus-infected epithelial cells. The factors that regulate T cell motility in the infected airway tissue are not well known. To more precisely study T cell infiltration of the airways, we developed an experimental model system using the trachea as a site where live imaging can be performed. CD8+ T cell motility was dynamic with marked changes in motility on different days of the infection. In particular, significant changes in average cell velocity and confinement were evident on days 8-10 during which the T cells abruptly but transiently increase velocity on day 9. Experiments to distinguish whether infection itself or antigen affect motility revealed that it is antigen, not active infection per se that likely affects these changes as blockade of peptide/MHC resulted in increased velocity. These observations demonstrate that influenza tracheitis provides a robust experimental foundation to study molecular regulation of T cell motility during acute virus infection.

  8. Live Imaging of Influenza Infection of the Trachea Reveals Dynamic Regulation of CD8+ T Cell Motility by Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Lambert Emo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a primary influenza infection, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells need to infiltrate the infected airways and engage virus-infected epithelial cells. The factors that regulate T cell motility in the infected airway tissue are not well known. To more precisely study T cell infiltration of the airways, we developed an experimental model system using the trachea as a site where live imaging can be performed. CD8+ T cell motility was dynamic with marked changes in motility on different days of the infection. In particular, significant changes in average cell velocity and confinement were evident on days 8-10 during which the T cells abruptly but transiently increase velocity on day 9. Experiments to distinguish whether infection itself or antigen affect motility revealed that it is antigen, not active infection per se that likely affects these changes as blockade of peptide/MHC resulted in increased velocity. These observations demonstrate that influenza tracheitis provides a robust experimental foundation to study molecular regulation of T cell motility during acute virus infection.

  9. Bridging Knowledge Gaps to Understand How Zika Virus Exposure and Infection Affect Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Bill G; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Hazra, Rohan; Spong, Catherine Y

    2017-05-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has profoundly affected the lives of children and families across the Americas. As the number of children born with ZIKV-related complications continues to grow, the long-term developmental trajectory for these children and the effect on their families remains largely unknown. In September 2016, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and partner National Institutes of Health institutes convened a workshop to develop a research agenda to improve the evaluation, monitoring, and management of neonates, infants, or children affected by ZIKV and its complications. The agenda also aims to optimally address the prospective effect of ZIKV exposure on the developing child. The full clinical spectrum of congenital ZIKV syndrome has yet to be elucidated. In addition to the well-described anatomic and neurologic manifestations, clinicians are now describing infants with exaggerated primitive reflexes, epilepsy, acquired hydrocephalus and microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, gastrointestinal motility problems, and respiratory complications, such as pneumonia. While we are still learning more about the myriad clinical presentations in these severely affected children, it is also paramount to address the larger proportion of ZIKV-exposed infants who are asymptomatic at birth but, we assume, may develop problems later in life. The available evidence for neurologic, neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral, auditory, and vision assessments and management for infants with congenital ZIKV syndrome was critically evaluated. Lessons from other congenital infections provide valuable clues about the complexities of management and the optimal approaches for evaluating, treating, and caring for the children, which include engaging and involving parents and caregivers in their treatment. Rigorous research is key to improving the identification of ZIKV-infected mothers and babies. Research also is critical to

  10. Engineering bacterial motility towards hydrogen-peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgile, Chelsea; Hauk, Pricila; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Shang, Wu; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release. Bacteria naturally move towards a variety of molecular cues (e.g., nutrients) in the process of chemotaxis. In this work, we engineered bacteria to recognize and move towards hydrogen peroxide, a non-native chemoattractant and potential toxin. Our system exploits oxyRS, the native oxidative stress regulon of E. coli. We first demonstrated H2O2-mediated upregulation motility regulator, CheZ. Using transwell assays, we showed a two-fold increase in net motility towards H2O2. Then, using a 2D cell tracking system, we quantified bacterial motility descriptors including velocity, % running (of tumble/run motions), and a dynamic net directionality towards the molecular cue. In CheZ mutants, we found that increased H2O2 concentration (0-200 μM) and induction time resulted in increased running speeds, ultimately reaching the native E. coli wild-type speed of ~22 μm/s with a ~45-65% ratio of running to tumbling. Finally, using a microfluidic device with stable H2O2 gradients, we characterized responses and the potential for "programmed" directionality towards H2O2 in quiescent fluids. Overall, the synthetic biology framework and tracking analysis in this work will provide a framework for investigating controlled motility of E. coli and other 'smart' probiotics for signal-directed treatment.

  11. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  12. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  13. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Affective design identification on the development of batik convection product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastawa, H.; Purwaningsih, R.

    2017-11-01

    The affective design is increasingly applied to product development in order to meet the desires and preferences of customers. Batik is a traditional Indonesian culture containing historical and cultural values. The development of batik design is one of the efforts to strengthen the identity and superiority of Indonesia’s creative industries as well as to preserve batik as the cultural heritage of the nation. Batik product designs offered by the manufacturers do not necessarily correspond with the wishes of consumers, especially the affective values involved. Therefore it is necessary to identify consumer perceptions of convection- based batik product in the form of clothing and fabrics, especially the affective value as the consideration for the designer or manufacturer to develop design alternatives to batik convection products. This research aims to obtain information on consumer affective value, to identify the affective value perception differences among X and Y Generation and to classify affective value in the corresponding cluster of the batik products convection. This study uses Kansei engineering to determine the perception of affective design in the form of Kansei word. Cluster Analysis was used to form clusters that classify affective value of the same class. The results showed that there were 16 pairs of Kansei word which was worth as an affective consumer desire, the 3 indicators that had significant differences among X and Y Generation and 4 clusters with different characteristics.

  15. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged

  16. An automatic system to study sperm motility and energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, LZ; Nascimento, JM; Chandsawangbhuwana, C; Botvinick, EL; Berns, MW

    2008-01-01

    An integrated robotic laser and microscope system has been developed to automatically analyze individual sperm motility and energetics. The custom-designed optical system directs near-infrared laser light into an inverted microscope to create a single-point 3-D gradient laser trap at the focal spot of the microscope objective. A two-level computer structure is described that quantifies the sperm motility (in terms of swimming speed and swimming force) and energetics (measuring mid-piece membr...

  17. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  18. Electrical stimulation of gut motility guided by an in silico model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Bradley B.; Henriquez, Craig S.; Grill, Warren M.; Shen, Xiling

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases—ranging from Parkinson’s Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood. Here we develop an integrated neuromechanical model of the ENS and assess neurostimulation strategies for enhancing gut motility, validated by in vivo experiments. Approach. The computational model included a network of enteric neurons, smooth muscle fibers, and interstitial cells of Cajal, which regulated propulsion of a virtual pellet in a model of gut motility. Main results. Simulated extracellular stimulation of ENS-mediated motility revealed that sinusoidal current at 0.5 Hz was more effective at increasing intrinsic peristalsis and reducing colon transit time than conventional higher frequency rectangular current pulses, as commonly used for neuromodulation therapy. Further analysis of the model revealed that the 0.5 Hz sinusoidal currents were more effective at modulating the pacemaker frequency of interstitial cells of Cajal. To test the predictions of the model, we conducted in vivo electrical stimulation of the distal colon while measuring bead propulsion in awake rats. Experimental results confirmed that 0.5 Hz sinusoidal currents were more effective than higher frequency pulses at enhancing gut motility. Significance. This work demonstrates an in silico GI neuromuscular model to enable GI neuromodulation parameter optimization and suggests that low frequency sinusoidal currents may improve the efficacy of GI pacing.

  19. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  20. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  1. Attitudes towards "disorders of sex development" nomenclature among affected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Finlayson, Courtney; Chen, Diane; Yerkes, Elizabeth B; Madonna, Mary Beth; Holl, Jane L; Baratz, Arlene B; Davis, Georgiann; Cheng, Earl Y

    2017-12-01

    Although now commonly used in medicine, the updated "disorders of sex development" (DSD) nomenclature formally introduced in 2006 has never been universally accepted by members of the affected community, particularly advocacy groups. Use of this nomenclature by medical professionals may unintentionally negatively affect access to healthcare and research for individuals with DSD conditions. Among individuals affected by various DSD diagnoses, this study sought to (1) evaluate attitudes towards potentially controversial DSD terminology, (2) determine potential impact of terminology on how affected individuals access healthcare, and (3) explore alternate terms. A web-based survey was developed in collaboration with the AIS-DSDSG (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome-DSD Support Group) leadership. AIS-DSDSG members (caregivers and affected individuals) were surveyed about attitudes towards DSD, potential impact on healthcare utilization, and alternate terms. A qualitative analysis of reasons for using/avoiding specific terms was performed. Surveys were completed by 202 out of 580 (35%) AIS-DSDSG members (61% affected, 39% caregivers; 16% non-gender binary; age range of affected individuals 0-86 years). Only 24% use disorder of sex development to describe themselves/their child. A majority (69%) had a negative emotional experience because of clinical use of nomenclature; 81% changed their care because of it. Preferred and non-preferred terms for clinical care and research are illustrated in the figure. Preferred diagnostic terms were intersex, variation in sex development, and difference of sex development (55%, 52%, and 50% liked/strongly liked, respectively). Disorder of sex development was not preferred (17% liked/strongly liked). About one-third reported that they would not attend a clinic named the Disorder of Sex Development Clinic. Overall, 81% provided qualitative comments; flexible terminology use was a key theme. These study findings are consistent with previous

  2. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  3. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  4. Automated measurement of cell motility and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Julie

    2005-04-01

    -cell objects, and uncertainty in the outlining and positioning of cells by automated image analysis. Exponential growth, as monitored by total cell area, did not linearly correlate with absolute cell number, but proved valuable for selection of reliable tracking data and for disclosing between-experiment variations in cell growth. Conclusion These results demonstrate the applicability of a system that uses fully automated image acquisition and analysis to study cell motility and growth. Cellular motility response is determined in an unbiased and comparatively high throughput manner. Abundant ancillary data provide opportunities for uniform filtering according to criteria that select for biological relevance and for providing insight into features of system performance. Data quality measures have been developed that can serve as a basis for the design and quality control of experiments that are facilitated by automation and the 384 well plate format. This system is applicable to large-scale studies such as drug screening and research into effects of complex combinations of factors and matrices on cell phenotype.

  5. Towards a Theory of Affect and Software Developers' Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Graziotin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people. The underlying assumption seems to be that "happy and satisfied software developers perform better". More specifically, affects-emotions and moods-have an impact on cognitive activities and the working performance of individuals. Development tasks are undertaken heavily through cognitive processes, yet software engineering research (SE) lacks theo...

  6. Automatic Bowel Motility Evaluation Technique for Noncontact Sound Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Sato

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed for the evaluation of bowel motility. More recently, our group proposed a novel method to evaluate bowel motility on the basis of BS acquired using a noncontact microphone. However, the method required manually detecting BS in the sound recordings, and manual segmentation is inconvenient and time consuming. To address this issue, herein, we propose a new method to automatically evaluate bowel motility for noncontact sound recordings. Using simulations for the sound recordings obtained from 20 human participants, we showed that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of approximately 90% in automatic bowel sound detection when acoustic feature power-normalized cepstral coefficients are used as inputs to artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we showed that bowel motility can be evaluated based on the three acoustic features in the time domain extracted by our method: BS per minute, signal-to-noise ratio, and sound-to-sound interval. The proposed method has the potential to contribute towards the development of noncontact evaluation methods for bowel motility.

  7. Developing Affective Mental Imagery Stimuli with Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Facciani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.

  8. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Drives Cell Motility via Rho-GTPase-Induced Filopodium Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakaitytė, Gabrielė; Nwogu, Nnenna; Dobson, Samuel J; Knight, Laura M; Wasson, Christopher W; Salguero, Francisco J; Blackbourn, David J; Blair, G Eric; Mankouri, Jamel; Macdonald, Andrew; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2018-01-15

    Cell motility and migration is a complex, multistep, and multicomponent process intrinsic to progression and metastasis. Motility is dependent on the activities of integrin receptors and Rho family GTPases, resulting in the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of various motile actin-based protrusions. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a high likelihood of recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with the majority of MCC cases, and MCPyV-induced tumorigenesis largely depends on the expression of the small tumor antigen (ST). Since the discovery of MCPyV, a number of mechanisms have been suggested to account for replication and tumorigenesis, but to date, little is known about potential links between MCPyV T antigen expression and the metastatic nature of MCC. Previously, we described the action of MCPyV ST on the microtubule network and how it impacts cell motility and migration. Here, we demonstrate that MCPyV ST affects the actin cytoskeleton to promote the formation of filopodia through a mechanism involving the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 4 (PP4C). We also show that MCPyV ST-induced cell motility is dependent upon the activities of the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA. In addition, our results indicate that the MCPyV ST-PP4C interaction results in the dephosphorylation of β 1 integrin, likely driving the cell motility pathway. These findings describe a novel mechanism by which a tumor virus induces cell motility, which may ultimately lead to cancer metastasis, and provides opportunities and strategies for targeted interventions for disseminated MCC. IMPORTANCE Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the most recently discovered human tumor virus. It causes the majority of cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms implicating MCPyV-encoded proteins in cancer development are yet to be fully elucidated. This study builds

  9. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...

  10. How do mean division shares affect growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Liang Frank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gini coefficient is widely used in academia to discuss how income inequality affects development and growth. However, different Lorenz curves may provide different development and growth outcomes while still leading to the same Gini coefficient. This paper studies the development effects of “mean division shares”, i.e., the share of income (mean income share held by people whose household disposable income per capita is below the mean income and the share of the population (mean population share with this income, using panel data. Our analysis explores how this income share and population share impact development and growth. It shows that the income and population shares affect growth in significantly different ways and that an analysis of these metrics provides substantial value compared to that of the Gini coefficient.

  11. Major constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study contributes to nationwide attempts to enhance the contributions of aquaculture to the fishery subsector, and consequent overall gross domestic product of Nigeria, as well as to the protein intake of her citizenry. The focus is on the determination of the magnitude of constraints affecting aquaculture development in ...

  12. How does technological regime affect performance of technology development projects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Hooshangi, Soheil; Zhao, Y. Lisa; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how technological regime affects the performance of technology development projects (i.e., project quality, sales, and profit). Technological regime is defined as the set of attributes of a technological environment where the innovative activities of firms take place.

  13. Cell motility and antibiotic tolerance of bacterial swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenlong

    Many bacteria species can move across moist surfaces in a coordinated manner known as swarming. It is reported that swarm cells show higher tolerance to a wide variety of antibiotics than planktonic cells. We used the model bacterium E. coli to study how motility affects the antibiotic tolerance of swarm cells. Our results provide new insights for the control of pathogenic invasion via regulating cell motility. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: zwlong@live.com.

  14. Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders: Beyond Achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Patti, Marco G.

    2017-01-01

    The best-defined primary esophageal motor disorder is achalasia. However, symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation and chest pain can be caused by other esophageal motility disorders. The Chicago classification introduced new manometric parameters and better defined esophageal motility disorders. Motility disorders beyond achalasia with the current classification are: esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, major disorders of peristalsis (distal esophageal spasm, hypercontractile esoph...

  15. Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects

  16. Professional Group Development Trainers’ Personality Characteristics and Affective Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eRapp Ricciardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after

  17. Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders: Beyond Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Patti, Marco G

    2017-06-30

    The best-defined primary esophageal motor disorder is achalasia. However, symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation and chest pain can be caused by other esophageal motility disorders. The Chicago classification introduced new manometric parameters and better defined esophageal motility disorders. Motility disorders beyond achalasia with the current classification are: esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, major disorders of peristalsis (distal esophageal spasm, hypercontractile esophagus, absent contractility) and minor disorders of peristalsis (ineffective esophageal motility, fragmented peristalsis). The aim of this study was to review the current diagnosis and management of esophageal motility disorders other than achalasia.

  18. Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi Motility and Chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chunhao

    2018-01-01

    Swimming plate, cell motion tracking, and capillary tube assays are very useful tools to quantitatively measure bacterial motility and chemotaxis. These methods were modified and applied to study Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis. By using these methods, numerous motility and chemotaxis mutants have been characterized and several chemoattractants were identified. With the assistance of these tools, the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi has been established. In addition, these tools also facilitate the study of motility and chemotaxis in other spirochetes.

  19. [Motility disorders of the esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, E; Rougemont, A-L; Furlano, R I; Schneider, J F; Mayr, J; Haecker, F-M; Beier, K; Schneider, J; Weber, P; Berberich, T; Cathomas, G; Meier-Ruge, W A

    2013-03-01

    Motility disorders of the esophagus comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases. Primary malformations of the esophagus are now amenable to improved surgical and gastroenterological therapies; however, they often lead to persistent long-term esophageal dysmotility. Achalasia originates from impaired relaxation of the gastroesophageal sphincter apparatus. Systemic diseases may give rise to secondary disorders of esophageal motility. A number of visceral neuromuscular disorders show an esophageal manifestation but aganglionosis rarely extends into the esophagus. The growing group of myopathies includes metabolic and mitochondrial disorders with increasing levels of genetic characterization and incipient emergence of therapeutic strategies. Esophagitis with an infectious etiology causes severe dysmotility particularly in immunocompromised patients. Immunologically mediated inflammatory processes involving the esophagus are increasingly better understood. Finally, rare tumors and tumor-like lesions may impair esophageal motor function.

  20. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Esophageal motility in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Weiss

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Motility dysfunction of the esophagus in EoE has not been well reported in the literature and studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding the clinical significance of dysmotility seen in EoE. The correlation between esophageal dysmotility and symptoms of EoE remains unclear. Larger studies are needed to investigate the incidence of esophageal dysmotility, clinical implications, and effect of treatment on patients with EoE.

  2. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  3. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  4. Persistent enhancement of bacterial motility increases tumor penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornlow, Dana N; Brackett, Emily L; Gigas, Jonathan M; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S

    2015-11-01

    Motile bacteria can overcome the transport limitations that hinder many cancer therapies. Active bacteria can penetrate through tissue to deliver treatment to resistant tumor regions. Bacterial therapy has had limited success, however, because this motility is heterogeneous, and within a population many individuals are non-motile. In human trials, heterogeneity led to poor dispersion and incomplete tumor colonization. To address these problems, a swarm-plate selection method was developed to increase swimming velocity. Video microscopy was used to measure the velocity distribution of selected bacteria and a microfluidic tumor-on-a-chip device was used to measure penetration through tumor cell masses. Selection on swarm plates increased average velocity fourfold, from 4.9 to 18.7 μm/s (P < 0.05) and decreased the number of non-motile individuals from 51% to 3% (P < 0.05). The selected phenotype was both robust and stable. Repeating the selection process consistently increased velocity and eliminated non-motile individuals. When selected strains were cryopreserved and subcultured for 30.1 doublings, the high-motility phenotype was preserved. In the microfluidic device, selected Salmonella penetrated deeper into cell masses than unselected controls. By 10 h after inoculation, control bacteria accumulated in the front 30% of cell masses, closest to the flow channel. In contrast, selected Salmonella accumulated in the back 30% of cell masses, farthest from the channel. Selection increased the average penetration distance from 150 to 400 μm (P < 0.05). This technique provides a simple and rapid method to generate high-motility Salmonella that has increased penetration and potential for greater tumor dispersion and clinical efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  6. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Biccard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.

  7. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Bacterial Motility at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Sowa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a physical inhibitor of bacterial motility, but the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is still unknown. Here, we developed a high-pressure microscope that enables us to acquire high-resolution microscopic images, regardless of applied pressures. We also characterized the pressure dependence of the motility of swimming Escherichia coli cells and the rotation of single flagellar motors. The fraction and speed of swimming cells decreased with increased pressure. At 80 MPa, all cells stopped swimming and simply diffused in solution. After the release of pressure, most cells immediately recovered their initial motility. Direct observation of the motility of single flagellar motors revealed that at 80 MPa, the motors generate torque that should be sufficient to join rotating filaments in a bundle. The discrepancy in the behavior of free swimming cells and individual motors could be due to the applied pressure inhibiting the formation of rotating filament bundles that can propel the cell body in an aqueous environment. PMID:22768943

  9. Leukocyte Motility Models Assessed through Simulation and Multi-objective Optimization-Based Model Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark N Read

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of two-photon microscopy now reveals unprecedented, detailed spatio-temporal data on cellular motility and interactions in vivo. Understanding cellular motility patterns is key to gaining insight into the development and possible manipulation of the immune response. Computational simulation has become an established technique for understanding immune processes and evaluating hypotheses in the context of experimental data, and there is clear scope to integrate microscopy-informed motility dynamics. However, determining which motility model best reflects in vivo motility is non-trivial: 3D motility is an intricate process requiring several metrics to characterize. This complicates model selection and parameterization, which must be performed against several metrics simultaneously. Here we evaluate Brownian motion, Lévy walk and several correlated random walks (CRWs against the motility dynamics of neutrophils and lymph node T cells under inflammatory conditions by simultaneously considering cellular translational and turn speeds, and meandering indices. Heterogeneous cells exhibiting a continuum of inherent translational speeds and directionalities comprise both datasets, a feature significantly improving capture of in vivo motility when simulated as a CRW. Furthermore, translational and turn speeds are inversely correlated, and the corresponding CRW simulation again improves capture of our in vivo data, albeit to a lesser extent. In contrast, Brownian motion poorly reflects our data. Lévy walk is competitive in capturing some aspects of neutrophil motility, but T cell directional persistence only, therein highlighting the importance of evaluating models against several motility metrics simultaneously. This we achieve through novel application of multi-objective optimization, wherein each model is independently implemented and then parameterized to identify optimal trade-offs in performance against each metric. The resultant Pareto

  10. Sperm motility in fishes. (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky

    2006-01-01

    The spermatozoa of most fish species are immotile in the testis and seminal plasma. Therefore, motility is induced after the spermatozoa are released into the aqueous environment during natural reproduction or into the diluent during artificial reproduction. There are clear relationships between seminal plasma composition and osmolality and the duration of fish sperm motility. Various parameters such as ion concentrations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+), osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and dilution rate affect motility. In the present paper, we review the roles of these ions on sperm motility in Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, Acipenseridae and marine fishes, and their relationship with seminal plasma composition. Results in the literature show that: 1. K+ is a key ion controlling sperm motility in Salmonidae and Acipenseridae in combination with osmotic pressure; this control is more simple in other fish species: sperm motility is prevented when the osmotic pressure is high (Cyprinidae) or low (marine fishes) compared to that of the seminal fluid. 2. Cations (mostly divalent, such as Ca2+) are antagonistic with the inhibitory effect of K+ on sperm motility. 3. In many species, Ca2+ influx and K+ or Na+ efflux through specific ionic channels change the membrane potential and eventually lead to an increase in cAMP concentration in the cell, which constitutes the initiation signal for sperm motility in Salmonidae. 4. Media that are hyper- and hypo-osmotic relative to seminal fluid trigger sperm motility in marine and freshwater fishes, respectively. 5. The motility of fish spermatozoa is controlled through their sensitivity to osmolality and ion concentrations. This phenomenon is related to ionic channel activities in the membrane and governs the motility mechanisms of axonemes.

  11. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

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    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  12. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

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    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  13. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  14. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

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    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  15. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD AROMATIZATION

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    Н.Ye. Dubova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.

  16. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed by Pandolfino et al, includes contraction patterns and peristalsis integrity based on integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4. It can be discriminating the achalasia from non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical findings in non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders based on the most recent Chicago classification. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 963 patients that had been referred to manometry department of Gastrointestinal and Liver Research Center, Firozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April, 2012 to April, 2015. They had upper GI disorder (Dysphasia, non-cardiac chest pain, regurgitation, heartburn, vomiting and asthma and weight loss. Data were collected from clinical examinations as well as patient questionnaires. Manometry, water-perfused, was done for all patients. Manometry criteria of the patients who had integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4 ≤ 15 mmHg were studied. Results: Our finding showed that the non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders (58% was more common than the achalasia (18.2%. Heartburn (68.5%, regurgitation (65.4% and non-cardiac chest pain (60.6% were the most common clinical symptoms. Although, vomiting (91.7% and weight loss (63% were the most common symptoms in referring patients but did not discriminate this disorders from each other’s. Borderline motor function (67.2% was the most common, absent peristalsis (97% and the hyper

  17. In-vitro effect of estrogen-antagonist on motility and penetration ability of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Rangari, K

    1997-08-01

    Antiestrogens affect spermatozoa through their action on Leydig and Sertoli cells. Direct effect of antiestrogens namely tamoxifen and centchroman in concentration of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 micrograms/ml in incubation medium was determined on motility and penetration ability of human spermatozoa. Motility (%) was invariably reduced after 15, 30 and 60 min. of incubation. Addition of 17 beta-estradiol to medium with antagonist caused inhibition of motility in dose related manner. The distance travelled by spermatozoa treated with tamoxifen or centchroman in media was reduced by 30% and addition of estradiol along with antiestrogen reduced it to 50% compared to that of untreated spermatozoa.

  18. Asian motility studies in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-04-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotility in Asian IBS patients were reviewed. MEDLINE search work was performed including following terms, 'IBS,' 'motility,' 'transit time,' 'esophageal motility,' 'gastric motility,' 'small intestinal motility,' 'colonic motility,' 'anorectal function,' and 'gallbladder motility' and over 100 articles were categorized under 'esophagus,' 'stomach,' 'small intestine,' 'colon,' 'anorectum,' 'gallbladder,' 'transit,' 'motor pattern,' and 'effect of stressors.' Delayed gastric emptying, slow tansit in constipation predominant IBS patients, rapid transit in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, accelerated motility responses to various stressors such as meals, mental stress, or corticotrophin releasing hormones, and altered rectal compliance and altered rectal accomodation were reported in many Asian studies regarding IBS. Many conflicting results were found among these studies and there are still controversies to conclude these as unique features of Asian IBS patients. Multinational and multicenter studies are needed to be performed vigorously in order to elaborate characteristics as well as differences of altered motililty in Asian patients with IBS.

  19. Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Ugonna; Shields, C Wyatt; Han, Koohee; Tyler, Talmage; Velev, Orlin D; Jokerst, Nan

    2018-05-03

    Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assembly, disassembly, and reconfiguration. Here we introduce a class of semiconductor microparticles that can be comprehensively designed (in size, shape, electric polarizability, and patterned coatings) using standard microfabrication tools. These custom silicon particles draw energy from external electric fields to actively propel, while interacting hydrodynamically, and sequentially assemble and disassemble on demand. We show that a number of electrokinetic effects, such as dielectrophoresis, induced charge electrophoresis, and diode propulsion, can selectively power the microparticle motions and interactions. The ability to achieve on-demand locomotion, tractable fluid flows, synchronized motility, and reversible assembly using engineered silicon microparticles may enable advanced applications that include remotely powered microsensors, artificial muscles, reconfigurable neural networks and computational systems.

  20. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2014-01-01

    intestinal and colonic transit. This article reviews current imaging techniques, methods for data processing and principles for evaluating results when scintigraphy is used to assess gastrointestinal motility. Furthermore, clinical indications for performing scintigraphy are reviewed.......Gastrointestinal transit reflects overall gastrointestinal motor activity and is regulated by a complex interplay between neural and hormonal stimuli. Thus, transit measurements provide a measure of the combined effects of gastrointestinal muscular activity and feedback from the gut and brain....... Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...

  1. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam. The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta.

  2. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  3. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  4. hemingway is required for sperm flagella assembly and ciliary motility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulavie, Fabien; Piepenbrock, David; Thomas, Joëlle; Vieillard, Jennifer; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Cortier, Elisabeth; Laurençon, Anne; Göpfert, Martin C; Durand, Bénédicte

    2014-04-01

    Cilia play major functions in physiology and development, and ciliary dysfunctions are responsible for several diseases in humans called ciliopathies. Cilia motility is required for cell and fluid propulsion in organisms. In humans, cilia motility deficiencies lead to primary ciliary dyskinesia, with upper-airways recurrent infections, left-right asymmetry perturbations, and fertility defects. In Drosophila, we identified hemingway (hmw) as a novel component required for motile cilia function. hmw encodes a 604-amino acid protein characterized by a highly conserved coiled-coil domain also found in the human orthologue, KIAA1430. We show that HMW is conserved in species with motile cilia and that, in Drosophila, hmw is expressed in ciliated sensory neurons and spermatozoa. We created hmw-knockout flies and found that they are hearing impaired and male sterile. hmw is implicated in the motility of ciliated auditory sensory neurons and, in the testis, is required for elongation and maintenance of sperm flagella. Because HMW is absent from mature flagella, we propose that HMW is not a structural component of the motile axoneme but is required for proper acquisition of motile properties. This identifies HMW as a novel, evolutionarily conserved component necessary for motile cilium function and flagella assembly.

  5. CASAnova: a multiclass support vector machine model for the classification of human sperm motility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Summer G; White, Sarah; Stevans, Alicia M; Bhat, Sanjana; Kao, Chia-Yu; Jaworski, Scott; Marlowe, Tamara R; Kohlmeier, Martin; McMillan, Leonard; Zeisel, Steven H; O'Brien, Deborah A

    2017-11-01

    The ability to accurately monitor alterations in sperm motility is paramount to understanding multiple genetic and biochemical perturbations impacting normal fertilization. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) of human sperm typically reports motile percentage and kinematic parameters at the population level, and uses kinematic gating methods to identify subpopulations such as progressive or hyperactivated sperm. The goal of this study was to develop an automated method that classifies all patterns of human sperm motility during in vitro capacitation following the removal of seminal plasma. We visually classified CASA tracks of 2817 sperm from 18 individuals and used a support vector machine-based decision tree to compute four hyperplanes that separate five classes based on their kinematic parameters. We then developed a web-based program, CASAnova, which applies these equations sequentially to assign a single classification to each motile sperm. Vigorous sperm are classified as progressive, intermediate, or hyperactivated, and nonvigorous sperm as slow or weakly motile. This program correctly classifies sperm motility into one of five classes with an overall accuracy of 89.9%. Application of CASAnova to capacitating sperm populations showed a shift from predominantly linear patterns of motility at initial time points to more vigorous patterns, including hyperactivated motility, as capacitation proceeds. Both intermediate and hyperactivated motility patterns were largely eliminated when sperm were incubated in noncapacitating medium, demonstrating the sensitivity of this method. The five CASAnova classifications are distinctive and reflect kinetic parameters of washed human sperm, providing an accurate, quantitative, and high-throughput method for monitoring alterations in motility. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Neonatal handling affects durably bonding and social development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Henry

    Full Text Available The neonatal period in humans and in most mammals is characterized by intense mother-young interactions favoring pair bonding and the adaptation of neonates to their new environment. However, in many post-delivery procedures, human babies commonly experience combined maternal separation and intense handling for about one hour post-birth. Currently, the effects of such disturbances on later attachment and on the development of newborns are still debated: clearly, further investigations are required. As animals present good models for controlled experimentation, we chose domestic horses to investigate this issue. Horses, like humans, are characterized by single births, long lactating periods and selective mother-infant bonds. Routine postnatal procedures for foals, as for human babies, also involve intense handling and maternal separation. In the present study, we monitored the behavior of foals from early stages of development to "adolescence", in a normal ecological context (social groups with adults and peers. Experimental foals, separated from their mothers and handled for only 1 hour post-birth, were compared to control foals, left undisturbed after birth. Our results revealed short- and long-term effects of this unique neonatal experience on attachment and subsequent social competences. Thus, experimental foals presented patterns of insecure attachment to their mothers (strong dependence on their mothers, little play and impaired social competences (social withdrawal, aggressiveness at all ages. We discuss these results in terms of mother-young interactions, timing of interactions and relationships between bonding and subsequent social competences. Our results indicate that this ungulate species could become an interesting animal model. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that intervention just after birth affects bonding and subsequent social competences (at least until "adolescence". It opens new research directions for

  7. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, Caroline M [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Domaschenz, Renae [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Gene Regulation and Chromatin Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Williamson, Daniel [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Paul O' Gorman Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H, E-mail: phj20@cam.ac.uk [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  8. Investigation of motility and biofilm formation by intestinal Campylobacter concisus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrencic Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motility helps many pathogens swim through the highly viscous intestinal mucus. Given the differing outcomes of Campylobacter concisus infection, the motility of eight C. concisus strains isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease (n=3, acute (n=3 and chronic (n=1 gastroenteritis and a healthy control (n=1 were compared. Following growth on solid or liquid media the eight strains formed two groups; however, the type of growth medium did not affect motility. In contrast, following growth in viscous liquid medium seven of the eight strains demonstrated significantly decreased motility. In media of increasing viscosities the motility of C. concisus UNSWCD had two marked increases at viscosities of 20.0 and 74.7 centipoises. Determination of the ability of UNSWCD to swim through a viscous medium, adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells showed that while adherence levels significantly decreased with increasing viscosity, invasion levels did not significantly change. In contrast, adherence to and invasion of UNSWCD to mucus-producing intestinal cells increased upon accumulation of mucus, as did bacterial aggregation. Given this aggregation, we determined the ability of the eight C. concisus strains to form biofilms, and showed that all strains formed biofilms. In conclusion, the finding that C. concisus strains could be differentiated into two groups based on their motility may suggest that strains with high motility have an increased ability to swim through the intestinal mucus and reach the epithelial layer.

  9. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  10. Multifaceted role of galectin-3 on human glioblastoma cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debray, Charles; Vereecken, Pierre; Belot, Nathalie; Teillard, Peggy; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pochet, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors' aggressiveness results from an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death favoring growth, but also from the propensity of tumor cells to detach from the primary tumor site, migrate, and invade the surrounding parenchyma. Astrocytic tumor progression is known to be associated with an increased expression of galectin-3. We investigated in cell culture how galectin-3 expression affects astrocytoma cell motility. Galectin-3 deficient cells were obtained by stable transfection of the U373 glioblastoma cell line with a specific expression antisense plasmid. Cultured galectin-3 deficient glioblastoma cells showed increased motility potential on laminin and modifications in the cytoskeleton reorganization. In addition, c-DNA microarrays and quantitative immunofluorescence analysis showed that galectin-3 deficient U373 cells have an increased expression of integrins-α6 and -β1, proteins known to be implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion

  11. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    hydrated habitats, where water dynamics result in fragmented aquatic habitats connected by micrometric films, is debated. Here, we quantify the spatial dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and its nonflagellated isogenic mutant as affected by the hydration status of a rough porous surface using......Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...... an experimental system that mimics aquatic habitats found in unsaturated soils. The flagellar motility of the model soil bacterium decreased sharply within a small range of water potential (0 to −2 kPa) and nearly ceased in liquid films of effective thickness smaller than 1.5 μm. However, bacteria could rapidly...

  12. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spatial organization and spatial dynamics of microbial populations in soil at a scale close to that of the microorganisms is scarce. While passive dispersal via water ow or soil biota is probably a major dispersal route, it is reasonable to consider that active dispersal also...... and their isogenic mutants unable to express various type of motility we aimed to quantify the physical limits of bacterial motility. Our results demonstrate how hydration controls bacterial motility under unsaturated conditions. They can form the base of improved biodegradation models that include microbial...

  13. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  14. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B Hawkins

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  15. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jared B; Jones, Mark T; Plassmann, Paul E; Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing) arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  16. Esophageal Motility Disorders: Current Concepts of Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kahrilas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current concepts of esophageal motility disorders are summarized. Primary data sources were located via MEDLINE or cross-citation. No attempt was made to be comprehensive or inclusive of the literature because fewer than 10% of citations are discussed. Instead, emphasis was placed on new developments in diagnosis, therapeutics, and practice patterns. Controlled therapeutic trials and pathophysiological observations are emphasized. Achalasia is a rare disease of failed lower sphincter relaxation and aperistalsis. Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES, an equally rare disease, is defined by non-propagated esophageal contractions. Nonspecific motility disorders, including nutcracker esophagus and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, are identified only by manometry and are ten times as prevalent. Neuromuscular pathology is evident only with achalasia (myenteric plexus neurons destruction. Pharmacological therapies have limited efficacy with achalasia; more limited with DES; and none with the nonspecific motility disorders. More efficacious therapies for the nonspecific disorders are directed at associated reflux disease or psychiatric disorders. Pneumatic dilation is effective therapy for achalasia 72% of instances, but frequently requires repeat dilation and is complicated by a 3% perforation rate. Surgical myotomy is effective in 88% of achalasics; morbidity from thoracotomy has been the major limitation but this has been sharply reduced with a laparoscopic approach. In conclusion, although it has been suggested that esophageal motility disorders are distinct clinical entities, critical review of the literature supports this only in the case of achalasia, a disease of well defined pathophysiology, functional disturbance, and therapies. This clarity diminishes progressively for DES and non-specific esophageal motility disorders.

  17. Physiology of Normal Esophageal Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus consists of two different parts. In humans, the cervical esophagus is composed of striated muscles and the thoracic esophagus is composed of phasic smooth muscles. The striated muscle esophagus is innervated by the lower motor neurons and peristalsis in this segment is due to sequential activation of the motor neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Both primary and secondary peristaltic contractions are centrally mediated. The smooth muscle of esophagus is phasic in nature and is innervated by intramural inhibitory (nitric oxide releasing) and excitatory (acetylcholine releasing) neurons that receive inputs from separate sets of preganglionic neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus. The primary peristalsis in this segment involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. The primary peristalsis consist of inhibition (called deglutitive inhibition) followed by excitation. The secondary peristalsis is entirely due to peripheral mechanisms and also involves inhibition followed by excitation. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is characterized by tonic muscle that is different from the muscle of the esophageal body. The LES, like the esophageal body smooth muscle, is also innervated by the inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The LES maintains tonic closure due to its myogenic property. The LES tone is modulated by the inhibitory and the excitatory nerves. Inhibitory nerves mediate LES relaxation and the excitatory nerves mediate reflex contraction or rebound contraction of the LES. Clinical disorders of esophageal motility can be classified on the basis of disorders of the inhibitory and excitatory innervations and the smooth muscles. PMID:18364578

  18. Statistical Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development: Impact of Mutations in Genes Involved in Twitching Motility, Cell-to-Cell Signaling, and Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Kato, Junichi

    2002-01-01

    of variance model comprising the four P. aeruginosa strains, five time points (55, 98, 146, 242, and 314 h), and three independent rounds of biofllm experiments. The results showed that the wild type, the DeltapilHIJK mutant, and the rpoS mutant display conspicuously different types of temporal biofilm...... development, whereas the lasI mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type at all time points. The wild type and the lasI mutant formed uniform, densely packed biofilms. The rpoS mutant formed densely packed biofilms that were significantly thicker than those of the wild type, whereas the Deltapil...

  19. Chicago classification criteria of esophageal motility disorders defined in high resolution esophageal pressure topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Fox, M.; Kahrilas, P. J.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Schwizer, W.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Conklin, Jeffrey L.; Cook, Ian J.; Gyawali, C. Prakash; Hebbard, Geoffrey; Holloway, Richard H.; Ke, Meiyun; Keller, Jutta; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Peters, Jeff; Richter, Joel; Roman, Sabine; Rommel, Nathalie; Sifrim, Daniel; Tutuian, Radu; Valdovinos, Miguel; Vela, Marcelo F.; Zerbib, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chicago Classification of esophageal motility was developed to facilitate the interpretation of clinical high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) studies, concurrent with the widespread adoption of this technology into clinical practice. The Chicago Classification has been

  20. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.; Gadê lha, H.; Smith, D.J.; Blake, J.R.; Kirkman-Brown, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian

  1. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  2. Apprenticeship-based training in neurogastroenterology and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Sharma, Amol; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Viswanathan, Lavanya; Rao, Satish S C

    2018-03-01

    Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders affect 50% of patients seen in clinics, many gastroenterologists receive limited NGM training. One-month apprenticeship-based NGM training has been provided at ten centers in the USA for a decade, however, outcomes of this training are unclear. Our goal was to describe the effectiveness of this program from a trainees perspective. Areas covered: We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program. During a one-month training period, 302 procedures including; breath tests (BT) n = 132, anorectal manometry (ARM) n = 29 and esophageal manometry (EM) n = 28, were performed. Post-training, all trainees (n = 12) knew indications for motility tests, and the majority achieved independence in basic interpretation of BT, EM and ARM. Additionally, in a multiple-choice NGM written-test paper, trainees achieved significant improvements in test scores post-training (P = 0.003). Expert commentary: One-month training at a high-volume center can facilitate rapid learning of NGM and the indications, basic interpretation and utility of motility tests. Trainees demonstrate significant independence, and this training model provides an ideal platform for those interested in sub-specialty NGM.

  3. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  4. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  5. Gastrointestinal Motility Variation and Implications for Plasma Level Variation: Oral Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talattof, Arjang; Price, Judy C; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-02-01

    The oral route of administration is still by far the most ubiquitous method of drug delivery. Development in this area still faces many challenges due to the complexity and inhomogeneity of the gastrointestinal environment. In particular, dosing unpredictably relative to motility phase means the gastrointestinal environment is a random variable within a defined range. Here, we present a mass balance analysis that captures this variation and highlights the effects of gastrointestinal motility, exploring what impacts it ultimately has on plasma levels and the relationship to bioequivalence for high solubility products with both high and low permeability (BCS I and III). Motility-dependent compartmental absorption and transit (MDCAT) mechanistic analysis is developed to describe the underlying fasted state cyclical motility and how the contents of the gastrointestinal tract are propelled.

  6. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  7. Istaroxime Inhibits Motility and Down-Regulates Orai1 Expression, SOCE and FAK Phosphorylation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Julian Stagno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Istaroxime is a validated inotropic Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of various cardiac conditions. Recent findings established that this steroidal drug exhibits potent apoptotic responses in prostate tumors in vitro and in vivo, by affecting key signaling orchestrating proliferation and apoptosis, such as c-Myc and caspase 3, Rho GTPases and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In the present study we examined whether istaroxime is affecting cell motility and analyzed the underlying mechanism in prostate tumor cells. Methods: Migration was assessed by transwell and wound healing assays, Orai1 and Stim1 abundance by RT-PCR and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Fura-2 fluorescence was utilized to determine intracellular Ca2+ and Western blotting for FAK/pFAK measurements. Results: We observed strong inhibition of cell migration in istaroxime treated DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Istaroxime further decreased Orai1 and Stim1 transcript levels and downregulated Orai1 protein expression. Moreover, SOCE was significantly decreased upon istaroxime treatment. Furthermore, istaroxime strikingly diminished phosphorylated FAK levels. Interestingly, the efficacy of istaroxime on the inhibition of DU-145 cell migration was further enhanced by blocking Orai1 with 2-APB and FAK with the specific inhibitor PF-00562271. These results provide strong evidence that istaroxime prevents cell migration and motility of DU-145 prostate tumor cells, an effect at least partially attributed to Orai1 downregulation and FAK de-activation. Conclusion: Collectively our results indicate that this enzyme inhibitor, besides its pro-apoptotic action, affects motility of cancer cells, supporting its potential role as a strong candidate for further clinical cancer drug development.

  8. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J.; Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K.; Dobosz, Stefan; Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg 2+ /l and 10 mg Cd 2+ /l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg 2+ /l and 10 mg Cd 2+ /l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  9. Collaborative Development: A New Culture Affects an Old Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Jim; Ruzicka, Terry

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, the Registrar's Office and the Division of Information Technology (DoIT) apply a collaborative development process to joint projects. This model differs from a "waterfall" model in that technical and functional staff work closely to develop requirements, prototypes, and the product throughout…

  10. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that macroeconomic policy actions do not influence stock market development but the Tobin's q theory argues otherwise. This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique to investigate the impact of macroeconomic policy on the development of the Ghana Stock ...

  11. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  12. How Piracy is Affecting Economic Development in Puntland, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Beloff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has united in its mission to halt the hijacking of merchant ships in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea with a massive naval presence that monitors the vast, strategic seas in which Somali pirates operate. This naval presence consequently has had some success in reducing pirate attacks in 2012, but why are the Somalis turning to piracy in the first place? The economic history of piracy has been well documented with other former “pirate hotspots” worldwide; however, there is little data available on the microeconomic affects of piracy. This article explores the underlying reasons of why Somalis have turned to piracy as a “profession,” and offers recommendations for the international community to eliminate piracy effectively through non-military means.

  13. Functional proteomic analysis reveals the involvement of KIAA1199 in breast cancer growth, motility and invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Huang, Xin; Peng, Hong; Fu, Kai; Li, Yan; Singh, Rakesh K; Ding, Shi-Jian; Hou, Jinxuan; Liu, Miao; Varney, Michelle L; Hassan, Hesham; Dong, Jixin; Geng, Liying; Wang, Jing; Yu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    KIAA1199 is a recently identified novel gene that is up-regulated in human cancer with poor survival. Our proteomic study on signaling polarity in chemotactic cells revealed KIAA1199 as a novel protein target that may be involved in cellular chemotaxis and motility. In the present study, we examined the functional significance of KIAA1199 expression in breast cancer growth, motility and invasiveness. We validated the previous microarray observation by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry using a TMA slide containing 12 breast tumor tissue cores and 12 corresponding normal tissues. We performed the shRNA-mediated knockdown of KIAA1199 in MDA-MB-231 and HS578T cells to study the role of this protein in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro. We studied the effects of KIAA1199 knockdown in vivo in two groups of mice (n = 5). We carried out the SILAC LC-MS/MS based proteomic studies on the involvement of KIAA1199 in breast cancer. KIAA1199 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in breast tumor specimens and cell lines as compared with non-neoplastic breast tissues from large-scale microarray and studies of breast cancer cell lines and tumors. To gain deeper insights into the novel role of KIAA1199 in breast cancer, we modulated KIAA1199 expression using shRNA-mediated knockdown in two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and HS578T), expressing higher levels of KIAA1199. The KIAA1199 knockdown cells showed reduced motility and cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, when the knockdown cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of female athymic nude mice, there was a significant decrease in tumor incidence and growth. In addition, quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that knockdown of KIAA1199 in breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells affected a broad range of cellular functions including apoptosis, metabolism and cell motility. Our findings indicate that KIAA1199 may play an important role in breast tumor growth and invasiveness, and that it

  14. UX concepts, how they affected our development flow.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The talk aims at showing the development of Locations before and after this moment, and how the way of thinking at the application changed for taking in account the improvements in the user experience of the application.

  15. Factors affecting the development of in vitro fertilization in camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trasorras VL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In any program of in vitro embryo production, the ultimate goal is to develop high quality embryos being able to get a normal pregnancy and finally resulting in the birth of a healthy offspring, goal not reach yet in camelids. The application of assisted reproductive techniques, such as in vitro fertilization and subsequent in vitro embryo culture, can extend the knowledge of early embryonic development and make possible the increase of the population of genetically superior animals.

  16. Sensitive periods in affective development: nonlinear maturation of fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Lee, Francis S

    2015-01-01

    At specific maturational stages, neural circuits enter sensitive periods of heightened plasticity, during which the development of both brain and behavior are highly receptive to particular experiential information. A relatively advanced understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing the initiation, closure, and reinstatement of sensitive period plasticity has emerged from extensive research examining the development of the visual system. In this article, we discuss a large body of work characterizing the pronounced nonlinear changes in fear learning and extinction that occur from childhood through adulthood, and their underlying neural substrates. We draw upon the model of sensitive period regulation within the visual system, and present burgeoning evidence suggesting that parallel mechanisms may regulate the qualitative changes in fear learning across development.

  17. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  18. Does dental caries affect dental development in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Elezi, Besiana; Kragt, Lea; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2018-01-01

    Although a link between dietary changes, caries, and dental development has been observed, the literature provides little insight about this relationship. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between dental caries and dental development in a clinical sample of Albanian children and adolescents. In total, 118 children and adolescents, born between 1995 and 2004 and aged 6–15 years, were included. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Filled Teeth (dft) index and dental caries in the permanent dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. Dental development during the permanent dentition was determined using the Demirjian method. Linear and ordinal regression models were applied to analyze the associations of dental caries with dental age and developmental stages of each left mandibular tooth. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition, estimated as a median dft of 2.0 (90% range, 0.0–9.1), was significantly associated with lower dental age (β = -0.21; 90% CI: -0.29, -0.12) and with delayed development of the canine, both premolars, and the second molar. Untreated dental caries (dt) was associated with lower dental age (β = -0.19; 90% CI: -0.28, -0.10). Dental caries in the permanent dentition, estimated as a median DMFT of 1.0 (90% range, 0.0–8.0), was not significantly associated with dental age (β = 0.05; 90% CI: -0.04, 0.14). However, the DMFT was associated with the advanced stages of development of both premolars and the second molar. The untreated dental caries in the deciduous dentition delays the development of permanent teeth. PMID:29659350

  19. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  20. Does bank ownership affect relationship lending: A developing country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to explore how the type of bank ownership - local private banks, government-owned banks (public banks and foreign banks - can affect relationship lending to small and medium enterprises (SMEs by using a unique data set from Bangladeshi banking sector. We found that private banks differ from government-owned and foreign banks in terms of relationship lending and credit facilities to SMEs. More specifically, our results suggest that unlike government and foreign banks, private banks do consider soft information from relationship lending while setting up the loan spread to SMEs. We can also confirm that exclusive banking relationship or repeated banking with private banks can soften credit conditions (loan maturity and covenants. Moreover, we found empirical evidence that banking relationship is important for private banks in terms of SME credit risk evaluation. Finally, as according to our expectation, the results confirm that regardless of prior relationship, private banks are more depended on collateral-based lending to SMEs than government-owned or foreign banks.

  1. Factors affecting the success of development projects : A behavioral perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aga, Deribe Assefa

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation sought to examine behavioral-related critical success factors in the context of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector development projects in Ethiopia. The dissertation applied both a cross-sectional survey design and an experimental design in separate settings, and it is

  2. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  3. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  4. Dietary-induced hyperthyroidism marginally affects neonatal testicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, Eddy; Wientjes, Anna T.; Swarts, Hans J. M.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Teerds, Katja J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary-induced mild fetal/neonatal hyperthyroidism influenced the initiation of spermatogenesis and the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. Previously, the effects of neonatally induced hyperthyroidism have been investigated in

  5. Plant community development is affected by nutrients and soil biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    1 Plant community development depends to a great extent on the availability of soil nutrients, but recent studies underline the role of symbiotic, herbivorous and pathogenic soil biota. We tested for interactions between these biotic and abiotic factors by studying the effects of additional

  6. Effects of Lizhong Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Cheol; Ha, Wooram; Park, Jinhyeong; Kim, Junghoon; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-09-14

    To investigate the effects of Lizhong Tang, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on gastrointestinal motility in mice. The in vivo effects of Lizhong Tang on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) and gastric emptying (GE) values in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). In normal ICR mice, the ITR and GE values were significantly and dose-dependently increased by Lizhong Tang (ITR values: 54.4% ± 1.9% vs 65.2% ± 1.8%, P Tang and 54.4% ± 1.9% vs 83.8% ± 1.9%, P Tang; GE values: 60.7% ± 1.9% vs 66.8% ± 2.1%, P Tang and 60.7% ± 1.9% vs 72.5% ± 1.7%, P Tang). The ITRs of the GMD mice were significantly reduced compared with those of the normal mice, which were significantly and dose-dependently reversed by Lizhong Tang. Additionally, in loperamide- and cisplatin-induced models of GE delay, Lizhong Tang administration reversed the GE deficits. These results suggest that Lizhong Tang may be a novel candidate for development as a prokinetic treatment for the GI tract.

  7. Does malaria affect placental development? Evidence from in vitro models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Umbers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria in early pregnancy is difficult to study but has recently been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying malarial FGR are poorly characterized, but may include impaired placental development. We used in vitro methods that model migration and invasion of placental trophoblast into the uterine wall to investigate whether soluble factors released into maternal blood in malaria infection might impair placental development. Because trophoblast invasion is enhanced by a number of hormones and chemokines, and is inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines, many of which are dysregulated in malaria in pregnancy, we further compared concentrations of these factors in blood between malaria-infected and uninfected pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured trophoblast invasion, migration and viability in response to treatment with serum or plasma from two independent cohorts of Papua New Guinean women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in early pregnancy. Compared to uninfected women, serum and plasma from women with P. falciparum reduced trophoblast invasion (P = .06 and migration (P = .004. P. vivax infection did not alter trophoblast migration (P = .64. The P. falciparum-specific negative effect on placental development was independent of trophoblast viability, but associated with high-density infections. Serum from P. falciparum infected women tended to have lower levels of trophoblast invasion promoting hormones and factors and higher levels of invasion-inhibitory inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that in vitro models of placental development can be adapted to indirectly study the impact of malaria in early pregnancy. These infections could result in impaired trophoblast invasion with reduced transformation of maternal spiral arteries due to maternal hormonal and inflammatory disturbances, which may contribute to FGR by

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL TOURISM IN PUBLIC HOSPITALS

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİT, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in the world. Nowadays, over 50countries have been identified medical tourism as a national industry. AlthoughAsian countries where India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia popular medicaltourism destination, medical tourism in Turkey has not reached the desiredlevel and and could not get enough share of the medical tourism market. The aimof this study is to determine the factors influencing the development ofmedical tourism in Turkey. This research was...

  9. Stress-affected microstructural development and creep-swelling interrelationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; Flinn, J.E.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1977-05-01

    Macroscopic measurement of the deformations arising from swelling and creep during neutron irradiation indicate that both processes are dependent on the magnitude and possibly the sign of the applied stress state. Current modeling efforts also indicate that a strong interaction exists between swelling and creep through the stress state. Because the macroscopic distortions arise from the integrated microscopic strains associated with specific microstructural elements, the effect of applied stress on microstructural development has been studied

  10. Do Cognitive Styles Affect the Performance of System Development Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-21

    that a person is classified as one of 16 possible types: ISTJ, iSFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ISTP, INFP, ISFP, INTP , ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ , or...development groups and the relationship between these differences and system success or failure. Chapter II will discuss some different theories of cognitive...reasoning termed analytic and hueristic. Analytic individuals reduce problems to a set of underlying relationships . These relationships , frequently

  11. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  12. Simvastatin affects cell motility and actin cytoskeleton distribution of microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, HF; Rappert, Angelika A.C.; Mommaas, AM; Van Haastert, ES; Van der Valk, P; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, KPH; Van den Elsen, PJ

    2006-01-01

    Statin treatment is proposed to be a new potential therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The effects of statin treatment on brain cells, however, are hardly understood. We therefore evaluated the effects of simvastatin treatment on

  13. Effects of diabetes mellitus on gastric motility in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafsanjani, F.N.; Adeli, S.; Ardakani, Z.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ghotbi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases that affects most body organs. Peristaltic disorders and gastric distension have also been observed in diabetes. Because the effect of diabetes on gastric motility has not been fully examined, we decided to determine if gastric motility is also affected by diabetes in rat. This study was carried out at Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran from October 2004 to February 2005. Three groups of male wistar rats (control, vehicle, diabetic) weighing 200-250 g were used. Diabetic state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. Animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg thiopental sodium. After tracheostomy and laparatomy, a balloon was inserted into the stomach, which was attached to a pressure transducer system via a cannula and this whole system was connected to a physiograph. Acetylcholine (Ach) was the stimulant agent which was used intraperitoneally. There was no significant difference between basal intragastric pressures in three groups. Also there was no significant difference in the basal and Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure among the three groups. But Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure was more than the basal state in each group (control 28.3+-1.77 vs 14+-1.4, vehicle 30.8+-2.03 vs 15.9+-1.56 and diabetic 30.6+-0.05 vs 13.7+-0.84 mmHg). Although it has been shown that diabetes can change gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats, no significant change in gastric motility could be shown. (author)

  14. Conference Reports: New developments affecting natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Papers presented at a conference examining and reviewing recent trends in natural gas sales contracts are contained in this volume. Conference participants heard 14 presentations, with topics including pricing provisions in gas contracts, security of supply, cross-border issues, legislative reform of electronic data interchange, digital signatures, new developments in managing contracts in a competitive environment, the changing role of natural gas aggregators, drafting 'force majeure' clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts and the consequences and remedies for breach of natural gas contracts. The volume also includes biographical notes, and current addresses of the speakers

  15. Legislative framework affecting First Nations and resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, M.

    1998-01-01

    In its Delgamuukw decision (released December 1997), the Supreme Court of Canada has given a clear direction to the Crown and First Nations to negotiate rather than litigate outstanding claims within the province of British Columbia. This paper describes the practical implications which the Delgamuukw decision will have for resource development on lands located within the traditional territories of Aboriginal people, reviews constitutional and jurisdictional issues, and discusses issues such as reserve lands in British Columbia, including the nature of reserve interest, tax considerations, the surrender of reserve lands, and provincial regulation on reserve lands

  16. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice...... and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age......-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies....

  17. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  18. Transverse loop colostomy and colonic motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F; Ringressi, M N; Maltinti, G; Bechi, P

    2014-11-01

    The motility of the defunctionalized colon, distal to transverse loop colostomy, has never been studied "in vivo." The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of transverse loop colostomy on colonic motility. Thirteen patients were examined before stoma closure by means of clinical evaluation and colonic manometry; we studied both the right and distal colon in both fasting and fed patients in order to detect motor activity. Quantitative and qualitative manometric analyses showed that the diverted colon had motor activity even if no regular colonic motor pattern was observed. The spreading of aboral propagated contractions (PCs) was sometimes recorded from the right colon to the distal colon. The response of the proximal and distal colon to a standard meal, when compared to fasting values, increased more than 40 and 35 %, respectively. Stool and gas ejections from the colostomy were never related to a particular type of colonic motility: Motor quiescence such as PCs was chaotically related to stool escape. In conclusion, motility of the defunctionalized colon is preserved in patients with transverse loop colostomy.

  19. Flagellar Motility of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ballesteros-Rodea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. Despite the importance of motility in the parasite life cycle, little is known about T. cruzi motility, and there is no quantitative description of its flagellar beating. Using video microscopy and quantitative vectorial analysis of epimastigote trajectories, we find a forward parasite motility defined by tip-to-base symmetrical flagellar beats. This motion is occasionally interrupted by base-to-tip highly asymmetric beats, which represent the ciliary beat of trypanosomatid flagella. The switch between flagellar and ciliary beating facilitates the parasite's reorientation, which produces a large variability of movement and trajectories that results in different distance ranges traveled by the cells. An analysis of the distance, speed, and rotational angle indicates that epimastigote movement is not completely random, and the phenomenon is highly dependent on the parasite behavior and is characterized by directed and tumbling parasite motion as well as their combination, resulting in the alternation of rectilinear and intricate motility paths.

  20. Visualization of Twitching Motility and Characterization of the Role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Lin, Hong

    2016-04-08

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative non-flagellated bacterium that causes a number of economically important diseases of plants. The twitching motility provides X. fastidiosa a means for long-distance intra-plant movement and colonization, contributing toward pathogenicity in X. fastidiosa. The twitching motility of X. fastidiosa is operated by type IV pili. Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon encoding proteins that are involved with signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the roles of pilG in the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa, a pilG-deficient mutant XfΔpilG and its complementary strain XfΔpilG-C containing native pilG were developed. A microfluidic chambers integrated with a time-lapse image recording system was used to observe twitching motility in XfΔpilG, XfΔpilG-C and its wild type strain. Using this recording system, it permits long-term spatial and temporal observations of aggregation, migration of individual cells and populations of bacteria via twitching motility. X. fastidiosa wild type and complementary XfΔpilG-C strain showed typical twitching motility characteristics directly observed in the microfluidic flow chambers, whereas mutant XfΔpliG exhibited the twitching deficient phenotype. This study demonstrates that pilG contributes to the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa. The microfluidic flow chamber is used as a means for observing twitching motility.

  1. Esophageal motility disorders; Motilitaetsstoerungen des Oesophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Muenchen (Germany); Wuttge-Hannig, A. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Strahlentherapie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [German] Zum Verstaendnis der Motilitaet des Oesophagus sind muskulaere Architektur und Verteilung der quergestreiften und glatten Muskelfasern von Bedeutung. Die Physiologie des Oesophagus wird in soweit kurz dargestellt, als sie fuer das Verstaendnis von peristaltischen Stoerungen notwendig ist. Neben der Erfassung rein morphologischer Kriterien ist bei der Untersuchung der Speiseroehre eine diagnostische Bewertung der Motilitaet erforderlich. Es stehen uns heute strahlungsarme dynamische Aufzeichnungsverfahren (digitale dynamische Aufzeichnung, Videofluoroskopie) mit Bildsequenzen von 4-30 Bildern/s zur Verfuegung. Die Kombination einer funktionellen Methode zur Darstellung der Morphologie und der

  2. Endogenous Ion Dynamics in Cell Motility and Tissue Regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkucur, N; Perike, S; Epperlein, H H; Funk, R H W

    2011-01-01

    Directional cell migration is an essential process, including regeneration of tissues, wound healing, and embryonic development. Cells achieve persistent directional migration by polarizing the spatiotemporal components involved in the morphological polarity. Ion transporter proteins situated at the cell membrane generates small electric fields that can induce directional cell motility. Besides them, externally applied direct current electric fields induce similar kind of responses as cell orientation and directional migration. However, the bioelectric mechanisms that lead to cellular directedness are poorly understood. Therefore, understanding the bioelectric signaling cues can serve as a powerful modality in controlling the cell behaviour, which can contribute additional insights for development and regeneration.

  3. Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders: Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O. A.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) is increasingly performed worldwide, to study esophageal motility. The Chicago classification is subsequently applied to interpret the manometric findings and facilitate a diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. This review will discuss new insights regarding the

  4. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent...

  5. Individual cell motility studied by time-lapse video recording: influence of experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, R; Walmod, P S; Berezin, A

    2000-01-01

    : Of the parameters evaluated, cell motility was most strongly affected by changes in pH and temperature. In general, changes in cell speed were accompanied by alterations in cell morphology and organization of filamentous actin, although no consistent phenotypic characteristics could be demonstrated for cells...

  6. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this protein. This is the first report demonstrating a functional role for a tonB homolog in X. fastidiosa.

  7. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A.; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this prote...

  8. Chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and diisopropylfluorophosphate inhibit kinesin-dependent microtubule motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, Debra A.; Sickles, Dale W.; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Prendergast, Mark A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2007-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate, originally developed as a chemical warfare agent, is structurally similar to nerve agents, and chlorpyrifos has extensive worldwide use as an agricultural pesticide. While inhibition of cholinesterases underlies the acute toxicity of these organophosphates, we previously reported impaired axonal transport in the sciatic nerves from rats treated chronically with subthreshold doses of chlorpyrifos. Those data indicate that chlorpyrifos (and/or its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon) might directly affect the function of kinesin and/or microtubules-the principal proteins that mediate anterograde axonal transport. The current report describes in vitro assays to assess the concentration-dependent effects of chlorpyrifos (0-10 μM), chlorpyrifos-oxon (0-10 μM), and diisopropylfluorophosphate (0-0.59 nM) on kinesin-dependent microtubule motility. Preincubating bovine brain microtubules with the organophosphates did not alter kinesin-mediated microtubule motility. In contrast, preincubation of bovine brain kinesin with diisopropylfluorophosphate, chlorpyrifos, or chlorpyrifos-oxon produced a concentration-dependent increase in the number of locomoting microtubules that detached from the kinesin-coated glass cover slip. Our data suggest that the organophosphates-chlorpyrifos-oxon, chlorpyrifos, and diisopropylfluorophosphate-directly affect kinesin, thereby disrupting kinesin-dependent transport on microtubules. Kinesin-dependent movement of vesicles, organelles, and other cellular components along microtubules is fundamental to the organization of all eukaryotic cells, especially in neurons where organelles and proteins synthesized in the cell body must move down long axons to pre-synaptic sites in nerve terminals. We postulate that disruption of kinesin-dependent intracellular transport could account for some of the long-term effects of organophosphates on the peripheral and central nervous system

  9. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Lores, Susana; Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Blasco, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labor market. We develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee´s affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Study 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB) scale was developed and tested for its factor s...

  10. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  11. Nonspecific motility disorders, irritable esophagus, and chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krarup, Anne Lund; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Hejazi, Reza A; McCallum, Richard W; Vega, Kenneth J; Frazzoni, Marzio; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Clarke, John O; Achem, Sami R

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents commentaries on whether Starling's law applies to the esophagus; whether erythromycin affects esophageal motility; the relationship between hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and vigorous achalasia; whether ethnic- and gender-based norms affect diagnosis and treatment of esophageal motor disorders; health care and epidemiology of chest pain; whether normal pH excludes esophageal pain; the role of high-resolution manometry in noncardiac chest pain; whether pH-impedance should be included in the evaluation of noncardiac chest pain; whether there are there alternative therapeutic options to PPI for treating noncardiac chest pain; and the usefulness of psychological treatment and alternative medicine in noncardiac chest pain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Supraspinal inhibitory effects of chimeric peptide MCRT on gastrointestinal motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunbo; Li, Hailan; Zhang, Jing; Kang, Yanping; Jia, Fang; Dong, Shouliang; Zhou, Lanxia

    2017-09-01

    Chimeric peptide MCRT, based on morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH 2 , was a bifunctional ligand of μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR-DOR) and produced potent analgesia in tail-withdrawal test. The study focused on the supraspinal effects of morphiceptin, PFRTic-NH 2 and MCRT on gastrointestinal motility. Moreover, opioid receptor antagonists, naloxone (non-selective), cyprodime (MOR selective) and naltrindole (DOR selective) were utilized to explore the mechanisms. Intracerebroventricular administration was achieved via the implanted cannula. Gastric emptying and intestinal transit were measured to evaluate gastrointestinal motility. (1) At supraspinal level, morphiceptin, PFRTic-NH 2 and MCRT significantly decreased gastric emptying and intestinal transit; (2) MCRT at 1 nmol/mouse, far higher than its analgesic dose (ED 50  = 29.8 pmol/mouse), failed to regulate the gastrointestinal motility; (3) MCRT-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction could be completely blocked by naloxone and naltrindole, but not affected by cyprodime. (1) Morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH 2 played important roles in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility; (2) MCRT possessed higher bioactivity of pain relief than gastrointestinal regulation, suggesting its promising analgesic property; (3) MCRT-induced motility disorders were sensitive to DOR but not to MOR blockade, indicating the pain-relieving specificity of speculated MOR subtype or splice variant or MOR-DOR heterodimer. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. The effect of cations on sperm motility performance and fertilizing ability of silver carp Hypophtalmychtis molitrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khara H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of saline solution containing cations (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 on sperm motility performance (duration of sperm motility and percentage of motile spermatozoa and fertilizing capacity of sperm (fertilization rate, hatching rate, larvae length during hatching, larvae length during active feeding and survival rate in silver carp. The results suggested that solutions containing ions did not improve the duration of sperm motility. The same was observed for the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Fertilization rate influenced by solutions containing Ca+2, and other ions could not affect this parameter. The results showed that hatching rate was higher in solutions containing 99 mEq/L NaCl, 2 mEq/L MgCl2 and 2, 4 mEq/L CaCl2 respectively. Also, survival rate was higher in the solution containing 2 mEq/L MgCl2 and 36 mg/dL KCl respectively.With regard to the obtained results, it was concluded that using appropriate activation medium can improve quality of fish sperm and subsequently increases artificial reproduction performance.

  14. Thermo-Regulation of Genes Mediating Motility and Plant Interactions in Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Kevin L.; Burch, Adrien Y.; Lindow, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is an important phyllosphere colonist that utilizes flagellum-mediated motility both as a means to explore leaf surfaces, as well as to invade into leaf interiors, where it survives as a pathogen. We found that multiple forms of flagellum-mediated motility are thermo-suppressed, including swarming and swimming motility. Suppression of swarming motility occurs between 28° and 30°C, which coincides with the optimal growth temperature of P. syringae. Both fliC (encoding flagellin) and syfA (encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase involved in syringafactin biosynthesis) were suppressed with increasing temperature. RNA-seq revealed 1440 genes of the P. syringae genome are temperature sensitive in expression. Genes involved in polysaccharide synthesis and regulation, phage and IS elements, type VI secretion, chemosensing and chemotaxis, translation, flagellar synthesis and motility, and phytotoxin synthesis and transport were generally repressed at 30°C, while genes involved in transcriptional regulation, quaternary ammonium compound metabolism and transport, chaperone/heat shock proteins, and hypothetical genes were generally induced at 30°C. Deletion of flgM, a key regulator in the transition from class III to class IV gene expression, led to elevated and constitutive expression of fliC regardless of temperature, but did not affect thermo-regulation of syfA. This work highlights the importance of temperature in the biology of P. syringae, as many genes encoding traits important for plant-microbe interactions were thermo-regulated. PMID:23527276

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF COPPER IN BOVINE SEMINAL PLASMA AND SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kňažická

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between copper (Cu concentration of bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa motility. Semen samples were collected from 13 breeding bulls. The motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA system. The mean value for the percentage of motile spermatozoa (MOT was 92.46±3.99% and the progressive motility of the spermatozoa (PROG as 90.23±4.02%. The seminal plasma Cu concentrations were analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The total Cu concentration of the seminal plasma was 4.28±1.47 μM/L. The correlation analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between MOT and seminal plasma Cu concentration (rp=-0.781; P<0.01 as well as between PROG and Cu content in the seminal plasma (rp=-0.726; P<0.01. The data obtained from this study clearly indicated that concentration of copper in seminal plasma negatively affects the spermatozoa motility parameters and subsequently might cause reproductive alteration in male sexual functions.

  16. Motile cilia of human airway epithelia contain hedgehog signaling components that mediate noncanonical hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Suifang; Shah, Alok S; Moninger, Thomas O; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Lu, Lin; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Thornell, Ian M; Reznikov, Leah R; Ernst, Sarah E; Karp, Philip H; Tan, Ping; Keshavjee, Shaf; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Welsh, Michael J

    2018-02-06

    Differentiated airway epithelia produce sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is found in the thin layer of liquid covering the airway surface. Although previous studies showed that vertebrate HH signaling requires primary cilia, as airway epithelia mature, the cells lose primary cilia and produce hundreds of motile cilia. Thus, whether airway epithelia have apical receptors for SHH has remained unknown. We discovered that motile cilia on airway epithelial cells have HH signaling proteins, including patched and smoothened. These cilia also have proteins affecting cAMP-dependent signaling, including Gα i and adenylyl cyclase 5/6. Apical SHH decreases intracellular levels of cAMP, which reduces ciliary beat frequency and pH in airway surface liquid. These results suggest that apical SHH may mediate noncanonical HH signaling through motile cilia to dampen respiratory defenses at the contact point between the environment and the lung, perhaps counterbalancing processes that stimulate airway defenses. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  18. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on motile microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeder, D.P.

    1985-02-01

    The effect of slightly increased UV-B radiation was studied in four taxonomically very different microorganisms: the gliding prokaryotic cyanobacterium, Phormidium, the unicellular green alga Cosmarium, the flagellate Euglena and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. UV-B doses which can be expected as a result of a slight decrease of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere, do not kill or damage the microorganisms visibly. However, such UV-B doses impair the development, motility and photoorientation of these organisms. Due to the inhibition of these physiological important parameters the organisms cannot respond adequately to the changing factors in their environment, which prevents the survival of the populations. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  20. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  1. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  2. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  3. Surface Topography Hinders Bacterial Surface Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Weeks, Eric R; Ducker, William A

    2018-03-21

    We demonstrate that the surface motility of the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is hindered by a crystalline hemispherical topography with wavelength in the range of 2-8 μm. The motility was determined by the analysis of time-lapse microscopy images of cells in a flowing growth medium maintained at 37 °C. The net displacement of bacteria over 5 min is much lower on surfaces containing 2-8 μm hemispheres than on flat topography, but displacement on the 1 μm hemispheres is not lower. That is, there is a threshold between 1 and 2 μm for response to the topography. Cells on the 4 μm hemispheres were more likely to travel parallel to the local crystal axis than in other directions. Cells on the 8 μm topography were less likely to travel across the crowns of the hemispheres and were also more likely to make 30°-50° turns than on flat surfaces. These results show that surface topography can act as a significant barrier to surface motility and may therefore hinder surface exploration by bacteria. Because surface exploration can be a part of the process whereby bacteria form colonies and seek nutrients, these results help to elucidate the mechanism by which surface topography hinders biofilm formation.

  4. Distinct patterns of primary and motile cilia in Rathke's cleft cysts and craniopharyngioma subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Shannon; Du, Ziming; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Woo, Terri; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Kieran, Mark W; Santagata, Sandro

    2016-12-01

    Cilia are highly conserved organelles, which serve critical roles in development and physiology. Motile cilia are expressed in a limited range of tissues, where they principally regulate local extracellular fluid dynamics. In contrast, primary cilia are expressed by many vertebrate cell types during interphase, and are intimately involved in the cell cycle and signal transduction. Notably, primary cilia are essential for vertebrate hedgehog pathway activity. Improved detection of motile cilia may assist in the diagnosis of some pathologic entities such as Rathke's cleft cysts, whereas characterizing primary cilia in neoplastic tissues may implicate cilia-dependent signaling pathways as critical for tumorigenesis. We show that immunohistochemistry for the nuclear transcription factor FOXJ1, a master regulator of motile ciliogenesis, robustly labels the motile ciliated epithelium of Rathke's cleft cysts. FOXJ1 expression discriminates Rathke's cleft cysts from entities in the sellar/suprasellar region with overlapping histologic features such as craniopharyngiomas. Co-immunohistochemistry for FOXJ1 and markers that highlight motile cilia such as acetylated tubulin (TUBA4A) and the small GTPase ARL13B further enhance the ability to identify diagnostic epithelial cells. In addition to highlighting motile cilia, ARL13B immunohistochemistry also robustly highlights primary cilia in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Primary cilia are present throughout the neoplastic epithelium of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, but are limited to basally oriented cells near the fibrovascular stroma in papillary craniopharyngioma. Consistent with this differing pattern of primary ciliation, adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas express significantly higher levels of SHH, and downstream targets such as PTCH1 and GLI2, compared with papillary craniopharyngiomas. In conclusion, motile ciliated epithelium can be readily identified using immunohistochemistry for FOXJ1, TUBA4A, and

  5. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wesley R; Malarkey, Erik B; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C; Porath, Jonathan D; Birket, Susan E; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Challa, Anil K; Kesterson, Robert A; Rowe, Steven M; Drummond, Iain A; Parant, John M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Porter, Mary E; Yoder, Bradley K; Berbari, Nicolas F

    2016-07-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants in

  6. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400. While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8. GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC protein 4 (DRC4 where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR to generate one of these human missense

  7. Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Novel Approaches to the Pharmacology of Gut Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Scarpignato

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is unclear to what extent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms represent a normal perception of abnormal function or an abnormal perception of normal function, many believe that IBS constitutes the clinical expression of an underlying motility disorder, affecting primarily the mid- and lower gut. Indeed, transit and contractile abnormalities have been demonstrated with sophisticated techniques in a subset of patients with IBS. As a consequence, drugs affecting gastrointestinal (GI motility have been widely employed with the aim of correcting the major IBS manifestations, ie, pain and altered bowel function. Unfortunately, no single drug has proven to be effective in treating IBS symptom complex. In addition, the use of some medications has often been associated with unpleasant side effects. Therefore, the search for a truly effective and safe drug to control motility disturbances in IBS continues. Several classes of drugs look promising and are under evaluation. Among the motor- inhibiting drugs, gut selective muscarinic antagonists (such as zamifenacin and darifenacin, neurokinin2 antagonists (such as MEN-10627 and MEN-11420, beta3-adrenoreceptor agonists (eg, SR-58611A and GI-selective calcium channel blockers (eg, pinaverium bromide and octylonium are able to decrease painful contractile activity in the gut (antispasmodic effect, without significantly affecting other body functions. Novel mechanisms to stimulate GI motility and transit include blockade of cholecystokinin (CCKA receptors and stimulation of motilin receptors. Loxiglumide (and its dextroisomer, dexloxiglumide is the only CCKA receptor antagonist that is being evaluated clinically. This drug accelerates gastric emptying and colonic transit, thereby increasing the number of bowel movements in patients with chronic constipation. It is also able to reduce visceral perception. Erythromycin and related 14-member macrolide compounds inhibit the binding of motilin to its

  8. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries: 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P; Dahab, M; Tanabe, M; Murphy, A; Ettema, L; Guy, S; Roberts, B

    2016-09-01

    To provide information on trends on official development assistance (ODA) disbursement patterns for reproductive health activities in 18 conflict-affected countries. Secondary data analysis. 18 conflict-affected countries and 36 non-conflict-affected countries. The Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database was analyzed for ODA disbursement for direct and indirect reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries (2002-2011). A comparative analysis was also made with 36 non-conflict-affected counties in the same 'least-developed' income category. Multivariate regression analyses examined associations between conflict status and reproductive health ODA and between reproductive needs and ODA disbursements. Patterns of ODA disbursements (constant U.S. dollars) for reproductive health activities. The average annual ODA disbursed for reproductive health to 18 conflict-affected countries from 2002 to 2011 was US$ 1.93 per person per year. There was an increase of 298% in ODA for reproductive health activities to the conflict-affected countries between 2002 and 2011; 56% of this increase was due to increases in HIV/AIDS funding. The average annual per capita reproductive health ODA disbursed to least-developed non-conflict-affected countries was 57% higher than to least-developed conflict-affected countries. Regression analyses confirmed disparities in ODA to and between conflict-affected countries. Despite increases in ODA for reproductive health for conflict-affected countries (albeit largely for HIV/AIDS activities), considerable disparities remains. Study tracking 10 years of aid for reproductive aid shows major disparities for conflict-affected countries. © 2016 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. The changes of spontaneous motility in chick embryos after blockade of NO-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlácek, J

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of the blockade of NO-synthase (NOS) for the development, frequency and reactivity of spontaneous motility were investigated in chick embryos aged 4-19 day of incubation. 1. Acute NOS blockade evoked by N-nitro-L-arginine- methylester (L-NAME) (20 mg/kg egg weight-e.w.) caused on day 17 of incubation the short-lasting depression of spontaneous motility to 50% of resting motor activity. L-NAME was in spinal embryos without any effect. Chronic application of L-NAME (1.70 mg/kg e.w./24 h) from day 4 of incubation led after the first 4 days of continual supply to the development of reduced spontaneous motility on one hand, on the other hand it changed the efficacy of central activatory (NMDA, pentylenetetrazole) and inhibitory drugs (ketamine, glycine). L-NAME and L-arginine in different mutual combinations manifested in 17-day-old embryos their typical effect, though the depressory effect of L-NAME took a swifter course than the activatory effect of L-arginine. 2. Aminoguanidine (AmG) (9.8 and 20 mg/kg e.w.) evoked from day 17 of incubation the significant biphasic change of spontaneous motility only: initial depression was replaced by later activation. AmG was in spinal embryos without effect again. Chronic application of AmG (5.29 +/- 0.51 mg/kg e.w./24 h) showed in 17-day-old embryos a reduction of resting motility dependent on the duration of AmG influence during incubation. Another expression was the changed reactivity of spontaneous motility to some centrally effective drugs (ketamine, NMDA, D-cycloserine, glycine, pentylenetetrazole). 3. 7-nitroindazole (7-NIZ) (15 and 30 mg/kg e.w.) caused the significant decrease of spontaneous motility in chick embryos already from day 15 of incubation; the depression after the lower dosis had an interrupted course, whereas after the higher dosis it was a continuous one. 7-NIZ blocked in 17-day-old embryos the activatory effect of L-arginine, reduced the paroxysmal activation of motility evoked by NMDA and

  10. Undersized description on motile gyrotactic micro-organisms individualities in MHD stratified water-based Newtonian nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, Aneeqa Ashfaq; Tahir, M.; Malik, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The current pagination summarized the influence of bio-convection Schmidt number, bio-convection Peclet number and micro-organisms concentration difference parameter on the density of motile gyrotactic micro-organisms when they have interaction with the thermally stratified magneto-nanofluid flow past a vertical stretching surface. It is observed that the density of motile microorganisms is the decreasing function of the bio-convection Schmidt and Peclet numbers. It is trusted that the outcomes of present analysis will serve as a helping source for the upcoming developments regarding individualities of motile gyrotactic micro-organisms subject to boundary layer flows induced by stretching surfaces.

  11. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  12. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  13. Development of Affective Characteristics in Students in Vocational-Technical Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintgen-Andrews, Jean

    A study was conducted to determine what progress is made by nursing students during their first two years of study in the development of affective characteristics closely associated with professional level practice. Two affective characteristics associated with professionalism were studied; autonomy and assertiveness. The Inner Directed Scale of…

  14. High-throughput identification of small molecules that affect human embryonic vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazão, Helena; Rosa, Susana; Barata, Tânia; Costa, Ricardo; Pitrez, Patrícia R.; Honório, Inês; De Vries, Margreet R.; Papatsenko, Dimitri; Benedito, Rui; Saris, Daniel; Khademhosseini, Ali; Quax, Paul H.A.; Pereira, Carlos F.; Mercader, Nadia; Fernandes, Hugo; Ferreira, Lino

    2017-01-01

    Birth defects, which are in part caused by exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs, affect 1 in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. The current standard to screen drugs that affect embryonic development is based on prenatal animal testing; however, this approach

  15. Motility versus fluctuations in mixtures of self-motile and passive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Denis F; Panchenko, Alexander; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot

    2014-12-07

    Many biological systems consist of self-motile and passive agents both of which contribute to overall functionality. However, little is known about the properties of such mixtures. Here we formulate a model for mixtures of self-motile and passive agents and show that the model gives rise to three different dynamical phases: a disordered mesoturbulent phase, a polar flocking phase, and a vortical phase characterized by large-scale counter rotating vortices. We use numerical simulations to construct a phase diagram and compare the statistical properties of the different phases with observed features of self-motile bacterial suspensions. Our findings afford specific insights regarding the interaction of microorganisms and passive particles and provide novel strategic guidance for efficient technological realizations of artificial active matter.

  16. Digital radiography in the evaluation of oesophageal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Yehia A

    2000-07-01

    AIMS: To develop a simple technique for examination of the oesophagus by digital radiography and to assess its role in the evaluation of motility disorders of the oesophagus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients and 44 control subjects underwent manometry and digital examination of the oesophagus. The digital study consisted of two parts: firstly examination of the pharynx and cervical oesophagus using 15 ml of fluid barium in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral views, with image acquisition of four frames/s for 2 s. Secondly, examination of the thoracic oesophagus and oesophagogastric junction using 25 ml of barium in two prone oblique and one supine AP series, with image acquisition of one frame/s for 20 s. Oesophageal transit time (OTT) was measured in each case. Abnormal or non-peristaltic contractions were described regarding their morphology, time of visualization and length. The presence or absence of hiatal hernia, reflux or any associated organic lesions was noted. RESULTS: Digital radiography diagnosed 14 cases of achalasia and 28 cases of non-specific oesophageal motility disorder (NOMD). Normal OTT was 11.95 {+-} 1.304 s. The OTT was prolonged (16 s or more) in all patients except five; four of these were cases of NOMD. Abnormal contractions were classified into circular and longitudinal types. The circular non-obliterating type was commoner. Achalasia was diagnosed in all cases, as failure of relaxation of the inferior oesophageal sphincter was always present and easily depicted by digital radiography. Abnormal contractions in the body of the oesophagus were elicited in 57% of cases of achalasia. The sensitivity of digital radiography in detecting oesophageal motility disorders was 85.7% based on the presence of abnormal contractions and 91.6% by eliciting a prolonged OTT. CONCLUSIONS: Examination of the oesophagus by digital radiography is simple, non-invasive, reproducible, rapid and without discomfort to patients. It allows the diagnosis of

  17. Digital radiography in the evaluation of oesophageal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Yehia A.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a simple technique for examination of the oesophagus by digital radiography and to assess its role in the evaluation of motility disorders of the oesophagus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients and 44 control subjects underwent manometry and digital examination of the oesophagus. The digital study consisted of two parts: firstly examination of the pharynx and cervical oesophagus using 15 ml of fluid barium in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral views, with image acquisition of four frames/s for 2 s. Secondly, examination of the thoracic oesophagus and oesophagogastric junction using 25 ml of barium in two prone oblique and one supine AP series, with image acquisition of one frame/s for 20 s. Oesophageal transit time (OTT) was measured in each case. Abnormal or non-peristaltic contractions were described regarding their morphology, time of visualization and length. The presence or absence of hiatal hernia, reflux or any associated organic lesions was noted. RESULTS: Digital radiography diagnosed 14 cases of achalasia and 28 cases of non-specific oesophageal motility disorder (NOMD). Normal OTT was 11.95 ± 1.304 s. The OTT was prolonged (16 s or more) in all patients except five; four of these were cases of NOMD. Abnormal contractions were classified into circular and longitudinal types. The circular non-obliterating type was commoner. Achalasia was diagnosed in all cases, as failure of relaxation of the inferior oesophageal sphincter was always present and easily depicted by digital radiography. Abnormal contractions in the body of the oesophagus were elicited in 57% of cases of achalasia. The sensitivity of digital radiography in detecting oesophageal motility disorders was 85.7% based on the presence of abnormal contractions and 91.6% by eliciting a prolonged OTT. CONCLUSIONS: Examination of the oesophagus by digital radiography is simple, non-invasive, reproducible, rapid and without discomfort to patients. It allows the diagnosis of

  18. Motility-driven glass and jamming transitions in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dapeng; Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Manning, M. Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. To make quantitative predictions about glass transitions in tissues, we study a self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model that simultaneously captures polarized cell motility and multi-body cell-cell interactions in a confluent tissue, where there are no gaps between cells. We demonstrate that the model exhibits a jamming transition from a solid-like state to a fluid-like state that is controlled by three parameters: the single-cell motile speed, the persistence time of single-cell tracks, and a target shape index that characterizes the competition between cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. In contrast to traditional particulate glasses, we are able to identify an experimentally accessible structural order parameter that specifies the entire jamming surface as a function of model parameters. We demonstrate that a continuum Soft Glassy Rheology model precisely captures this transition in the limit of small persistence times, and explain how it fails in the limit of large persistence times. These results provide a framework for understanding the collective solid-to-liquid transitions that have been observed in embryonic development and cancer progression, which may be associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition in these tissues. PMID:28966874

  19. Flagellar motility is critical for Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Katherine P; Higgins, Darren E; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes attaches to environmental surfaces and forms biofilms that can be a source of food contamination, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its biofilm development. We observed that nonmotile mutants were defective in biofilm formation. To investigate how flagella might function during biofilm formation, we compared the wild type with flagellum-minus and paralyzed-flagellum mutants. Both nonmotile mutants were defective in biofilm development, presumably at an early stage, as they were also defective in attachment to glass during the first few hours of surface exposure. This attachment defect could be significantly overcome by providing exogenous movement toward the surface via centrifugation. However, this centrifugation did not restore mature biofilm formation. Our results indicate that it is flagellum-mediated motility that is critical for both initial surface attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Also, any role for L. monocytogenes flagella as adhesins on abiotic surfaces appears to be either minimal or motility dependent under the conditions we examined.

  20. The effects of daikenchuto (DKT) on propulsive motility in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J; Hyman, Neil H; Mawe, Gary M

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, as a potential treatment for opiate-induced slowing of intestinal transit in an isolated guinea pig colon model of motility. Isolated segments of distal guinea pig colon were mounted in a perfusion chamber and imaged with a digital video camera interfaced with a computer. Fecal pellets were inserted into the oral end of the colonic segment and the rates of propulsive motility over a 3 to 4 cm segment of colon were determined in the presence and absence of test compounds. In addition, intracellular recordings were obtained from intact circular muscle, and the responsiveness of inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials to DKT was evaluated. The addition of D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5 (DAMGO), a selective μ-receptor agonist, caused a concentration dependent decrease in colon motility. Naloxone did not affect basal activity, but partially restored motility in the DAMGO treated preparations. DKT (1 × 10(-4)-3 × 10(-4)g/mL) also reversed the inhibitory effect of DAMGO treated colon in a concentration dependent manner. At higher concentrations (1 × 10(-3)-3 × 10(-3)g/mL), however, this effect was lost. Motility slowed even further when naloxone and DKT were combined with noticeable disruptions in spatiotemporal patterns. Interestingly, when added alone, DKT resulted in reverse peristalsis of the pellet. In electrophysiologic studies DKT inhibited both excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials. DKT appears to be as effective as naloxone in restoring motility in DAMGO treated colon. These two agents, however, do not appear to have an additive effect. When used on untreated colon segments, DKT appears to cause disruptions in the intrinsic reflex circuit of the gut resulting in a disruption of neuromuscular communication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Norepinephrine and dopamine increase motility, biofilm formation and virulence of Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian eYang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, and causes important losses in the aquaculture industry. In order to develop novel methods to control disease caused by this pathogen, we need to obtain a better understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Sensing of catecholamines increases both growth and production of virulence-related factors in pathogens of terrestrial animals and humans. However, at this moment, knowledge on the impact of catecholamines on the virulence of pathogens of aquatic organisms is lacking. In the present study, we report that in V. harveyi, norepinephrine and dopamine increased growth in serum-supplemented medium, siderophore production, swimming motility and expression of genes involved in flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide production. Consistent with this, pretreatment of V. harveyi with catecholamines prior to inoculation into the rearing water resulted in significantly decreased survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, when compared to larvae challenged with untreated V. harveyi. Further, norepinephrine-induced effects could be neutralized by α-adrenergic antagonists or by the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209, but not by β-adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists. Dopamine-induced effects could be neutralized by dopaminergic antagonists or LED209, but not by adrenergic antagonists. Together, our results indicate that catecholamine sensing increases the success of transmission of V. harveyi and that interfering with catecholamine sensing might be an interesting strategy to control vibriosis in aquaculture. We hypothesise that upon tissue and/or hemocyte damage during infection, pathogens come into contact with elevated catecholamine levels, and that this stimulates the expression of virulence factors that are required to colonize a new host.

  2. Norepinephrine and dopamine increase motility, biofilm formation, and virulence of Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Anh, Nguyen D Q; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, and causes important losses in the aquaculture industry. In order to develop novel methods to control disease caused by this pathogen, we need to obtain a better understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Sensing of catecholamines increases both growth and production of virulence-related factors in pathogens of terrestrial animals and humans. However, at this moment, knowledge on the impact of catecholamines on the virulence of pathogens of aquatic organisms is lacking. In the present study, we report that in V. harveyi, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (Dopa) increased growth in serum-supplemented medium, siderophore production, swimming motility, and expression of genes involved in flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide production. Consistent with this, pretreatment of V. harveyi with catecholamines prior to inoculation into the rearing water resulted in significantly decreased survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, when compared to larvae challenged with untreated V. harveyi. Further, NE-induced effects could be neutralized by α-adrenergic antagonists or by the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209, but not by β-adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists. Dopa-induced effects could be neutralized by dopaminergic antagonists or LED209, but not by adrenergic antagonists. Together, our results indicate that catecholamine sensing increases the success of transmission of V. harveyi and that interfering with catecholamine sensing might be an interesting strategy to control vibriosis in aquaculture. We hypothesize that upon tissue and/or hemocyte damage during infection, pathogens come into contact with elevated catecholamine levels, and that this stimulates the expression of virulence factors that are required to colonize a new host.

  3. Gastrointestinal Motility, Part 2: Small-Bowel and Colon Transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Alan H

    2016-03-01

    Because of the difficulty often encountered in deciding whether a patient's symptoms originate in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy is a uniquely suited noninvasive, quantitative, and physiologic method of determining whether there is a motility disorder affecting the stomach, small bowel, or colon. Small-bowel and colon transit studies can be performed alone or together with gastric emptying studies after oral administration of an appropriately radiolabeled meal. It is hoped that newly published standards for performing these studies and the anticipated arrival of new Current Procedural Terminology codes in the United States for small-bowel and colon transit studies will increase their availability and use. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. In vitro motility evaluation of aggregated cancer cells by means of automatic image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hauwer, C; Darro, F; Camby, I; Kiss, R; Van Ham, P; Decaesteker, C

    1999-05-01

    Set up of an automatic image processing based method that enables the motility of in vitro aggregated cells to be evaluated for a number of hours. Our biological model included the PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line growing as a monolayer on the bottom of Falcon plastic dishes containing conventional culture media. Our equipment consisted of an incubator, an inverted phase contrast microscope, a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) video camera, and a computer equipped with an image processing software developed in our laboratory. This computer-assisted microscope analysis of aggregated cells enables global cluster motility to be evaluated. This analysis also enables the trajectory of each cell to be isolated and parametrized within a given cluster or, indeed, the trajectories of individual cells outside a cluster. The results show that motility inside a PC-3 cluster is not restricted to slight motion due to cluster expansion, but rather consists of a marked cell movement within the cluster. The proposed equipment enables in vitro aggregated cell motility to be studied. This method can, therefore, be used in pharmacological studies in order to select anti-motility related compounds. The compounds selected by the equipment described could then be tested in vivo as potential anti-metastatic.

  5. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Linder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging at high resolution and subsequent image analysis with modified mobile phones have the potential to solve problems related to microscopy-based diagnostics of parasitic infections in many endemic regions. Diagnostics using the computing power of “smartphones” is not restricted by limited expertise or limitations set by visual perception of a microscopist. Thus diagnostics currently almost exclusively dependent on recognition of morphological features of pathogenic organisms could be based on additional properties, such as motility characteristics recognizable by computer vision. Of special interest are infectious larval stages and “micro swimmers” of e.g., the schistosome life cycle, which infect the intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. The ciliated miracidium, emerges from the excreted egg upon its contact with water. This means that for diagnostics, recognition of a swimming miracidium is equivalent to recognition of an egg. The motility pattern of miracidia could be defined by computer vision and used as a diagnostic criterion. To develop motility pattern-based diagnostics of schistosomiasis using simple imaging devices, we analyzed Paramecium as a model for the schistosome miracidium. As a model for invasive nematodes, such as strongyloids and filaria, we examined a different type of motility in the apathogenic nematode Turbatrix, the “vinegar eel.” The results of motion time and frequency analysis suggest that target motility may be expressed as specific spectrograms serving as “diagnostic fingerprints.”

  6. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernandez-Lores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labour market. In this study, we develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee's affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Studies 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB scale was developed and tested for its structure, reliability and convergent validity. Study 3 examines additional reliability and discriminant validity. Study 4 provides evidence of external validity. Study 5 examines the scale's nomological validity showing that a positive experience with the employer brand is important in making the employee develop affective commitment towards it. The limitations of the scale and the boundary conditions of its applicability are also discussed.

  8. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity. (topical review)

  9. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  10. Effect of semen preparation on casa motility results in cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contri, Alberto; Valorz, Claudio; Faustini, Massimo; Wegher, Laura; Carluccio, Augusto

    2010-08-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analyzers (CASA) have become the standard tool for evaluating sperm motility and kinetic patterns because they provide objective data for thousands of sperm tracks. However, these devices are not ready-to-use and standardization of analytical practices is a fundamental requirement. In this study, we evaluated the effects of some settings, such as frame rate and frames per field, chamber and time of analysis, and samples preparations, including thawing temperature, sperm sample concentration, and media used for dilution, on the kinetic results of bovine frozen-thawed semen using a CASA. In Experiment 1, the frame rate (30-60 frame/s) significantly affected motility parameters, whereas the number of frames per field (30 or 45) did not seem to affect sperm kinetics. In Experiment 2, the thawing protocol affects sperm motility and kinetic parameters. Sperm sample concentration significantly limited the opportunity to perform the analysis and the kinetic results. A concentration of 100 and 50 x 10(6) sperm/mL limited the device's ability to perform the analysis or gave wrong results, whereas 5, 10, 20, and 30 x 10(6) sperm/mL concentrations allowed the analysis to be performed, but with different results (Experiment 3). The medium used for the dilution of the sample, which is fundamental for a correct sperm head detection, affects sperm motility results (Experiment 4). In this study, Makler and Leja chambers were used to perform the semen analysis with CASA devices. The chamber used significantly affected motility results (Experiment 5). The time between chamber loading and analysis affected sperm velocities, regardless of chamber used. Based on results recorded in this study, we propose that the CASA evaluation of motility of bovine frozen-thawed semen using Hamilton-Thorne IVOS 12.3 should be performed using a frame rate of 60 frame/s and 30 frames per field. Semen should be diluted at least at 20 x 10(6) sperm/mL using PBS. Furthermore, it is

  11. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  12. Flagellar motility confers epiphytic fitness advantages upon Pseudomonas syringae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, D.M.; Lindow, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The role of flagellar motility in determining the epiphytic fitness of an ice-nucleation-active strain of Pseudomonas syringae was examined. The loss of flagellar motility reduced the epiphytic fitness of a normally motile P. syringae strain as measured by its growth, survival, and competitive ability on bean leaf surfaces. Equal population sizes of motile parental or nonmotile mutant P. syringae strains were maintained on bean plants for at least 5 days following the inoculation of fully expanded primary leaves. However, when bean seedlings were inoculated before the primary leaves had expanded and bacterial populations on these leaves were quantified at full expansion, the population size of the nonmotile derivative strain reached only 0.9% that of either the motile parental or revertant strain. When fully expanded bean primary leaves were coinoculated with equal numbers of motile and nonmotile cells, the population size of a nonmotile derivative strain was one-third of that of the motile parental or revertant strain after 8 days. Motile and nonmotile cells were exposed in vitro and on plants to UV radiation and desiccating conditions. The motile and nonmotile strains exhibited equal resistance to both stresses in vitro. However, the population size of a nonmotile strain on leaves was less than 20% that of a motile revertant strain when sampled immediately after UV irradiation. Epiphytic populations of both motile and nonmotile P. syringae declined under desiccating conditions on plants, and after 8 days, the population size of a nonmotile strain was less than one-third that of the motile parental or revertant strain

  13. Attentional and affective biases for attractive females emerge early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer Lynn; Verba, Stephanie Ann

    2017-01-01

    Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.

  14. Embodied Brains, Social Minds, Cultural Meaning: Integrating Neuroscientific and Educational Research on Social-Affective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Social-affective neuroscience is revealing that human brain development is inherently social--our very nature is organized by nurture. To explore the implications for human development and education, we present a series of interdisciplinary studies documenting individual and cultural variability in the neurobiological correlates of emotional…

  15. Active motility in bimodular bacterial aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu; Liu, Bin

    2017-11-01

    Dispersal capability is essential for microorganisms to achieve long-distance translocation, thus crucial for their abundance in various environments. In general, active dispersals are attributed to the movements of self-powered planktonic cells, while sessile cells that live a colonial life often disperse passively through flow entrainments. Here, we report another means of active dispersal employed by aggregates of sessile cells. The spherical rosette colonies of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus are aggregates of sessile stalked cells, of which a small proportion undergo cell division, grow active flagella and effect whole-rosette motility. We show that these rosettes actively disperse both in bulk water and near the solid-liquid interface. In particular, the proximity of a self-powered rosette to the solid surface promotes a rolling movement, leading to its persistent transportation along the solid boundary. The active dispersal of these rosettes demonstrated a novel mode of colonial transportation that is based on the division of labor between sessile and motile cells. The authors thank the support of National Science Foundation CREST: Center for Cellular and Biomolecular Machines at UC Merced (NSF-HRD-1547848).

  16. On the increased risk of developing late-onset epilepsy for patients with major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    for the control groups. However, the increased risk seemed to be due to the effect of comorbid alcohol or drug abuse and not to the effect of the affective illness itself. LIMITATIONS: The results only apply to hospitalised patients. Diagnoses are not validated for research purposes. CONCLUSION: Patients...... with a diagnosis of affective disorder have an increased risk of developing epilepsy in later life. In patients with affective disorder, comorbid alcoholism/drug abuse seriously increased the risk of a subsequent diagnosis of epilepsy....

  17. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner’s Sperm Motility and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montanino Oliva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners’ sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners.

  18. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Chen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-08-28

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two "legs" for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated "on/off" electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers can move their two "legs" to achieve one-directional walking motion on a rough surface via repeated "on/off" electro-triggering cycles. Moreover, the hydrogel walkers loaded with very heavy cargo also exhibit excellent walking motion for cargo transport. Such hydrogel systems create new opportunities for developing electro-controlled soft systems with simple design/fabrication strategies in the soft robotic field for remote manipulation and transportation.

  19. Identification and regulation of a molecular module for bleb-based cell motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudarzi, M.; Banisch, T.U.; Mobin, M.B.; Maghelli, N.; Tarbashevich, K.; Strate, I.; ter Berg, J.; Blaser, H.; Bandemer, S.; Paluch, E.; Bakkers, J.; Tolic-Norrelykke, I.M.; Raz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Single-cell migration is a key process in development, homeostasis, and disease. Nevertheless, the control over basic cellular mechanisms directing cells into motile behavior in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we report on the identification of a minimal set of parameters the regulation of which

  20. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-06-09

    Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.

  1. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4% was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.

  2. Analysis of factors affecting the development of food crop varieties bred by mutation method in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Hu Ruifa

    2002-01-01

    The research developed a production function on crop varieties developed by mutation method in order to explore factors affecting the development of new varieties. It is found that the research investment, human capital and radiation facilities were the most important factors that affected the development and cultivation area of new varieties through the mutation method. It is concluded that not all institutions involved in the breeding activities using mutation method must have radiation facilities and the national government only needed to invest in those key research institutes, which had strong research capacities. The saved research budgets can be used in the entrusting the institutes that have stronger research capacities with irradiating more breeding materials developed by the institutes that have weak research capacities, by which more opportunities to breed better varieties can be created

  3. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déziel Eric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14. Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center. Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to

  4. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Cell motility as persistent random motion: Theories from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, D.; Mosler, S.; Hagedorn, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type- specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' differen...

  6. The management of motility disorders in critical illness | Retief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric motility disorders in the intensive care unit (ICU) are a reality leading to many complications including inadequate EN delivery. Care should be taken to understand what type of gastric motility disorder is present and therapy should be prescribed early to prevent worsening of clinical outcomes.

  7. Detection and genomic characterization of motility in Lactobacillus curvatus: confirmation of motility in a species outside the Lactobacillus salivarius clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Lynch, Shónagh M; Harris, Hugh M B; McCann, Angela; Lynch, Denise B; Neville, B Anne; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Okada, Sanae; Endo, Akihito; O'Toole, Paul W

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacillus is the largest genus within the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with almost 180 species currently identified. Motility has been reported for at least 13 Lactobacillus species, all belonging to the Lactobacillus salivarius clade. Motility in lactobacilli is poorly characterized. It probably confers competitive advantages, such as superior nutrient acquisition and niche colonization, but it could also play an important role in innate immune system activation through flagellin–Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) interaction. We now report strong evidence of motility in a species outside the L. salivarius clade, Lactobacillus curvatus (strain NRIC0822). The motility of L. curvatus NRIC 0822 was revealed by phase-contrast microscopy and soft-agar motility assays. Strain NRIC 0822 was motile at temperatures between 15 °C and 37 °C, with a range of different carbohydrates, and under varying atmospheric conditions. We sequenced the L. curvatus NRIC 0822 genome, which revealed that the motility genes are organized in a single operon and that the products are very similar (>98.5% amino acid similarity over >11,000 amino acids) to those encoded by the motility operon of Lactobacillus acidipiscis KCTC 13900 (shown for the first time to be motile also). Moreover, the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements within and flanking the motility operon of L. curvatus suggests recent horizontal transfer between members of two distinct Lactobacillus clades: L. acidipiscis in the L. salivarius clade and L. curvatus inthe L. sakei clade. This study provides novel phenotypic, genetic, and phylogenetic insights into flagellum-mediated motility in lactobacilli.

  8. Deployable micro-traps to sequester motile bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giacomo, Raffaele; Krödel, Sebastian; Maresca, Bruno; Benzoni, Patrizia; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman; Daraio, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    The development of strategies to reduce the load of unwanted bacteria is a fundamental challenge in industrial processing, environmental sciences and medical applications. Here, we report a new method to sequester motile bacteria from a liquid, based on passive, deployable micro-traps that confine bacteria using micro-funnels that open into trapping chambers. Even in low concentrations, micro-traps afford a 70% reduction in the amount of bacteria in a liquid sample, with a potential to reach >90% as shown by modelling improved geometries. This work introduces a new approach to contain the growth of bacteria without chemical means, an advantage of particular importance given the alarming growth of pan-drug-resistant bacteria.

  9. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P......Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming...

  10. Mechanics model for actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  11. Motherese, affect, and vocabulary development: dyadic communicative interactions in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shruti; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Olswang, Lesley B

    2018-07-01

    Responsive parental communication during an infant's first year has been positively associated with later language outcomes. This study explores responsivity in mother-infant communication by modeling how change in guiding language between 7 and 11 months influences toddler vocabulary development. In a group of 32 mother-child dyads, change in early maternal guiding language positively predicted child language outcomes measured at 18 and 24 months. In contrast, a number of other linguistic variables - including total utterances and non-guiding language - did not correlate with toddler vocabulary development, suggesting a critical role of responsive change in infant-directed communication. We further assessed whether maternal affect during early communication influenced toddler vocabulary outcomes, finding that dominant affect during early mother-infant communications correlated to lower child language outcomes. These findings provide evidence that responsive parenting should not only be assessed longitudinally, but unique contributions of language and affect should also be concurrently considered in future study.

  12. Direct Correlation between Motile Behavior and Protein Abundance in Single Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann S Dufour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how stochastic molecular fluctuations affect cell behavior requires the quantification of both behavior and protein numbers in the same cells. Here, we combine automated microscopy with in situ hydrogel polymerization to measure single-cell protein expression after tracking swimming behavior. We characterized the distribution of non-genetic phenotypic diversity in Escherichia coli motility, which affects single-cell exploration. By expressing fluorescently tagged chemotaxis proteins (CheR and CheB at different levels, we quantitatively mapped motile phenotype (tumble bias to protein numbers using thousands of single-cell measurements. Our results disagreed with established models until we incorporated the role of CheB in receptor deamidation and the slow fluctuations in receptor methylation. Beyond refining models, our central finding is that changes in numbers of CheR and CheB affect the population mean tumble bias and its variance independently. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the degree of phenotypic diversity of a population by adjusting the global level of expression of CheR and CheB while keeping their ratio constant, which, as shown in previous studies, confers functional robustness to the system. Since genetic control of protein expression is heritable, our results suggest that non-genetic diversity in motile behavior is selectable, supporting earlier hypotheses that such diversity confers a selective advantage.

  13. Effect of hospitalization on gastrointestinal motility and pH in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrit, Kanawee; Boscan, Pedro; Ferguson, Leah E; Bradley, Allison M; Dowers, Kristy L; Twedt, David C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of hospitalization on gastrointestinal motility and pH in healthy dogs. DESIGN Experimental study. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES A wireless motility capsule (WMC) that measured pressure, transit time, and pH within the gastrointestinal tract was administered orally to dogs in 2 phases. In the first phase, dogs received the WMC at the hospital and then returned to their home to follow their daily routine. In the second phase, dogs were hospitalized, housed individually, had abdominal radiography performed daily, and were leash exercised 4 to 6 times/d until the WMC passed in the feces. All dogs received the same diet twice per day in both phases. Data were compared between phases with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS Data were collected from 11 dogs; 1 dog was excluded because the WMC failed to exit the stomach. Median gastric emptying time during hospitalization (71.8 hours; range, 10.7 to 163.0 hours) was significantly longer than at home (17.6 hours; range, 9.7 to 80.8 hours). Values of all other gastric, small bowel, and large bowel parameters (motility index, motility pattern, pH, and transit time) were similar between phases. No change in gastric pH was detected over the hospitalization period. High interdog variability was evident for all measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hospitalization of dogs may result in a prolonged gastric emptying time, which could adversely affect gastric emptying of meals, transit of orally administered drugs, or assessments of underlying motility disorders.

  14. TMEM16A inhibition impedes capacitation and acquisition of hyperactivated motility in guinea pig sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Martínez, Joaquín; Reyes-Miguel, Tania; Rodríguez-Páez, Lorena; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Maldonado-García, Deneb; Roa-Espitia, Ana L; Hernández-González, Enrique O

    2018-07-01

    Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channels (CaCCs) are anionic channels that regulate many important physiological functions associated with chloride and calcium flux in some somatic cells. The molecular identity of CaCCs was revealed to be TMEM16A and TMEM16B (also known as Anoctamin or ANO1 and ANO2, respectively) in all eukaryotes. A recent study suggests the presence of TMEM16A in human sperm and a relationship with the rhZP-induced acrosome reaction. However, to the best of our knowledge, little is known about the role of TMEM16A in other spermatic processes such as capacitation or motility. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two TMEM16A antagonists on capacitation, acrosome reaction, and motility in guinea pig sperm; these antagonists were T16Ainh-A01, belonging to a second generation of potent antagonists of TMEM16A, and niflumic acid (NFA), a well-known antagonist of TMEM16A (CaCCs). First of all, we confirmed that the absence of Cl - in the capacitation medium changes motility parameters, capacitation, and the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Using a specific antibody, TMEM16A was found as a protein band of ∼120 kDa, which localization was in the apical crest of the acrosome and the middle piece of the flagellum. Inhibition of TMEM16A by T16Ainh-A01 affected sperm physiology by reducing capacitation, blocking the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction under optimal capacitation conditions, inhibiting progressive motility, and the acquisition of hyperactivated motility, diminishing [Ca 2+ ]i, and increasing [Cl - ]i. These changes in sperm kinematic parameters provide new evidence of the important role played by TMEM16A in the production of sperm capable of fertilizing oocytes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of method of euthanasia on sperm motility of mature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutler, Shannon A; Johnson, Eric W; Still, Kenneth R; Schaeffer, David J; Hess, Rex A; Arfsten, Darryl P

    2007-03-01

    Euthanasia is one of the most commonly performed procedures in laboratory animal settings. The method of euthanasia may affect experimental results in studies using animals and must be compatible with research objectives including subsequent tissue analyses. Our present study was performed to evaluate the effects of 7 euthanasia methods on sperm motility in mature rats. Rats were euthanized using CO2, 2 commercially available euthanasia solutions (Beuthanasia-D and Sleepaway), and 4 volatile anesthetics (enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane). Rats euthanized by rapid decapitation alone served as negative controls, and a-chlorohydrin-treated rats euthanized by rapid decapitation were positive controls for sperm impairment. For 5 of these methods, we also measured time to ataxia, recumbency, respiratory arrest, and no auscultable heartbeat. Immediately after euthanasia of each rat, distal caudal epididymides were removed; 1 was processed for automated sperm motility analysis, and the other was frozen for subsequent concentration analysis. Time to all measured parameters was less for volatile anesthetics than for Beuthanasia-D. Times to last respiration and no heartbeat were less for halothane and isoflurane than for enflurane and sevoflurane. Percentage motile sperm did not differ significantly between methods. Percentage progressively motile sperm did not vary significantly between methods except for Beuthanasia-D, for which it was significantly less than the negative control value. Specific sperm motion parameters for each euthanasia method except CO2 and Sleepaway varied significantly from the negative control. Our results indicate that the method of euthanasia is an important consideration when rat sperm motility parameters must be evaluated.

  16. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  17. Conceptualizing Student Affect for Science and Technology at the Middle School Level: Development and Implementation of a Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Wulff, Eric P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of the Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST), and study its usefulness for measuring science affect in middle school students via both classical and Rasch measurement perspectives. We then proceed to utilize the measurement structure of the MAST to understand how middle school students at varying levels of…

  18. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    (Centropages typicus, Calanus helgolandicus, Temora longicornis, Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Euterpina acutifrons). Behaviors of individual nauphi were divided into sequences of sinking, swimming and jumping events. Motility behavior is both stage- and species-specific in terms of appearance......Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... of tracks, speeds, durations and frequencies of events as well as time budgets. Motility mode often changes drastically during naupliar ontogeny. Crudely, nauplii can be divided into those moving with a jump-sink type of motility of various frequencies (1 min(-1) to 3 s(-1)) and those swimming...

  19. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum......(3), >50 mum s(-1)) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing....

  20. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency is positively correlated with human sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Provenzano, Sara Pinto; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    To correlate sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency with variations in sperm motility and with sperm morphologic anomalies. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically-treated sperm cells. A possible relationship among sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm motility, and morphologic anomalies was investigated. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was positively correlated with sperm motility and negatively correlated with the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. Moreover, midpiece defects impaired mitochondrial functionality. Our data indicate that an increase in sperm motility requires a parallel increase in mitochondrial respiratory capacity, thereby supporting the fundamental role played by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in sperm motility of normozoospermic subjects. These results are of physiopathological relevance because they suggest that disturbances of sperm mitochondrial function and of energy production could be responsible for asthenozoospermia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An automatic system to study sperm motility and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda Z; Nascimento, Jaclyn M; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Botvinick, Elliot L; Berns, Michael W

    2008-08-01

    An integrated robotic laser and microscope system has been developed to automatically analyze individual sperm motility and energetics. The custom-designed optical system directs near-infrared laser light into an inverted microscope to create a single-point 3-D gradient laser trap at the focal spot of the microscope objective. A two-level computer structure is described that quantifies the sperm motility (in terms of swimming speed and swimming force) and energetics (measuring mid-piece membrane potential) using real-time tracking (done by the upper-level system) and fluorescent ratio imaging (done by the lower-level system). The communication between these two systems is achieved by a gigabit network. The custom-built image processing algorithm identifies the sperm swimming trajectory in real-time using phase contrast images, and then subsequently traps the sperm by automatically moving the microscope stage to relocate the sperm to the laser trap focal plane. Once the sperm is stably trapped (determined by the algorithm), the algorithm can also gradually reduce the laser power by rotating the polarizer in the laser path to measure the trapping power at which the sperm is capable of escaping the trap. To monitor the membrane potential of the mitochondria located in a sperm's mid-piece, the sperm is treated with a ratiometrically-encoded fluorescent probe. The proposed algorithm can relocate the sperm to the center of the ratio imaging camera and the average ratio value can be measured in real-time. The three parameters, sperm escape power, sperm swimming speed and ratio values of the mid-piece membrane potential of individual sperm can be compared with respect to time. This two-level automatic system to study individual sperm motility and energetics has not only increased experimental throughput by an order of magnitude but also has allowed us to monitor sperm energetics prior to and after exposure to the laser trap. This system should have application in both the

  2. Does Intellectual Disability Affect the Development of Dental Caries in Patients with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the severity of intellectual disability is a factor that affects the development of dental cavities in patients with cerebral palsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 165 individuals who were selected from a physical rehabilitation center, a special public school and a regular public school. Of…

  3. Mechanisms for Promoting the Development of Cognitive, Social and Affective Graduate Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie W. K.; Ho, Shun Amaly

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to help universities promote graduate attributes by investigating mechanisms for promoting the development of cognitive, social and affective attributes which could impact upon all undergraduate students. Small group interviews were conducted with 90 final year students at a university in Hong Kong. Interview transcripts…

  4. Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Lynda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

  5. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to

  6. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13–18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to

  7. Common and Unique Associations of Adolescents' Affective and Cognitive Empathy Development with Conflict Behavior towards Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Branje, S.J.T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13–18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to

  8. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  9. Bus rapid transit and development : policies and practices that affect development around transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and...

  10. Factors affecting the development of sprays produced by multihole injectors for direct-injection engine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Romunde, R. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The spray form development from a state of the art multi-hole injector for gasoline direct injection internal combustion engines is examined to attempt to determine the thermo-fluid dynamics affecting the spray development. The current state of knowledge regarding spray break-up and the interactivity of the factors on spray form are detailed. The spray under investigation was injected into purposely designed quiescent chambers to decouple the effects of the fluid mechanics on s...

  11. Factors Affecting The Use and Development of Solar Energy in Iran's Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Keywords: Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Fossil, Fuel, Sustainability Article History: Received Nov 16th 2016; Received in revised form January 12nd 2017; Accepted 3rd February 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M and Yavari, G. (2017 Factors affecting the use and development of solar energy in Iran's agricultural sector. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(1,45-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.45-53

  12. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  13. DNA Supercoiling Regulates the Motility of Campylobacter jejuni and Is Altered by Growth in the Presence of Chicken Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Shortt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but relatively little is known about the global regulation of virulence factors during infection of chickens or humans. This study identified DNA supercoiling as playing a key role in regulating motility and flagellar protein production and found that this supercoiling-controlled regulon is induced by growth in chicken mucus. A direct correlation was observed between motility and resting DNA supercoiling levels in different strains of C. jejuni, and relaxation of DNA supercoiling resulted in decreased motility. Transcriptional analysis and Western immunoblotting revealed that a reduction in motility and DNA supercoiling affected the two-component regulatory system FlgRS and was associated with reduced FlgR expression, increased FlgS expression, and aberrant expression of flagellin subunits. Electron microscopy revealed that the flagellar structure remained intact. Growth in the presence of porcine mucin resulted in increased negative supercoiling, increased motility, increased FlgR expression, and reduced FlgS expression. Finally, this supercoiling-dependent regulon was shown to be induced by growth in chicken mucus, and the level of activation was dependent on the source of the mucus from within the chicken intestinal tract. In conclusion, this study reports for the first time the key role played by DNA supercoiling in regulating motility in C. jejuni and indicates that the induction of this supercoiling-induced regulon in response to mucus from different sources could play a critical role in regulating motility in vivo.

  14. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  15. Negative affect is associated with development and persistence of chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A general population sample aged 19 to 72years was examined in 2006-2008 and again in 2011-2012. Longitudinal data on CI were analysed with the purpose of examining baseline negative affect as a risk factor for having developed CI at 5-year follow-up and for reporting persistent CI. Participants.......4% of the participants who had reported CI at baseline also reported CI at follow-up. In participants with no baseline CI, 15.5% reported CI at follow-up and 18.1% reported symptoms related to chemicals but no daily life adjustments. Baseline negative affect was positively and statistically significantly associated...

  16. Factors Affecting The Career Development Of Employees In Secretariat Office Of City Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Rande

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although the primary responsibility for career planning lies in the individual but organizational career planning should be completely in line with individual career planning if an organization wants to retain the best employees. Assumptions and the perspective delivers the researchers to examine the influence of aspects of individual and organizational aspects of the career development of employees within the organization of government. The population in this study were employees of the Regional Secretariat of Samarinda by sampling using Proportional Sampling. This research uses a quantitative approach to the explanation that the format is done through surveys. The results showed that the main factors affecting the career development of staff at the Regional Secretariat Samarinda is a factor of career counseling performance appraisal and career mapping which affects the employees career development is partially respectively or simultaneously together .

  17. How does blastomere removal affect embryonic development? : A time-lapse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    of the 6-10 cell embryo. It has been argued that blastomere removal does not affect embryonic development, but few studies have focussed on safety of the procedure. Recently, time-lapse studies on mice have suggested that blastomere removal affects embryonic development. The present study was conducted...... to evaluate the effect of blastomere biopsy on early human embryonic development using time-lapse analysis. Materials and methods: Couples undergoing IVF treatment or PGD were requested permission to include embryos in the project. The diagnosis healthy/diseased was made by analysis of a single blastomere....... For PGD 56 human embryos were biopsied 68 hours after fertilisation, the majority at the eight cell stage. As controls 43 non-biopsied embryos at the 6-8 cell stage were selected. All embryos were cultured until 5 days after fertilisation in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™). Key events such as time...

  18. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  19. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates.

  20. Motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to SOS-inducible biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappa, Shakinah T; Maredia, Reshma; Phipps, Kara; Haskins, William E; Weitao, Tao

    2013-12-01

    DNA-damaging antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin induce biofilm formation and the SOS response through autocleavage of SOS-repressor LexA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the biofilm-SOS connection remains poorly understood. It was investigated with 96-well and lipid biofilm assays. The effects of ciprofloxacin were examined on biofilm stimulation of the SOS mutant and wild-type strains. The stimulation observed in the wild-type in which SOS was induced was reduced in the mutant in which LexA was made non-cleavable (LexAN) and thus SOS non-inducible. Therefore, the stimulation appeared to involve SOS. The possible mechanisms of inducible biofilm formation were explored by subproteomic analysis of outer membrane fractions extracted from biofilms. The data predicted an inhibitory role of LexA in flagellum function. This premise was tested first by functional and morphological analyses of flagellum-based motility. The flagellum swimming motility decreased in the LexAN strain treated with ciprofloxacin. Second, the motility-biofilm assay was performed, which tested cell migration and biofilm formation. The results showed that wild-type biofilm increased significantly over the LexAN. These results suggest that LexA repression of motility, which is the initial event in biofilm development, contributes to repression of SOS-inducible biofilm formation. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of intravenous amino acids on interdigestive antroduodenal motility and small bowel transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielkens, H A; van den Biggelaar, A; Vecht, J; Onkenhout, W; Lamers, C B; Masclee, A A

    1999-02-01

    Patients on total parenteral nutrition have an increased risk of developing gallstones because of gall bladder hypomotility. High dose amino acids may prevent biliary stasis by stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate whether intravenous amino acids also influence antroduodenal motility. Eight healthy volunteers received, on three separate occasions, intravenous saline (control), low dose amino acids (LDA), or high dose amino acids (HDA). Antroduodenal motility was recorded by perfusion manometry and duodenocaecal transit time (DCTT) using the lactulose breath hydrogen test. DCTT was significantly prolonged during LDA and HDA treatment compared with control. The interdigestive motor pattern was maintained and migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle length was significantly reduced during HDA compared with control and LDA due to a significant reduction in phase II duration. Significantly fewer phase IIIs originated in the gastric antrum during LDA and HDA compared with control. Duodenal phase II motility index was significantly reduced during HDA, but not during LDA, compared with control. Separate intravenous infusion of high doses of amino acids in healthy volunteers: (1) modulates interdigestive antroduodenal motility; (2) shortens MMC cycle length due to a reduced duration of phase II with a lower contractile incidence both in the antrum and duodenum (phase I remains unchanged whereas the effect on phase III is diverse: in the antrum phase III is suppressed and in the duodenum the frequency is increased); and (3) prolongs interdigestive DCTT.

  2. Induction of autocrine factor inhibiting cell motility from murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, J; Ayukawa, K; Ogasawara, M; Watanabe, H; Saiki, I

    1999-03-15

    We have previously reported that neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) successfully inhibited Matrigel invasion and haptotactic migration of B16-BL6 melanoma cells towards both fibronectin and laminin without affecting their growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of tumor cell motility by alpha-MSH. Alpha-MSH significantly blocked the autocrine motility factor (AMF)-enhanced cell motility. However, alpha-MSH did neither prevent the secretion of AMF from B16-BL6 cells nor alter the expression level of AMF receptor (gp78). On the other hand, alpha-MSH induced the secretion of the motility inhibitory factor(s) from B16-BL6 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of the motility inhibitor(s) was proportional to increasing levels of intracellular cAMP induced by alpha-MSH as well as forskolin, and the activity was abolished by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA). The motility-inhibiting activity in conditioned medium (CM) from alpha-MSH-treated B16-BL6 cells was found to have a m.w. below 3 kDa after fractionation. This activity was abolished by boiling but insensitive to trypsin. The treatment of tumor cells with cycloheximide reduced the activity in alpha-MSH-stimulated CM. Our results suggest that alpha-MSH inhibited the motility of B16-BL6 cells through induction of autocrine factor(s).

  3. Affective status in relation to impulsive, motor and motivational symptoms: personality, development and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Tomas; Beninger, Richard J; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Archer, Trevor

    2008-10-01

    The contributions of impulsive and risk-taking behaviour in depressive and bipolar disorders, motivational and motor behaviours in anhedonic and substance addictive states, and the factors, particularly distress and trauma, underlying the development of neuropathology in affective status are described from clinical, epidemiological and laboratory perspectives. In order to distinguish one case factor for biopsychological substrates of health, an array of self-reported characteristics, e.g., positive or negative affect, stress or energy, optimism, etc., that may be predictive or counterpredictive for the propensity for physical exercise and activity were analysed using a linear regression in twelve different studies. Several individual characteristics were found to be markedly and significantly predictive of the exercise propensity, i.e., positive affect, energy, health-seeking behaviour and character, while optimism was of lesser, though significant, importance. Several individual characteristics were found to be significantly counterpredictive: expression of BDI- and HAD-depression, major sleep problems and lack/negligence of health-seeking behaviour. The consequences of physical activity and exercise for both affective well-being, cognitive mobility and neurogenesis is noted, particularly with regard to developmental assets for younger individuals. Affective disorder states may be studied through analyses of personal characteristics that unfold predispositions for symptoms-profiles and biomarkers derived from properties of dysfunction, such as impulsiveness, temperament dimensions, anhedonia and 'over-sensitivity', whether interpersonal or to reward.

  4. Initial experience with magnetic resonance fluoroscopy in the evaluation of oesophageal motility disorders. Comparison with manometry and barium fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Anzidei, Michele; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto; Habib, Fortunee I.; Tomei, Ernesto; Paolantonio, Pasquale; Laghi, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) fluoroscopy in the study of oesophageal motility disorders and to compare MR fluoroscopy results with those of manometry and barium contrast radiography. Twenty-five subjects referred for dysphagia and three patients in follow-up after pneumatic dilatation of the lower oesophageal sphincter to treat severe achalasia underwent esophageal manometry, barium contrast radiography and MR fluoroscopy. Examinations were performed on a 1.5 T scanner. Dynamic turbo- fast low angle shot (turbo-FLASH) sequences acquired during oral contrast agent administration were used to perform MR fluoroscopy. MR fluoroscopy correctly diagnosed achalasia in nine patients, uncoordination of esophageal body motility in ten and scleroderma oesophagus in one. Diagnostic performance was satisfactory, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100% in the general depiction of motility alterations. Our work demonstrates that MR fluoroscopic examination in subject affected by oesophageal motility disorders is feasible and can properly depict motility and morphology alterations, achieving correct diagnosis in the majority of cases. Studies on larger populations are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. (orig.)

  5. Initial experience with magnetic resonance fluoroscopy in the evaluation of oesophageal motility disorders. Comparison with manometry and barium fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Anzidei, Michele; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Habib, Fortunee I.; Tomei, Ernesto [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Division of Gastroenterology, Rome (Italy); Paolantonio, Pasquale; Laghi, Andrea [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences - Polo Didattico Pontino I.C.O.T, Rome (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) fluoroscopy in the study of oesophageal motility disorders and to compare MR fluoroscopy results with those of manometry and barium contrast radiography. Twenty-five subjects referred for dysphagia and three patients in follow-up after pneumatic dilatation of the lower oesophageal sphincter to treat severe achalasia underwent esophageal manometry, barium contrast radiography and MR fluoroscopy. Examinations were performed on a 1.5 T scanner. Dynamic turbo- fast low angle shot (turbo-FLASH) sequences acquired during oral contrast agent administration were used to perform MR fluoroscopy. MR fluoroscopy correctly diagnosed achalasia in nine patients, uncoordination of esophageal body motility in ten and scleroderma oesophagus in one. Diagnostic performance was satisfactory, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100% in the general depiction of motility alterations. Our work demonstrates that MR fluoroscopic examination in subject affected by oesophageal motility disorders is feasible and can properly depict motility and morphology alterations, achieving correct diagnosis in the majority of cases. Studies on larger populations are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. (orig.)

  6. Pathophysiology and treatment of patients with globus sensation ―from the viewpoint of esophageal motility dysfunction―

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Noriaki; Tsutsui, Hideaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2014-01-01

    "Globus sensation" is often described as the sensation of a lump in the throat associated with dry swallowing or the need for dry swallowing, which disappears completely during eating or drinking and for which no organic cause can be established. Due to the uncertain etiology of "globus sensation", it remains difficult to establish standard treatment strategies for affected patients. Lately most attention has been focused on gastroesophageal reflux disease and several reports have indicated that there is a close relationship between esophageal acid reflux and globus sensation. Nowadays, empirical therapy with a high dose of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is considered to be indicated for patients with globus sensation, after excluding organic diseases such as pharyngeal cancer, Zenker's diverticulum, or thyroid enlargement. If patients are nonresponsive to PPI therapy, evaluation of esophageal motility should be done. In our recent study, 47.9% had abnormal esophageal motility, with the most common esophageal motility abnormality being an ineffective esophageal motility in PPI-resistant patients with globus sensation. This suggests that prokinetics alone or adding prokinetics to PPI should be the treatment to be considered, although few studies have investigated the efficacy of prokinetics in the treatment of patients with globus sensation. If patients without any esophageal motility dysfunctions are nonresponsive to PPI therapy, either cognitive-behavioral therapy, anti-depressants, or gabapentin could be helpful, although further well-designed, randomized controlled large-scale studies will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of each treatment strategy on patients with globus sensation. PMID:26081369

  7. High-Resolution Manometry Evaluation of the Pharynx and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Motility in Patients with Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Mariano A; Herbella, Fernando A M; Patti, Marco G

    2015-10-01

    The motility of the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is still poorly understood. It is also unclear if the motility of this area may be compromised in patients with achalasia. This study aims to evaluate the motility of the pharynx, UES, and proximal esophagus in patients with esophageal achalasia. Sixty patients with achalasia underwent high-resolution manometry (HRM) (52 % females, mean age 54 years). Esophageal dilatation was classified according to the radiologic diameter in Type I (10 cm): 24 %. HRM classified 43 % of the patients as Chicago Type I and 57 % as Type II. Manometric parameters were compared to normal values obtained from a previous study in volunteers. The motility of the velopharynx showed short, premature, and hypertonic contraction. The epiglottis also showed hypertonic contraction. The UES had increased residual pressure. Chicago classification Type II patients had higher UES residual pressure (p = 0.03). The degree of esophageal dilatation did not correlate with manometric parameters. Achalasia may affect the motility of the pharyngo-upper esophageal area. The changes observed may represent functional alterations to prevent aspiration, especially in patients with Chicago classification Type II achalasia.

  8. Exploratory Research on Latent Esophageal Motility Disorders in Dysphagia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shinpei; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Inoue, Yousuke; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Haruhiko; Ota, Kazuhiro; Harada, Satoshi; Edogawa, Shoko; Kojima, Yuichi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fukuchi, Takumi; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) has been applied to assess esophageal motility disorders. However, the frequency and types of motility disorders in patients with dysphagia, which are frequently seen in clinical practice, are not clear. We evaluated latent esophageal motility disorders associated with dysphagia. The study included patients without erosive esophageal mucosal damage and with dysphagia symptoms refractory to at least 8 weeks of standard-dose proton pump inhibitors. After enrolment, HRM was used to evaluate for esophageal motility disorder based on the Chicago classification. Esophageal motility disorder was found in 58 of 100 patients and was classified based on the causes: achalasia (13%), esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (16%), distal esophageal spasms (3%), weak peristalsis (14%), frequently failed peristalsis (5%), and hypertensive peristalsis (7%). Primary esophageal motility disorder was found in approximately 50% of cases in dysphagia patients. Therefore, esophageal motility disorder is not an uncommon condition and should be sought for in order to elucidate precisely the cause of dysphagia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The AP2/ERF Transcription Factor DRNL Modulates Gynoecium Development and Affects Its Response to Cytokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Durán-Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process. On the other hand, the AP2/ERF2 transcription factor BOL/DRNL/ESR2/SOB is expressed at very early stages of aerial organ formation and has been proposed to be a marker for organ founder cells. In this work, we found that this gene is also expressed at later stages during gynoecium development, particularly at the lateral regions (the region related to the valves of the ovary. The loss of DRNL function affects gynoecium development. Some of the mutant phenotypes present similarities to those observed in plants treated with exogenous cytokinins, and AHP6 has been previously proposed to be a target of DRNL. Therefore, we explored the response of drnl-2 developing gynoecia to cytokinins, and found that the loss of DRNL function affects the response of the gynoecium to exogenously applied cytokinins in a developmental-stage-dependent manner. In summary, this gene participates during gynoecium development, possibly through the dynamic modulation of cytokinin homeostasis and response.

  10. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  11. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  12. How Different Guilt Feelings Can Affect Social Competence Development in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Ponti, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors. The feeling of guilt linked to the fear of punishment, on the contrary, tends to positively affect aggressive and negatively affect prosocial conducts in children. These results highlight that the different feelings of guilt can represent a relevant risk or protective factor for the development of social competence in childhood. Limitations, strengths, and further development of the present study are discussed.

  13. Affective strategies, attitudes, and a model of speaking performance development for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijirahayu, S.; Dorand, P.

    2018-01-01

    Learning English as a Foreign language (EFL) as one of the challenges especially for students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering to develop their communication skill as a professional could be one of the chances for them to face a more global era. Yet, there are important factors that may influence the progress of the speaking performance and attitude is one of them. Therefore, a survey involving two main psychological variables in language learning namely attitude and affective strategies and the third variable is speaking performance was conducted and a model of affective strategies in language learning developing through the application of Content Language Integrated Learning and multimedia instruction was introduced. This study involved 71 sophomore students and two classes of university students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The researchers used both survey and action research method with quantitative as well as qualitative in approach.

  14. Factors Affecting Youth Voice in Decision-Making Processes within Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Tarifa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.

  15. Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schima, W.; Pokieser, P.; Schober, E.

    1995-01-01

    Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter has gained increased attention in recent years. Videofluoroscopic investigation of esophageal motor function is superior to static film radiography, as repeated analysis of the videotaped recordings is possible. With emphasis on radiological techniques, normal esophagel physiology and motility and a variety of esophageal motor disorders are discussed in this review paper. Radiological evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux and reflux esophagitis is described. Clinical and radiological findings in esophageal motility disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the radiological efficacy compared to that of manometry and pH-metry are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. The Chicago classification of motility disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sabine; Gyawali, C Prakash; Xiao, Yinglian; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The Chicago Classification defines esophageal motility disorders in high resolution manometry. This is based on individual scoring of 10 swallows performed in supine position. Disorders of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction are defined by a median integrated relaxation pressure above the limit of normal and divided into 3 achalasia subtypes and EGJ outflow obstruction. Major motility disorders (aperistalsis, distal esophageal spasm, and hypercontractile esophagus) are patterns not encountered in controls in the context of normal EGJ relaxation. Finally with the latest version of the Chicago Classification, only two minor motor disorders are considered: ineffective esophageal motility and fragmented peristalsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riemann, Lasse; Azam, F.

    2001-01-01

    the coast of La Jolla, California, as well as a mesocosm study to examine bacterial motility and its relationship to environmental variables. Dark-field microscopy revealed periods of sustained low (fall and winter, ...). Bacteria in natural seawater did not swim constantly nor at constant speeds; over 40% swam algae, bacteria...... swimming. Our results show that a variable fraction of marine bacteria is able to respond to loci of organic matter, e.g. organic particles and algae, and that motility underlies dynamic patterns of ecological relationships (symbiosis, competition, parasitism) between bacteria and algae. Since motility may...

  18. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  19. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  20. Distinct Patterns of Primary and Motile Cilia in Rathke’s Cleft Cysts and Craniopharyngioma Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Shannon; Du, Ziming; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Woo, Terri; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Kieran, Mark W.; Santagata, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Cilia are highly conserved organelles which serve critical roles in development and physiology. Motile cilia are expressed in a limited range of tissues, where they principally regulate local extracellular fluid dynamics. In contrast, primary cilia are expressed by many vertebrate cell types during interphase, and are intimately involved in the cell cycle and signal transduction. Notably, primary cilia are essential for vertebrate hedgehog pathway activity. Improved detection of motile cilia may assist in the diagnosis of some pathologic entities such as Rathke’s cleft cysts while characterizing primary cilia in neoplastic tissues may implicate cilia-dependent signaling pathways as critical for tumorigenesis. We show that immunohistochemistry for the nuclear transcription factor FOXJ1, a master regulator of motile ciliogenesis, robustly labels the motile ciliated epithelium of Rathke’s cleft cysts. FOXJ1 expression discriminates Rathke’s cleft cysts from entities in the sellar/suprasellar region with overlapping histologic features such as craniopharyngiomas. Co-immunohistochemistry for FOXJ1 and markers that highlight motile cilia such as acetylated tubulin (TUBA4A) and the small GTPase ARL13B further enhance the ability to identify diagnostic epithelial cells. In addition to highlighting motile cilia, ARL13B immunohistochemistry also robustly highlights primary cilia in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Primary cilia are present throughout the neoplastic epithelium of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, but are limited to basally oriented cells near the fibrovascular stroma in papillary craniopharyngioma. Consistent with this differing pattern of primary ciliation, adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas express significantly higher levels of SHH, and downstream targets such as PTCH1 and GLI2, compared to papillary craniopharyngiomas. In conclusion, motile ciliated epithelium can be readily identified using immunohistochemistry for FOXJ1, TUBA4A and

  1. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  2. ARTIE: an Integrated Environment for the development of Affective Robot Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Eduardo Imbernón Cuadrado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social- support behaviours in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a signicant contribution to learning efciency.With the aim of contributing to the rising eld of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment. We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,... in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to

  3. Condensed images for evaluating gastric motility patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Schroettle, W.; Kirsch, C.-M. (Munich Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    A condensed imaging technique was applied to gastric emptying studies to investigate (a) whether different types of motility disorders may be distinguished by characteristic image patterns and (b) whether the findings obtained provide additional information compared to standard quantitative measurements. Condensed images and quantitative data of gastric emptying were evaluated in 75 consecutive patients with normal function and various disorders such as peptic ulcer, postvagotomy, pyloric obstruction, dumping syndrome, gastoparesis etc. Condensed images were generated from a gastric region of interest. They display the distribution and behaviour of a radioactive test meal in a space-time matrix, whose horizontal and vertical dimensions are temporal and spatial, respectively. As shown in a series of representative examples condensed images disclose a variety of well-defined image patterns reflecting different pathophysiological mechanisms. This qualitative characterization of gastric emptying patterns provided in 34 of the 75 patients (45%) important new information compared to quantitative data. The application of condensed imaging techniques to gastric emptying studies (complementary to quantitative measurements) may, therefore, enhance the diagnostic value of scintigraphic techniques. (author).

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  5. Staff development and secondary science teachers: Factors that affect voluntary participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Theresa Roebuck

    2000-10-01

    A researcher-designed survey assessed the perceptions of Alabama secondary science public school teachers toward the need for staff development and toward certain staff development strategies and programs. Factors that encouraged or discouraged attendance at voluntary staff development programs and opinions regarding effective and ineffective features of programs were identified. Data were analyzed using descriptive techniques. Percentages and frequencies were noted. Average rankings were computed for the staff development techniques considered most and least effective and for the preferred designs of future staff development offerings. Chi squares were computed to respond to each of the 4 research hypotheses. Narrative discussions and tables were utilized to report the data and provide clarification. This study related demographic information to the research hypotheses. Analysis of the research hypotheses revealed that experienced teachers agree more strongly about the features of staff development programs that they consider effective and about the factors that may affect participation in staff development programs. Analysis of the research questions revealed that secondary science teachers in Alabama agree that staff development is a personal responsibility but that the school systems are responsible for providing staff development opportunities. Teachers believe that staff development is needed annually in both science content and teaching strategies and favor lengthening the school year for staff development. Teachers identified interest level, graduate credit, ability to implement material, scheduling factors, and the reputation of the organizer as the most important factors in determining participation in voluntary staff development programs. Hands-on workshops were identified as the most effective type of voluntary staff development and teachers requested that future staff development experiences include hands-on workshops, networking, curriculum

  6. Conceptualizing Student Affect for Science and Technology at the Middle School Level: Development and Implementation of a Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Wulff, Eric P.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the development of the Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST), and study its usefulness for measuring science affect in middle school students via both classical and Rasch measurement perspectives. We then proceed to utilize the measurement structure of the MAST to understand how middle school students at varying levels of affect express their interest and attitudes toward science and technology and gender differences in how students express their affect. We found that affect in science and technology comprises a main dimension, science interest, and four peripheral dimensions: interest in careers in science and technology, attitudes toward science, and interest in attending science class. Of these, careers in science and technology carry the highest affective demand. While males showed higher levels of personal and situational interest in science, a greater interest in careers in science and technology was the biggest contributor to males' higher affect toward science and technology. We argue that whether the MAST is used as a measure of a single construct or multiple subconstructs depends upon specific research or evaluation goals; however, both uses of the MAST yield measures which produce valid inferences for student affect.

  7. Oesophageal motility disorders in patients with psychiatric disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Dhaenen, H. [Department of Psychiatry, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, H.R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Peters, O. [Department of Gastro-enterology, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Piepsz, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    Clinical and experimental observations indicate that the motility of the oesophagus may be affected by emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of oesophageal contractility impairment in patients suffering from a psychiatric disorder. Fifty-one patients admitted to the psychiatric department were submitted to an oesophageal transit study by means of krypton-81m. All patients with an abnormal oesophageal transit underwent manometry and endoscopy. The level of depression and anxiety was evaluated by the treating psychiatrist, using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. The oesophageal transit was abnormal in 13 patients. Two of these 13 patients refused manometric investigation. In ten of the 11 remaining patients, the manometry revealed functional motor abnormalities. Endoscopy, performed in all these ten patients, was normal. In conclusion, a high percentage of oesophageal contractility disturbances was found in psychiatric patients complaining of anxiety and/or depression. These abnormalities were detected by scintigraphy as well as by manometry. Owing to the normal endoscopic findings, these contraction abnormalities are likely to reflect a functional motor impairment. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Oesophageal motility disorders in patients with psychiatric disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, J.; Dhaenen, H.; Ham, H.R.; Peters, O.; Piepsz, A.

    1996-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations indicate that the motility of the oesophagus may be affected by emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of oesophageal contractility impairment in patients suffering from a psychiatric disorder. Fifty-one patients admitted to the psychiatric department were submitted to an oesophageal transit study by means of krypton-81m. All patients with an abnormal oesophageal transit underwent manometry and endoscopy. The level of depression and anxiety was evaluated by the treating psychiatrist, using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. The oesophageal transit was abnormal in 13 patients. Two of these 13 patients refused manometric investigation. In ten of the 11 remaining patients, the manometry revealed functional motor abnormalities. Endoscopy, performed in all these ten patients, was normal. In conclusion, a high percentage of oesophageal contractility disturbances was found in psychiatric patients complaining of anxiety and/or depression. These abnormalities were detected by scintigraphy as well as by manometry. Owing to the normal endoscopic findings, these contraction abnormalities are likely to reflect a functional motor impairment. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Nutritional deficits during early development affect hippocampal structure and spatial memory later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Lavenex, Pierre; Omanska, Alicja

    2005-10-01

    Development rates vary among individuals, often as a result of direct competition for food. Survival of young might depend on their learning abilities, but it remains unclear whether learning abilities are affected by nutrition during development. The authors demonstrated that compared with controls, 1-year-old Western scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica) that experienced nutritional deficits during early posthatching development had smaller hippocampi with fewer neurons and performed worse in a cache recovery task and in a spatial version of an associative learning task. In contrast, performance of nutritionally deprived birds was similar to that of controls in 2 color versions of an associative learning task. These findings suggest that nutritional deficits during early development have long-term consequences for hippocampal structure and spatial memory, which, in turn, are likely to have a strong impact on animals' future fitness.

  10. Simulation of physical development because affected by the construction of the highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Bačnar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for planning highways entails evaluation of possibilities the purpose being selection of the optimal one. In the procedure certain criteria are applied, amongst other evaluation of influences on regional and urban development. Despite the set criteria the chosen route is often contrary to development goals of cities and wider areas – regions, which it affects. The article presents possibilities of using models of effects of highways on settlement development for forecasting consequences of construction. The model is based on knowledge of effects of already built highways, examples of analysed highway exits are shown with settlement growth. Spatial models are useful tools for forecasting physical changes and simulating effects of projects on physical development or its particular elements.

  11. Appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Y.; Aleksandrova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves were studied by means of radiotelemetry. Rumen contractions were registered right after birth. Their amplitude was growing gradually and that was observed best in the first month after birth

  12. Institutional Guidance of Affective Bonding: Moral Values Development in Brazilian Military Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2016-09-01

    In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation.

  13. Pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback and the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Jones, Neil P; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2017-08-01

    Etiological models propose that a biological vulnerability to emotional reactivity plays an important role in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the physiological and phenomenological components of emotional reactivity that predict the course of BPD symptoms in adolescence are poorly understood. This prospective study examines pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback as predictors of BPD symptom development in adolescent girls over 18 months. Fifty-seven 16-year-old girls completed a laboratory task in which they heard recorded clips of their own mothers making critical or praising statements about them, as well as neutral statements that did not pertain to them. Changes in girls' pupil dilation and subjective affect were assessed throughout the task. The results demonstrated that greater pupillary response to maternal criticism predicted increases in BPD symptoms over time. In addition, greater pupillary and positive affective responses to maternal praise were associated with higher BPD symptoms at age 16 and faster decreases in BPD symptoms over time, but only among girls who heard clips that were rated by independent observers as less praising. The results suggest that emotional reactivity can serve as either a risk or a protective factor depending on context, with differential effects of reactivity to criticism versus praise.

  14. Comparative transcriptomics with a motility-deficient mutant leads to identification of a novel polysaccharide secretion system in Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Douglas D; Meeks, John C

    2013-02-01

    Many filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility by an undefined mechanism. Within the heterocyst-forming clades, some strains, such as the Nostoc spp. and Fisherella spp., are motile only as specialized filaments termed hormogonia. Here we report on the phenotype of inactivation of a methyl-accepting chemotaxis-like protein in Nostoc punctiforme, designated HmpD. The gene hmpD was found to be essential for hormogonium development, motility and polysaccharide secretion. Comparative global transcriptional profiling of the ΔhmpD strain demonstrated that HmpD has a profound effect on the transcriptional programme of hormogonium development, influencing approximately half of the genes differentially transcribed during differentiation. Utilizing this transcriptomic data, we identified a gene locus, designated here as hps, that appears to encode for a novel polysaccharide secretion system. Transcripts for the genes in the hps locus are upregulated in two steps, with the second step dependent on HmpD. Deletion of hpsA, hpsBCD or hpsEFG resulted in the complete loss of motility and polysaccharide secretion, similar to deletion of hmpD. Genes in the hps locus are highly conserved in the filamentous cyanobacteria, but generally absent in unicellular strains, implying a common mechanism of motility unique to the filamentous cyanobacteria. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Developing Automatic Form and Design System Using Integrated Grey Relational Analysis and Affective Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern highly competitive marketplace and global market environment, product quality improvements that abridge development time and reduce the production costs are effective methods for promoting the business competitiveness of a product in shorter lifecycles. Since the design process is the best time to control such parameters, systematically designing the processes to develop a product that more closely fits the demand requirements for the market is a key factor for developing a successful product. In this paper, a combined affective engineering method and grey relational analysis are used to develop a product design process. First, design image scale technology is used to acquire the best the design criteria factors, and then affective engineering methods are used to set the relationships between customer needs and production factors. Finally, grey relational analysis is used to select the optimal design strategy. Using this systematic design method, a higher quality product can be expanded upon in a shorter lead-time for improving business competition.

  16. Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in developing organ systems at different developmental times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorman Stephen J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the affect of microgravity on gene expression, particularly in vivo during embryonic development. Using transgenic zebrafish that express the gfp gene under the influence of a β-actin promoter, we examined the affect of simulated-microgravity on GFP expression in the heart, notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons. We exposed transgenic zebrafish to simulated-microgravity for different durations at a variety of developmental times in an attempt to determine periods of susceptibility for the different developing organ systems. Results The developing heart had a period of maximum susceptibility between 32 and 56 hours after fertilization when there was an approximately 30% increase in gene expression. The notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons all showed periods of susceptibility occurring between 24 and 72 hours after fertilization. In addition, the notochord showed a second period of susceptibility between 8 and 32 hours after fertilization. Interestingly, all organs appeared to be recovering by 80 hours after fertilization despite continued exposure to simulated-microgravity. Conclusion These results support the idea that exposure to microgravity can cause changes in gene expression in a variety of developing organ systems in live embryos and that there are periods of maximum susceptibility to the effects.

  17. Neural network for automatic analysis of motility data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Kruse-Andersen, S; Kolberg, Jens Godsk

    1994-01-01

    comparable. However, the neural network recognized pressure peaks clearly generated by muscular activity that had escaped detection by the conventional program. In conclusion, we believe that neurocomputing has potential advantages for automatic analysis of gastrointestinal motility data.......Continuous recording of intraluminal pressures for extended periods of time is currently regarded as a valuable method for detection of esophageal motor abnormalities. A subsequent automatic analysis of the resulting motility data relies on strict mathematical criteria for recognition of pressure...

  18. Increased Risk of Developing Affective Disorder in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Links between thyroid function and depression have been noted in many contexts. We assessed whether hospitalization with hypothyroidism was a risk factor for developing affective disorder. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using historical data from Danish registers....... The observational period was 1977-1999. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admittance with the resulting index discharge diagnoses hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, or nontoxic goiter. A later hospitalization with a resulting discharge diagnosis of affective disorder was used...... as event of interest, and rates of readmission were estimated and compared using competing risk models in survival analyses. FINDINGS: We identified 165,307 patients discharged with an index diagnosis. In the observational period, 1041 events occurred. An index diagnosis of hypothyroidism was associated...

  19. Microfabricated ratchet structures for concentrating and patterning motile bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yub; Lee, Eun Se; Lee, Ho Jae; Lee, Se Yeon; Lee, Sung Kuk; Kim, Taesung

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel microfabricated concentrator for Escherichia coli that can be a stand-alone and self-contained microfluidic device because it utilizes the motility of cells. First of all, we characterize the motility of E. coli cells and various ratcheting structures that can guide cells to move in a desired direction in straight and circular channels. Then, we combine these ratcheting microstructures with the intrinsic tendency of cells to swim on the right side in microchannels to enhance the concentration rates up to 180 fold until the concentrators are fully filled with cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cells can be positioned and concentrated with a constant spacing distance on a surface, allowing spatial patterning of motile cells. These results can be applied to biosorption or biosensor devices that are powered by motile cells because they can be highly concentrated without any external mechanical and electrical energy sources. Hence, we believe that the concentrator design holds considerable potential to be applied for concentrating and patterning other motile microbes and providing a versatile structure for motility study of bacterial cells.

  20. Evaluation of Esophageal Motility Utilizing the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Lin, Zhiyue; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Listernick, Zoe; Ritter, Katherine; Tye, Michael; Ponds, Fraukje A; Wong, Ian; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-12-01

    Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility and distension-mediated peristalsis can be assessed with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) during a sedated upper endoscopy. We aimed to describe esophageal motility assessment using FLIP topography in patients presenting with dysphagia. In all, 145 patients (aged 18-85 years, 54% female) with dysphagia that completed upper endoscopy with a 16-cm FLIP assembly and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were included. HRM was analyzed according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders; major esophageal motility disorders were considered "abnormal". FLIP studies were analyzed using a customized program to calculate the EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and generate FLIP topography plots to identify esophageal contractility patterns. FLIP topography was considered "abnormal" if EGJ-DI was esophageal motility and 29 normal motility. In all, 17 (50%) had abnormal FLIP topography including 13 (37%) with abnormal EGJ-DI. FLIP topography provides a well-tolerated method for esophageal motility assessment (especially to identify achalasia) at the time of upper endoscopy. FLIP topography findings that are discordant with HRM may indicate otherwise undetected abnormalities of esophageal function, thus FLIP provides an alternative and complementary method to HRM for evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia.

  1. The flagellar master operon flhDC is a pleiotropic regulator involved in motility and virulence of the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwick, A K S; Graf, J; Welch, T J

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the function of the master flagellar operon flhDC in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and compare the effect of a constructed flhD mutation to a naturally occurring fliR mutation causing loss-of-motility in emergent biotype 2 (BT2) strains. Yersinia ruckeri flhD and fliR mutants were constructed in a motile strain. Both mutations caused loss-of-motility, ablation of flagellin synthesis and phospholipase secretion, similar to naturally occurring BT2 strains. Transcriptome analysis confirmed flhDC regulation of flagellar, chemotaxis and phospholipase loci as well as other genes of diverse function. The flhD mutation confers a competitive advantage within the fish host when compared with its parent strain, while this advantage was not seen with the naturally occurring fliR mutation. An intact flhD is necessary for expression of the flagellar secretion system as well as other diverse loci, consistent with a role for flhD as a pleiotropic regulator. The maintenance of the flhD locus in Y. ruckeri strains suggests its importance for aspects of Y. ruckeri biology other than virulence, since the flhD mutation conferred a competitive advantage during experimental challenge of rainbow trout. Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease, an invasive septicaemia that affects farmed salmonid fish species. Disease outbreaks can cause severe economic losses in aquaculture. BT2 variants, which have independently emerged worldwide, are an increasing threat to farmed fish production. Knowledge of mechanisms involved in virulence, conserved functions and gene regulation among strains may be exploited for the development of novel disease control strategies to prevent pathogen growth or virulence phenotypes within aquaculture. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  3. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. TDRP deficiency contributes to low sperm motility and is a potential risk factor for male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shanhua; Wu, Fei; Cao, Xinyi; He, Min; Liu, Naijia; Wu, Huihui; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Xuanchun

    2016-01-01

    TDRP (Testis Development-Related Protein), a nuclear factor, might play an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of TDRP underlying these fundamental processes remain elusive. In this study, a Tdrp-deficient mouse model was generated. Fertility tests and semen analysis were performed. Tdrp-deficient mice were not significantly different from wild-type littermates in development of testes, genitourinary tract, or sperm count. Morphologically, spermatozoa of the Tdrp-deficient mice was not significantly different from the wild type. Several sperm motility indexes, i.e. the average path velocity (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL) and the curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly decreased in Tdrp-deficient mice (psperm also increased significantly in the mutant mice (psperm motility, but Tdrp deficiency alone was not sufficient to cause male infertility in mice. Additionally, TDRP1 might participate in spermatogenes is through interaction with PRM2.

  5. Self-organization of engineered epithelial tubules by differential cellular motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Hidetoshi; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Inman, Jamie L; Bissell, Mina J; Nelson, Celeste M

    2009-02-04

    Patterning of developing tissues arises from a number of mechanisms, including cell shape change, cell proliferation, and cell sorting from differential cohesion or tension. Here, we reveal that differences in cell motility can also lead to cell sorting within tissues. Using mosaic engineered mammary epithelial tubules, we found that cells sorted depending on their expression level of the membrane-anchored collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14. These rearrangements were independent of the catalytic activity of MMP14 but absolutely required the hemopexin domain. We describe a signaling cascade downstream of MMP14 through Rho kinase that allows cells to sort within the model tissues. Cell speed and persistence time were enhanced by MMP14 expression, but only the latter motility parameter was required for sorting. These results indicate that differential directional persistence can give rise to patterns within model developing tissues.

  6. DOFT and DOFTIP1 affect reproductive development in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Liu, Lu; Song, Shiyong; Li, Yan; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-12-16

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Expression of DOFT and DOFTIP1 increases in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Both transcripts are present in significant levels in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, stems, floral buds, and open flowers. Through successful generation of transgenic orchids, we have revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of DOFT accelerates or delays flowering, respectively, while alteration of DOFT expression also greatly affects pseudobulb formation and flower development. In common with their counterparts in Arabidopsis and rice, DOFTIP1 interacts with DOFT and affects flowering time in orchids. Our results suggest that while DOFT and DOFTIP1 play evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting flowering, DOFT may have evolved with hitherto unknown functions pertaining to the regulation of storage organs and flower development in the Orchidaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Elevated temperature affects development, survivorship, and settlement of the elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Carly J; Szmant, Alina M

    2009-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures during the late summer have the potential to negatively affect the development and survivorship of the larvae of reef corals that are reproductive during that time of year. Acropora palmata, a major Caribbean hermatype, reproduces annually during August and September. A. palmata populations have severely declined over the past three decades, and recovery will require high recruitment rates. Such recruitment will be limited if larval supply is reduced by elevated temperatures. The effects of elevated temperatures on development, survival, and larval settlement of A. palmata were investigated by culturing newly fertilized eggs at temperatures ranging from 27.5 to 31.5 degrees C. Development was accelerated and the percentage of developmental abnormalities increased at higher temperatures. Embryo mortality peaked during gastrulation, indicating that this complex developmental process is particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. Larvae cultured at 30 and 31.5 degrees C experienced as much as an 8-fold decrease in survivorship compared to those at 28 degrees C. Additionally, settlement was 62% at 28 degrees C compared to 37% at 31.5 degrees C. These results indicate that embryos and larvae of A. palmata will be negatively affected as sea surface temperatures continue to warm, likely reducing recruitment and the recovery potential of A. palmata on Caribbean reefs.

  8. Development programmes in rural communities affected by industrial sites. The case of nuclear plants in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuncal, A.

    2000-01-01

    A socioeconomic analysis performed for rural communities affected by industrial sites, namely for the case of nuclear power plants in Spain a common proposal for all the European countries is made. Existence of a common European program that could cover the following aspects: Creation of a Committee to enhance the participation in decision making process on different aspects, information policies, security, transport, waste management, investments, economic development; Contract between local authorities, State and companies responsibilities and financing; Legal framework of political organization; common socio-economic program including environment, employment, companies activities, responsibilities, taxes

  9. Transcriptomic analysis displays the effect of (-)-roemerine on the motility and nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Dilara; Arga, Kazim Yalcin; Avci, Fatma Gizem; Altinisik, Fatma Ece; Gurer, Caglayan; Gulsoy Toplan, Gizem; Kazan, Dilek; Wozny, Katharina; Brügger, Britta; Mertoglu, Bulent; Sariyar Akbulut, Berna

    2017-08-01

    Among the different families of plant alkaloids, (-)-roemerine, an aporphine type, was recently shown to possess significant antibacterial activity in Escherichia coli. Based on the increasing demand for antibacterials with novel mechanisms of action, the present work investigates the potential of the plant-derived alkaloid (-)-roemerine as an antibacterial in E. coli cells using microarray technology. Analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in cells after 60 min treatment with 100 μg/mL (-)-roemerine showed significant changes in the expression of 241 genes (p value 2). Expression of selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. Differentially expressed genes were classified into functional categories to map biological processes and molecular pathways involved. Cellular activities with roles in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, lipid transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, two-component signaling systems, and cell motility (in particular, the flagellar organization and motility) were among metabolic processes altered in the presence of (-)-roemerine. The down-regulation of the outer membrane proteins probably led to a decrease in carbohydrate uptake rate, which in turn results in nutrient limitation. Consequently, energy metabolism is slowed down. Interestingly, the majority of the expressional alterations were found in the flagellar system. This suggested reduction in motility and loss in the ability to form biofilms, thus affecting protection of E. coli against host cell defense mechanisms. In summary, our findings suggest that the antimicrobial action of (-)-roemerine in E. coli is linked to disturbances in motility and nutrient uptake.

  10. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  12. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindensmith, Christian A; Rider, Stephanie; Bedrossian, Manuel; Wallace, J Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Showalter, G Max; Deming, Jody W; Nadeau, Jay L

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM) that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  13. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Lindensmith

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  14. Comparison of orbital prosthesis motility following enucleation or evisceration with sclerotomy with or without a motility coupling post in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Na Young; Park, Shin Ae; Jeong, Man Bok; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Chae, Je Min; Jang, Kyoung Jin; Seong, Je Kyung; Seo, Kang Moon

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate motility of silicone orbital implants and corneoscleral prostheses, with and without use of a motility coupling post (MCP) in dogs. Eighteen mixed-breed dogs. The motility of an orbital silicone implant and corneoscleral prosthesis after enucleation (n = 6), evisceration (n = 6), or use of a MCP with evisceration (n = 6) in dogs were compared. One eye from each dog had surgery whereas the opposite eye was used as a control. Clinical evaluations were performed three times a week. Histopathology of the orbital tissues was performed 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Implant motility in dogs with evisceration (vertical movement [VM] 8.04 +/- 2.13; horizontal movement [HM] 11 +/- 3.05) and evisceration with MCP (VM 9.61 +/- 1.59); HM was significantly greater than the enucleation group (VM 0.51 +/- 0.5; HM 1.22 +/- 0.68) (P dogs with evisceration with MCP was significantly greater than in dogs with evisceration; dogs with evisceration had significantly greater motility than dogs with enucleation (P dogs. This study supports the use of MCP in silicone orbital implants to enhance corneoscleral prosthesis motility and cosmetics in dogs.

  15. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty.

  16. Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dua A; Vaidya S

    1996-01-01

    Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

  17. Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

  18. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Meter, Robin J [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Spotila, James R [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Avery, Harold W [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2006-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Spotila, James R.; Avery, Harold W.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities

  2. Factors Affecting the Rate of Pediatric Pneumonia in Developing Countries: a Review and Literature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Ramezani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of children less than 5 years old die from pneumonia globally and about 75-70% of these deaths occur in infants. Persian and English articles of International and National databases such as “WHO, Scopus and the Cochrane, Pub Med, Science Direct, Wiley, Google Scholar, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Med Lib and Iran Doc were searched from 1970 to 2014. Result: The factors such as low birth weight, malnutrition, lack of breast feeding, micronutrient deficiencies, smoking tobacco, kindergarten and maternal education are the most important factors affecting the rate of pneumonia in developing countries. Conclusion: Actions such as nutritional interventions develop effective strategies on abstinence of smoking, promote the knowledge and practice of mothers about proper care of infants could have a significant effect on the reduction of morbidity and mortality of pneumonia in the infants.

  3. Increased risk of developing stroke for patients with major affective disorder--a registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V

    2004-01-01

    and cerebrovascular diseases in hospitalised patients. The main finding of this study was that patients with depression severe enough to be hospitalised, seem to be at an increased risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. The hazard ratio of getting a diagnosis of stroke after initially having been discharged......Only a few studies have evaluated depressive disorder as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. In a hospital discharge register with nation-wide coverage of all hospitals in Denmark we used linkage between the somatic and psychiatric registries to study comorbidity between affective disorders...... with a diagnosis of depression was found to be 1.22 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.06-1.41). In the group of patients with manic/bipolar disorder no association was found concerning development of stroke. In elderly with first time depression admitted to hospital, neurological disorders should be carefully evaluated...

  4. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  5. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  6. Distinct Residues Contribute to Motility Repression and Autoregulation in the Proteus mirabilis Fimbria-Associated Transcriptional Regulator AtfJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nadine J; Chan, Kun-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-08-01

    Proteus mirabilis contributes to a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, where coordinated regulation of adherence and motility is critical for ascending disease progression. Previously, the mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator MrpJ has been shown to both repress motility and directly induce the transcription of its own operon; in addition, it affects the expression of a wide range of cellular processes. Interestingly, 14 additional mrpJ paralogs are included in the P. mirabilis genome. Looking at a selection of MrpJ paralogs, we discovered that these proteins, which consistently repress motility, also have nonidentical functions that include cross-regulation of fimbrial operons. A subset of paralogs, including AtfJ (encoded by the ambient temperature fimbrial operon), Fim8J, and MrpJ, are capable of autoinduction. We identified an element of the atf promoter extending from 487 to 655 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site that is responsive to AtfJ, and we found that AtfJ directly binds this fragment. Mutational analysis of AtfJ revealed that its two identified functions, autoregulation and motility repression, are not invariably linked. Residues within the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain are required for motility repression but not necessarily autoregulation. Likewise, the C-terminal domain is dispensable for motility repression but is essential for autoregulation. Supported by a three-dimensional (3D) structural model, we hypothesize that the C-terminal domain confers unique regulatory capacities on the AtfJ family of regulators. Balancing adherence with motility is essential for uropathogens to successfully establish a foothold in their host. Proteus mirabilis uses a fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator to switch between these antagonistic processes by increasing fimbrial adherence while simultaneously downregulating flagella. The discovery of multiple

  7. Effect of storage in short--and long-term commercial semen extenders on the motility, plasma membrane and chromatin integrity of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrogi, Marco; Ballester, Juan; Saravia, Fernando; Caballero, Ignacio; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Andersson, Magnus; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2006-10-01

    For artificial insemination (AI) in pigs, preservation of liquid boar semen at 16-20 degrees C is still common practice as sperm cryopreservation remains suboptimal in this species. To meet the different needs of the swine industry, several extenders have been developed to preserve semen in liquid form for short--and long-term storage. In the present study, three different commercial extenders devised for short-term (BTS+) or long-term preservation (MR-A and X-Cell), were used to test whether storage of semen from four mature, fertile boars at 17 degrees C for 96 h would affect sperm characteristics relevant for fertility, such as motility, membrane integrity and chromatin stability. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, and stainings with the acylated membrane dye SYBR-14/propidium iodide, and acridine orange in connection with flow cytometry were used to evaluate these variables. Percentages of total motile spermatozoa decreased slightly, but significantly, after 72-96 h. While membrane integrity values varied during the period of study, no significant changes in either membrane integrity or chromatin stability were, however, registered. This suggests a customary 96-day storage at 17 degrees C in these extenders was too short an interval to cause losses of integrity in nuclear DNA in the boar population studied.

  8. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Listening to the consumer voice: developing multilingual cancer information resources for people affected by liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotin, Monica C; Porwal, Mamta; Hopwood, Max; Nguyen, Debbie; Sze, Minglo; Treloar, Carla; George, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    In Australia, liver cancer incidence is rising, particularly among people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. We sought to build an understanding of the information needs of people affected by liver cancer, to inform the design of in-language consumer information resources. We searched the World Wide Web for available in-language consumer information and conducted a literature search on consumers' information needs and their preferred means of accessing it. Qualitative data collection involved bilingual researchers conducting focus group discussions (26 participants) and in-depth interviews (22 participants) with people affected by liver cancer in English, Vietnamese, Cantonese and Mandarin. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. The key themes and salient findings informed the development of in-language multimedia information resources. Many consumer resources did not cater for people with low literacy levels. The participants wanted more information on cancer diagnostic and treatment options, nutrition and Chinese Medicine and experienced communication challenges speaking to health professionals. While Vietnamese speakers relied entirely on information provided by their doctors, other participants actively searched for additional treatment information and commonly used the Internet to source it. We developed multilingual, multimedia consumer information resources addressing identified consumer information needs through an iterative process, in collaboration with our multilingual consumer panel. These resources are available in four languages, as separate modules accessible online and in DVD format. This process enabled the development of user-friendly patient resources, which complement health-care provider information and supports informed patient decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Affect regulation, brain development, and behavioral/emotional health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R E

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of affect regulation (AR) in relation to a broad range of behavioral and emotional health problems that emerge during adolescence. AR is defined as the adaptive modulation of emotional experience to serve a goal or purpose. This conceptualization of AR emphasizes the use of cognitive skills to guide, inhibit, or modify emotion and behavior, including the expression of emotional responses, in learned, strategic ways-skills that ultimately underpin adult levels of social maturity and the ability to show "responsible" behavior across a range of emotional situations. Neurobehavioral systems that subserve these AR skills include areas of the inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC), with rich interconnections to several limbic structures and other cortical areas, including the dorsolateral PFC. Adolescence represents an important developmental period in the functional maturation of adult AR skills; it is also a critical time in the development of clinical disorders of AR (eg, rates of depression increase dramatically and gender differences in depression emerge). Maturational changes in AR that occur during adolescence-particularly with respect to the role of emotions influencing responsible decision making-are also relevant to understanding key aspects of the developmental pathways of some behavioral health problems, such as alcohol use and nicotine dependence. A strong case is made for developmental research in affective neuroscience aimed at this important maturational period, particularly the kind of transdisciplinary research leading toward mechanistic understanding of the development of adolescent-onset disorders. Improving understanding in these areas could ultimately lead to the development of early interventions in targeted high-risk populations, and has enormous clinical and social policy relevance.

  11. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  12. In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Gesa; Frank, Pierre; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Cordo-Russo, Rosalia; Ringel, Frauke; Moschansky, Petra; Chernukhin, Igor V; Metodiev, Metodi; Fernández, Nelson; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C; Blois, Sandra M

    2008-09-01

    Implantation of mammalian embryos into their mother's uterus ensures optimal nourishment and protection throughout development. Complex molecular interactions characterize the implantation process, and an optimal synchronization of the components of this embryo-maternal dialogue is crucial for a successful reproductive outcome. In the present study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DC) during implantation process using a transgenic mouse system (DTRtg) that allows transient depletion of CD11c+ cells in vivo through administration of diphtheria toxin. We observed that DC depletion impairs the implantation process, resulting in a reduced breeding efficiency. Furthermore, the maturity of uterine natural killer cells at dendritic cell knockout (DCKO) implantation sites was affected as well; as demonstrated by decreased perforin expression and reduced numbers of periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells. This was accompanied by disarrangements in decidual vascular development. In the present study, we were also able to identify a novel DC-dependent protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta (PITPbeta), involved in implantation and trophoblast development using a proteomic approach. Indeed, DCKO mice exhibited substantial anomalies in placental development, including hypocellularity of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers and reduced numbers of trophoblast giant cells. Giant cells also down-regulated their expression of two characteristic markers of trophoblast differentiation, placental lactogen 1 and proliferin. In view of these findings, dendritic cells emerge as possible modulators in the orchestration of events leading to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  13. The Development of Assistive Systems to Support Older People: Issues that Affect Success in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an aging population in Europe, the development of Ambient Assisted Living technologies (AAL is increasingly the target of research financing. These technologies promise to enable older people to remain in their own homes longer, something many people report wanting and which may also reduce the costs of care. To date however there are few systems on the market. Other studies have tried to understand this by looking at user acceptance. However, by looking only at the user acceptance, we may miss important aspects to explain why systems went wrong in the first place, since decisions made during the development may affect the success later. To address this, we report on a study in which we applied qualitative methods, including workshops and an interactive poster, to consult with people who have experience in the development of these technologies. We present the common issues reported across various AAL development projects done in Europe that the participants thought were important to the success or failure of projects. We also describe some ideas from participants for addressing some of these problems. The results demonstrate the importance of issues related to financing with grants for projects but also the need for improved user-centered practice.

  14. Maternal creatine supplementation affects the morpho-functional development of hippocampal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, S; Lattanzi, D; Ambrogini, P; Di Palma, M; Galati, C; Savelli, D; Polidori, E; Calcabrini, C; Rocchi, M B L; Sestili, P; Cuppini, R

    2016-01-15

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage due to its antioxidant and ergogenic functions. These features have led to the hypothesis of creatine supplementation use during pregnancy as prophylactic treatment to prevent CNS damage, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Unfortunately, very little is known on the effects of creatine supplementation during neuron differentiation, while in vitro studies revealed an influence on neuron excitability, leaving the possibility of creatine supplementation during the CNS development an open question. Using a multiple approach, we studied the hippocampal neuron morphological and functional development in neonatal rats born by dams supplemented with 1% creatine in drinking water during pregnancy. CA1 pyramidal neurons of supplemented newborn rats showed enhanced dendritic tree development, increased LTP maintenance, larger evoked-synaptic responses, and higher intrinsic excitability in comparison to controls. Moreover, a faster repolarizing phase of action potential with the appearance of a hyperpolarization were recorded in neurons of the creatine-treated group. Consistently, CA1 neurons of creatine exposed pups exhibited a higher maximum firing frequency than controls. In summary, we found that creatine supplementation during pregnancy positively affects morphological and electrophysiological development of CA1 neurons in offspring rats, increasing neuronal excitability. Altogether, these findings emphasize the need to evaluate the benefits and the safety of maternal intake of creatine in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharyngeal arch deficiencies affect taste bud development in the circumvallate papilla with aberrant glossopharyngeal nerve formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Tadashi; Takada, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    The pharyngeal arches (PAs) generate cranial organs including the tongue. The taste placodes, formed in particular locations on the embryonic tongue surface, differentiate into taste buds harbored in distinct gustatory papillae. The developing tongue also has a complex supply of cranial nerves through each PA. However, the relationship between the PAs and taste bud development is not fully understood. Ripply3 homozygous mutant mice, which have impaired third/fourth PAs, display a hypoplastic circumvallate papilla and lack taste buds, although the taste placode is normally formed. Formation of the glossopharyngeal ganglia is defective and innervation toward the posterior tongue is completely missing in Ripply3 mutant embryos at E12.5. Moreover, the distribution of neuroblasts derived from the epibranchial placode is severely, but not completely, atenuated, and the neural crest cells are diminished in the third PA region of Ripply3 mutant embryos at E9.5-E10.5. In Tbx1 homozygous mutant embryos, which exhibit another type of deficiency in PA development, the hypoplastic circumvallate papilla is observed along with abnormal formation of the glossopharyngeal ganglia and severely impaired innervation. PA deficiencies affect multiple aspects of taste bud development, including formation of the cranial ganglia and innervation to the posterior tongue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of hospital information systems: user participation and factors affecting it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Bahlol; Safdari, Reza; Jebraeily, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Given the large volume of data generated in hospitals, in order to efficiently management them; using hospital information system (HIS) is critical. User participation is one of the major factors in the success of HIS that in turn leads Information needs and processes to be correctly predicted and also their commitment to the development of HIS to be augmented. The purpose of this study is to investigate the participation rate of users in different stages of HIS development as well as to identify the factors affecting it. This is a descriptive-cross sectional study which was inducted in 2014. The study population consists of 140 HIS users (from different types of job including physicians, nurses, laboratory, radiology and HIM staffs) from Teaching Hospitals Affiliated to Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire which was estimated as both reliable and valid. The data were analyzed by SPSS software descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (t-test and chi-square). The highest participation rate of users in the four-stage development of the HIS was related to the implementation phase (2.88) and the lowest participation rate was related to analysis (1.23). The test results showed that the rate of user participation was not satisfactory in none of the stages of development (Psystem, and in this way, the success of the system will be assured.

  17. Implementing an open-access CASA software for the assessment of stallion sperm motility: Relationship with other sperm quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Munerato, Mauro; Yeste, Marc; Galeati, Giovanna; Spinaci, Marcella; Tamanini, Carlo; Mari, Gaetano; Bucci, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Setting an open-access computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) may benefit the evaluation of motility in mammalian sperm, especially when economic constraints do not allow the use of a commercial system. There have been successful attempts to develop such a device in Zebra fish sperm and the system has been used in very few studies on mammalian spermatozoa. Against this background, the present study aimed at developing an open-access CASA system for mammalian sperm using the horse as a model and based upon the Image J software previously established for Zebra fish sperm. Along with determining the sperm progressive motility and other kinetic parameters (such as amplitude of lateral head displacement), the "results" window was adjusted to simplify subsequent statistical analyses. The path window was enriched with colored sperm trajectories on the basis of the subpopulation they belong to and a number that allowed the sperm track to be associated to the sperm motility data shown in the "results" window. Data obtained from the novel plugin (named as CASA_bgm) were compared with those of the commercial CASA Hamilton-Thorn IVOS Vers.12, through Bland Altman's plots. While the percentage of total and progressive motile sperm, VCL, VAP, VSL, LIN and STR and ALH were in agreement with those obtained with the commercial system, BCF significantly differed between the two systems probably due to their settings. Interestingly, a positive and significant correlation between the percentages of total motile sperm evaluated through CASA_bgm and those showing high mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by JC-1 staining was found. In conclusion, CASA_bgm ImageJ plugin could be useful and reliable for stallion sperm motility analysis and it is our aim to apply this system to other mammalian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, Christopher; Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna; Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Grundy, David

    2010-01-01

    Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

  19. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A): a transcriptional target of PAX3-FKHR and mediates PAX3-FKHR–dependent motility in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Wang, Yong-Dong; Wu, Jing; Cui, Jimmy; Chen, Taosheng

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) has a high propensity to metastasize, leading to its aggressiveness and a poor survival rate among those with the disease. More than 80% of aggressive ARMSs harbor a PAX3-FKHR fusion transcription factor, which regulates cell migration and promotes metastasis, most likely by regulating the fusion protein’s transcriptional targets. Therefore, identifying druggable transcription targets of PAX3-FKHR that are also downstream effectors of PAX3-FKHR–mediated cell migration and metastasis may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for treating ARMS. To identify genes whose expression is directly affected by the level of PAX3-FKHR in an ARMS cellular-context, we first developed an ARMS cell line in which PAX3-FKHR is stably down-regulated, and showed that stably downregulating PAX3-FKHR in ARMS cells significantly decreased the cells’ motility. We used microarray analysis to identify genes whose expression level decreased when PAX3-FKHR was downregulated. We used mutational analysis, promoter reporter assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to determine whether PAX3-FKHR binds to the promoter region of the target gene. We used siRNA and pharmacologic inhibitor to downregulate the target gene of PAX3-FKHR and investigated the effect of such downregulation on cell motility. We found that when PAX3-FKHR was downregulated, the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) decreased. We showed that PAX3-FKHR binds to a paired-domain binding-site in the CPT1A promoter region, indicating that CPT1A is a novel transcriptional target of PAX3-FKHR. Furthermore, downregulating CPT1A decreased cell motility in ARMS cells, indicating that CPT1A is a downstream effector of PAX3-FKHR–mediated cell migration and metastasis. Taken together, we have identified CPT1A as a novel transcriptional target of PAX3-FKHR and revealed the novel function of CPT1A in promoting cell motility. CPT1A may represent a novel therapeutic target for

  20. Sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of rectal motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei-Dong; Takahashi, Toku; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2009-11-01

    The colon and rectum are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Abnormalities of the ANS are associated with diseases of the colon and rectum while its modulation is a putative mechanism for sacral nerve stimulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a rat model elucidating the role of the efferent ANS on rectal motility. Rectal motility following transection or stimulation of parasympathetic pelvic nerves (PN) or sympathetic hypogastric nerves (HGN) was measured with rectal strain gauge transducers and quantified as a motility index (MI). Colonic transit was measured 24 hours after transection by calculating the geometric center (GC) of distribution of (51)Cr Transection of PN and HGN decreased MI to 518 +/- 185 g*s (p < 0.05) and increased MI to 5,029 +/- 1,954 g*s (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to sham (975 +/- 243 g*s). Sectioning of PN and HGN decreased transit with GC = 4.9 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.05) and increased transit with GC = 8.1 +/- 0.7 (p < 0.02), respectively, compared to sham (GC = 5.8 +/- 0.3). Stimulation of PN and HGN increased MI to 831 +/- 157% (p < 0.01) and decreased MI to 251 +/- 24% (p < 0.05), respectively. Rectal motility is significantly altered by sectioning or stimulating either HGN or PN. This model may be useful in studying how sacral nerve stimulation exerts its effects and provide insight into the maladies of colonic motility.

  1. RON kinase isoforms demonstrate variable cell motility in normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Alissa; Rajput, Ashwani; Wan, Guanghua

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) tyrosine kinase activation causes the epithelial cell to evade normal growth pathways, resulting in unregulated cell proliferation, increased cell motility and decreased apoptosis. Wildtype (wt) RON has been shown to play a role in metastasis of epithelial malignancies. It presents an important potential therapeutic target for colorectal, breast, gastric and pancreatic cancer. Little is known about functional differences amongst RON isoforms RON155, RON160 and RON165. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various RON kinase isoforms on cell motility. Cell lines with stable expression of wtRON were generated by inserting the coding region of RON in pTagRFP (tagged red fluorescence protein plasmid). The expression constructs of RON variants (RON155, RON160 and RON165) were generated by creating a mutagenesis-based wtRON-pTag RFP plasmid and stably transfected into HEK 293 cells. The wound closure scratch assay was used to investigate the effect on cell migratory capacity of wild type RON and its variants. RON transfected cells demonstrated increased cell motility compared to HEK293 control cells. RON165 cell motility was significantly increased compared to RON160 (mean percentage of wound covered 37.37% vs. 32.40%; p = 0.03). RON tyrosine kinase isoforms have variable cell motility. This may reflect a difference in the behavior of malignant epithelial cells and their capacity for metastasis.

  2. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  3. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Masaki, E-mail: cedam@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  4. A function for filamentous alpha-smooth muscle actin: Retardation of motility in human breast fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Petersen, Ole William

    1996-01-01

    .8 and 3.0 microns/h, respectively. To knock out the alpha-sm actin protein, several antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ODNs) were tested. One of these, 3'UTI, which is complementary to a highly evolutionary conserved 3' untranslated (3'UT) sequence of alpha-sm actin mRNA, was found to block...... alpha-sm actin synthesis completely without affecting the synthesis of any other proteins as analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Targeting by antisense 3'UTI significantly increased motility compared with the corresponding sense ODN. alpha-Sm actin inhibition also led to the formation...

  5. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable

  6. Military Families’ Perceptions of Neighborhood Characteristics Affecting Reintegration: Development of an Aggregate Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families. PMID:28936370

  7. Isolation of mutations affecting the development of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, G; McKown, R; Marin, A L; Teutonico, R

    1996-08-01

    We screened for mutations deleterious to the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Columbia. Tolerance was assayed by the vigor and regrowth of intact plants after cold acclimation and freezing. From a chemically mutagenized population, we obtained 13 lines of mutants with highly penetrant phenotypes. In 5 of these, freezing sensitivity was attributable to chilling injury sustained during cold acclimation, but in the remaining 8 lines, the absence of injury prior to freezing suggested that they were affected specifically in the development of freezing tolerance. In backcrosses, freezing sensitivity from each line segregated as a single nuclear mutation. Complementation tests indicated that the 8 lines contained mutations in 7 different genes. The mutants' freezing sensitivity was also detectable in the leakage of electrolytes from frozen leaves. However, 1 mutant line that displayed a strong phenotype at the whole-plant level showed a relatively weak phenotype by the electrolyte leakage assay.

  8. Silicon affects seed development and leaf macrohair formation in Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Głazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Murozuka, Emiko; Persson, Daniel Olof

    2018-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has many beneficial effects in plants, especially for the survival from biotic and abiotic stresses. However, Si may negatively affect the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy purposes. Despite many studies, the regulation of Si distribution and deposition in plants remains...... was similar to that in the wild-type. The Bdlsi1-1 plants supplied with Si had significantly lower seed weights, compared to the wild-type. In low-Si media, the seed weight of wild-type plants was similar to that of Bdlsi1-1 mutants supplied with Si, while the Bdlsi1-1 seed weight decreased further. We...... conclude that Si deficiency results in widespread alterations in leaf surface morphology and seed formation in Brachypodium, showing the importance of Si for successful development in grasses....

  9. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  10. Disruptions in valine degradation affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Andrew B; Morton, Kyla J; Rhee, Rachel J; Simo, Szabolcs; Clayton, Jack A; Perrett, Morgan E; Binkley, Christiana G; Jensen, Erika L; Oakes, Dana L; Rouhier, Matthew F; Rouhier, Kerry A

    2017-06-01

    We have functionally characterized the role of two putative mitochondrial enzymes in valine degradation using insertional mutants. Prior to this study, the relationship between branched-chain amino acid degradation (named for leucine, valine and isoleucine) and seed development was limited to leucine catabolism. Using a reverse genetics approach, we show that disruptions in the mitochondrial valine degradation pathway affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. A null mutant of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (CHY4, At4g31810) resulted in an embryo lethal phenotype, while a null mutant of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSD, At2g14170) resulted in seeds with wrinkled coats, decreased storage reserves, elevated valine and leucine, and reduced germination rates. These data highlight the unique contributions CHY4 and MMSD make to the overall growth and viability of plants. It also increases our knowledge of the role branched-chain amino acid catabolism plays in seed development and amino acid homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eSchmithorst

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using fMRI, we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7-12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21 and normal-hearing controls (N = 23 performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as touched the small green circle and the large blue square and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39, evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language.

  12. Abnormal expression of ephrin-A5 affects brain development of congenital hypothyroidism rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Guihai; Shen, Feifei; Sun, Baolan; Song, Honghua; Xu, Meiyu; Wu, Youjia

    2018-05-14

    EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats. Thyroxine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampus and triiodothyronine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampal neurons significantly improved ephrin-A5 expression but could not restore its expression to control levels. Hypothyroid hippocampal neurons in-vitro showed synaptogenesis disorder characterized by a reduction in the number and length of neurites. Furthermore, the synaptogenesis-associated molecular expressions of NMDAR-1 (NR1), PSD95 and CaMKII were all downregulated correspondingly. These results suggest that ephrin-A5 expression may be decreased in CH, and abnormal activation of ephrin-A5/EphA5 signaling affects synaptogenesis during brain development. Such findings provide an important basis for exploring the pathogenesis of CH genetically.

  13. Research review: maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition - mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K; Osterholm, Erin A

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy - an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress - significantly affect children's future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (a) the associations between pregnant women's inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients - protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline - as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children's neurocognitive development; and (b) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for 'disentangling' the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories - and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  16. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  17. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  19. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  20. Changes in Swallowing Symptoms and Esophageal Motility After Thyroid Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Markoew, Simone; Døssing, Helle

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty-th...... to esophageal motility disturbances. This information is essential when interpreting dysphagia in patients with nodular goiter, and when balancing patients' expectations to surgical goiter therapy. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03100357 ( www.clinicaltrials.org ).......INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty......-three patients with benign nodular goiter undergoing thyroid surgery were included. All completed high-resolution esophageal manometry examinations and the goiter symptom scale score, assessed by the thyroid-specific patient-reported outcome measure. The evaluations were performed before and 6 months after...

  1. Motility, Force Generation, and Energy Consumption of Unicellular Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetter, Axel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Motility is a key factor for pathogenicity of unicellular parasites, enabling them to infiltrate and evade host cells, and perform several of their life-cycle events. State-of-the-art methods of motility analysis rely on a combination of optical tweezers with high-resolution microscopy and microfluidics. With this technology, propulsion forces, energies, and power generation can be determined so as to shed light on the motion mechanisms, chemotactic behavior, and specific survival strategies of unicellular parasites. With these new tools in hand, we can elucidate the mechanisms of motility and force generation of unicellular parasites, and identify ways to manipulate and eventually inhibit them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Model for self-polarization and motility of keratocyte fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Ziebert, F.; Swaminathan, S.; Aranson, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    Computational modelling of cell motility on substrates is a formidable challenge; regulatory pathways are intertwined and forces that influence cell motion are not fully quantified. Additional challenges arise from the need to describe a moving deformable cell boundary. Here, we present a simple mathematical model coupling cell shape dynamics, treated by the phase-field approach, to a vector field describing the mean orientation (polarization) of the actin filament network. The model successfully reproduces the primary phenomenology of cell motility: discontinuous onset of motion, diversity of cell shapes and shape oscillations. The results are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on motility of keratocyte cells and cell fragments. The asymmetry of the shapes is captured to a large extent in this simple model, which may prove useful for the interpretation of experiments.

  3. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Their Clinical Implications in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theocharidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation. The latter has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Enhanced colonic motility is usually associated with the use of lactulose. Pharmacological interventions aiming to alter gastrointestinal motility in cirrhosis could potentially have a beneficial effect reducing the risk of hepatic decompensation and improving prognosis.

  4. Model for self-polarization and motility of keratocyte fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Ziebert, F.

    2011-10-19

    Computational modelling of cell motility on substrates is a formidable challenge; regulatory pathways are intertwined and forces that influence cell motion are not fully quantified. Additional challenges arise from the need to describe a moving deformable cell boundary. Here, we present a simple mathematical model coupling cell shape dynamics, treated by the phase-field approach, to a vector field describing the mean orientation (polarization) of the actin filament network. The model successfully reproduces the primary phenomenology of cell motility: discontinuous onset of motion, diversity of cell shapes and shape oscillations. The results are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on motility of keratocyte cells and cell fragments. The asymmetry of the shapes is captured to a large extent in this simple model, which may prove useful for the interpretation of experiments.

  5. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  6. Microcomputer-based system for 24-hour recording of oesophageal motility and pH profile with automated analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedijk, M.; Smout, A. J.; van der Zouw, C.; Verwey, H.; Akkermans, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    A system developed for long-term simultaneous recording of oesophageal motility and pH in the ambulant patient is described. The system consists of a microprocessor based data-acquisition and preprocessing device, a personal computer for postprocessing, report generation and data storage, a

  7. Effects of a new motilide, ABT-229, on gastric emptying and postprandial antroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M. A.; Samsom, M.; Maes, B.; Geypens, B. J.; Ghoos, Y. F.; Smout, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABT-229 is a recently developed derivative of erythromycin, devoid of antibiotic activity. We studied the effect of ABT-229 on gastric emptying and postprandial antroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Placebo, 4 and 16 mg ABT-229 were given as a single oral dose to nine

  8. Inter-observer agreement for diagnostic classification of esophageal motility disorders defined in high-resolution manometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M. R.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Sweis, R.; Sauter, M.; Abreu Y Abreu, A. T.; Anggiansah, A.; Bogte, A.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Dengler, W.; Elvevi, A.; Fruehauf, H.; Gellersen, S.; Ghosh, S.; Gyawali, C. P.; Heinrich, H.; Hemmink, M.; Jafari, J.; Kaufman, E.; Kessing, K.; Kwiatek, M.; Lubomyr, B.; Banasiuk, M.; Mion, F.; Pérez-de-la-Serna, J.; Remes-Troche, J. M.; Rohof, W.; Roman, S.; Ruiz-de-León, A.; Tutuian, R.; Uscinowicz, M.; Valdovinos, M. A.; Vardar, R.; Velosa, M.; Waśko-Czopnik, D.; Weijenborg, P.; Wilshire, C.; Wright, J.; Zerbib, F.; Menne, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) is a recent development used in the evaluation of esophageal function. Our aim was to assess the inter-observer agreement for diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders using this technology. Practitioners registered on the HRM Working Group website were

  9. Effect of voltage-gated sodium channels blockers on motility and viability of human sperm in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ahmad Gakhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs blockers on the motility and viability of human sperm in-vitro and to evaluate the tested compounds as potential contact spermicidal.Methods: Sperm samples were obtained from healthy nonsmoking volunteers of age 25-30 years who had not taken any drug 3 months before and during the course of the study. The effect of VGSCs blockers evaluated from two pharmacological classes including antiarrhythmic (amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide and antiepileptic (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, and lamotrigine drugs. They were tested on the in-vitro motility and viability of human sperm using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer.Results: All tested drugs except oxcarbazepine showed dose dependent inhibition of total motility with significant reduction (P<0.05 at the maximum concentration of 200 μΜ when compared with the control. The concentrations of drugs that reduced total sperm motility to 50% of control (half maximal inhibitory concentration were 2.76, 14.16 and 20.29 μΜ for phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine, respectively; and 2.53, 5.32 and 0.37 μΜ for amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide, respectively. The anti-motility effects were reversible to various degrees. There was statistically insignificant difference in the inhibition of sperm viability among amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide. Phenytoin demonstrated the most potent spermicidal action.Conclusions: VGSCs blockers have significant adverse effects on in-vitro motility of human spermatozoa. So in-vivo studies are required to determine their potential toxicological effects on human semen quality, which is an important factor regarding fertility. Moreover, these drugs have the potential to be developed into contact spermicidal.

  10. Spectrum of esophageal motility disorders in patients with motor dysphagia and noncardiac chest pain - A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinkesh Kumar Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: High-resolution esophageal manometry is the most important investigation for the evaluation of patients with dysphagia and noncardiac chest pain (NCCP. Chicago Classification (CC utilizing an algorithmic approach in analyzing high-resolution manometry has been accepted worldwide, and an updated version, CC v3.0, of this classification has been developed by the International high-resolution manometry working Group in 2014. Data on the spectrum of esophageal motility disorders in Indian population are scarce as well as a newer version of CC has not been used to classify. The aim of our study is to evaluate clinical presentation and manometric profile of patients with suspected esophageal motility disorders using CC v3.0. Methodology: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients referred for esophageal manometry at our center from 2010 to 2015 were included in the study. High-resolution esophageal manometry was performed with 22-channel water-perfusion system (MMS, The Netherlands. Newer version of CC (CC v3.0 was used to classify motility disorders. Results: A total of 400 patients were included, with a mean age of 44 years and 67.5% were males. Out of these, 60% (n = 240 patients presented with motor dysphagia while 40% (n = 160 had NCCP. Motility disorder was present in 50.5% (n = 202 of the patients while 49.5% (n = 198 patients had normal manometry. Disorders of esophagogastric junction outflow were the predominant type of disorder, found in 33.75% (n = 135. About 14.25% (n = 57 of the patients had minor disorders of peristalsis while 5% (n = 20 of the patients had other major disorders of peristalsis. Achalasia was the most common motility disorder present in 30% (n = 120 patients. Conclusion: Dysphagia was the most common esophageal symptom followed by NCCP in our series. Achalasia was the most common esophageal motility disorder followed by fragmented peristalsis.

  11. The effect of loss of O-antigen ligase on phagocytic susceptibility of motile and non-motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdjian, Sally; Schutz, Kristin; Wargo, Matthew J; Lam, Joseph S; Berwin, Brent

    2017-12-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes adaptation and selection over the course of chronic respiratory tract infections which results in repeatedly-observed phenotypic changes that are proposed to enable its persistence. Two of the clinically significant P. aeruginosa phenotypic changes are loss of flagellar motility and modifications to LPS structure, including loss of O-antigen expression. The effect of loss of O-antigen, frequently described as conversion from smooth to rough LPS, and the combined effect of loss of motility and O-antigen on phagocytic susceptibility by immune cells remain unknown. To address this, we generated genetic deletion mutants of waaL, which encodes the O-antigen ligase responsible for linking O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide, in both motile and non-motile P. aeruginosa strains. With the use of these bacterial strains we provide the first demonstration that, despite a progressive selection for P. aeruginosa with rough LPS during chronic pulmonary infections, loss of the LPS O-antigen does not confer phagocytic resistance in vitro. However, use of the waaLmotABmotCD mutant revealed that loss of motility confers resistance to phagocytosis regardless of the smooth or rough LPS phenotype. These findings reveal how the O-antigen of P. aeruginosa can influence bacterial clearance during infection and expand our current knowledge about the impact of bacterial phenotypic changes during chronic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Curriculum for neurogastroenterology and motility training: A report from the joint ANMS-ESNM task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C P; Savarino, E; Lazarescu, A; Bor, S; Patel, A; Dickman, R; Pressman, A; Drewes, A M; Rosen, J; Drug, V; Saps, M; Novais, L; Vazquez-Roque, M; Pohl, D; van Tilburg, M A L; Smout, A; Yoon, S; Pandolfino, J; Farrugia, G; Barbara, G; Roman, S

    2018-03-25

    Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders are some of the most frequent disorders encountered by practicing gastroenterologists, a structured competency-based training curriculum developed by NGM experts is lacking. The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society (ANMS) and the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) jointly evaluated the components of NGM training in North America and Europe. Eleven training domains were identified within NGM, consisting of functional gastrointestinal disorders, visceral hypersensitivity and pain pathways, motor disorders within anatomic areas (esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, anorectum), mucosal disorders (gastro-esophageal reflux disease, other mucosal disorders), consequences of systemic disease, consequences of therapy (surgery, endoscopic intervention, medications, other therapy), and transition of pediatric patients into adult practice. A 3-tiered training curriculum covering these domains is proposed here and endorsed by all NGM societies. Tier 1 NGM knowledge and training is expected of all gastroenterology trainees and practicing gastroenterologists. Tier 2 knowledge and training is appropriate for trainees who anticipate NGM disorder management and NGM function test interpretation being an important part of their careers, which may require competency assessment and credentialing of test interpretation skills. Tier 3 knowledge and training is undertaken by trainees interested in a dedicated NGM career and may be restricted to specific domains within the broad NGM field. The joint ANMS and ESNM task force anticipates that the NGM curriculum will streamline NGM training in North America and Europe and will lead to better identification of centers of excellence where Tier 2 and Tier 3 training can be accomplished. © 2018 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  14. Podoplanin promotes progression of malignant pleural mesothelioma by regulating motility and focus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Yamada, Tadaaki; Arai, Sachiko; Takagi, Satoshi; Ishii, Genichiro; Ochiai, Atsushi; Iwakiri, Shotaro; Itoi, Kazumi; Uehara, Hisanori; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Fujita, Naoya; Yano, Seiji

    2017-04-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is characterized by dissemination and aggressive growth in the thoracic cavity. Podoplanin (PDPN) is an established diagnostic marker for MPM, but the function of PDPN in MPM is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogenetic function of PDPN in MPM. Forty-seven of 52 tumors (90%) from Japanese patients with MPM and 3/6 (50%) MPM cell lines tested positive for PDPN. Knocking down PDPN in PDPN-high expressing MPM cells resulted in decreased cell motility. In contrast, overexpression of PDPN in PDPN-low expressing MPM cells enhanced cell motility. PDPN stimulated motility was mediated by activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Moreover, knocking down PDPN with short hairpin (sh) RNA in PDPN-high expressing MPM cells resulted in decreased development of a thoracic tumor in mice with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). In sharp contrast, transfection of PDPN in PDPN-low expressing MPM cells resulted in an increase in the number of Ki-67-positive proliferating tumor cells and it promoted progression of a thoracic tumor in SCID mice. Interestingly, PDPN promoted focus formation in vitro, and a low level of E-cadherin expression and YAP1 activation was observed in PDPN-high MPM tumors. These findings indicate that PDPN is a diagnostic marker as well as a pathogenetic regulator that promotes MPM progression by increasing cell motility and inducing focus formation. Therefore, PDPN might be a pathogenetic determinant of MPM dissemination and aggressive growth and may thus be an ideal therapeutic target. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Enhancement of mouse sperm motility by trophinin-binding peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trophinin is an intrinsic membrane protein that forms a complex in the cytoplasm with bystin and tastin, linking it microtubule-associated motor dynein (ATPase in some cell types. Previously, we found that human sperm tails contain trophinin, bystin and tastin proteins, and that trophinin-binding GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide enhanced motility of human sperm. Methods Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine trophinin protein in mouse spermatozoa from wild type mouse, by using spermatozoa from trophinin null mutant mice as a negative control. Multivalent 8-branched GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide or GWRQ-MAPS, was chemically synthesized, purified by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Effect of GWRQ-MAPS on mouse spermatozoa from wild type and trophinin null mutant was assessed by a computer-assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Results Anti-trophinin antibody stained the principal (central piece of the tail of wild type mouse sperm, whereas the antibody showed no staining on trophinin null sperm. Phage particles displaying GWRQ bound to the principal piece of sperm tail from wild type but not trophinin null mice. GWRQ-MAPS enhanced motility of spermatozoa from wild type but not trophinin null mice. CASA showed that GWRQ-MAPS enhanced both progressive motility and rapid motility in wild type mouse sperm. Conclusions Present study established the expression of trophinin in the mouse sperm tail and trophinin-dependent effect of GWRQ-MAPS on sperm motility. GWRQ causes a significant increase in sperm motility.

  16. Asic3(-/- female mice with hearing deficit affects social development of pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infant crying is an important cue for mothers to respond adequately. Inappropriate response to infant crying can hinder social development in infants. In rodents, the pup-mother interaction largely depends on pup's calls. Mouse pups emit high frequency to ultrasonic vocalization (2-90 kHz to communicate with their dam for maternal care. However, little is known about how the maternal response to infant crying or pup calls affects social development over the long term. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/- to create a hearing deficit to probe the effect of caregiver hearing on maternal care and adolescent social development. Female Asic3(-/- mice showed elevated hearing thresholds for low to ultrasonic frequency (4-32 kHz on auditory brain stem response, which thus hindered their response to their pups' wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalization, as well as their retrieval of pups. In adolescence, pups reared by Asic3(-/- mice showed a social deficit in juvenile social behaviors as compared with those reared by wild-type or heterozygous dams. The social-deficit phenotype in juvenile mice reared by Asic3(-/- mice was associated with the reduced serotonin transmission of the brain. However, Asic3(-/- pups cross-fostered to wild-type dams showed rescued social deficit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inadequate response to pups' calls as a result of ASIC3-dependent hearing loss confers maternal deficits in caregivers and social development deficits in their young.

  17. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Murine NTDs were successfully induced by means of hydroxyurea (HU). • The impairment of dNTP was induced via inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. • dNTP deficiency induced by HU caused defective DNA synthesis and repair. • Abnormal apoptosis and proliferation induced by HU affected neural tube development. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis

  18. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Success of Onions Development Program in Kampar Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia; Putri, Asgami

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the success of the onion plant development program in Kampar regency. The research method used was the applied survey method using interview technique and observation or direct supervision on the location of the object. The briefing of the interviews as well as the accuracy of collecting the required data was guided by the structured questionnaires. Determination technique of location / region sampling was done purposively based on the potency and capacity of commodity development. While the respondents were taken by cluster purvosive sampling method in order to classify the samples in accordance with the purpose of the study, determined by as many as 100 people taken from members of the farmer group. Analytical technique used is by using Logic Regression Analysis to determine the factors that influence the success of the program seen from the characteristics of farmers. From the results of this study it can be concluded that the factors influencing the success of onion development program in Kampar regency were a age (X1), education (X2), income (X3), ethnicity (X4), jobs (X5) And family responsibility (X6) could be made as follows: Log Y (P/1-p) = -1.778 +X10.021 + X20.028 - X30.213 + X41.986 + X52.930 - X60.455 From the above equation, it can be explained that the attributes that are positively related are X1 (age), X2 (education), X4 (ethnicity) and X5 (jobs) while the negative correlates are X3 (income) and X6 (family responsibility). From the logical regression result it can be seen that the significant value influenced the dependent variable, so that when viewed from the table in the equation it was found that factors affecting the success rate of red onion development program in Kampar regency were X2 (education), X4 (ethnicity), X5 (jobs), and X6 (family responsibility).

  19. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  20. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  1. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  2. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryonic development in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Kühnlein, R; Henrich, T; Mücke, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    2000-10-01

    In a pilot screen, we assayed the efficiency of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) as a chemical mutagen to induce mutations that lead to early embryonic and larval lethal phenotypes in the Japanese medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. ENU acts as a very efficient mutagen inducing mutations at high rates in germ cells. Three repeated treatments of male fish in 3 mM ENU for 1 h results in locus specific mutation rates of 1.1-1.95 x10(-3). Mutagenized males were outcrossed to wild type females and the F1 offspring was used to establish F2 families. F2 siblings were intercrossed and the F3 progeny was scored 24, 48 and 72 h after fertilization for morphological alterations affecting eye development. The presented mutant phenotypes were identified using morphological criteria and occur during early developmental stages of medaka. They are stably inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The high efficiency of ENU to induce mutations in this pilot screen indicates that chemical mutagenesis and screening for morphologically visible phenotypes in medaka fish allows the genetic analysis of specific aspects of vertebrate development complementing the screens performed in other vertebrate model systems.

  4. [The possibility of acute inflammatory reaction affects the development of pressure ulcers in bedridden elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, N; Takano, K; Mashiko, T; Jimbo, S; Shimetani, N; Ohtani, H

    1999-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that acute inflammatory reaction associates with the development of pressure ulcers in bedridden elderly patients, 40 hospitalized elderly patients suffering from bacterial pneumonia, cerebrovascular disease, and femoral bone fracture were enrolled in this study. All of them were divided into two groups with pressure ulcers (group P; 17 patients) and without one (group N; 23 patients). The blood samples were taken from them within 5 days after the patients being bedridden. Although no significant difference exist in pressure ulcer risk factors (age, gender, Braden scale, underlying diseases, blood pressure, and heart rate) between the two groups, white blood cell, plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in group P increased significantly as compared with those in group N. Besides number of platelets and maximum platelet aggregation rate were significantly higher in group P than in group N. Serum albumin and hemoglobin of both groups decreased after being bedridden, especially hemoglobin in group P was significantly lower than that in group N. While the concentration of serum IL-6 did not indicate a significant difference between both the groups, serum IL-1 beta increased significantly in group P. In conclusion, we suggested that acute inflammatory reaction releasing proinflammatory cytokines affected the development of pressure ulcer in bedridden elderly patients.

  5. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  8. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  9. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts

  10. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  11. The use of flagella and motility for plant colonization and fitness by different strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available The role of flagella and motility in the attachment of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various surfaces is mixed with some systems requiring flagella for an interaction and others needing only motility for cells to get to the surface. In nature this bacterium is a saprophyte and contaminated produce is an avenue for infection. Previous studies have documented the ability of this organism to attach to and colonize plant tissue. Motility mutants were generated in three wild type strains of L. monocytogenes by deleting either flaA, the gene encoding flagellin, or motAB, genes encoding part of the flagellar motor, and tested for both the ability to colonize sprouts and for the fitness of that colonization. The motAB mutants were not affected in the colonization of alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts; however, some of the flaA mutants showed reduced colonization ability. The best colonizing wild type strain was reduced in colonization on all three sprout types as a result of a flaA deletion. A mutant in another background was only affected on alfalfa. The third, a poor alfalfa colonizer was not affected in colonization ability by any of the deletions. Fitness of colonization was measured in experiments of competition between mixtures of mutant and parent strains on sprouts. Here the flaA and motAB mutants of the three strain backgrounds were impaired in fitness of colonization of alfalfa and radish sprouts, and one strain background showed reduced fitness of both mutant types on broccoli sprouts. Together these data indicate a role for flagella for some strains to physically colonize some plants, while the fitness of that colonization is positively affected by motility in almost all cases.

  12. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  13. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  14. Diabetes mellitus and upper gut motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mandolfino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of esophageal motor disorders in type I and II diabetic patients, and to establish whether there is any difference between patients with and without neuropathy. 118 diabetics patients (34 type I and 84 type II were investigated by water-perfused stationary esophageal manometry. Data were correlated with the presence of peripheral neurophaty. As a result 71% of patients affected by peripheral neuropathy showed manometric abnormalities against the 37% of the patients without neuropathy. Our experience has shown that patients with diabetes mellitus frequently present esophageal symptoms and manometric abnormalities. Manometric study of the esophagus has to be considered a useful investigative tool to manage and monitorize the gastrointestinal abnormalities in patients affected by diabetes mellitus.

  15. Melatonin and serotonin effects on gastrointestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, P J; Krolczyk, G; Gil, K; Zurowski, D; Nowak, L

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the most important extra pineal source of melatonin. Presence of melatonin (M) suggests that this hormone is somehow involved in digestive pathophysiology. Release of GI melatonin from serotonin-rich enterochromaffin EC cells of the GI mucosa suggest close antagonistic relationship with serotonin (S) and seem to be related to periodicity of food intake. Food deprivation resulted in an increase of tissue and plasma concentrations of M. Its also act as an autocrine and paracrine hormone affecting not only epithelium and immune system but also smooth muscle of the digestive tract. Low doses M improve gastrointestinal transit and affect MMC. M reinforce MMCs cyclic pattern but inhibits spiking bowel activity. Pharmacological doses of M delay gastric emptying via mechanisms that involve CCK2 and 5HT3 receptors. M released in response to lipid infusion exerts a modulatory influence that decreases the inhibitory effects of the ileal brake on gastric emptying. On isolated bowel S induces dose dependent increase in tone and reduction in amplitude of contraction which is affected by M. M reduced the tone but not amplitude or frequency of contraction. M is a promising therapeutic agent for IBS with activities independent of its effects on sleep, anxiety or depression. Since of its unique properties M could be considered for prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, gastric ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.

  16. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  17. Changes in Sperm Motility and Capacitation Induce Chromosomal Aberration of the Bovine Embryo following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoku Kato

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI has become the method of choice to treat human male infertility. One of the outstanding problems associated with this technique is our current lack of knowledge concerning the effect of sperm capacitation and motility upon the subsequent development of oocytes following ICSI. In the present study, we first examined the capacitation state of sperm exhibiting normal motility, along with sperm that had been activated, and examined the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by these sperm types upon embryogenesis following bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF and ICSI. Data showed that activated sperm reduced the chromosomal integrity of IVF/ICSI embryos at the blastocyst stage, while capacitated sperm produced ROS in capacitation media. Secondly, we treated sperm with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP, a chemical known to uncouple cell respiration within the mitochondria, and investigated the effect of this treatment upon blastocyst formation and chromosomal integrity at the blastocyst stage. Activated sperm in which the mitochondria had been treated with CCCP reduced levels of chromosomal aberration at the blastocyst stage following ICSI, by reducing mitochondrial activity in activated sperm. In conclusion, these findings suggest that capacitated sperm exhibiting activated motility induced chromosomal aberration during development to the blastocyst stage following ICSI. The injection of sperm exhibiting normal motility, or activated sperm in which mitochondrial activity had been reduced, improved the quality of ICSI-derived embryos. Therefore, the selection of sperm exhibiting progressive motility may not always be better for early embryo development and fetal growth following human ICSI, and that the use of a bovine model may contribute to a deeper understanding of sperm selection for human ICSI embryo development.

  18. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  19. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  20. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to investigate correlations between the developmental trajectories of adolescents' (N = 497) empathic dispositions and trajectories of their conflict behaviors towards both parents. There were some similarities between the associations of both empathy dimensions with conflict behaviors. Both empathy dimensions were associated with reduced conflict escalation with mothers, and increased problem solving with both parents. However, these associations were consistently stronger for perspective taking than for empathic concern. Furthermore, higher levels of compliance with mothers in early adolescence were uniquely associated with over-time increasing empathic concern. Perspective taking was uniquely associated with decreased withdrawal from conflicts. Perspective taking thus appears to be more strongly associated with a pattern of constructive conflict behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selected Factors Affecting the Development of Auditing Services Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rydzak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three factors affecting the development of auditing services market and its oligopoly. The binding provisions of law concerning discretionary powers of auditing companies’ proprietary rights, to some extent, petrify the current auditing market structure. By means of numerous capital access deterrents they make it impossible to compete with the most influential entities on the market. Bearing in mind the vital influence of statutory auditors on companies’ functioning, and allowing the companies access to capital, it is advisable to abolish all binding restrictions and simultaneously strengthen the internal control mechanisms facilitating high quality of financial review and statutory auditors’ independence. The auditing services market is, most of all, subject to price competition. The binding requisition of statutory auditors’ (including auditing companies salary disclosure intensifies mutual chain of audit pricing dependence and restricts competition. Properly utilized rotation principle, by strengthening the competence, might positively influence functioning of the auditing services market. It increases an opportunity of collaborating with new entities, while enforcing constant improvement of qualifications required to perform financial reviews. Hence its wider use should be postulated.

  2. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  3. Factors affecting unsafe behavior in construction projects: development and validation of a new questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Khosravi, Yahya; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Behzadan, Amir H

    2018-02-05

    Occupational safety in general, and construction safety in particular, is a complex phenomenon. This study was designed to develop a new valid measure to evaluate factors affecting unsafe behavior in the construction industry. A new questionnaire was generated from qualitative research according to the principles of grounded theory. Key measurement properties (face validity, content validity, construct validity, reliability and discriminative validity) were examined using qualitative and quantitative approaches. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the discriminating power and the optimal cutoff score. Construct validity revealed an interpretable 12-factor structure which explained 61.87% of variance. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and stability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.93) were found for the new instrument. The area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity were 0.80, 0.80 and 0.75, respectively. The new instrument also discriminated safety performance among the construction sites with different workers' accident histories (F = 6.40, p construction industry.

  4. Development of IPRO-ZONE to Determine Component Failure Modes Affected by a Fire Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A Fire PSA requires a PSA analyst to select internal initiating events and to determine component failure modes for fire occurrence event of each fire compartment. The component failure modes caused by a fire depend on the several factors. These factors are whether components and their relating equipment and cables are located at fire initiation and propagation compartments or not, fire effects on control and power cables for components and their relating equipment, designed failure modes of component, success criteria in a PSA model, etc. Up to the present, a PSA analyst has been manually determining component failure modes based on criteria mentioned above. This task is one of the difficult works required for fire PSA expertise. In addition, since it requires much information, a fire PSA analyst may have difficulty in maintaining consistency for determining the component failure modes and documentation for them. After determining the component failure modes, internal PSA basic events corresponding to the component failure modes are selected and fire events are modeled for the selected basic events if required. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to determine component failure modes affected by a fire, to select the internal PSA basic events, and to generate fire events to be modeled. In this paper, we introduce the overview of the IPRO-ZONE and approaches for determining component failure modes implemented in the IPRO-ZONE

  5. Mechanical stress as a regulator of cell motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Recho, P.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-01-01

    The motility of a cell can be triggered or inhibited not only by an applied force but also by a mechanically neutral force couple. This type of loading, represented by an applied stress and commonly interpreted as either squeezing or stretching, can originate from extrinsic interaction of a cell with its neighbors. To quantify the effect of applied stresses on cell motility we use an analytically transparent one-dimensional model accounting for active myosin contraction and induced actin turnover. We show that stretching can polarize static cells and initiate cell motility while squeezing can symmetrize and arrest moving cells. We show further that sufficiently strong squeezing can lead to the loss of cell integrity. The overall behavior of the system depends on the two dimensionless parameters characterizing internal driving (chemical activity) and external loading (applied stress). We construct a phase diagram in this parameter space distinguishing between static, motile, and collapsed states. The obtained results are relevant for the mechanical understanding of contact inhibition and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  6. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally induced diarrhea in rats. ... Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS) can reduce the ...

  7. Photoacclimation state determines the photobehaviour of motile microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezequiel, João; Laviale, Martin; Frankenbach, Silja

    2015-01-01

    High productivity in intertidal microphytobenthic communities is achieved despite exposure to extreme and dynamic conditions (e.g. light, salinity, temperature). As an adaptation to this hostile environment, most of the microalgae species inhabiting fine-sediment habitats are motile, being able...

  8. Chromatographic and anti-motility studies on extracts of Loranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-motility properties of the leaves of African mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus (Linn), Loranthaceae harvested from Kola acuminate host tree was studied by the charcoal meal test in mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 of the methanol extract was determined in mice by the Locke's method. The phytochemical constituents of ...

  9. in human sperm motility and level of calcium and magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Valsa

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... Calcium carbonate (AR Grade) (Brittish Drug House,. Bombay), for standard .... able for storage of sample used for chemical study.41,42. Subjects collected .... iod indicated a serious problem even if the sperm count and original motility were ..... Bhattacharya RD. Circadian rhythm of urinary electrolytes from.

  10. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Geijs, Daan J.; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A microfluidic

  11. Esophageal motility after peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Li, Meng; Lu, Bin; Meng, Lina; Fan, Yihong; Bao, Haibiao

    2016-05-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been introduced as a novel endoscopic treatment for achalasia. The aim of this work is to assess the changes in esophageal motility caused by POEM in patients with achalasia. Forty-one patients with achalasia underwent POEM from September 2012 to November 2014. Esophageal motility of all patients was evaluated preoperatively and 1 month after POEM utilizing high-resolution manometry, which was performed with ten water swallows, ten steamed bread swallows, and multiple rapid swallows (MRS). In single swallows, including liquid swallows and bread swallows, all the parameters of lower esophagus sphincter resting pressure (LESP), 4-s integrated relaxation pressure (4sIRP), and intra-bolus pressure (IBP) were decreased between pre- and post-POEM patients (all p 0.05), but increased in subtype I (subtype I: p > 0.05). In liquid swallows, the Eckardt score of subtype II patients decreased with DCI, and distal esophageal peristaltic amplitude after POEM was significantly lower compared with those showing increased values of those two parameters (p achalasia patients. POEM reduces LES pressure in achalasia, and partly restores esophageal motility. POEM displayed varying effect on esophageal motility in patients with different patterns of swallowing. In addition, the changes in parameters associated with esophageal peristalsis correlated with decreases in Eckardt score.

  12. Opiate Modulation of Gastrointestinal Motility and the Actions of Trimebutine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1991-01-01

    novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of motility disorders, including postoperative ileus and pseudo-obstruction. Finally, the effect of the drug on the colon supports the use of trimcbutine in irritable bowel syndrome patients who have constipation due to colonic inertia.

  13. Villous motility and unstirred water layers in canine intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, D.; Womack, W.A.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that villous motility reduces the mucosal unstirred water layer by mechanical stirring was examined. The frequency of contraction of villi was measured by using videomicroscopic techniques while a segment of anesthetized canine jejunum or ileum with its nerve and blood supply intact was maintained in a sealed chamber through which Tyrode solution was perfused. Radioisotopically labeled inulin, H 2 O, and butyric and lauric acid were used to measure net and/or unidirectional fluxes from the chamber. The unidirectional absorptive transport of H 2 O and butyric acid but not lauric acid by jejunal segments was significantly correlated with flow through the chamber. Plasma volume expansion increased villous motility but decreased the absorption of H 2 O and lauric acid. Absorption of butyric acid from the ileum was little different than from the jejunum although the degree of villous motility was less and net water absorption was greater from the ileum. Absorption of butyric acid into dead tissue indicated that passive diffusion into the tissue accounted for between 7 and 25%, depending on flow rate, of the absorption in intact tissue and that nonspecific binding was low. It was concluded that villous motility did not stir the unstirred water layers and was not directly associated with altered transport

  14. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... motility, thus assigning a new function for Hfq in B. subtilis. 1. Introduction. Hfq in ... to play a role in pathogenecity in mice, tolerance to osmotic and ethanol stress ...... in B. subtilis is characterized by events like surfactin pro- duction .... SM Cutting (New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc) pp 442–444. Nicolas P ...

  15. Oesophageal motility disorders - diagnosis with a barium-rice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, H.C.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Klose, P.; Staritz, M.; Ueberschaer, B.; Thelen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of a 'barium-rice' study for diagnosis of dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. Material and methods: 203 patients with oesophageal motility disorders of various aetiologies were examined by both conventional barium study and a 'barium-rice' study. During the latter, oesophageal clearance of a defined mixture of barium sulfate and boiled rice was measured. Results: The conventional barium study revealed prolonged transit time in only 15.8% (32 of 203 cases), whereas barium-rice study was pathological in 50.8% (103 of 203 cases). In 71 of 171 patients (41.5%) with a normal barium study, barium-rice passage was prolonged. In 23 patients, radiological results were confirmed by manometric measurements. Conclusion: Oesophageal motility disorders are detected by a barim-rice study with high sensitivity independent of the underlying disease. The barium-rice study offers a simple diagnostic tool revealing quantitative and reliable results. The barium-rice study is a suitable method for screening and follow-up of patients with dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. (orig.) [de

  16. Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Benedicte Y.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells may be regarded as prototypes of innate immune cells that can be controlled by neuronal mediators. Their activation has been implicated in many types of neuro-inflammatory responses, and related disturbances of gut motility, via direct or indirect mechanisms that involve several

  17. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using

  18. Bacterial growth and motility in sub-micron constrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männik, J.; Driessen, R.; Galajda, P.; Keymer, J.E.; Dekker, C.

    2009-01-01

    In many naturally occurring habitats, bacteria live in micrometer-size confined spaces. Although bacterial growth and motility in such constrictions is of great interest to fields as varied as soil microbiology, water purification, and biomedical research, quantitative studies of the effects of

  19. Unilateral nasal obstruction affects motor representation development within the face primary motor cortex in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasunori; Kato, Chiho; Uchima Koecklin, Karin Harumi; Okihara, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takayoshi; Fujita, Koichi; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Postnatal growth is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nasal obstruction during growth alters the electromyographic activity of orofacial muscles. The facial primary motor area represents muscles of the tongue and jaw, which are essential in regulating orofacial motor functions, including chewing and jaw opening. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic unilateral nasal obstruction during growth on the motor representations within the face primary motor cortex (M1). Seventy-two 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control ( n = 36) and experimental ( n = 36) groups. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction after cauterization of the external nostril at 8 days of age. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed when the rats were 5, 7, 9, and 11 wk old in control and experimental groups ( n = 9 per group per time point). Repeated-measures multivariate ANOVA was used for intergroup and intragroup statistical comparisons. In the control and experimental groups, the total number of positive ICMS sites for the genioglossus and anterior digastric muscles was significantly higher at 5, 7, and 9 wk, but there was no significant difference between 9 and 11 wk of age. Moreover, the total number of positive ICMS sites was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control at each age. It is possible that nasal obstruction induced the initial changes in orofacial motor behavior in response to the altered respiratory pattern, which eventually contributed to face-M1 neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Unilateral nasal obstruction in rats during growth periods induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and altered development of the motor representation within the face primary cortex. Unilateral nasal obstruction occurring during growth periods may greatly affect not only respiratory function but also craniofacial function in rats. Nasal obstruction should be treated

  20. Control of exoenzyme production, motility and cell differentiation in Serratia liquefaciens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Michael Christian; Eberl, Leo; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Serratia liquefaciens secretes a broad spectrum of hydrolytic enzymes to the surrounding medium and possesses the ability to differentiate into specialized swarmer cells capable of rapid surface motility. Control of exoenzyme production and swarming motility is governed by similar regulatory...

  1. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  2. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis.Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls.Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured.Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  3. An extract of pomegranate fruit and galangal rhizome increases the numbers of motile sperm: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Maja D K; Jakobsen, Henrik B; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P; Parner, Erik T; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4-8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets

  4. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  5. Oncofetal Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans are Key Players in Integrin Signaling and Tumor Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Pereira, Marina Ayres; Al Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Lee, Sherry; Ørum-Madsen, Maj Sofie; Christensen, Anders Riis; El-Naggar, Amal; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Grem, Jean L.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Holst, Peter J.; Theander, Thor; Sorensen, Poul H.; Daugaard, Mads; Salanti, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2CSA protein (rVAR2) derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate that ofCS plays a key role in tumor cell motility by affecting canonical integrin signaling pathways. Binding of rVAR2 to tumor cells inhibited the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which correlated with decreased phosphorylation of Src kinase. Moreover, rVAR2 binding decreased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in vitro. Mass spectrometry of ofCS-modified proteoglycan complexes affinity purified from tumor cell lines on rVAR2 columns, revealed an overrepresentation of proteins involved in cell motility and integrin signaling, such as integrin β1 (ITGB1) and integrin α4 (ITGA4). Saturating concentrations of rVAR2 inhibited downstream integrin signaling, which was mimicked by knockdown of the core CS synthesis enzymes Beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) and Chondroitin Sulfate N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1). The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and pre-incubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor cells in mice. This was associated with a significant increase in survival of the animals. These data functionally link ofCS modifications with cancer cell motility and further highlights ofCS as a novel therapeutic cancer target. Implications The cancer specific expression of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate aids in metastatic phenotypes and is a candidate target for therapy. PMID:27655130

  6. CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merveille, Anne-Christine; Davis, Erica E; Becker-Heck, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory c...

  7. Competitive Advantage Provided by Bacterial Motility in the Formation of Nodules by Rhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Peter; Bergman, Kostia

    1981-01-01

    The effect of motility on the competitive success of Rhizobium meliloti in nodule production was investigated. A motile strain formed more nodules than expected when mixed at various unfavorable ratios with either flagellated or nonflagellated nonmotile derivatives. We conclude that motility confers a selective advantage on rhizobia when competing with nonmotile strains. PMID:7298580

  8. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  9. Alteration of the digestive motility linked with radiation-induced inflammatory processes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, C.

    2000-12-01

    fluid absorption on three days. These two studies show that a 10 Gy abdominal irradiation markedly affects intestinal and colonic motility both of which contribute to the ensuing diarrhea, and a role for serotonin via 5-HT 3 receptors. In conclusion, these results demonstrate functional modifications without marked alterations of intestinal and colonic morphology. These changes are concomitant with an inflammatory response which does not appear to involve afferent nerves. However, serotonin plays an important role in the inhibition of colonic motility and in consequence in the establishment of diarrhea. (author)

  10. Disturbances of motility and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: biological markers or epiphenomenon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Motility and visceral hypersentitivity are regarded as the primary mechanisms of symptom development in irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). While a variety of motor abnormalities have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS, their specificity and relationship to symptoms remain unclear. Visceral hypersensitivity is ubiquitous in functional gastrointestinal disease and is especially common in IBS. Again, however, its specificity for IBS has been questioned. Many factors, including stress and psychopathology,complicate the interpretation of these phenomena and new re-search suggests that mucosal inflammation and luminal factors may be more fundamental to the etiology of this common disorder.

  11. Radionuclide examination of motility disorders of the esophagus: a comparative study with manometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heukelem, H.A. van.

    1985-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the value of radionuclide studies for clinical diagnostics in the light of its advantages over the manometric examination by means of available casuistics. A general review of the development of the examinations for assessment of the motility of the esophagus is given and both normal and disturbed motor function are described. The details of the patient groups and the techniques used in this study are presented. The results obtained for normal subjects and patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, systemic connective tissue diseases with esophageal involvement and reflux esophagitis are reported and discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Correlation between morphological expansion and impairment of intra- and prelesionary motility in inflammatory small bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease – Preliminary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Wurnig, Moritz; Boss, Andreas; Patak, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate if alterations of intra- and prelesionary motility in inflamed small-bowel segments correlate with length, wall-thickness and prelesionary dilatation of inflammatory small bowel lesions in patients suffering from Crohn's disease assessed with MRI. Methods and materials: This retrospective IRB approved study included 25 patients (12 males, 18–77y) with inflammatory lesions examined using (MRE) magnetic resonance imaging enterography. Cine MRE was performed using a coronal 2D steady-state free precession sequence (TR 2.9, TE 1.25) on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Small bowel motility was examined using a dedicated MR-motility assessment software (Motasso, Vers. 1.0, Sohard AG, Bern, Switzerland). Motility patterns (contraction frequency, relative occlusion rate and mean diameter) were assessed in correlation to wall thickness, length and prelesionary dilatation of the lesions. Statistical analysis was performed by calculation of the Pearson's-Correlation coefficient. Results: The length of the inflammatory segments, the wall thickening and prelesionary dilatation did not correlate with the frequency of the contractions (r = 0.17, p = 0.477; r = 0.316, p = 0.123; r = 0.161, p = 0.441) or the impairment of luminal occlusion (r = 0.274, p = 0.184; r = 0.199, p = .0339; r = 0.015, p = 0.945) and only the prelesionary dilatation (r = 0.410, p = 0.042) correlated to the mean luminal diameter of the segment. Conclusion: The degree of motility impairment within inflammatory small bowel lesions does not significantly correlate with the extent of the lesion but with the motility measured in prelesionary, non-affected segments, suggesting an interdependent functional aspect of inflammation even in morphologically non-affected small bowel segments

  13. Correlation between morphological expansion and impairment of intra- and prelesionary motility in inflammatory small bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease – Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Wurnig, Moritz; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zürich, Department of Radiology, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich (Switzerland); Patak, Michael A., E-mail: Michael.Patak@patak.ch [University Hospital Zürich, Department of Radiology, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich (Switzerland); Hirslanden Clinic, Radiology, Witellikerstrasse 40, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate if alterations of intra- and prelesionary motility in inflamed small-bowel segments correlate with length, wall-thickness and prelesionary dilatation of inflammatory small bowel lesions in patients suffering from Crohn's disease assessed with MRI. Methods and materials: This retrospective IRB approved study included 25 patients (12 males, 18–77y) with inflammatory lesions examined using (MRE) magnetic resonance imaging enterography. Cine MRE was performed using a coronal 2D steady-state free precession sequence (TR 2.9, TE 1.25) on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Small bowel motility was examined using a dedicated MR-motility assessment software (Motasso, Vers. 1.0, Sohard AG, Bern, Switzerland). Motility patterns (contraction frequency, relative occlusion rate and mean diameter) were assessed in correlation to wall thickness, length and prelesionary dilatation of the lesions. Statistical analysis was performed by calculation of the Pearson's-Correlation coefficient. Results: The length of the inflammatory segments, the wall thickening and prelesionary dilatation did not correlate with the frequency of the contractions (r = 0.17, p = 0.477; r = 0.316, p = 0.123; r = 0.161, p = 0.441) or the impairment of luminal occlusion (r = 0.274, p = 0.184; r = 0.199, p = .0339; r = 0.015, p = 0.945) and only the prelesionary dilatation (r = 0.410, p = 0.042) correlated to the mean luminal diameter of the segment. Conclusion: The degree of motility impairment within inflammatory small bowel lesions does not significantly correlate with the extent of the lesion but with the motility measured in prelesionary, non-affected segments, suggesting an interdependent functional aspect of inflammation even in morphologically non-affected small bowel segments.

  14. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-08-21

    To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent.

  15. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L

    2004-09-01

    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P extenders, except on Day 2, when Androhep Plus maintained better viability. Differences in the percentage of motile (total) sperm due to extender were evident on Days 2, 4, 5, and 6, when Androhep Plus was superior to BTS (P extender as early as Day 2; storage in Androhep Plus induced higher levels of pattern B sperm (P extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  17. The role of hair cells, cilia and ciliary motility in otolith formation in the zebrafish otic vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooke-Vaughan, Georgina A; Huang, Peng; Hammond, Katherine L; Schier, Alexander F; Whitfield, Tanya T

    2012-05-01

    Otoliths are biomineralised structures required for the sensation of gravity, linear acceleration and sound in the zebrafish ear. Otolith precursor particles, initially distributed throughout the otic vesicle lumen, become tethered to the tips of hair cell kinocilia (tether cilia) at the otic vesicle poles, forming two otoliths. We have used high-speed video microscopy to investigate the role of cilia and ciliary motility in otolith formation. In wild-type ears, groups of motile cilia are present at the otic vesicle poles, surrounding the immotile tether cilia. A few motile cilia are also found on the medial wall, but most cilia (92-98%) in the otic vesicle are immotile. In mutants with defective cilia (iguana) or ciliary motility (lrrc50), otoliths are frequently ectopic, untethered or fused. Nevertheless, neither cilia nor ciliary motility are absolutely required for otolith tethering: a mutant that lacks cilia completely (MZovl) is still capable of tethering otoliths at the otic vesicle poles. In embryos with attenuated Notch signalling [mindbomb mutant or Su(H) morphant], supernumerary hair cells develop and otolith precursor particles bind to the tips of all kinocilia, or bind directly to the hair cells' apical surface if cilia are absent [MZovl injected with a Su(H)1+2 morpholino]. However, if the first hair cells are missing (atoh1b morphant), otolith formation is severely disrupted and delayed. Our data support a model in which hair cells produce an otolith precursor-binding factor, normally localised to tether cell kinocilia. We also show that embryonic movement plays a minor role in the formation of normal otoliths.

  18. Characterizing the adhesion of motile and nonmotile Escherichia coli to a glass surface using a parallel-plate flow chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Jennifer W; Ford, Roseanne M

    2002-04-20

    A parallel-plate flow chamber was used to measure the attachment and detachment rates of Escherichia coli to a glass surface at various fluid velocities. The effect of flagella on adhesion was investigated by performing experiments with several E. coli strains: AW405 (motile); HCB136 (nonmotile mutant with paralyzed flagella); and HCB137 (nonmotile mutant without flagella). We compared the total attachment rates and the fraction of bacteria retained on the surface to determine how the presence and movement of the flagella influence transport to the surface and adhesion strength in this dynamic system. At the lower fluid velocities, there was no significant difference in the total attachment rates for the three bacterial strains; nonmotile strains settled at a rate that was of the same order of magnitude as the diffusion rate of the motile strain. At the highest fluid velocity, the effect of settling was minimized to better illustrate the importance of motility, and the attachment rates of both nonmotile strains were approximately five times slower than that of the motile bacteria. Thus, different processes controlled the attachment rate depending on the parameter regime in which the experiment was performed. The fractions of motile bacteria retained on the glass surface increased with increasing velocity, whereas the opposite trend was found for the nonmotile strains. This suggests that the rotation of the flagella enables cells to detach from the surface (at the lower fluid velocities) and strengthens adhesion (at higher fluid velocities), whereas nonmotile cells detach as a result of shear. There was no significant difference in the initial attachment rates of the two nonmotile species, which suggests that merely the presence of flagella was not important in this stage of biofilm development. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inhibitory effects of bromelain, a cysteine protease derived from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus), on intestinal motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, F; Capasso, R; Severino, B; Fiorino, F; Aviello, G; De Rosa, G; Mazzella, M; Romano, B; Capasso, F; Fasolino, I; Izzo, A A

    2011-08-01

    Bromelain (BR) is a cysteine protease with inhibitory effects on intestinal secretion and inflammation. However, its effects on intestinal motility are largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the effect of this plant-derived compound on intestinal contractility and transit in mice. Contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the mouse isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with acetylcholine, barium chloride, or electrical field stimulation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine. Transit was also evaluated in pathophysiologic states induced by the pro-inflammatory compound croton oil or by the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin. Bromelain inhibited the contractions induced by different spasmogenic compounds in the mouse ileum with similar potency. The antispasmodic effect was reduced or counteracted by the proteolytic enzyme inhibitor, gabexate (15 × 10(-6)  mol L(-1) ), protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) antagonist, N(1) -3-methylbutyryl-N(4) -6-aminohexanoyl-piperazine (10(-4) mol L(-1) ), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, neomycin (3 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) ), and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram (10(-6)  mol L(-1) ). In vivo, BR preferentially inhibited motility in pathophysiologic states in a PAR-2-antagonist-sensitive manner. Our data suggest that BR inhibits intestinal motility - preferentially in pathophysiologic conditions - with a mechanism possibly involving membrane PAR-2 and PLC and PDE4 as intracellular signals. Bromelain could be a lead compound for the development of new drugs, able to normalize the intestinal motility in inflammation and diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. CCN5 modulates the antiproliferative effect of heparin and regulates cell motility in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellot John J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC hyperplasia plays an important role in both chronic and acute vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Considerable work has focused on the mechanisms regulating VSMC proliferation and motility. Earlier work in our lab revealed a novel growth arrest-specific (gas gene induced in VSMC exposed to the antiproliferative agent heparin. This gene is a member of the CCN family and has been given the name CCN5. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the function of CCN5 protein and to explore its mechanism of action in VSMC. Results Using RNA interference (RNAi, we first demonstrate that CCN5 is required for the antiproliferative effect of heparin in VSMC. We also use this gene knockdown approach to show that CCN5 is an important negative regulator of motility. To explore the mechanism of action of CCN5 on VSMC motility, we use RNAi to demonstrate that knock down of CCN5 up regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, an important stimulator of motility in VSMC. In addition, forced expression of CCN5 via adenovirus results in reduced MMP-2 activity, this also corroborates the gene knock down results. Finally, we show that loss of CCN5 expression in VSMC causes changes in VSMC morphology and cytoskeletal organization, including a reduction in the amount and macromolecular assembly of smooth muscle cell α-actin. Conclusions This work provides important new insights into the regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and motility by CCN5 and may aid the development of therapies for vascular diseases.

  1. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  2. Le tecnologie mobili dell’apprendimento permanente, il progetto MOTILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Arrigo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo vengono presentati alcuni dei risultati del progetto MOTILL. MOTILL, ovvero «Le Tecnologie Mobili nell’apprendimento permanente: buone pratiche», è un progetto finanziato dalla Comunità Europea, nell’ambito del National Lifelong Learning Strategies (NLLS. Il progetto, durato un anno e terminato a Marzo 2010, si è focalizzato sull’uso delle tecnologie mobili in contesti di lifelong learning (LLL. L’articolo sarà dedicato a una breve introduzione del progetto, dei suoi obiettivi e delle azioni portate avanti, e a un rapido riassunto dei principali risultati ottenuti, i quali sono stati resi disponibili online alla comunità scientifica e diffusi ai policy makers impegnati nei programmi di apprendimento permanente.

  3. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  4. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook

    1993-01-01

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of 99m Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  5. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  6. Microbial Morphology and Motility as Biosignatures for Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; Lindensmith, Chris; Deming, Jody W.; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Stocker, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Meaningful motion is an unambiguous biosignature, but because life in the Solar System is most likely to be microbial, the question is whether such motion may be detected effectively on the micrometer scale. Recent results on microbial motility in various Earth environments have provided insight into the physics and biology that determine whether and how microorganisms as small as bacteria and archaea swim, under which conditions, and at which speeds. These discoveries have not yet been reviewed in an astrobiological context. This paper discusses these findings in the context of Earth analog environments and environments expected to be encountered in the outer Solar System, particularly the jovian and saturnian moons. We also review the imaging technologies capable of recording motility of submicrometer-sized organisms and discuss how an instrument would interface with several types of sample-collection strategies.

  7. Motility of vestibular hair cells in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y; Sekitani, T

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies of the outer hair cells in cochlea have demonstrated active motilities. However, very little study has been done on the vestibular hair cells (VHCs). The present study shows the motile response of the VHCs induced by application of Ca2+/ATP promoting contraction. Reversible cell shape changes could be shown in 10 of 16 isolated type I hair cells and 9 of 15 isolated type II hair cells by applying the contraction solution. Furthermore, the sensory hair bundles in the utricular epithelium pivoted around the base and stood perpendicularly to the apical borderline of the epithelium in response to the application of the same solution. It is suggested that the contraction of the isolated VHCs may be transferred to tension which causes the sensory hair bundles to restrict their motion in normal tissue, instead of changing the cell shape.

  8. Motility precedes egress of malaria parasites from oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Dennis; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected Anopheles mosquito deposits Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin during a bite. Sporozoites are formed within oocysts at the mosquito midgut wall and are released into the hemolymph, from where they invade the salivary glands and are subsequently transmitted to the vertebrate host. We found that a thrombospondin-repeat containing sporozoite-specific protein named thrombospondin-releated protein 1 (TRP1) is important for oocyst egress and salivary gland invasion, and hence for the transmission of malaria. We imaged the release of sporozoites from oocysts in situ, which was preceded by active motility. Parasites lacking TRP1 failed to migrate within oocysts and did not egress, suggesting that TRP1 is a vital component of the events that precede intra-oocyst motility and subsequently sporozoite egress and salivary gland invasion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19157.001 PMID:28115054

  9. Impedance planimetric description of normal rectoanal motility in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inge S; Michelsen, Hanne B; Krogh, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Manometry and pressure-volume measurements are commonly used to study anorectal physiology. However, the methods are limited by several sources of error. Recently, a new impedance planimetric system has been introduced in a porcine model. It allows simultaneous determination of anorectal...... pressures and multiple rectal luminal cross-sectional areas. This study was designed to study normal human rectoanal motility by means of impedance planimetry with multiple rectal cross-sectional areas and rectal and anal pressure. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (10 females), aged 24 to 53 years, were...... the experiment, the cross-sectional area at all channels showed strong cyclic contractile activity and the anal pressure increased by approximately 100 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The new rectal impedance planimetry system allows highly detailed description of rectoanal motility patterns. It has promise as a new...

  10. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Where to Go: Breaking the Symmetry in Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration in the “correct” direction is pivotal for many biological processes. Although most work is devoted to its molecular mechanisms, the cell’s preference for one direction over others, thus overcoming intrinsic random motility, epitomizes a profound principle that underlies all complex systems: the choice of one axis, in structure or motion, from a uniform or symmetric set of options. Explaining directional motility by an external chemo-attractant gradient does not solve but only shifts the problem of causation: whence the gradient? A new study in PLOS Biology shows cell migration in a self-generated gradient, offering an opportunity to take a broader look at the old dualism of extrinsic instruction versus intrinsic symmetry-breaking in cell biology. PMID:27196433

  12. Pancreatic cancer circulating tumour cells express a cell motility gene signature that predicts survival after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, Gregory; Eijsden, Rudy van; Roskams, Tania; Van Duppen, Victor; Topal, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Most cancer deaths are caused by metastases, resulting from circulating tumor cells (CTC) that detach from the primary cancer and survive in distant organs. The aim of the present study was to develop a CTC gene signature and to assess its prognostic relevance after surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Negative depletion fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was developed and validated with spiking experiments using cancer cell lines in whole human blood samples. This FACS-based method was used to enrich for CTC from the blood of 10 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC. Total RNA was isolated from 4 subgroup samples, i.e. CTC, haematological cells (G), original tumour (T), and non-tumoural pancreatic control tissue (P). After RNA quality control, samples of 6 patients were eligible for further analysis. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed after double linear amplification of RNA. ‘Ingenuity Pathway Analysis’ software and AmiGO were used for functional data analyses. A CTC gene signature was developed and validated with the nCounter system on expression data of 78 primary PDAC using Cox regression analysis for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Using stringent statistical analysis, we retained 8,152 genes to compare expression profiles of CTC vs. other subgroups, and found 1,059 genes to be differentially expressed. The pathway with the highest expression ratio in CTC was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling, known to be involved in cancer cell migration. In the p38 MAPK pathway, TGF-β1, cPLA2, and MAX were significantly upregulated. In addition, 9 other genes associated with both p38 MAPK signaling and cell motility were overexpressed in CTC. High co-expression of TGF-β1 and our cell motility panel (≥ 4 out of 9 genes for DFS and ≥ 6 out of 9 genes for OS) in primary PDAC was identified as an independent predictor of DFS (p=0.041, HR (95% CI) = 1.885 (1.025 – 3.559)) and OS (p=0.047, HR

  13. A mechanical microcompressor for high resolution imaging of motile specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Zinskie, Jessica A.; Shribak, Michael; Bruist, Michael F.; Aufderheide, Karl J.; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain fine details in 3 dimensions (3D) over time, it is critical for motile biological specimens to be appropriately immobilized. Of the many immobilization options available, the mechanical microcompressor offers many benefits. Our device, previously described, achieves gentle flattening of a cell, allowing us to image finely detailed structures of numerous organelles and physiological processes in living cells. We have imaged protozoa and other small metazoans using differenti...

  14. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  15. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  16. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Elske N. de; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  17. Using Rasch Measurement for the Development and Use of Affective Assessments in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    With the demand for quality quantitative instruments in the field of science education rising, additional measures of currently unassessed affective variables need to be constructed. In this study, we discuss the survey creation and evaluation process of the STEM Awareness Community Survey (SACS) through an application of Liu's (Liu, X.,…

  18. Interactions among motility, fertilizing ability, and testosterone binding on spermatozoa of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, P K; Majumdar, S S; Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1986-01-01

    Fresh ejaculates of bonnet monkeys were separated into fractions rich with highly motile and sluggishly motile spermatozoa. The motility, ability to fertilize zona-free hamster eggs, and distribution of testosterone-binding sites on spermatozoa were assessed to determine the relation between these sperm functions. Two parameters of objective assessment of motility--velocity and degree of flagellar bending--were significantly correlated with the ability to form pronuclei in zona-free hamster eggs. Only spermatozoa with good motility could form pronuclei, which might be important for assessment of the fertilizing ability. The motility was directly related to the distribution of testosterone-binding sites; the fraction having mostly motile spermatozoa was distributed over the sperm surface. The technique is simple and may be used to evaluate semen of nonhuman primates.

  19. Parasites in motion: flagellum-driven cell motility in African trypanosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Motility of the sleeping sickness parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, impacts disease transmission and pathogenesis. Trypanosome motility is driven by a flagellum that harbors a canonical 9 + 2 axoneme, together with trypanosome-specific elaborations. Trypanosome flagellum biology and motility have been the object of intense research over the last two years. These studies have led to the discovery of a novel form of motility, termed social motility, and provided revision of long-standing models for cell propulsion. Recent work has also uncovered novel structural features and motor proteins associated with the flagellar apparatus and has identified candidate signaling molecules that are predicted to regulate flagellar motility. Together with earlier inventories of flagellar proteins from proteomic and genomic studies, the stage is now set to move forward with functional studies to elucidate molecular mechanisms and investigate parasite motility in the context of host-parasite interactions. PMID:20591724

  20. Emergence of coherent motion in aggregates of motile coupled maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Cantu Ros, A.; Antonopoulos, Ch.G.; Basios, V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A minimal model of motile particles with adjustable intrinsic steering is presented. → Collective motion emerges due to self-adaptation of each particle's intrinsic state. → Adaptation is achieved by a map which behavior ranges from periodic to chaotic. → Higher cohesion occurs in a balanced combination of ordered and chaotic motion. → Exhibits an abrupt change in degree of coherence as a function of particle density. - Abstract: In this paper we study the emergence of coherence in collective motion described by a system of interacting motiles endowed with an inner, adaptative, steering mechanism. By means of a nonlinear parametric coupling, the system elements are able to swing along the route to chaos. Thereby, each motile can display different types of behavior, i.e. from ordered to fully erratic motion, accordingly with its surrounding conditions. The appearance of patterns of collective motion is shown to be related to the emergence of interparticle synchronization and the degree of coherence of motion is quantified by means of a graph representation. The effects related to the density of particles and to interparticle distances are explored. It is shown that the higher degrees of coherence and group cohesion are attained when the system elements display a combination of ordered and chaotic behaviors, which emerges from a collective self-organization process.

  1. PLAG1 deficiency impairs spermatogenesis and sperm motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Almas R; Grommen, Sylvia V H; O'Bryan, Moira K; O'Connor, Anne E; Merriner, D Jo; Hall, Nathan E; Doyle, Stephen R; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina E; Barriga, Daniel; Hart, Adam H; Van de Ven, Wim J M; De Groef, Bert

    2017-07-13

    Deficiency in pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) leads to reduced fertility in male mice, but the mechanism by which PLAG1 contributes to reproduction is unknown. To investigate the involvement of PLAG1 in testicular function, we determined (i) the spatial distribution of PLAG1 in the testis using X-gal staining; (ii) transcriptomic consequences of PLAG1 deficiency in knock-out and heterozygous mice compared to wild-type mice using RNA-seq; and (iii) morphological and functional consequences of PLAG1 deficiency by determining testicular histology, daily sperm production and sperm motility in knock-out and wild-type mice. PLAG1 was sparsely expressed in germ cells and in Sertoli cells. Genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis were downregulated in the testes of knock-out mice, as well as Hsd17b3, which encodes a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. In the absence of Plag1, a number of genes involved in immune processes and epididymis-specific genes were upregulated in the testes. Finally, loss of PLAG1 resulted in significantly lowered daily sperm production, in reduced sperm motility, and in several animals, in sloughing of the germinal epithelium. Our results demonstrate that the subfertility seen in male PLAG1-deficient mice is, at least in part, the result of significantly reduced sperm output and sperm motility.

  2. Radiation-induced motility alterations in medulloblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieken, Stefan; Rieber, Juliane; Brons, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Photon irradiation has been repeatedly suspected of increasing tumor cell motility and promoting locoregional recurrence of disease. This study was set up to analyse possible mechanisms underlying the potentially radiation-altered motility in medulloblastoma cells. Medulloblastoma cell lines D425 and Med8A were analyzed in migration and adhesion experiments with and without photon and carbon ion irradiation. Expression of integrins was determined by quantitative FACS analysis. Matrix metalloproteinase concentrations within cell culture supernatants were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Both photon and carbon ion irradiation significantly reduced chemotactic medulloblastoma cell transmigration through 8-μm pore size membranes, while simultaneously increasing adherence to fibronectin- and collagen I- and IV-coated surfaces. Correspondingly, both photon and carbon ion irradiation downregulate soluble MMP9 concentrations, while upregulating cell surface expression of proadhesive extracellular matrix protein-binding integrin α 5 . The observed phenotype of radiation-altered motility is more pronounced following carbon ion than photon irradiation. Both photon and (even more so) carbon ion irradiation are effective in inhibiting medulloblastoma cell migration through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and upregulation of proadhesive cell surface integrin α 5 , which lead to increased cell adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. (author)

  3. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable.-------------Öğretmen Adaylarının Kamu Personeli Seçme Sınavından Etkilenme Düzeyi Ölçeğinin GeliştirilmesiÖzet:Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının kamu personeli seçme sınavından etkilenme düzeylerini değerlendirmek için bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada 143 kız, 64 erkek olmak üzere toplam 207 öğretmen adayına ula

  4. Role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenesis of Dickeya dadantii 3937 (ex Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez-Lamas, María; Cabrera-Ordóñez, Ezequiel; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Raposo, Rosa; Trelles-Salazar, Oswaldo; Rodríguez-Moreno, Andrés; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo

    2009-02-01

    Dickeya dadantii 3937 (ex Erwinia chrysanthemi), a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, causes soft rot in many economically important crops. A successful pathogen has to reach the interior of the plant in order to cause disease. To study the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of D. dadantii 3937, genes involved in the chemotactic signal transduction system (cheW, cheB, cheY and cheZ) and in the structure of the flagellar motor (motA) were mutagenized. All the mutant strains grew like the wild-type in culture media, and the production and secretion of pectolytic enzymes was not affected. As expected, the swimming ability of the mutant strains was reduced with respect to the wild-type: motA (94%), cheY (80%), cheW (74%), cheB (54%) and cheZ (48%). The virulence of the mutant strains was analysed in chicory, Saintpaulia and potato. The mutant strains were also tested for their capability to enter into Arabidopsis leaves. All the mutants showed a significant decrease of virulence in certain hosts; however, the degree of virulence reduction varied depending on the virulence assay. The ability to penetrate Arabidopsis leaves was impaired in all the mutants, whereas the capacity to colonize potato tubers after artificial inoculation was affected in only two mutant strains. In general, the virulence of the mutants could be ranked as motAaffected. These results clearly indicate that motility plays an important role in the pathogenicity of this bacterium.

  5. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anne Neville

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate, but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.

  6. Visualization and quantification of large bowel motility with functional cine-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, S.; Wielage, C.; Fischer, T.; Reiser, M.; Lienemann, A.; Kirchhoff, C.; Mussack, T.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to develop and evaluate a method to visualize and quantify large bowel motility using functional cine MRI. Methods: fifteen healthy individuals (8males, 7 females, 20 to 45 years old) with no history or present symptoms of bowel disorders were enrolled in a functional cine MRI examination at 6 a. m. after a starving phase for at least eight hours before and after oral administration of Senna tea (mild stimulating purgative). Two consecutive sets of repeated measurements of the entire abdomen were performed using a 1.5T MRI system with coronal T2-weighted HASTE sequences anatomically adjusted to the course of the large bowel. A navigator technique was used for respiratory gating at the level of the right dorsal diaphragm. The changes in diameter (given in cm) were measured at 5 different locations of the ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC), and assessed as parameters for the bowel motility. Results: the mean values as a statistical measure for large bowel relaxation were determined. Before ingestion of Senna tea, the mean diameter measured 3.41 cm (ascending colon), 3 cm (transverse colon) and 2.67 cm (descending colon). After the ingestion of Senna tea, the mean diameter increased to 3.69 cm (ascending colon) to 3.4 cm (transverse colon) and to 2.9 cm (descending colon). A statistically significant difference was demonstrated with the Wilcoxon test (level of confidence 0.05). For the determination of dynamic increase, the changes of the statistical scatter amplitude to the mean value were expressed as percentage before and after the ingestion of Senna tea. Thereby, an increase in variation and dynamic range was detected for the AC (112.9%) and DC (100%), but a decrease in the dynamics for the TC (69%). Conclusion: a non-invasive method for the assessment of bowel motility was developed for the first time. The use of functional cine MRI utilizing a prokinetic stimulus allowed visualisation and quantification of large bowel motility

  7. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Griffin

    Full Text Available There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula. Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp. and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster. This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those

  8. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Lynch

    Full Text Available Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×. In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates, 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates, were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  9. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  10. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722

  11. Software-assisted quantitative analysis of small bowel motility compared to manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickelhaupt, S.; Froehlich, J.M.; Cattin, R.; Raible, S.; Bouquet, H.; Bill, U.; Patak, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To validate a newly developed software prototype that automatically analyses small bowel motility by comparing it directly with manual measurement. Material and methods: Forty-five patients with clinical indication for small bowel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study. MRI was performed using a 1.5 T system following a standard MR-enterography protocol. Small bowel motility parameters (contractions-per-minute, luminal diameter, amplitude) were measured three times each in identical segments using the manual and the semiautomatic software-assisted method. The methods were compared for agreement, repeatability, and time needed for each measurement. All parameters were compared between the methods. Results: A total of 91 small-bowel segments were analysed. No significant intra-individual difference (p > 0.05) was found for peristaltic frequencies between the methods (mean: 4.14/min manual; 4.22/min software-assisted). Amplitudes (5.14 mm; 5.57 mm) and mean lumen diameters (17.39 mm; 14.68) differed due to systematic differences in the definition of the bowel wall. Mean duration of single measurement was significantly (p < 0.01) shorter with the software (6.25 min; 1.30 min). The scattering of repeated measurements was significantly (p < 0.05) lower using the software. Conclusion: The software-assisted method accomplished highly reliable, fast and accurate measurement of small bowel motility. Measurement precision and duration differed significantly between the two methods in favour of the software-assisted technique

  12. Political past weight: factors that affect the development of policies of memory in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario SOLÍS DELGADILLO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why the Argentine and Chilean presidents believe important to face the political past of their countries; or in other words, why no president resists the temptation to interfere in the issue of public policies of the memory through different strategies with different political costs. In that sense, we try to explain what factors mainly affect the decision of the Argentine and Chilean presidents when they adopting public policies of memory. Following the analysis made by means of logistic regressions, it is estimated that the ideology of the leaders, affect on the repair policies. In justice policies, the analysis shows that these are particularly conducive in times of critical juncture. And in the symbolic policies, anniversaries are not so decisive as might be expected.

  13. Thermal and microstructural modelling in weld heat-affected zones: microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    After having analysed in Part 2 of this work the thermal effects caused by a welding process, a metallurgical model which uses those results is proposed to predict the hardness and the microstructure resulting in weld heat affected zones. This model simulates the decomposition of austenite to its various products: martensite, bainite, pearlite and ferrite. Thus, it allows one to optimize welding process parameters to achieve the best microstructure possible. (Author) 5 refs

  14. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Stewart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998, who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1 What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2 How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3 How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4 How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies? Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

  15. Why so fast? : An investigation of the cognitive and affective processes underlying successful and failing development of reading fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    The studies in this thesis aimed to improve our understanding of cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the development of reading fluency, both in Dutch typical and dyslexic readers. In typical readers we investigated the timing of orthography-phonology integration. Time course analyses of

  16. Do brood sex ratio, nestling development and sex affect fledging timing and order? An experimental study on great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, Reinder; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    The process of nest leaving (fledging) in hole-breeding passerines is largely unexplored, although it is potentially an important facet of reproduction. We used the great tit, Parus major, to investigate whether fledging timing and order were affected by nestling development and sex, as well as the

  17. Can people affected by leprosy at risk of developing plantar ulcers be identified? A field study from central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, W; Van De Vijver, S; Benbow, C; Amenu, A; Saunderson, P

    In the ALERT leprosy control programme, 75 people affected by leprosy, in three different geographical areas, were investigated. Each person was documented as having anaesthesia to the 10 g monofilament. The study sought to determine why some people developed ulcers whilst others did not. According

  18. Does Household Food Security Affect Cognitive and Social Development of Kindergartners? Discussion Paper No. 1276-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Ame; Harrison, Gail G.

    2003-01-01

    The development in the last decade of methodology for measuring and scaling household food insecurity and hunger in U.S. populations makes possible systematic examination of the ways in which hunger and food insecurity affect individuals and families. The impact on children has always been of primary concern for policy, advocacy, and science…

  19. A meta-proteomics approach to study the interspecies interactions affecting microbial biofilm development in a model community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herschend, Jakob; Damholt, Zacharias Brimnes Visby; Marquard, Andrea Marion

    2017-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are omnipresent in nature and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries ranging from bioremediation and food production to biomedical applications. To date little is understood about how multi-species biofilm communities develop and function on a molecular level, due...... of fermentation and nitrogen pathways in Paenibacillus amylolyticus and Xanthomonas retroflexus may, however, indicate that competition for limited resources also affects community development. Overall our results demonstrate the multitude of pathways involved in biofilm formation in mixed communities....

  20. The influence of non polar and polar molecules in mouse motile cells membranes and pure lipid bilayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Sierra-Valdez

    Full Text Available We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA. Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular l