WorldWideScience

Sample records for affect behavior substance

  1. Factors that affect substance users’ suicidal behavior: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Min; Yang, Soo; Park, Kyongran; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Korea, it has not been easy to negotiate studies that target drug users who are being punished by law, and accordingly, no study on suicidal ideation among substance users has been accomplished yet. In this study, the factors that affect substance users’ suicidal ideation were confirmed. Methods It was based on the data collected from 'The 2009 Study on Substance-Dependent Individuals in Korea’ , which was conducted by The Catholic University of Korea in 2010 as a project ...

  2. Families Affected by Parental Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vincent C; Wilson, Celeste R

    2016-08-01

    Children whose parents or caregivers use drugs or alcohol are at increased risk of short- and long-term sequelae ranging from medical problems to psychosocial and behavioral challenges. In the course of providing health care services to children, pediatricians are likely to encounter families affected by parental substance use and are in a unique position to intervene. Therefore, pediatricians need to know how to assess a child's risk in the context of a parent's substance use. The purposes of this clinical report are to review some of the short-term effects of maternal substance use during pregnancy and long-term implications of fetal exposure; describe typical medical, psychiatric, and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents in families affected by substance use; and suggest proficiencies for pediatricians involved in the care of children and adolescents of families affected by substance use, including screening families, mandated reporting requirements, and directing families to community, regional, and state resources that can address needs and problems. PMID:27432847

  3. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  4. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  5. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  6. Stress and Multiple Substance Use Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Cervantes, Richard C; Swank, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Hispanic adolescents reported a higher annual prevalence of use of nearly all major drugs compared to non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents. Cultural or minority stressors, such as those related to the acculturation process, discrimination, immigration, poverty, and community violence, have been implicated in these outcomes. Unfortunately, few studies have examined how these stressors may have a differential or additive effect when considered simultaneously. The current study examined the relation between stress and multiple substance use behaviors in a sample of Hispanic adolescents (n = 1036), age 11-19 years old. Latent class analysis identified subgroups of Hispanic adolescents based on combinations of substance use behaviors. General linear models were used to examine mean differences by class among the eight domains of stress. Fit statistics revealed a six-class structure: no substance use risk, predominately alcohol use, low polysubstance use, high polysubstance use, illicit drug use, and predominately marijuana use. Differences in stress across the six classes were identified for four of the eight domains: family economic, acculturation gap, community and gang, and family and drug stress. The effect sizes revealed the largest mean differences in stress between the no substance use group and the two polysubstance use groups and between the no risk group and alcohol use group. The findings from this study support the use of interventions that target stress to affect multiple substance use behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:26319617

  7. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or l...

  8. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  9. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  10. Nerve and Behavioral Responses of Mice to Various Umami Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Narukawa, Masataka; MORITA, Kanako; UEMURA, Masahide; Kitada, Ryo; OH, Seong-Hee; HAYASHI, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    Food contains various taste substances. Among them, umami substances play an important role with regard to the perception of the taste of food, but, few studies have examined the taste characteristics of representative umami substances other than monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). By conducting mouse behavioral studies (the 48-h 2-bottle preference test and the conditioned taste aversion test) and assessing gustatory nerve responses, we investigated the taste characteristics of unique umami substa...

  11. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Ralston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.

  12. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse: Rationale, Methods, and Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fals-Stewart, William; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...

  13. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  14. Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…

  15. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Bröning; Diana Moesgen; Michael Klein; Rainer Thomasius

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive...

  16. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória; Sérgio Antonio Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento Fajardo; Maurício Nasser Ehlke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (ran...

  17. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration of...

  18. Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite was investigated. Na-type bentonite containing 30wt% of quartz sand was compacted in a column and the dry density was adjusted to be 1.6 g/cm3. Polyacrylic acid solution (including three types of polyacrylic acid, average molecular weight 2,100, 15,000 and 450,000) was prepared and was passed through the compacted bentonite. Molecular weight distributions of polyacrylic acid in the effluent solution were analysed by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). A batch type experiment was also carried out in order to examine a sorption behavior of these organic substances onto the surfaces of grains of the bentonite. The results indicated that the smaller size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight < 100,000) was passed through the compacted bentonite. On the other hand, the larger size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight ≥100,000) was mostly filtrated by the compacted bentonite. The batch type sorption tests clarified that the polyacrylic acid did not sorb onto the surfaces of minerals constituting the bentonite. Therefore it was suggested that the larger size molecules (≥100,000) of organic substances could be predominantly filtrated by the microstructure of the compacted bentonite. (author)

  19. Emotion Regulation and Substance Use Frequency in Women with Substance Dependence and Borderline Personality Disorder Receiving Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Seth R.; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Background Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Objective Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Method Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. Significance and Future Research Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dyregulation such as BPD and substance dependence, and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions. PMID:21091162

  20. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana;

    2015-01-01

    mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHx......Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential...

  1. The Covariation of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Adolescence: A Behavioral Genetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom; Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate genetic studies have revealed genetic correlations between antisocial behavior (ASB) and substance use (SU). However, ASB is heterogeneous, and it remains unclear whether all forms are similarly related to SU. The present study examines links between cannabis use, alcohol consumption, and aggressive and delinquent forms of ASB using a…

  2. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders’ Substance Use and HIV Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2011-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent–child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders’ substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders’ substance use and sexual risk taking behavior, and in particular examines the role of family emotional involvement and responsiveness in young offenders’ risk-taking behavi...

  3. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  4. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: the role of violent behavior and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M

    2013-05-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety. PMID:23381779

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA

  6. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  7. Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

  8. Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.; Rockquemore, Kerry A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined 10th-grade data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the effects of school uniforms on student attendance, behavior problems, substance use, and academic achievement. Data from public, private, and Catholic schools indicated that uniforms had no direct effect on substance use, attendance, or behavior, and a…

  9. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  10. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels...

  11. I Did What Last Night?!!! Adolescent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Sara Markowitz

    2002-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to examine the causal impact of substance use on risky sexual behaviors by teenagers. Risky sexual behaviors, which include unprotected sex and multiple partners, are highly correlated with alcohol and illicit drug use, although the nature of the causal relationship is in question. This study uses two-stage least squares and reduced form models to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviors by gender. Data come from the Youth Risk Behavior...

  12. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  13. Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Hong, L; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:10414613

  14. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMSHA Archive ... SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. 5600 Fishers Ln • Rockville, ...

  15. The Life Skills Training and Preventive behaviors of Substances Abuse among University Students: a Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Moshki; Mohammad Ali Aslinejad

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected t...

  16. Substance Use Behavior and Suicide Indicators among Rural Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Goodrow, Bruce; Givens, Connie; Austin, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study provides a descriptive profile of substance use behavior and the prevalence of suicide indicators (thought about, considered, and planned) among rural middle school students and examines the association between substance use and suicidal indicators among middle school students participating in the Coordinated School Health…

  17. A Parallel Process Growth Mixture Model of Conduct Problems and Substance Use with Risky Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were id...

  18. Temporal Relationship between Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior among Young Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sara J.; Nargiso, Jessica E.; Wolff, Jennifer C.; Uhl, Kristen M.; Simon, Valerie A.; Spirito, Anthony; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence linking substance use and delinquent behavior among adolescents. However, the nature and temporal ordering of this relationship remains uncertain, particularly among early adolescents and those with significant psychopathology. This study examined the temporal ordering of substance use and delinquent behavior in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized early adolescents. Youth (n = 108) between the ages of 12 and 15 years completed three assessments over 18 mont...

  19. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  20. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Interpersonal Behavior among Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zahed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.

  1. Self-Efficacy, Affectivity and Smoking Behavior in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on health-related behaviors confirms the contribution of self-efficacy and affective factors to the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior. The aim was to assess the degree to which affectivity contributes to the association between self-efficacy and smoking behavior in

  2. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Keer; B. van den Putte; P. Neijens

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude, subj

  3. Behavioral Management: An Affective Approach. (Affective Education Trainers Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, John; Cole, Bob

    This manual provides a framework for training teachers who want to become more skilled in affective education. It is divided into three parts: teacher self-awareness, teacher-student interaction, and teacher-directed group activities. It is designed for use in a two-day workshop. Guidelines for discussions on expectations, responsibility,…

  4. Role of affective attitudes and anticipated affective reactions in predicting health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M; McEachan, R.; Taylor, N; O'Hara, J.; Lawton, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two measures of affect-affective attitude (AA) and anticipated affective reaction (AAR)- have frequently been used individually, but rarely simultaneously, in correlational studies predicting health behaviors. This research assessed their individual and combined impact in predicting intention and action for a range of health behaviors, controlling for theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables. Method: Self-reported intentions and performance of health behaviors were the main outco...

  5. Approach behavior and sympathetic nervous system reactivity predict substance use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B; Freedman, Anna; Byrnes, Lindsay; Degnan, Kathryn A

    2016-07-01

    A behavioral measure of approach (performance on a resource gathering task) in combination with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity was used to predict substance use in a sample of young adults (n=93). Pre-ejection period reactivity (PEP-R), a cardiac index of SNS reactivity, was recorded during the resource gathering task (task PEP - resting PEP). Higher levels of approach behaviors on the task in combination with less PEP-R (blunted SNS reactivity) predicted the highest levels of substance use. Findings are discussed in the context of behavioral and physiological systems of approach and avoidance. PMID:27178723

  6. Relationship of Coping Styles with Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Substance Abusers versus Non- Substance Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Safa, Mitra; Boroujerdi, Fatemeh Ghassem; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COP...

  7. Does Parent Substance Use Always Engender Risk for Children? An examination of the relationships between substance use patterns, social support type, and child maltreatment behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kepple, Nancy Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Parent substance use is associated with an added risk for child maltreatment, yet little is understood about how the continuum of use behaviors contributes to differential risk. Social supports also may provide resources and social engagement that mitigate substance-related risks. However, the protective nature of social support is likely to vary by the type of support and the level of parents’ substance-related impairments. Guided by social information processing models ...

  8. Discordant evaluations of Blacks affect nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2007-09-01

    Previous research suggests that automatic prejudice directly manifests in nonverbal behavior. The authors offer a more complex picture of the relation between automatic processes and nonverbal behavior by suggesting that any discomfort that appears in nonverbal behavior stems not from negative attitudes per se but from discordance between automatically activated attitudes toward Blacks and the specific evaluations being expressed. White participants for whom estimates of automatic prejudice were available provided videotaped evaluations of several individuals, including two matched Black and White males. Discordance between general racial attitudes and evaluations of specific targets manifested in discomfort-related nonverbal behavior. Moreover, naïve Black judges, but not White judges, doubted the sincerity of individuals characterized by discordance. The nature of the nonverbal "leakage" that automatic prejudice produces is discussed. PMID:17545414

  9. HIV Risk, Substance Use, and Suicidal Behaviors among Asian American Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jieha; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the association between lesbian/bisexual identity and three risky health behaviors (HIV risk, substance use, and suicidal behaviors) in a sample of Asian American women. This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors and mental health functioning among unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women ages 18 to 35 who are children of immigrants (N = 701), using computer-assisted survey interviews (CASI). Approximately one out of...

  10. The Associations between Parents' References to Their Own Past Substance Use and Youth's Substance-Use Beliefs and Behaviors: A Comparison of Latino and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.

    2013-01-01

    Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…

  11. Substance Abuse and Suicidal Behavior inWomen Ages 30 to 39 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Osgood

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of young women abuse substances and engage in suicidal behavior. Combinations of these problems are under-researched. Research that exists includes women of all ages in the samples. This study adds information to the current state of knowledge on these problem behaviors by limiting the sample to women ages 30 to 39 years. A group of 113 women, part of a larger study of 364 women who had received inpatient psychiatric treatment,was included in this study. Findings revealed that most of the women had made at least one suicide attempt and nearly one-quarter were in the hospital for a current attempt. Almost 60% had engaged in substance abuse at some point in their lives. The combination of continued substance abuse and suicidal behavior could result in an early death for some women. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.

  12. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene

    used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further....... Furthermore, the wage equations do not capture the sorting of workers into different occupations and industries. Using an equilibrium search model, this paper takes search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account, when looking at firm behavior. Addition- ally, a logit model is...

  13. Sexual discounting among high-risk youth ages 18-24: implications for sexual and substance use risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior. PMID:25545764

  14. Are There Inherited Behavioral Traits that Predispose to Substance Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Research suggests predisposition toward alcoholism and drug abuse by inherited behavioral propensities or temperaments which, through interaction with the physical and social environments, shape the development of the personality. Certain personality characteristics, specifically antisocial and neurotic traits, are also linked with the risk for…

  15. Affective and Cognitive Information Behavior: Interaction Effects in Internet Use

    OpenAIRE

    Nahl, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The presence and influence of affective variables in information behavior was studied. Affective load (AL), a compound variable consisting of uncertainty and technophobia measures, was found to be present in a variety of simple and complex information tasks integrated into upper-division, disciplinary coursework. Affective load was higher in those who reported low values of affective coping skills and who had either high or low cognitive assessment scores. Affective coping skills (ACS) consi...

  16. Affective and Behavioral Consequences of Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria N.; Major, Brenda

    Considerable attention in recent years has focused on the consequences of social comparisons and has suggested that learning that one's outcomes or abilities compare unfavorably to others' is an unpleasant, if not painful experience. Indeed, upward comparisons have been shown to result in negative affect, loss of self-esteem, stress symptoms, and…

  17. The Covariation and Factor Structure of Substance Use and Other Health-Related Behaviors in Two Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron; And Others

    Research has revealed relationships among a wide range of substance use behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, and drug use. To investigate whether a substance use factor emerges when different indicators of substance use, different samples, and three health related issues, (i.e., meal regularity, exercise and hours of sleep) are examined, the…

  18. Parenting and maternal substance addiction: factors affecting utilization of child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Karine; Laventure, Myriam; Bertrand, Karine

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify which personal, familial, environmental, and social factors are associated with the utilization of child protection services, including parental support programs, by mothers who misuse illicit substances. Participants are 56 mothers with substance use and addiction-related problems, of whom 32 were receiving, voluntarily or otherwise, child protection services while 24 mothers had psychotropic drug use-related problems but were receiving no psychosocial services. Data were collected in the province of Quebec, Canada, between August 1998 and August 1999 . Results indicate that mothers who receive services are younger, have fewer interpersonal resources, live in lower socioeconomic conditions, and have greater family dysfunction (less parental supervision and more inconsistent discipline) than mothers who do not receive services from child protection agencies. However, there are no significant differences between groups with regards to maternal childhood trauma, psychological distress, antisocial behavior and the quality of the parent-child bond. The results of this study suggest that although both groups misuse drugs and have personal difficulties, some mothers will not need support from social services to take care of their children. Implications of these findings for prevention are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20590376

  19. Mutations in many genes affect aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarts Liesbeth; Edwards Alexis C; Yamamoto Akihiko; Callaerts Patrick; Mackay Trudy FC

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evolutionary forces that maintain variation for aggressive behavior in natural populations, and to develop therapeutic interventions to modulate extreme levels of aggressive behavior in humans. While the role of neurotransmitters and a few other molecules in mediating and mo...

  20. Factors affecting the relationship between trauma and illness behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Helena Kate

    2002-01-01

    Associations between the experience of traumatic events and illness behaviors such as health complaints and healthcare use are reported in recent studies. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and diagnosis have been found to mediate this trauma-illness relationship. Differences in health behaviors have additionally been noted in the literature, with trauma victims engaging in more negative health behaviors, which may subsequently affect illness status. Further, illness behaviors ...

  1. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Bokhoven, I. van; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lochman, J.E.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents

  2. Family Structure versus Family Relationships for Predicting to Substance Use/Abuse and Illegal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    Study looked at sample of African-American adolescent males to determine the degree to which family structure (e.g., single parent vs. two-parent families) vs. the nature of the family relationships predict sons' involvement in substance use/abuse and illegal behavior. Of 33 relationships measures analyzed, 3 predicted the degree of recent…

  3. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  4. Substance Abuse and Suicidal Behavior inWomen Ages 30 to 39 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Osgood; Ameda A. Manetta

    2002-01-01

    A growing number of young women abuse substances and engage in suicidal behavior. Combinations of these problems are under-researched. Research that exists includes women of all ages in the samples. This study adds information to the current state of knowledge on these problem behaviors by limiting the sample to women ages 30 to 39 years. A group of 113 women, part of a larger study of 364 women who had received inpatient psychiatric treatment,was included in this study. Fin...

  5. HIV Risk Behavior Among Psychiatric Outpatients: Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Substance Use Disorder, and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    Persons living with a mental illness are disproportionately vulnerable to HIV. The current study sought to examine the influence of psychiatric disorder, substance use disorder, and gender on risky sexual behavior in this vulnerable population. Participants were 228 female and 202 male outpatients (66% mood disorder, 34% schizophrenia) each of whom took part in a Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV and a comprehensive assessment of sexual risk behavior. Univariate and multivariate an...

  6. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Moeini; Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei; Saeed Bashirian; Alireza Soltanian; Amir Abbas Mousali; Vahid Kafami

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This ...

  7. Impulsive action and impulsive choice across substance and behavioral addictions: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2014-11-01

    Substance use disorders are prevalent and debilitating. Certain behavioral syndromes ('behavioral addictions') characterized by repetitive habits, such as gambling disorder, stealing, shopping, and compulsive internet use, may share clinical, co-morbid, and neurobiological parallels with substance addictions. This review considers overlap between substance and behavioral addictions with a particular focus on impulsive action (inability to inhibit motor responses), and impulsive choice (preference for immediate smaller rewards to the detriment of long-term outcomes). We find that acute consumption of drugs with abuse potential is capable of modulating impulsive choice and action, although magnitude and direction of effect appear contingent on baseline function. Many lines of evidence, including findings from meta-analyses, show an association between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice and action. In some instances, elevated impulsive choice and action have been found to predate the development of substance use disorders, perhaps signifying their candidacy as objective vulnerability markers. Research in behavioral addictions is preliminary, and has mostly focused on impulsive action, finding this to be elevated versus controls, similar to that seen in chronic substance use disorders. Only a handful of imaging studies has explored the neural correlates of impulsive action and choice across these disorders. Key areas for future research are highlighted along with potential implications in terms of neurobiological models and treatment. In particular, future work should further explore whether the cognitive deficits identified are state or trait in nature: i.e. are evident before addiction perhaps signaling risk; or are a consequence of repetitive engagement in habitual behavior; and effects of novel agents known to modulate these cognitive abilities on various addictive disorders. PMID:24864028

  8. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on High Risk Behaviors in the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Finkbiner, Richard; Bishop, Sharon

    Substance abusers are at particular risk for becoming infected with, and for spreading, a number of serious communicable diseases. The value of substance abuse treatment in helping to reduce the associated risk behaviors for these diseases is the focus of this technical report. This analysis examines the risk behaviors of injection drug use and…

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of Substance Use among Liberian Youth: Understanding Behaviors, Consequences, and Protective Factors Involving School Youth and the School Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Samuel J; Petruzzi, Liana; Lange, Brittany CL; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Dominguez, Silvia; Harris, Benjamin; Quiterio, Nicole; Durham, Michelle P; Lekpeh, Gondah; Manobah, Burgess; Slopadoe, Siede P; Diandy, Veronique C; Payne, Arthur J; Henderson, David C; Borba, Christina PC

    2016-01-01

    Objective Substance use is a significant and common problem among school-aged youths throughout Africa. Like other countries on this continent, the West-African nation of Liberia is recovering from civil war. A well-educated population of young people is critical to the recovery efforts and long-term success of Liberia. Substance use by school-aged youths has important public health consequences that could undermine Liberia’s post-conflict recovery efforts. We wanted to better understand the culturally significant themes and subthemes related to substance use among youths attending public schools in Monrovia, Liberia. Methods A qualitative research design was used to collect data from 72 students attending public school in Monrovia, Liberia. Nine focus groups of 6–8 students from three public schools were facilitated using a semi-structured format to guide discussions on substance use. Student narratives were translated and re-occurring themes and subthemes were coded and analyzed. Results Four emergent themes described in this study were: Behaviors associated with substance use Consequences associated with individual use Consequences of substance use that affected the school milieu School-related factors that were protective from substance use. Subthemes associated with substance use included concealment of substances, intoxication and disruption of the classroom environment, expulsion from school, school drop-out, and school as protective against substance use. Conclusion Liberian school-aged youths described important themes and subthemes associated with substance use occurring within the school milieu. These data have germane public health ramifications, and could help inform larger epidemiologic study methods and public health interventions for Liberia and countries with similar profiles.

  10. The Impact of Substance Addiction in the Family of Adolescents to the Deviant Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer DEMİR; Demet ULUSOY

    2004-01-01

    Our study aims to identifY the effect of the growing use of substance addition (cigarette, alcohol, drug) in the family, in particular, on the formatian of depression, the idea of committing suicide and the deviant behaviors. As a result of the survey study conducted with 726 high school third grade students in Ankara, it has been determined that there are strong and meaningful relations between the substance addiction of the family,sister/brother, intimate parent of the young person and the ...

  11. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management on Relapse Prevention in Substance Dependent Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Karimian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent. Method: In a experimental study, 30 individuals who settled in Esfahan therapeutic community center were accidently divided in to an experimental (15 subjects and a control (15 subjects group. The experimental group underwent ten 90 minutes sessions of cognitive-behavioral stress management and the control group didn't receive any particular treatment. All participants underwent urine tests at the beginning of the study, completion of treatment and three months following the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and X2 test. Findings: results showed significant difference in relapse rates of two groups in the following stage. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral stress management is effective in relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent.

  12. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  13. Health behaviors, affect, and academic performance : three longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Lavinia Heidy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health behaviors are a fundamental and highly fluctuating component of everyday life. Evidence capturing these natural daily fluctuations is limited. Therefore, this dissertation investigates how these daily dynamics in health behaviors are associated with other important aspects of young adults’ everyday lives and bridges separate research strands by integrating health behaviors, affect, stress, and academic performance in three intensive longitudinal studies. Method: These three ...

  14. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  15. The Life Skills Training and Preventive behaviors of Substances Abuse among University Students: a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moshki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected through a quota random sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two case and control groups. A Questionnaire that involved demographic factors and Preventive behaviors, whichwere caused as the result of drug abuse, was used for data collection. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity was assessed before and after educational intervention, and as a follow-up, 4 years after educational intervention. The Data was analyzed using T-Test and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of the mean of the scores in scale Preventive behaviors caused by drug abuse in post-test of two case and control groups had a significant difference (p<0/01 that remained stable 4 years after the end of the intervention. There was a significant difference between some of the demographic factors and Preventive behaviors that had been caused by drug abuse (p<0/01. Conclusion: Life skills training are effective in strengthening Preventive behaviors of substance abuse in university students. Therefore, life skills training programs should be integrated into university courses in order to comprehensively and consistently the effect of drug abuse on the educational level of students

  16. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-06-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768

  17. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Sarit A.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Kowalczyk, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision-making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, Bechara et al., 1994), depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision-making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision-making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:26745769

  18. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested. PMID:25781668

  19. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior. PMID:27108453

  20. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  1. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescen...

  2. A study of multiple behavioral addictions in a substance abuse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najavits, Lisa; Lung, John; Froias, Autumn; Paull, Nancy; Bailey, Genie

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral addictions (BAs) are underrecognized, even in addiction programs. We assessed BAs in a substance abuse sample (n = 51; data collection 2011-2012). A self-report Behavioral Addictions Screen, assessing eight BAs, was administered using an automated telephone system. Most endorsed at least one BA, with the most common shopping/spending; eating; work; computer/internet; and sex/pornography. Lowest were gambling, self-harm, and exercise. Some BAs were correlated with others. Gender, ethnicity, age, and positive depression and posttraumatic stress disorder screens were associated with specific BAs. Future research could address interpretation of "addiction," comparison to diagnostic interviews, relationship to substance use disorders, and larger samples. PMID:24304172

  3. Measures of positive adult behavior and their relationship to crime and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D; Hill, Karl G; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F

    2005-03-01

    Drawing on diverse approaches to the study of youth development and adult functioning, as well as social capital and citizenship, this investigation identifies measures of positive adult behavior. Although prevention researchers study protective factors, as well as risk factors, for problem behaviors and other negative outcomes, less attention is given to positive behavior outcomes and there is little understanding of the relationships between positive and negative outcomes. Analyses included 765 participants from the Seattle Social Development Project interviewed at age 21. Seven measures of positive adult behavior were identified: volunteerism, group involvement, neighborliness, interpersonal connection, constructive engagement, financial responsibility, and honesty. Measures related to distal social relationships (group involvement and neighborliness) had relatively weak associations with crime and substance use. In contrast, the measures of constructive engagement, financial responsibility, and honesty had significant negative associations with multiple measures of crime and substance use. Results indicate that the seven measures provide relatively independent variables useful for assessing positive adult behavior. These measures can be used to assess positive outcomes in adulthood of intervention studies, or to assess the prevalence of positive adult behavior in different populations or groups. PMID:15766003

  4. Preventing Child Behavior Problems and Substance Use: The Pathways Home Foster Care Reunification Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Fetrow, Becky A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Antoine, Karla D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care (n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed pro...

  5. Predicting Substance Abuse Treatment Completion using a New Scale Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Ajzen, Icek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and i...

  6. Behavioral Family Counseling for Substance Abuse: A Treatment Development Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Marie; Alter, Jane; Fals-Stewart, William

    2009-01-01

    Substance-dependent patients (N=29) living with a family member other than a spouse were randomly assigned to equally intensive treatments consisting of either (a) Behavioral Family Counseling (BFC) plus Individual-Based Treatment (IBT) or (b) IBT alone. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. BFC patients remained in treatment significantly longer than IBT patients. BFC patients improved significantly from baseline at all time periods on all ...

  7. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use.

  8. CONJOINT TRAJECTORIES OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR PREDICTING SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the conjoint trajectories of depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior from adolescence (age 14) into young adulthood (age 24) as predictors of substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood (age 32). Of the 816 participants, 52% were African American, and 48% were Puerto Rican. After we obtained the conjoint trajectory groups using Mplus, we performed logistic regression analyses using SAS to compare the Bayesian Posterior Probability (BPP) of each of the conjoint trajecto...

  9. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders' Substance Use and HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual…

  10. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  11. Behavioral and Emotional Regulation and Adolescent Substance Use Problems: A Test of Moderation Effects in a Dual-Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Thomas A.; POKHREL, PALLAV; Morehouse, Ellen; Fenster, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    In a structural model, we tested how relations of predictors to level of adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), and to substance-related impaired-control and behavior problems, are moderated by good self-control and poor regulation in behavioral and emotional domains. The participants were a sample of 1,116 public high-school students. In a multiple-group analysis for good self-control, the paths from negative life events to substance use level and from level to behavior prob...

  12. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  13. Substance Use, Mental Illness and Violence: The Co-occurrence of Problem Behaviors among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Williams, James Herbert; Del-Colle, Melissa; HAWKINS, J. DAVID

    2008-01-01

    A paucity of research exists in which the co-occurrence of substance use, mental illness and violence in young adults is examined. Concurrently, there is also a lack of research explicating the contribution of theoretically-based risk factors for these problematic outcomes in this population. This lack of both outcome and explanatory research equally affects the utility of theories and interventions for this population. This article utilizes a sample of N=633 21 year olds to examine the preva...

  14. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowl...

  15. SUBSTANCE USE AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIV TRANSMISSION IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likawunt Samuel and Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo*

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidences notify that most of higher learning students rush to range of maladaptive high-risk activities like, substance and sexual abuse which predispose to HIV. More often this is unrecognized and not well researched. Objective: To determine magnitude of substance use and risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission among students in Hosanna Health Science College from December 1, 2010 to December 30, 2010.Methods and Materials: Cross sectional study undertaken among statistically determined (n =428 and randomly selected Students from all departments and years of study in Hossana Health Science College. Piloted and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Summary measures like mean, chi-square and regression were utilized to quantify magnitude and identify independently associated factors. Results: Majority 267 (63.1% of study participants were female, and 379 (89.5% in age group (17-24. From 423 participants, 330(78.0% were, sexually experienced. Khat (27.7% and Alcohol (21.7% were the commonly used substances and having multiple sexual partners (47.6%, inconsistent condom use (20.0% were common sexual risk behaviors for HIV transmission. Female [AOR=1.5], fresh students [OR=2.4] and alcohol users [OR=3.5] were more likely to engage in sexual risk practices. Conclusions: Substance use and risky sexual practices were significantly higher among study participants. Practicing sex with multiple partners, inconsistent condom use and commencing sex with female commercial sex workers, which were highly risky sexual behaviors for HIV infection transmission among study participants, were commonly practiced among study participants.

  16. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians. PMID:25530128

  17. Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Chi; Huang, Yin-Mei

    2002-10-01

    Past empirical evidence has indicated that employee affective delivery can influence customer reactions (e.g., customer satisfaction, service quality evaluation). This study extends previous research by empirically examining mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions. Data were collected from 352 employee-customer pairs in 169 retail shoe stores in Taiwan. Results showed that the influence of employee affective delivery on customers' willingness to return to the store and pass positive comments to friends was indirect through the mediating processes of customer in-store positive moods and perceived friendliness. The study also indicated that employee affective delivery influences customers' time spent in store, which, in turn, influences customer behavioral intentions. PMID:12395825

  18. Responding to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system: Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmar, Jeff M; Butcher, Fredrick; Kanary, Patrick J; Devens, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Discusses how Ohio's responded to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system by establishing the Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative. The consequences of a willful neglect of some of our most vulnerable citizens were significant and severe. Many individuals ended up on the streets, and many more found themselves in local jails. Over time, jails became de facto mental health facilities. Unfortunately, jails were, and often continue to be, ill-prepared to effectively screen, assess, and treat individuals with mental health concerns. The majority of juvenile justice involved (JJI) youth has a history of behavioral health (mental health or substance use) problems. Multiple studies estimate that between 65% to 75% of JJI youth have at least one behavioral health disorder, and 20% to 30% report suffering from a serious behavioral disorder. Although the majority of JJI youth has a history of behavioral health issues and trauma, many have not received any treatment when they enter the system. Further, local jurisdictions are often ill-equipped to accurately assess youth for behavioral health problems and provide appropriate treatment. Thus, those issues persist and complicate efforts to reduce future delinquency. Further, substance use issues are considered a direct risk factor for criminal behavior, but mental health issues are typically not. Mental health issues, however, can certainly affect responsivity to programming designed to reduce future delinquency. Americans support juvenile justice reform that focuses on rehabilitation in place of incarceration. The Ohio's Behavioral Health Juvenile Justice (BHJJ) Initiative was established to address the juvenile mental health and substance abuse issues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594920

  19. Aggressive Behavior Among Military Veterans in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress and Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Reilly, Patrick; Timko, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and impulsivity as predictors of aggressive behavior among 133 male military Veterans entering substance abuse treatment who endorsed difficulty controlling anger in the past year. At treatment intake, participants completed measures assessing PTSD symptom severity, impulsivity and aggressive behavior. Perpetration of aggressive behavior was reassessed four months later. Results from multivariate models indicated that P...

  20. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Aristomenis Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the functional neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and crawl faster on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to an increased escape response on more rigid substrates.

  1. How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers' purchasing behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yinuo

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...

  2. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  3. Understanding How Domestic Violence Affects Behavior in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Malika

    2011-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…

  4. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  5. Sexual discounting among high-risk youth ages 18–24: Implications for sexual and substance use risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18–24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex vs. waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with...

  6. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  7. Sexual risk behaviors in non-injecting substance-dependent Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Leite Vieira, Denise; Rassool, G Hussein; Cristina Pillon, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate sexual risk behaviors in non-injecting substance-dependent patients admitted for specialized inpatient Brazilian care. A cross-sectional study using socio-demographic and sexual behavior information, drug of choice, Short Alcohol Dependence Data, Drug Abuse Screening, and Test for Nicotine Dependence was used in 299 subjects with different levels of sexual vulnerability as measured by the number of sexual partners in the last year and the frequency of condom use with intercourse/penetration. The findings showed that approximately 39% the subjects of the high risk sexual behavior group exhibited a higher prevalence of others sexual risk behaviors, including having sex with sex workers (RP=1.96), homosexual experiences, and homosexual experiences in exchange for drugs, history of STIs (RP=1.39), HIV testing, use of the morning– after pill (RP=1.78) and induced abortion. The probability of alcohol and cocaine snorted user having high risk sexual behaviors is 2.47 and 1.66 times respectively higher than crack users. In addition, users with substantial or severe levels of problems with drugs had a probability of 3.64 times greater of high risk sexual behaviors. Identifying, preventing, and managing these high risk sexual behaviors related to alcohol and other drugs are an excellent opportunity to bolster their treatment. PMID:25314036

  8. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  9. Maternal mental health and children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors: Beyond maternal substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Lanza, H. Isabella; Li, Libo; Kahn, Emily; Evans, Elizabeth; Schulte, Marya

    2015-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse and mental disorders can have adverse impacts on child development. We investigated the impact of maternal mental health on child behaviors based on a long-term follow-up study of mothers and their children approximately 10 years after mothers’ admission to drug abuse treatment. Mothers (n=396) were assessed at admission to drug treatment during 2000 to 2002, and at follow-up in 2010–2011. At follow-up, each mother was asked to assess one target child using the Child ...

  10. The Developmental Course of Illicit Substance Use from Age 12 to 22: Links with Depressive, Anxiety, and Behavior Disorders at Age 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Erath, Stephen; Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous theory and research suggest links between substance use and externalizing behavior problems, but links between substance use and internalizing problems are less clear. The present study sought to understand concurrent links among diagnoses of substance use disorders, internalizing disorders, and behavior disorders at age 18 as…

  11. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  12. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  13. Substance P at the Nexus of Mind and Body in Chronic Inflammation and Affective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, research has demonstrated that chronic diseases characterized by dysregulation of inflammation are particularly susceptible to exacerbation by stress and emotion. Likewise, rates of depression and anxiety are overrepresented in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory disease. In recent years, substance P has been implicated in…

  14. Affective influences on energy-related decisions and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic, the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use, demonstrating that the appraisal-emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Belief-Norm Theory. Finally, we discuss how the appraisal-emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  15. Type of musical soundtrack affects behavior in gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Mentzoni, Rune A.; LABERG, JON CHRISTIAN; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; STÅLE, PALLESEN

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: A long existing notion is that the presence of music might affect gambling behavior. In spite of this, little empirical research on the subject exists. The main aim of the present study was to corroborate and elaborate on the existing findings concerning gambling and music through a laboratory based experiment. Methods: A nonclinical sample of 101 undergraduate students (72 females, 29 males) played a computerized gambling task in which either a high-tempo or a low-tempo ...

  16. The Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling Program for Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Antisocial behavior is associated with low quality of life for the patient and with adverse effects on society and those close to the antisocial patient. However, most patients with antisocial behavior are not seen in treatment settings that focus on their personality but rather in criminal justice settings, substance-abuse treatment, and social welfare settings. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of a highly structured manualized treatment, Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling (ILC), based on the Lifestyle Issues program, a 10-week psychoeducation program studied in prison settings. ILC consists of four sessions over 4 weeks and a booster session 8 weeks later. The goal of treatment is described to patients as "to help people identify their impulsive thoughts and lifestyle leading to problems with drug use, other people, and the police." Two clinical examples and reflections on our experiences with the training and implementation of the ILC program are presented. PMID:21862528

  17. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiPaola Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  18. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  19. Prospective Measurement of Daily Health Behaviors: Modeling Temporal Patterns in Missing Data, Sexual Behavior, and Substance Use in an Online Daily Diary Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Daily diary and other intensive longitudinal methods are increasingly being used to investigate fluctuations in psychological and behavioral processes. To inform the development of this methodology, we sought to explore predictors of and patterns in diary compliance and behavioral reports. We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from an online daily diary study of 371 gay and bisexual men focused on sexual behavior and substance use. We found that greater education and older age as well as lower frequency of substance use were associated with higher compliance. Using polynomial and trigonometric functions, we found evidence for circaseptan patterns in compliance, sexual behavior, and substance use, as well as linear declines in compliance and behavior over time. The results suggest potential sources of non-random patterns of missing data and suggest that trigonometric terms provide a similar but more parsimonious investigation of circaseptan rhythms than do third-order polynomial terms. PMID:26992392

  20. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  1. Weight Perception, Substance Use, and Disordered Eating Behaviors: Comparing Normal Weight and Overweight High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M.; Conner, Bradley T.; Daly, Brian P.; Fauber, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and substance use are two risk factors for the development of serious psychopathology and health concerns in adulthood. Despite the negative outcomes associated with these risky behaviors, few studies have examined potential associations between these risk factors as they occur during adolescence. The importance of…

  2. Nonneural Androgen Receptors Affect Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Ramzan, Firyal; Monks, D Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone, acting via estrogenic and androgenic pathways, is the major endocrine mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system and behavior, but we have an incomplete knowledge of which cells and tissues mediate these effects. To distinguish between neural and nonneural actions of androgens in sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, we generated a loxP-based transgenic mouse, which overexpresses androgen receptors (ARs) when activated by Cre. We used this transgene to overexpress AR globally in all tissues using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Cre driver (CMV-AR), and we used a Nestin-Cre driver to overexpress AR only in neural tissue (Nes-AR). We then examined whether neural or global AR overexpression can affect socio-sexual behaviors using a resident-intruder paradigm. We found that both neural and global AR overexpression resulted in decreased aggressive behaviors and increased thrusting during mounting of intruders, consistent with a neural site of action. Global, but not neural, AR overexpression in males led to an increase in same-sex anogenital investigation. Together, these results suggest novel roles for nonneural AR in sexual differentiation of mice, and indicate that excess AR can lead to a paradoxical reduction of male-typical behavior. PMID:26636184

  3. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  4. Supplementation with humic substances affects the innate immunity in layer hens in posfasting phase

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Sanmiguel P.; Iang Rondón B

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. Asses the effect of supplementation with Humic substances (HS) over some innate immunity parameters (serum bactericidal activity, phagocytosis, bacterial agglutination, respiratory burst and lisozyme activity) in phase after fasting of layer hens. Materials and methods. 120 posfasting phase Hy Line Brown layer hens were taken which were distributed into four groups: The first and the second were supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of HS, respectively. The third group was suppl...

  5. Family obligation values and family assistance behaviors: protective and risk factors for Mexican-American adolescents' substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent substance use is one of today's most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family. PMID:23532598

  6. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  7. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  8. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  9. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  10. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on 'behavior and distributions of trace substances in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific meeting was held at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University on December 11-12, 1997. This single report covers all aspects concerning association of trace substances such as pesticides/herbicides, organic chemicals and radionuclides in the environment. The reason for having this meeting is to describe the distribution and behavior of trace substances in which the emphasis is directed towards the dynamic interaction between the soil-sediment-water system and the contaminants. The Chernobyl accident raised the attention on the fate of radionuclides released in the environment and stimulated many scientists, who carry out large scale 'field experiments' without using a tracer in a laboratory. Of course, fundamental laboratory studies are necessary to give direction to and to understand observations from field studies. These activities have brought a lot of knowledge and understanding towards revealing a part of the complexity of the transport processes. It is hoped that the assembled experts, will not only dwell on distinct scientific issues, but also be able to draw firm conclusions with respect to the effective environmental management of the ecological aspects of hazardous materials. The 25 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Predicting substance abuse treatment completion using a new scale based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Ajzen, Icek

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and intention was positively associated with treatment completion even including clinical and demographic covariates (model R-squared=.24). TPB components were generally associated with the alternative readiness scales as expected, and the TPB remained predictive at higher levels of coercion. Meanwhile, none of the standard measures of readiness (e.g., the URICA and TREAT) or treatment coercion were positively associated with treatment participation. Results suggest promise for application of the TPB to treatment completion and support use of the intention component as a screener, though some refinements are suggested. PMID:23953167

  12. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  13. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would prima...

  14. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention and control. Intervention program design was implemented after diagnostic evaluation. The effect of educational intervention on behavior was assessed two months after the last training session. SPSS -16 was employed for data analysis. Results: After the educational intervention, the average rates of the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in the intervention group significantly increased but these changes were not significant in the control group: attitude (t=9.53, P=0.000, subjective Norms (t=9.59, P=0.000, perceived behavioral control (t=-4.14, P =0.000. Also, behavioral intention to substance abuse avoidance and current behavior for substance abuse significantly decreased in the intervention group as compared to the control group (P<0.05. Behavioral intention and current behavior in the intervention group subsided from 15 and 12 people before the educational intervention to 3 and 0 people at the end of the educational program, respec-tively. Conclusion: The results showed that using the theory of planned behavior along with the train-ing skills strategies to resist drug abuse has a significant impact to create a psychiatric immu-nization and substance refusal in drivers. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:330-340

  15. How Online Shopping Is Affecting Consumers Buying Behavior in Pakistan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Nazir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet has developed in new delivery channels electronic transactions are increasing rapidly. This need has arisen to understand how they perceive directly to buy consumers. Most of the people who use the internet to purchase goods online, but that there are still some reasons for which consumers are reluctant to buy online. The attitudes of people toward the purchase online are different in Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to review the factors felt reservation of consumers in online shopping. The main objective of this research is to study, especially what are factors affecting the consumers directly for online shopping. To this end, a survey was conducted and the 120 questionnaires were distributed among the students of different universities and the general public. The replies have been analyzed by means of frequency distribution, average and chart analysis. The results of the survey analysis has shown that most of the people already shopping online and prefer to make their purchases online, but there are some factors such as psychological factors, social factors emotional factors, and the privacy factors which affect the buyer attitudes of online purchases. The protection of privacy and security are major problems that affect the behavior of the population to buy online. Various attitudes of consumers toward online shopping are not in rest in the study which reveals that the purchase online is easy, comfortable and better that conventional shopping due to various factors. Price, the trust, the convenience and the recommendations have been identified as important factors. Price was considered to be the most fascinating and affecting factor for the majority of students and the general public. Most of the consumers hesitate not to do shopping online, because of the insecure payment and transactions systems.

  16. The migration behavior of Np(V) in sandy soil and granite media in the presence of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration behavior of Np(V) in sandy soil and granite media was studied in the presence of humic substances using a column method. Two kinds of naturally occurring fulvics were isolated from groundwater at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL (hereafter, CRL-fulvics) and at the Underground Research Laboratory of AECL (hereafter, URL-fulvics). The commercial humics from Aldrich Co. (hereafter, Aldrich-humics) was also used to compare the influence of humics from different origin on the migration behavior of Np(V). The dominant molecular size of these humic substances was under 5,000 daltons for the fulvics, and in the range from 30,000 to 100,000 daltons for Aldrich-humics. An enhanced elution of Np(V) from the sandy soil column under coexistence of CRL-fulvics at 20 mg/L was observed in comparison with the studies in the absence of humic substances. On the other hand, Np(V) under coexistence of Aldrich-humics was retarded. The difference in the effects of the humic substances on the migration behavior of Np(V) may be caused by the difference in the molecular size distribution of the humic substances. That is, the CRL-fulvics, being smaller in size, has lower sorption ability on the sandy soil than the Aldrich-humics, and thereby Np-fulvics complexes may be able to easily migrate through the sandy soil column. In the case of granite column experiments, again an enhanced elution of Np(V) under the coexistence of URL-fulvics was found and this observation was similar to that found with the CRL-fulvics. From these observations, it is likely that the migration behavior of Np(V) is influenced by the presence of humic substances. (orig.)

  17. Advanced sludge treatment affects extracellular polymeric substances to improve activated sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Elisabeth; Baeyens, Jan; Dewil, Raf; De heyder, Bart

    2004-01-30

    The management of wastewater sludge, now often referred to as biosolids, accounts for a major portion of the cost of the wastewater treatment process and represents significant technical challenges. In many wastewater treatment facilities, the bottleneck of the sludge handling system is the dewatering operation. Advanced sludge treatment (AST) processes have been developed in order to improve sludge dewatering and to facilitate handling and ultimate disposal. The authors have extensively reported lab-scale, semi-pilot and pilot investigations on either thermal and thermochemical processes, or chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide. To understand the action of these advanced sludge technologies, the essential role played by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) needs to be understood. EPS form a highly hydrated biofilm matrix, in which the micro-organisms are embedded. Hence they are of considerable importance in the removal of pollutants from wastewater, in bioflocculation, in settling and in dewatering of activated sludge. The present paper reviews the characteristics of EPS and the influence of thermochemical and oxidation mechanisms on degradation and flocculation of EPS. Experimental investigations on waste activated sludge are conducted by the authors to evaluate the various literature findings. From the experiments, it is concluded that AST methods enhance cake dewaterability in two ways: (i) they degrade EPS proteins and polysaccharides reducing the EPS water retention properties; and (ii) they promote flocculation which reduces the amount of fine flocs. PMID:15177096

  18. Combined standard and novel immunosuppressive substances affect B-lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Mareen; Lehnert, Martin; Lorkowski, Christine; Fabritius, Katharina; Weber, Ulrike A; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Neumayer, Hans-H; Budde, Klemens

    2013-04-01

    A considerable fraction of renal transplanted patients is susceptible to humoral rejection. Today well-established therapy regimens are available to control antibody-mediated rejection in the short term. Nevertheless, donor-specific antibodies persist and graft function deteriorates over time. This might be due to insufficient maintenance immunosuppression - which always consists of two to three drugs with different mechanisms of action. Since T- and B-cell functions always depend on each other in the alloimmune response it is of interest to analyze the effects of combined standard and new immunosuppressive substances with T-cell inhibitory properties on B-cell function. The effectiveness of complementary administrations of sotrastaurin, mycophenolic acid and everolimus on the activation and function of human primary B-lymphocytes was tested. Everolimus and mycophenolic acid alone and in combination proved to be highly effective in suppressing B-cell activation, whereas the proteinkinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin had an unexpected and reverse impact on various B-cell functions when applied in combination with the mammalian target of rapamycin and the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. PMID:23499640

  19. Supplementation with humic substances affects the innate immunity in layer hens in posfasting phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sanmiguel P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Asses the effect of supplementation with Humic substances (HS over some innate immunity parameters (serum bactericidal activity, phagocytosis, bacterial agglutination, respiratory burst and lisozyme activity in phase after fasting of layer hens. Materials and methods. 120 posfasting phase Hy Line Brown layer hens were taken which were distributed into four groups: The first and the second were supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of HS, respectively. The third group was supplemented with 0.25 mg/kg on levamisole hydrochloride and fourth group have no supplementation; during sixty days period. Blood samples were collected on 8th, 30th and 60th of experiment day. Results. The phagocytic index and respiratory burst increased significantly at day 30th in HS supplemented groups. Alike, serum bactericidal activity and lisozyme activity improved on 8 th day, nevertheless, changes were no evident latter. The bacterial agglutination was high in supplemented groups evaluated at everyone times. Conclusions. Results showed that HS behave as immunostimulant in the early phase after fasting layer hens.

  20. Project SUCCESS' Effects on Substance Use-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alternative High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…

  1. Delinquent Behavior and Emerging Substance Use in the MTA at 36 Months: Prevalence, Course, and Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…

  2. Linking Self-Regulation and Risk Proneness to Risky Sexual Behavior: Pathways through Peer Pressure and Early Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…

  3. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  4. How Perceptions of Mortality and HIV Morbidity Relate to Substance Abuse Problems and Risky Sexual Behaviors among Former Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Griffin, Beth Ann; Morral, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether high-risk young adults' perceptions of their likelihood of living to age 35 and of acquiring HIV are related to their substance abuse problems and risky sexual behaviors. The sample consists of data from the 72- and 87-month follow-up assessments of 449 juvenile offenders referred to probation in 1999 and 2000.…

  5. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    de Witte, K.; E Mirzaee; AR Hidarnia; A KAZEMNEJAD; F Shafii; P. Azad Fallah; H Allahverdipour

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a uri...

  6. Comparative sorption and desorption behaviors of PFHxS and PFOS on sequentially extracted humic substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Zhao; Yifeng Zhang; Shuhong Fang; Lingyan Zhu; Zhengtao Liu

    2014-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviors of two perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs),including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on two humic acids (HAs) and humin (HM),which were extracted from a peat soil,were investigated.The sorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption of PFOS on the humic substances (HSs) was much higher than PFHxS.For the same PFSA compound,the sorption on HSs followed the order of HM > HA2 > HA1.These suggest that hydrophobic interaction plays a key role in the sorption of PFSAs on HSs.The sorption capacities of PFSAs on HSs were significantly related to their aliphaticity,but negatively correlated to aromatic carbons,indicating the importance of aliphatic groups in the sorption of PFSAs.Compared to PFOS,PFHxS displayed distinct desorption hysteresis,probably due to irreversible pore deformation after sorption of PFHxS.The sorption of the two PFSAs on HSs decreased with an increase in pH in the solution.This is ascribed to the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding at lower pH.Hydrophobic interaction might also be stronger at lower pH due to the aggregation of HSs.

  7. HIV prevalence, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors among transgender women recruited through outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reback, Cathy J; Fletcher, Jesse B

    2014-07-01

    Transgender women ("transwomen") face a disproportionate HIV disease burden; the odds of being HIV-positive are estimated to be 34.2 times higher for transwomen than the United States adult population. From January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2011, HIV prevention outreach encounters were conducted with 2,136 unique transwomen on the streets and at high-risk venues in Los Angeles County. The outreach encounters were comprised of a low-intensity health education and risk reduction intervention, which included referrals to needed services. The goal of the encounters was to assess the participant's level of substance use and sexual risk behaviors to provide appropriate risk reduction strategies and supplies. The sample evidenced high rates of recent alcohol (57.7 %), marijuana (25.6 %), and methamphetamine (21.5 %) use, lifetime injection drug or illegal hormone use (66.3 %), and recent engagement in sex work (73.3 %). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that recent methamphetamine (AOR = 2.09; p ≤ 0.001) and/or crack cocaine (AOR = 2.19; p = 0.010) use, injection drug/hormone use (AOR = 1.65; p ≤ 0.001), unprotected anal intercourse during sex work (AOR = 2.24; p = 0.029), and any non-Hispanic minority racial status were all associated with increased odds of reporting a HIV-positive status. The transwomen encountered via outreach exhibited many risk co-factors for HIV infection and transmission. PMID:24287786

  8. Antitrust and hospital mergers: does the nonprofit form affect competitive substance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Thomas L

    2006-06-01

    Following a string of government losses in cases challenging hospital mergers in federal court, the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice issued their report on competition in health care seeking to set the record straight on a number of issues that underlie the judiciary's resolution of these cases. One such issue is the import of nonprofit status for applying antitrust law. This essay describes antitrust's role in addressing the consolidation in the hospital sector and the subtle influence that the social function of the nonprofit hospital has had in merger litigation. Noting that the political and social context in which these institutions operate is never far from the surface, it takes issue with the proposal to cabin merger doctrine so as to deny the significance of nonprofit status in merger analysis. Given the dynamic change in the regulatory climate and heterogeneity of local health care markets, it advises courts not to accept the FTC's preemptive standard regarding the significance of hospitals' nonprofit status and keep open the possibility of fashioning new presumptive rules tailored to more complete economic accounts of nonprofit firm behavior. PMID:16785295

  9. Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

    2011-01-01

    Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

  10. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes. PMID:25619927

  11. Direct and Indirect Impact of Self-Efficacy, Impulsivity, Behavioral Activation-Inhibition and Social Skills on Substance Abuse in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Purkord

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship of self-efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation-inhibition system (through of the effect on social skills with substance abuse in high school students. Method: Population of present research was all of boy high schools in first and second grades of Ardabil city that 616 students selected of them randomly. Self-efficacy scale, impulsivity scale, behavioral activation-inhibition scale, Matson social skills and substance abuse were administered among selected sample. Results: Based on the resulting of Path analysis, self- efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation-inhibition and social skills variables directly and self-efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation variables indirectly related significantly to students’ substance abuse scores. Conclusion: The result are in keeping with findings of other studies, and indicated that high levels of impulsivity, and behavioral activation system, and low level of self-efficacy, behavioral inhibition and social skills increases substance abuse in students.

  12. Dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, humic substances and dissolved organic carbon in a temperate river system affected by agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Lauriane; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Waeles, Matthieu; Gabon, Marine; Riso, Ricardo

    2015-12-15

    Although reduced organic sulfur substances (RSS) as well as humic substances (HS) are widely suspected to play a role in, for example, metal speciation or used as a model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in laboratory studies, reports of their quantification in natural waters are scarce. We have examined the dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, HS and DOC over an annual cycle in a river system affected by agricultural practices. The new differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry was successfully applied to measure glutathione-like compounds (GSHs), thioacetamide-like compounds (TAs) and the liquid chromatography coupled to organic detector to analyze HS and DOC at high frequency in the Penzé River (NW France). The streamflow-concentration patterns, principal components analysis and flux analysis allowed discrimination of the source of each organic compound type. Surprisingly, the two RSS and HS detected in all samples, displayed different behavior. As previously shown, manuring practice is the main source of DOC and HS in this watershed where agricultural activity is predominant. The HS were then transferred to the river systems via runoff, particularly during the spring and autumn floods, which are responsible of >60% of the annual flux. TAs had a clear groundwater source and may be formed underground, whereas GSHs displayed two sources: one aquagenic in spring and summer probably linked to the primary productivity and a second, which may be related to bacterial degradation. High sampling frequency allowed a more accurate assessment of the flux values which were 280 tC y(-1) for DOC representing 20 kg C ha(-1) y(-1). HS, TAs and GSHs fluxes represented 60, 13, and 4% of the total annual DOC export, respectively. PMID:26278374

  13. How Does the Traffic Behavior of Company Vehicles’ Drivers Affect Corporate Reputation and Consumers’ Purchasing Behavior in Finland?

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Tomi

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine, how does traffic behavior of company vehicle drivers affect corporate reputation and consumers purchasing behavior in Finland. Numerous studies about traffic behavior can be found in psychology, but they are rarely associated with business research. This is a pioneering attempt to study the impact of traffic behavior on purchasing behavior. The study was conducted as a part of Liikenneturva Traffic Atmosphere internet panel survey in November-Dece...

  14. Factors affecting anticipated emotions in association with aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína VASKOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict situations and situations of guile are not rare in our everyday life. In context of broadly conceived study, inspired by Richetins and Richardson’s (2011 extension of Theory of Planned Behavior, the character of anticipated emotions in relation to situation of aggressive and non aggressive reaction is analyzed. Influence of behavioral desire and perceived behavioral control is examined. Results show anticipating different emotions in relation to situation and acknowledge significant role of behavioral desire. Unimportant role of perceived behavioral control is ascer tained. Closer explanations in relation to self-control and self-regulation is discussed.

  15. The Contribution of Emotion Regulation Difficulties to Risky Sexual Behavior within a Sample of Patients in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Tull, Matthew T.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Adams, Claire E.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to past-year risky sexual behavior (RSB) among substance use disorder (SUD) patients (above and beyond other known RSB risk factors). A sample of 177 SUD patients completed a series of questionnaires. At the zero-order level, emotion regulation difficulties, were significantly positively associated with the number of commercial sexual (i.e., the exchange of sex for drugs or money) partners with which penetra...

  16. Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Phoenix, Natalie; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gamblers (PGs) may have high levels of impulsivity, and a correlation between substance use disorders (SUD) and impulsivity is well established. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to assess impulsivity and other impulse-spectrum traits (e.g., sensation seeking) using a variety of behavioral and self-report measures in PGs and few examined the independent impact of SUDs. We compared 30 PGs without SUD histories, 31 PGs with SUD histories and 40 control participants ...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A BRIEF SUBSTANCE USE SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: VALIDATION AND PREDICTION OF INJECTION-RELATED BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Werb, Dan; Richardson, Chris; Buxton, Jane; SHOVELLER, Jeannie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking, a personality trait, has been shown to predict engagement in high-risk behaviors. However, little is known regarding the impact of sensation seeking on substance use among street youth. We therefore sought to modify a sensation seeking scale (SSS) for use among this population. Street youth from the Vancouver-based At-Risk Youth Study (n = 226) completed the modified SSS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA) were undertaken to establish the scale’s dimensi...

  18. A Comparison of Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Rural and Non-Rural Transgender Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Keith J.; Iantaffi, Alex; SWINBURNE-ROMINE, REBECCA; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and ...

  19. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physician...

  20. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Moeini, B.; S. Bashirian; A. Moghimbeigi; V. Kafami; A.A. Mousali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention a...

  1. On the Effectiveness of Group Dialectical Behavior Therapy in the Enhancement of Distress Tolerance and Emotional Regulation in Substance Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    mohsen nadimi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy in the improvement of distress tolerance and emotion regulation among substance abusers. Method: A quasi-experimental study along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for the conduct of this study. The population of the study consisted of all addicts referring to addiction treatment center of Zahedshahr (Omid Center) in summer 2012. From among this population, the number of ...

  2. [Association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse: a study in Japanese college freshmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Wada, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence of risky drinking and the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse among college freshmen. A total of 376 college freshmen (126 boys and 248 girls) in a Japanese university participated in the study. The subjects were asked to complete self-administered, anonymous questionnaires during their class. The number of participants who had used drugs was small. The following 2 items for substance abuse were included in the questionnaires: (1) those who had drug using peers who used drugs and (2) those who had been persuaded to use drugs by their peers. On the basis of the responses, the participants were classified into 3 groups: (1) high-risk group (HRG), which accounted for 1.4% of the subjects and comprised those who answered "yes" to both the above-mentioned two items; (2) risk group (RG), which accounted for 7.4% and comprised participants who answered "yes" to one of the two items; and (3) control group (CG), which accounted for 91.2% and comprised those who did not answer "yes" to either of the two items. Bivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse. The results of our study indicated that 87.0% of the participants reported lifetime alcohol use, and 69.4% reported the consumption of alcohol during the past 30 days. Of the former group, 21.4% had engaged in binge drinking, 8.6% had experienced alcohol-related harassment, 9.5% had experienced alcohol-induced blackouts, and 82.0% had experienced drinking alcohol with peers without adults. There were significant associations between risk groups of substance abuse and risky drinking such as binge drinking (p = 0.001), alcohol-induced blackouts (p = 0.020), alcohol-related harassment (p = 0.012), alcohol consumption during the past 30 days (p = 0.047). However, lifetime alcohol use (p = 0.264) and experience of drinking alcohol with peers without adults (p = 0

  3. Dynamics of Affective Experience and Behavior in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depression is often characterized as a disorder of affect regulation. However, research focused on delineating the key dimensions of affective experience (other than valence) that are abnormal in depressive disorder has been scarce, especially in child and adolescent samples. As definitions of affect regulation center around processes…

  4. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani; Shamsodin Niknami; Farkhondeh Aminshokravi; Seyed Kaveh Hojat

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education model...

  5. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  6. Sexual risk and substance use behaviors among African American men who have sex with men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Smith, Carla Dillard; Arnold, Emily; Kegeles, Susan

    2011-04-01

    African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), but who do not form a sexual identity around same-sex behavior, may experience risk for HIV infection and transmission. This paper reports cross-sectional survey findings on sexual behaviors and substance use of urban non-gay- or non-bisexual-identified African American MSMW (n = 68), who completed behavior assessment surveys using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing technology. Overall, 17.6% reported being HIV-positive. In the past 3 months, 70.6% had unprotected insertive sex with a female, 51.5% had unprotected insertive anal sex (UIAS) with a male, 33.8% had unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) with a male, 25% had UIAS with a transgender female, and 10.3% had URAS with a transgender female. Findings indicated a bridging potential for HIV and sexually transmitted infections across groups, such that 38.2% reported concurrent unprotected sex with female and male partners and 17.6% reported concurrent unprotected sex with female and transgender female partners. In the past 3 months, 70.6% used alcohol before sex and 85% used drugs before sex. Men who used drugs before sex had a tenfold increased likelihood for unprotected sex with male partners, and men who injected drugs had a nearly fivefold increased likelihood for unprotected sex with a transgender female. Interventions to address sexual risk behaviors, especially partner concurrency, and substance use behavior for these men are warranted. PMID:19572194

  7. Molecular processes affecting the macroscopic tribological behavior of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of various additives on the tribological properties of a system in the macro and nanoscale, as well as clarify lubricant interactions with surfaces and materials. To accomplish that a wide range of lubricants and additives were considered. Moreover, a detail chemical analysis was carried out, in order to explain the effect on the friction coefficient, wear mechanisms and corrosion process in lubricated tribosystems. This research was mainly focused on additives for water based lubricants. Solutions of anti-corrosion and anti-foaming agents - amines, friction modifiers - glycols and amines derivatives with longer hydrocarbon chains were investigated. The results showed that the additives build chemisorbed mono-molecular films on surfaces, what was verified by AFM, AR-XPS and AES analysis, and compared with SESSA simulation. Investigated tribo-films affect the friction coefficient in nanoscale, however during tribological test in the macroscale, they showed different results depending on contact situation (rolling and/or sliding). The conclusion states that the differences in tribological behavior might be due to the orientation of amine and hydroxyl groups on the surfaces. Furthermore, lubricants for rolling bearing elements such as polar and non polar oils with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives were studied. The results demonstrated that a reaction layer formation is strongly dependent on the molecular polarity of the oils and additives. The evolution of the topography and mechanical properties of the ZDDP-derived tribo-layer with rubbing time showed that initially a thin and soft ZDDP reaction layer develops very quick. The second part of this work was addressed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) in consideration of desired properties for micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The main scientific goal of this part of the work was to

  8. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  9. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  10. Feasibility and Impact of Implementing Motivational Enhancement Therapy--Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a Substance Use Treatment Intervention in School-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, Vinetha; Dennis, Michael L.; Ives, Melissa L.; Vincent, Robert; Muck, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of behavioral health services to school-based health centers under the Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148) presents an opportunity to improve access to substance use disorders treatment for youth and reduce their substance use, and emotional, health, and school problems. We explore the feasibility of implementing five to seven…

  11. Affective Decision Making: A Behavioral Theory of Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Brown, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a strategic model of choice under risk and uncertainty where we posit two cognitive processes — the "rational" and the "emotional" process. Observed choice is the result of equilibirum in this intrapersonal game. As an example, we present applications of affective decision-making in insurance markets, where the risk perceptions of consumers are endogenous. We then derive the axiomatic foundation of affective decision making, and show that, although beliefs are end...

  12. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  13. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  14. On the Effectiveness of Group Dialectical Behavior Therapy in the Enhancement of Distress Tolerance and Emotional Regulation in Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen nadimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy in the improvement of distress tolerance and emotion regulation among substance abusers. Method: A quasi-experimental study along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for the conduct of this study. The population of the study consisted of all addicts referring to addiction treatment center of Zahedshahr (Omid Center in summer 2012. From among this population, the number of 28 addicts was selected via convenience sampling as the participants of the study and was randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. The participants responded to Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Distress Tolerance Scale as pretest, posttest, and follow-up test. The experimental group received group dialectical behavior therapy for 20 one-hour sessions whereas the control group received only Naltrexone drug. Results: The results showed that dialectical behavior therapy was effective in increasing distress tolerance and emotion regulation in substance abusers. Conclusion: Dialectical behavior therapy training can improve distress tolerance and emotion regulation, which could be the main reason for the continued use of drugs.

  15. The Impact of Dialectic Behavior Therapy on the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Women with Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aghayousefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of dialectic behavior therapy on the reduction of impulsiveness in women with comorbidity of borderline personality disorders and substance abuse. Method: An experimental single system research design using multiple baselines was employed for this study. Based on the structured diagnostic interview and entry criteria, four participants among female patients with borderline personality disorders and substance abuse were selected via purposive sampling method. All four subjects received twelve dialectic behavior therapy sessions. Then, Impulsiveness Bart Scale (IBS was used to measure impulsiveness. Results: Dialectic behavior therapy led to the significant reduction of impulsiveness scores in women with borderline personality disorders and substance abuse. Graphs pertaining to the effectiveness and effect size indicate a significant decrease in participants’ impulsiveness. Conclusion: Dialectic behavior therapy interventions can contribute to the decrease of impulsiveness and bring about desired practical implications in the treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

  16. Do behavioral biases adversely affect the macro-economy?

    OpenAIRE

    George M. Korniotis; Alok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether the adverse effects of investors' behavioral biases extend beyond the domain of financial markets to the broad macro-economy. We focus on the risk sharing (or income smoothing) role of financial markets and demonstrate that risk sharing levels are higher in U.S. states in which investors have higher cognitive abilities and exhibit weaker behavioral biases. Further, states with better risk sharing opportunities achieve higher levels of risk sharing if investors ...

  17. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  18. Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: a cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009-2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Tavolacci, Marie,; Ladner, Joel; Grigioni, Sebastien; Richard, Laure; Villet, Herve; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions ...

  19. Factors associated with co-occurring borderline personality disorder among inner-city substance users: the roles of childhood maltreatment, negative affect intensity/reactivity, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2008-01-01

    The co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with substance use disorders is a common and clinically relevant phenomenon in need of further empirical investigation. The present study adds to the extant literature on the factors associated with co-occurring BPD among substance users, examining the relationships between childhood maltreatment (in the form of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect), negative affect intensity/reactivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD pathology (both diagnostic status and symptom count) among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. Emotion dysregulation was expected to mediate the relationships between childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity (and their interaction) and BPD pathology. Results indicate that the presence of a BPD diagnosis was associated with higher levels of both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity. However, only childhood maltreatment emerged as a unique predictor of BPD diagnostic status. Conversely, both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity accounted for unique variance in the number of endorsed BPD symptoms. Moreover, emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD symptom count, as well as the relationship between emotional abuse in particular and BPD diagnostic status. Contrary to hypotheses, results provided no support for the interaction between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity in the prediction of BPD pathology (diagnosis or symptom count), above and beyond the main effects of these factors. PMID:18970909

  20. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264

  1. Features of Consumer Behavior and Principles Affecting the Industrial Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Mironenko Іrina І.

    2012-01-01

    The company cannot succeed if it ignores the needs of consumers. Economic activity covers all aspects of the functioning of the market, including consumer behavior, identifying with the help of appropriate indicators, trends in consumer demand. In the framework of relationship marketing the article deals with current issues concerning the behavior of industrial consumers of exposure to and control its behavior.Предприятие не может добиться успеха, если оно игнорирует запросы потребителей. Эко...

  2. Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

  3. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model…

  4. The Perceived Informational Value and Affective Consequences of Choice Behavior and Intermediate Difficulty Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wulf-Uwe; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Four experiments are presented that examine the affective and the informational explanations of risk-preference behavior. Experiments I and II provide a phenomenological analysis of the affective and informational determinants of choice behavior while Experiments III and IV investigates at what level of difficulty individuals most desire…

  5. Does Viewing Documentary Films Affect Environmental Perceptions and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…

  6. DIMENSIONS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF NEPALI WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh Thagunna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.

  7. Haploinsufficiency for Steroidogenic Factor 1 Affects Maternal Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanic, Tanja; Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), officially designated NR5A1, is essential for gonadal and adrenal development and for the normal structure of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), as demonstrated by SF-1 knockout mice (SF-1 KO), but much less is known about the possible effects of haploinsufficiency of the SF-1 gene. In the present study, maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous mice was evaluated. Behavioral tests revealed that SF-1 KO heterozygous females have impaired maternal behavior. In comparison to wild-type (WT) females, SF-1 KO heterozygous females retrieved significantly fewer pups into their nests, latency to retrieve and crouch over the pups was longer, and their nests were lower quality. As suggested by previous studies full dosage of SF-1 gene is needed for appropriate stress response and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and this might present a mechanism through which maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous females is impaired. PMID:27445727

  8. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) h...

  9. Social condition affects hormone secretion and exploratory behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of behavior, endocrinology and physiology have described experiments in which animals housed in groups or in isolation were normally tested individually. The isolation of the animal from its group for testing is perhaps the most common situation used today in experimental procedures, i.e., there is no consideration of the acute stress which occurs when the animal is submitted to a situation different from that it is normally accustomed to, i.e., group living. In the present study, we used 90 male 120-day-old rats (Rattus norvegicus divided into 5 groups of 18 animals, which were housed 3 per cage, in a total of 6 cages. The animals were tested individually or with their groups for exploratory behavior. Hormones were determined by radioimmunoassay using specific kits. The results showed statistically significant differences between testing conditions in terms of behavior and of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH: from 116.8 ± 15.27 to 88.77 ± 18.74 when in group and to 159.6 ± 11.53 pg/ml when isolated, corticosterone (from 561.01 ± 77.04 to 1036.47 ± 79.81 when in group and to 784.71 ± 55.88 ng/ml when isolated, luteinizing hormone (from 0.84 ± 0.09 to 0.58 ± 0.05 when in group and to 0.52 ± 0.06 ng/ml when isolated and prolactin (from 5.18 ± 0.33 to 9.37 ± 0.96 when in group and to 10.18 ± 1.23 ng/ml when isolated secretion, but not in terms of follicle-stimulating hormone or testosterone secretion. The most important feature observed was that in each cage there was one animal with higher ACTH levels than the other two; furthermore, the exploratory behavior of this animal was different, indicating the occurrence of almost constant higher vigilance in this animal (latency to leave the den in group: 99.17 ± 34.95 and isolated: 675.3 ± 145.3 s. The data indicate that in each group there is an animal in a peculiar situation and its behavior can be detected by ACTH determination in addition to behavioral performance.

  10. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Changing Beliefs Related to Substance and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taherh Ghorbani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and methadone maintenance therapy on changing beliefs toward substance abuse among addicted people. Method: The research method was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. 30 addicted people who were referred to the addiction treatment centers selected by available sampling, and they randomly assigned to three groups namely: cognitive-behavioral therapy, methadone maintenance therapy and witness groups. Substance abuse beliefs questionnaire was administered among all participants before and after intervention. Results: Results showed that in both experimental groups, beliefs toward drug was reduced significantly in comparison with witness group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be changed on cognitive mediator variables, like beliefs toward substance therefore, it can reduce the risk of relapse. However, the programs of treatment of substance abuse should be targeted this type of intermediate variables.

  11. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design: Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting:…

  12. Exploring Behaviors and Perceptions Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Ratten

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a technological innovation that has been marketed to consumers as a revolution in the way people store and communicate data information. This paper extends previous research on technology adoption behavior of individuals by focusing on the role of e-business entrepreneurs in facilitating cloud computing services. As there are a number of technology adoption theories that can explain the process, this paper reviews the major innovation theories but focuses on social cognitiv...

  13. Factors Affecting Consumers’ Green Purchasing Behavior: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ruediger Kaufmann; Mohammad Fateh Ali Khan Panni; Yianna Orphanidou

    2012-01-01

    In this modern era of societal marketing business ethics and social responsibility are becoming the guiding themes for marketing strategies and practices. Within the field of ethics and social responsibility environmental and green marketing topics are the central topics, which are closely related to biodiversity and sustainability. This paper suggests a different approach to assessing the variables of consumers’ green purchasing behavior. Based on thoroughly researched secondary data, this c...

  14. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Braeutigam S

    2012-01-01

    Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in indus...

  15. Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassin, Ran R; Ferguson, Melissa J; Shidlovski, Daniella; Gross, Tamar

    2007-12-11

    Political thought and behavior play an important role in our lives, from ethnic tensions in Europe, to the war in Iraq and the Middle Eastern conflict, to parliamentary and presidential elections. However, little is known about how the individual's political attitudes and decisions are shaped by subtle national cues that are so prevalent in our environment. We report a series of experiments that show that subliminal exposure to one's national flag influences political attitudes, intentions, and decisions, both in laboratory settings and in "real-life" behavior. Furthermore, this manipulation consistently narrowed the gap between those who score high vs. low on a scale of identification with Israeli nationalism. The first two experiments examined participants' stance toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Jewish settlers in the West Bank. Experiment 3 examined voting intentions and actual voting in Israel's recently held general elections. The results portray a consistent picture: subtle reminders of one's nationality significantly influence political thought and overt political behavior. PMID:18056813

  16. The Effects of Perceived Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Substance-Use on Adolescent Attitudes toward and Intent To Use Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester

    2000-01-01

    Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…

  17. Consumer behavior in online shopping is affected by sales tax

    OpenAIRE

    Einav, Liran; Knoepfle, Dan; Levin, Jonathan; Sundaresan, Neel

    2014-01-01

    Profits from the sales tax make up a large percentage of overall revenues in many states, making the estimated $10 billion lost each year to tax-free internet purchases particularly concerning. Liran Einav, Dan Knoepfle, Jonathan Levin, and Neel Sundaresan examine just how much the presence (or lack thereof) of a sales tax influences consumer behavior. He finds that online purchasing goes up by 1-2 percent for each percentage point increase in the state sales tax, and that an online sales tax...

  18. How the Presence of Children Affects Parents' Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zwerts, Enid; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2007-01-01

    The impact of having child on the parents and on the rest of the family is already well studied in different domains. The step from two adults towards a family with two adults and one child brings along a lot of consequences. The effects are related to changes in time use, changes in the work situation, differences in composition and size of social networks. Notwithstanding the fact that this key event is quite well studied in the past, the effects on parents' travel behavior are not. In this...

  19. Investigating Factors Affecting Environmental Behavior of Urban Residents: A Case Study in Tehran City- Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S.   Fami; Ali Asadi; H. M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems such as air and water pollution, urban garbage and climate changes in urban areas are the results of human behavior. Only change in human behavior can reduce these environmental problems. Thus studying attitude and behavior of people is a precondition to change this situation. So the main objective of this study was to find out individual and social factors affecting environmental behavior of urban citizens. To achieve this objective a conceptual framework derived out f...

  20. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG. A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  1. Predicting substance-abuse treatment providers' communication with clients about medication assisted treatment: a test of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Anthony J; Shafer, Michael S; Marmo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) can retrospectively predict whether substance-abuse treatment providers encourage their clients to use medicated-assisted treatment (MAT) as part of their treatment plan. Two-hundred and ten substance-abuse treatment providers completed a survey measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior. Results indicate that substance-abuse treatment providers have very positive attitudes, neutral subjective norms, somewhat positive perceived behavioral control, somewhat positive intentions toward recommending MAT as part of their clients' treatment plan, and were somewhat likely to engage in the actual behavior. Further, the data fit both the TRA and TPB, but with the TPB model having better fit and predictive power for this target audience and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications for the developing messages for substance-abuse treatment providers and other health-care professionals who provide treatment to patients with substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:25092045

  2. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physicians and then to psychiatrists. Although emerging and applying non-medical and non-pharmaceutical approaches models is not too old, arising various addictive drugs and increasing the number of drug addicts as well as individual/social destructive consequences of drug addiction have caused that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to represent various non-pharmaceutical theories, models, methods and guidelines based on the conditions of their clients and their clinical experiences. The present article attempts to identify the reasons of drug addiction tendency, consumption patterns, models, theories of addiction to substances changing the mood and behavior, various methods of drug treatment, effective methods in drug addiction counseling and non-medical and non-pharmaceutical methods to give up drug addiction by using recent research findings. On this basis, the most effective methods to help those who suffer from alcohol and other drugs abuse and dependency are studied.

  3. Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems: Differences in Substance Use Expectancy Organization and Activation in Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    We used multidimensional scaling to model the semantic network of alcohol and marijuana expectancies (N = 897). Preference mapping was used to estimate vectors representing patterns of activation through the network as a function of levels of behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS). Individuals with low BIS combined with high BAS levels exhibited patterns of activation emphasizing behavioral activation similar to heavier drug users in previous research. High BIS, low BAS i...

  4. Cultural factors affecting behavior guidance and family compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleman, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Culturally effective care is all about relationships and these involve interpersonal interactions with patients and parents from diverse cultures. Important aspects of effective cultural care include understanding and respecting the role of family, the concept of time, the social structure, and the concept of fate in health. This overview will give examples of some cultural issues and offer basic skills in communication and tips for working with an interpreter. Skills such as ask-tell-ask, teach back, the explanatory model using the four C's of culture, and motivational interviewing are discussed. The goal of these strategies is to build strong supportive relationships needed to support change in behavior and optimal dental health. PMID:24717749

  5. How did the introduction of managed care for the uninsured in Iowa affect the use of substance abuse services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Susan L; Argeriou, Milton; McCarty, Dennis; Dilonardo, Joan; Liu, Hui

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about access under managed care have been raised for vulnerable populations such as publicly funded patients with substance abuse problems. To estimate the effects of the Iowa Managed Substance Abuse Care Plan (IMSACP) on substance abuse service use by publicly funded patients, service use before and after IMSACP was compared; adjustments were made for changes in population sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Between fiscal years 1994 and 1997, patient case mix was marked by a higher burden of illness and the use of inpatient, residential nondetox, outpatient counseling, and assessment services declined, while use of intensive outpatient and residential detox services increased. Findings were similar among women, children, and homeless persons. Thus, care moved away from high-cost inpatient settings to less costly venues. Without knowing the impact on treatment outcomes, these changes cannot be interpreted as improved provider efficiency versus simply cost containment and profit maximization. PMID:12645495

  6. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  7. Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: the role of affect and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibeom; Allen, Natalie J

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the role of affect and cognitions in predicting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace deviance behavior (WDB), data were collected from 149 registered nurses and their coworkers. Job affect was associated more strongly than were job cognitions with OCB directed at individuals, whereas job cognitions correlated more strongly than did job affect with OCB directed at the organization. With respect to WDB, job cognitions played a more important role in prediction when job affect was represented by 2 general mood variables (positive and negative affect). When discrete emotions were used to represent job affect, however, job affect played as important a role as job cognition variables, strongly suggesting the importance of considering discrete emotions in job affect research. PMID:11916207

  8. Risk factors for gun-related behaviors among urban out-of-treatment substance using women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon D; Cottler, Linda B; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; O'Leary, Catina

    2012-09-01

    We examine the prevalence and factors associated with lifetime gun-carrying among 858 urban out-of-treatment substance using women using data collected between 2000 and 2004 in a large Midwestern city. Instruments assessed gun ownership, carrying and access, psychopathology and personal lifestyle risk factors. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Illegal activities for income and lifetime violent victimization were the most significant predictors of gun carrying. The implications for practice and future research are discussed along with the study's limitations. The work was supported by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. PMID:22693947

  9. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  10. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations Between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers’ parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal mixed-effects models were conducted to determine the degree to which behavioral strategy use predicts subsequent negative affect and negative affect pre...

  11. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  12. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self...

  13. Research progress on treatment of affective disorder comorbid substance abuse%情感障碍共病物质滥用的治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞

    2015-01-01

    情感障碍合并物质滥用在精神科临床常见,共病物质滥用的患者其症状更严重、治疗依从性及治疗效果更差、更难以康复.作者汇总情感障碍共病物质滥用的治疗方面研究和近十年来针对双相情感障碍共病物质依赖的文献,其中,使用喹硫平、丙戊酸盐、胞磷胆碱,相对于安慰剂组有效.目前,研究对于治疗重性抑郁共病物质滥用的患者的效果尚无定论,荟萃分析结果显示,抗抑郁药物对于共病的物质依赖有部分作用.基因研究提示部分基因多态性会影响共病物质依赖的情感障碍患者的治疗和恢复.总的来说,现有的证据显示药物治疗对于共病物质依赖的情感障碍患者有益,对于单药治疗还是合并用药的疗效,各项研究结果并不一致.%The affective disorder combined with substance abuse is common in psychiatric department,and the comorbid patients with substance abuse have the more serious symptoms,and poorer compliance and treatment effect,while they are more difficult to recover.The author collects the researches on treatment of affective disorder comorbid substance abuse,as well as the literatures on bipolar affective disorder and substance abuse in nearly a decade,and observes that quetiapine,valproic acid salt and citicoline have the more obvious effect than placebo.At present,no final conclusion has yet been reached on the treatment effect of major depressive patients with substance abuse.Meta-analysis shows that the antidepressants have some effect on substance abuse.Genetic studies suggest some gene polymorphism can affect the treatment and recovery of patients with affective disorder and substance abuse.In general,the existing evidences reveal the drug treatment is effective for patients with affective disorder and substance abuse.However,the researches on curative effect of monotherapy and drug combination present the different results.

  14. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  15. Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

  16. Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Male Substance Misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between self-reported sexual dysfunction, sexual behavior, and severity of addiction of drug users. A cross-sectional design study was conducted at an inpatient addiction treatment unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 508 male drug users. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and severity of dependence were evaluated.The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 37.2% and premature ejaculation was 63.8%. Men with sexual dysfunction presented from moderate to severe level of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs of dependence. The findings from this study are particularly relevant identifying those sociodemographic factors, severity of drug use, and sexual behavior are related to men who experience sexual dysfunction. Health promotion and motivational interventions on sexual health targeted to male drug users can contribute in reducing these at-risk behaviors. More interdisciplinary research is desirable in future in considering men's sexual health. PMID:25643586

  17. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Salman Alavi; Masoud Ferdosi; Fereshte Jannatifard; Mehdi Eslami; Hamed Alaghemandan; Mehrdad Setare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral science experts believe that all entities capable of stimulating a person can be addictive; and whenever a habit changes into an obligation, it can be considered as an addiction. Researchers also believe that there are a number of similarities as well as some differences between drug addiction and behavioral addiction diagnostic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to consider different approaches in this field. Methods: This is a descriptive research using conte...

  18. Evidence for Optimism: Behavior Therapies and Motivational Interviewing in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The l...

  19. Do online assessed self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity-related constructs predict onset of substance use in adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To prospectively predict the onset of use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana among Dutch adolescents, using behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity-related facets. Specifically, we investigated whether behavioral measures of impulsivity predicted the onset of substance use above and beyond self-report measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking in an online sample. Methods: Self-report and behavioral data from 284 adolescents (195 girls, mean age = 14.8 years, SD ...

  20. Affective decision-making and tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Adeilton dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (≤25%) and high (≥75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z = -3.133; p = 0.002; r = -0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z = -2.267; p = 0.023; r = -0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players. PMID:24978030

  1. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Timm, Sally;

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and substance abuse are frequent phenomena among patients with schizophrenia and may be attributable in part to antipsychotic treatment failure. Individuals who carry functional variants of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes, shown to cause altered drug metabolism of psychoactive drugs......, are at risk of toxic accumulation or rapid elimination of these drugs, leading to treatment failure. We tested whether substance abuse disorder and suicidal behavior were associated with the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes among patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred sixty-two patients with schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) were genotyped for functional CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Based on available medical records and clinical interviews, their suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder were evaluated. No significant associations between...

  2. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, C.J.; Hansen, T.; Timm, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and substance abuse are frequent phenomena among patients with schizophrenia and may be attributable in part to antipsychotic treatment failure. Individuals who carry functional variants of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes, shown to cause altered drug metabolism of psychoactive drugs......, are at risk of toxic accumulation or rapid elimination of these drugs, leading to treatment failure. We tested whether substance abuse disorder and suicidal behavior were associated with the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes among patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred sixty-two patients with...... schizophrenia spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) were genotyped for functional CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Based on available medical records and clinical interviews, their suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder were evaluated. No significant associations...

  3. Principal Factors Affecting China Zero Environmental Risk: Behavior and Area Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Changqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find principal factors affecting CZER (China Zero Environmental Risk) from behavior and area angle and the related advice can help people to solve environmental problems. So, in this study the factors’ selection, contribution and sequence by correlation, regression and principal component analysis, etc. were studied from behavior and area angle, which is different from the present work only studying individual behavior or ind...

  4. Social Isolation Selectively Increases Anxiety in Mice without Affecting Depression-like Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Sue-Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesized that a number of environmental factors affect animals' behavior. Without controlling these variables, it is very hard for researchers to get not only reliable, but replicable data from various behavioral experiments testing animals' cognitive as well as emotional functions. For example, laboratory mice which had restricted environment showed different synaptic potentiation properties with wild mice (Zhao MG et al., 2009). While performing behavioral experiments, however, it...

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral trauma treatment for incarcerated women with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nancy; Frueh, B Christopher; Shi, Jing; Schumann, Brooke E

    2012-10-01

    An open trial design was used to examine the implementation and effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (Seeking Safety) for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) for incarcerated women with Axis I mental disorders who self-referred for specialty trauma treatment. The study sample was female inmates aged 18 and old who were primarily minority, had experienced childhood-based trauma, committed violent crimes, had a serious mental illness, and resided in maximum, medium, and minimum compounds of a women's prison. A total of 74 women completed the group intervention, with the average attending 23 of the 28 sessions (82%). Implementation feasibility was demonstrated by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participation. Effectiveness was supported by changes pre-post intervention on the PTSD Checklist (ES=0.56) and Global Severity Index (ES=0.47). Of the 19 completers with PCL scores of 50 or higher pre-intervention, 16 (84%) had scores below 50, the "cut score" consistent with or supportive of a PTSD diagnosis. Three-quarters or more of participants reported that Seeking Safety was helpful in each of the following areas: overall, for traumatic stress symptoms, for substance use, to focus on safety, and to learn safe coping skills. Future directions include the need for larger scale randomized controlled trials in medium or maximum security prisons and fidelity evaluations of non-research dissemination efforts. PMID:22858893

  6. The contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to risky sexual behavior within a sample of patients in residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Matthew T; Weiss, Nicole H; Adams, Claire E; Gratz, Kim L

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the unique contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to past-year risky sexual behavior (RSB) among substance use disorder (SUD) patients (above and beyond other known RSB risk factors). A sample of 177 SUD patients completed a series of questionnaires. At the zero-order level, emotion regulation difficulties, were significantly positively associated with the number of commercial sexual (i.e., the exchange of sex for drugs or money) partners with which penetrative sex occurred and significantly negatively associated with the likelihood of using a condom when having sex with a commercial partner under the influence of drugs. Emotion regulation difficulties also significantly predicted these RSB indices above and beyond other RSB risk factors, including demographics, depression, sensation seeking, traumatic exposure, and substance use severity. The specific emotion regulation difficulty of lack of emotional clarity emerged as a unique predictor of RSB. The implications of these findings for understanding motivations for RSB and developing targeted interventions for RSB among SUD patients are discussed. PMID:22658304

  7. The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…

  8. AFM study on the adsorption and aggregation behavior of dissolved humic substances on mica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE; Xiaopeng

    2006-01-01

    [1]Hayes M H B,Clapp C E.Humic substances:Considerations of compositions,aspects of structure,and environmental influences.Soil Science,2001,166(11):723-737[2]MacCarthy P.The principles of humic substances.Soil Science,2001,166(11):738-751[3]Swift R S.Macromolecular properties of soil humic substances:Fact,fiction,and opinion.Soil Science,1999,164(11):790-802[4]Wershaw R L.Molecular aggregation of humic substances.Soil Science,1999,164(11):803-813[5]Tombacz E.Colloidal properties of humic acids and spontaneous changes of their colloidal state under variable solution conditions.Soil Science,1999,164(11):814-824[6]Tipping E,Higgins D C.The effect of adsorbed humic substances on the colloid stability of haematite particles.Colloid Surf,1982,5(2):85-92[7]Wilkinson K J,Nègre J C,Buffle J.Coagulation of colloidal material in surface waters:The role of natural organic matter.J Contam Hydrol,1997,26(1-4):229-243[8]Garbarini D R,Lion L W.Influence of the nature of soil organics on the sorption of toluene and trichloroethylene.Environ Sci Technol,1986,20(12):1263-1269[9]Gauthler T D,Seitz W R,Grant C L.Effects of structural and compositional variations of dissolved humic materials on pyrene KOC values.Environ Sci Technol,1987,21(3):243-248[10]Chiou C T,Malcolm R L,Brinton T I,et al.Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids.Environ Sci Technol,1986,20(5):502-508[11]Chiou C T,Kile D E,Brinton T I,et al.A comparison of water solubility enhancements of organic solutes by aquatic humic materials and commercial humic acids.Environ Sci Technol,1987,21(12):1231-1234[12]Rutherford D W,Chiou C T,Kile D E.Influence of soil organic matter composition on partition of organic compounds.Environ Sci Technol,1992,26(2):336-340[13]Grathwohl P.Influence of organic matter from soils and sediments from various origins on the sorption of some chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons:Implications on KOC correlations.Environ Sci Technol

  9. Antisocial behavior, community violence exposure, and substance abuse in youth in Czech Republic: Preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Martin; Balaštíková, Veronika; Ruchkin, V.; Schwab-Stone, M.

    Steinkopff Verlag Darmstadt, 2004, s. 29-30. [16th World Congress of the IACAPAP. Berlín (DE), 22.08.2004-26.08.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : behavior * violence * abuse Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  10. Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…

  11. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

  12. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Factors of Substance Abuse in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Bashirian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students in four high schools in different regions of Hamedan. The survey was carried out via random cluster sampling of 650 students. Data were collected using the standard self-report questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16, chi-squared test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study, 11.1% had the experience of cigarette smoking, 3.4% had the experience of drug abuse, and 12% had the experience of intention to abuse drugs. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse and the following variables: smoking experience (p value =0.001, OR=27.238; having drug user parents (p value =0.001, OR=8.630; having friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value =0.001, OR=11.060; having best friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=11.931; family with drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=4.311; and having a sibling who abused drugs (p value=0.001, OR=15.815. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control were the most influential predictors of intention to abuse drugs.Conclusion: The use of TPB is beneficial in the predicting and planning for high-risk behaviors. TPB can be used for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.

  13. Sexual compulsivity and substance use in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men: prevalence and predictors of high-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, E G; Kalichman, S C; Kelly, J A

    1999-01-01

    Most persons aware of their HIV-positive serostatus refrain from sexual behavior that could transmit HIV infection to others. However, a minority of men who test HIV-seropositive continue to engage in transmission risk behavior. One factor that may play a role in high-risk sexual activity involves sexual behavior self-management. The present study investigated the role of sexual compulsivity as a contributing factor to high-risk sexual behavior in HIV seropositive men who have sex with men (N = 112). Participants also completed measures of factors known to be related to risky sexual behavior including: personal substance use, sexual partner substance use, pleasure associated with high-risk activities, beliefs about transmission risks, intentions to avoid future instances of risky behavior, and self-esteem. Men scoring high on sexual compulsivity reported engaging in more frequent unprotected sexual acts with more partners, reported greater use of cocaine in conjunction with sexual activity, rated high-risk sexual acts as more pleasurable, and reported lower self-esteem. Mediational analyses indicated that the relationship between sexual compulsivity and high-risk sexual behavior was partially mediated by both personal cocaine use and partner cocaine use in conjunction with sexual activity. The results suggest a need to integrate HIV risk-reduction services and substance use treatment for those persons living with HIV who have difficulty avoiding transmission risk behavior. PMID:10628518

  14. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 220C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 900C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 220C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  15. Alpha suppression following performance errors is correlated with depression, affect, and coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Hofheimer, Julia; Kazinka, Rebecca; Levinson, Amanda; Zheutlin, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that enhanced neural arousal in response to performance errors would predict poor affect and coping behaviors in everyday life. Participants were preselected as either low-depressed (LD) or high-depressed (HD) based on a screening questionnaire, and they then completed a laboratory Stroop task while EEG was recorded, followed by a 2-week period of daily reports of affect and coping behaviors. The EEG measure of arousal response to errors was the degree of error-related alpha suppression (ERAS) in the intertrial interval, that is the reduction in alpha power following errors compared with correct responses. ERAS was relatively heightened at frontal sites for the HD versus the LD group, and frontal ERAS predicted lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and less adaptive coping behaviors in the daily reports. Together, the results imply that heightened arousal following mistakes is associated with suboptimal emotion and coping with stressors. PMID:23731439

  16. Errors in Moral Forecasting: Perceptions of Affect Shape the Gap Between Moral Behaviors and Moral Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper, Rimma; Tullett, Alexa M; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Research in moral decision making has shown that there may not be a one-to-one relationship between peoples' moral forecasts and behaviors. Although past work suggests that physiological arousal may account for part of the behavior-forecasting discrepancy, whether or not perceptions of affect play an important determinant remains unclear. Here, we investigate whether this discrepancy may arise because people fail to anticipate how they will feel in morally significant situations. In Study 1, forecasters predicted cheating significantly more on a test than participants in a behavior condition actually cheated. Importantly, forecasters who received false somatic feedback, indicative of high arousal, produced forecasts that aligned more closely with behaviors. In Study 2, forecasters who misattributed their arousal to an extraneous source forecasted cheating significantly more. In Study 3, higher dispositional emotional awareness was related to less forecasted cheating. These findings suggest that perceptions of affect play a key role in the behavior-forecasting dissociation. PMID:25900823

  17. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294

  18. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A.J.W.; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.; Maxson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the open-field test, either with increased upright positions or horizontal locomotion toward the middle ring. Furthermore, one of the selection lines had an increased risk-taking behavior relative to the cont...

  19. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for huma...

  20. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a crosscultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy. Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors participated in the study and were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a Workshop Only condition. Twenty-one of these therapists treated 41 cannabis-abusing adolescents and their families. Therapist adher...

  1. Development of a brief substance use sensation seeking scale: validation and prediction of injection-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Richardson, Chris; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Sensation seeking, a personality trait, has been shown to predict engagement in high-risk behaviors. However, little is known regarding the impact of sensation seeking on substance use among street youth. We therefore sought to modify a sensation seeking scale (SSS) for use among this population. Street youth from the Vancouver-based At-Risk Youth Study (n = 226) completed the modified SSS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA) were undertaken to establish the scale's dimensionality and internal validity. The association between SSS score and injection-related behaviors was tested using generalized estimating equation analysis. EFA results indicated scale unidimensionality. The comparative fit index (CFI) suggested acceptable fit (CFI = 0.914). In multivariate analysis, sensation seeking was independently associated with injection drug use, crystal methamphetamine use, polysubstance use, and binge drug use (all p < 0.05). Our findings provide preliminary support for the use of the modified SSS among street youth. PMID:25119056

  2. Meeting your match: how attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Ischa; Engels, Rutger C M E; Finkenauer, Catrin; Holland, Rob W

    2009-06-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavior in terms of relational investment (i.e., behavioral efforts related to the improvement of interaction fluency, communication of positive interpersonal affect, and positive self-presentation). As expected, men displayed more relational investment behavior if their own physical attractiveness was similar to that of the confederate. For women, no effects of attractiveness similarity on relational investment behavior were found. Results are discussed in the light of positive assortative mating, preferences for physically attractive mates, and sex differences in attraction-related interpersonal behaviors. PMID:19336540

  3. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to

  4. Maternal Depression, Child Frontal Asymmetry, and Child Affective Behavior as Factors in Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…

  5. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  6. A Model of Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Gay and Bisexual Men: Longitudinal Associations of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, Sexual Abuse, and the Coming-Out Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviors of young gay and bisexualmen must be understood within the context of other health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse), population specific factors (i.e., the coming-out process and gay-related stress), childhood sexual abuse, and other theoretical factors (e.g., safer-sex intentions). The current report proposes and…

  7. Predictors and Correlates of Abortion in the Fragile Families and Well-Being Study: Paternal Behavior, Substance Use, and Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K.; Maxey, Charles David; Spence, Maria; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to identify predictors of the choice to abort or deliver a child within 18 months of a previous birth and to compare mothers who chose to abort or deliver relative to substance use and adverse partner behavior. Using a systems perspective, data from the Fragile Families and Well-Being Study were examined. The sample…

  8. Adolescent Perceptions of Their Family System, Parents' Behavior, Self-Esteem, and Family Life Satisfaction in Relation to Their Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2004-01-01

    A path model was utilized to determine the relationship of demographic, family system, adolescent perceptions of parental behavior, and youth characteristics to adolescent substance abuse. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from 214 high school students at two high schools in a southwestern state. Results showed direct positive…

  9. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  10. Direct and Indirect Impact of Self-Efficacy, Impulsivity, Behavioral Activation-Inhibition and Social Skills on Substance Abuse in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Purkord; Abbas Abolghasemi; Mohammad Narimani; Hasan Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship of self-efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation-inhibition system (through of the effect on social skills) with substance abuse in high school students. Method: Population of present research was all of boy high schools in first and second grades of Ardabil city that 616 students selected of them randomly. Self-efficacy scale, impulsivity scale, behavioral activation-inhibition scale, Matson social skills and ...

  11. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Sevent...

  12. A naturalistic study of fat talk and its behavioral and affective consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michelle D; Crowther, Janis H; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-01

    Fat talk is a style of verbal expression among young women involving negative self-statements, complaints about physical appearance, and weight management. This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of naturalistic fat talk experiences on body dissatisfaction, body checking, negative affect, and disordered eating behaviors. We examined trait self-objectification as a moderator. Sixty-five female college students completed a baseline questionnaire and responded to questions when randomly prompted by palm pilot devices for five days. Results indicated fat talk is common and associated with greater body dissatisfaction, body checking, negative affect, and disordered eating behaviors. Fat talk participation was associated with greater body checking than overhearing fat talk. Greater trait self-objectification was associated with greater body dissatisfaction and body checking following fat talk. These results suggest that fat talk negatively impacts the cognitions, affect, and behavior of young women and has increased negative effects for women higher in self-objectification. PMID:24976570

  13. Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naïve youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Shulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; London, Edythe; Friston, Karl; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-28

    It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction. PMID:22386967

  14. Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Toddlers: Differential Relations to Affective Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunato, Christine K.; Dribin, Amy E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study applies a non-invasive and multi-system measurement approach (using salivary analytes) to examine associations between the psychobiology of the stress response and affective behavior in toddlers. Eighty-seven two-year-olds (48 females) participated in laboratory tasks designed to elicit emotions and behavior ranging from pleasure/approach to fear/withdrawal. Saliva samples were collected pre-task and immediately post-task, and assayed for markers of sympathetic nervous system (alph...

  15. Examining the relationship between personality and affect-related attributes and adolescents' intentions to try smoking using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memetovic, Jasmina; Ratner, Pamela A; Gotay, Carolyn; Richardson, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Assessments of adolescents' smoking intentions indicate that many are susceptible to smoking initiation because they do not have resolute intentions to abstain from trying smoking in the future. Although researchers have developed personality and affect-related risk factor profiles to understand risk for the initiation of substance use and abuse (e.g., alcohol), few have examined the extent to which these risk factors are related to the tobacco use intentions of adolescents who have yet to try tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between personality and affect-related risk factors measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and smoking intentions in a sample of adolescents who have not experimented with tobacco smoking. Data is based on responses from 1352 participants in the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (56% female, 76% in Grade 8) who had never tried smoking tobacco. Of these 1352 participants, 29% (n=338) were classified as not having resolute intentions to not try smoking. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between each SURPS dimension (Anxiety Sensitivity, Hopelessness, Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking) and the intention to try cigarettes in the future. Hopelessness (AOR 1.06, 95% CI [1.03, 1.10], p<.001), Impulsivity (AOR 1.07 [1.03, 1.11], p<.001) and Sensation Seeking (AOR 1.05 95% CI [1.02, 1.09], p<.01) had independent statistically significant associations with having an intention to try smoking. These findings may be used to inform a prevention-oriented framework to reduce susceptibility to tobacco smoking. PMID:26803399

  16. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed. PMID:26056969

  17. The immersion freezing behavior of mixtures of mineral dust and biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ebert, Martin; Voigtländer, Jens; Rösch, Michael; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria or pollen are known to be efficient ice nuclei. It is also known that ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, i.e. protein complexes in the case of bacteria (e.g. Wolber et al., 1986), and most likely polysaccharides in the case of pollen (Pummer et al., 2012) are responsible for the freezing. Very recently it was suggested that these INA macromolecules maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013). This opens the possibility of accumulation of such INA macromolecules in e.g. soils and the resulting particles could be an internal mixture of mineral dust and INA macromolecules. If such biological IN containing soil particles are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to e.g. wind erosion or agricultural processes they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures higher than -20°C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INA macromolecules. Specifically, we mixed pure mineral dust (illite) with INA biological material (SNOMAX and birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the produced aerosol we used single mass spectrometry as well as electron microscopy. We found that internally mixed particles which containing ice active biological material show the same ice nucleation behavior as the purely biological particles. That shows that INA macromolecules which are located on a mineral dust particle dominate the freezing process. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. Augustin, S., Hartmann, S., Pummer, B., Grothe, H

  18. GSK-3β Inhibition Affects Singing Behavior and Neurogenesis in Adult Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Etay; Shapira, Moran; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Barnea, Anat

    2015-01-01

    GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) is a serine/threonine kinase which is a critical regulator in neuronal signaling, cognition, and behavior. We have previously shown that unlike other vertebrates that harbor both α and β GSK-3 genes, the α gene is missing in birds. Therefore, birds can be used as a new animal model to study the roles of GSK-3β in behavior and in regulating adult neurogenesis. In the present study, we inhibited GSK-3β in brains of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and accordingly investigated how this inhibition affects behavior and cell proliferation. Our results show that GSK-3 inhibition: (1) affects specific aspects of singing behavior, which might be related to social interactions in birds, and (2) differentially affects cell proliferation in various parts of the ventricular zone. Taken together, our study demonstrates a role of GSK-3β in regulating singing behavior and neuronal proliferation in birds and highlights the importance of GSK-3β in modulating cognitive abilities as well as social behavior. PMID:26065821

  19. Adsorption-desorption behavior of acetochlor to soils in the presence of some environmental substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Lei, Zhi-fang

    2002-04-01

    The behavior of herbicide acetochlor adsorption-desorption to soil in the presence of humic acid (HA), anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (HDAB) and NH4NO3 as a chemical fertilizer was studied. Observed acetochlor adsorption isotherm were well described using Freundlich isotherm equation, from which the desorption isotherm equation has been deduced. The deduced equation can more directly describe acetochlor desorption process. The results showed that the enhance of acetochlor adsorption capacity by solid HA was greater than by soluble HA. The presence of NH4 NO3 can slightly enhance acetochlor adsorption to soil by comparison with that measured in NH4 NO3-free solution. In soil-water system, surfactant-acetochlor interaction is very complex, and the surfactant adsorptions as well as acetochlor adsorption need to be considered. When acetochlor-soil suspensions contained lower concentration SDBS or HDAB (40 mg/L), Kf for acetochlor adsorption was decreased in comparison to that measured in SDBS- or HDAB-free solution. When acetochlor-soil suspensions contained higher concentration SDBS or HDAB (corresponding 1400 mg/L or 200 mg/L), Kf for acetochlor adsorption was increased in comparison to that measured in SDBS- or HDAB-free solution. PMID:12046299

  20. Projecting corporate brand image and behavioral response in business schools: Cognitive or affective brand attributes?

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Alwi, SF; Kitchen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers corporate brand image, focusing on cognitive and affective brand attributes in the context of business schools. While previous research on university or institutional branding has studied these elements separately via cognitive (e.g., service or educational quality attributes) or affective criteria (personality traits of the corporate brand), this study investigates them jointly through behavioral responses (leading to positive recommendations about the corporate brand). ...

  1. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation....

  2. A Survey of affecting factors on high school student\\\\\\'s vandalistic behaviors in Izeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Nabavi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   The aim of this study is to examine affecting factors on high school student's vandalistic behaviors in Izeh. In this respect, we use sociological, psychological and socio–psychological theories as our theoretical frame. Survey is our research method and a questionnaire used for collecting data. The sample consists of 386 students, who were selected through stratified random sampling. Finding show that age, socio- economical status and educational condition of student have significant inverse relationship with vandalistic behavior, and there is direct significant relationship between punishment, parent's discompromise , self alienation and having bad friends vandalistic behavior among students .In multivariate regression analysis for predictive equation of tendency for vandalistic behavior, variables including self alienation and punishment in school could explain 42 percent of dependent variable variation, and for vandalistic behavior, variables including punishment in school , self alienation, educational condition of student and socio- economical status could explain 38 percent of dependent variable variations.

  3. Criminality in men with major mental disorder with and without comorbid substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestin, Jiri; Wuermle, Othmar

    2005-02-01

    Violent and criminal behavior in the mentally ill remains an issue of major importance and in this context the role of comorbid substance abuse must be addressed. Data on criminal behavior in 282 men with schizophrenia and 261 men with affective disorder were studied. Samples of patients with and without additional substance abuse were compared. Also, non-abusing patients from both diagnostic groups were compared with matched controls from the general population. Substance abuse was found in half of all men in both groups of major mental disorders, and substance abusers had twice as high a probability of having a criminal record. However, compared with the matched sample from the general population, violent criminality was increased in schizophrenic patients without comorbid substance abuse, and patients with affective disorders without substance abuse had a higher probability of committing crimes against property. Men with major mental disorder have an increased probability of becoming criminal even when there is no comorbid substance abuse. PMID:15679536

  4. A Behavioral Intervention for War-Affected Youth in Sierra Leone: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Brennan, Robert T.; Weisz, John R.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)–based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15–24 years) in Sierra Leone. Method War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. Results The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. Conclusion YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI

  5. Domains of acculturation and their effects on substance use and sexual behavior in recent Hispanic immigrant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Zamboanga, Byron L; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the immigrant paradox by ascertaining the effects of multiple components of acculturation on substance use and sexual behavior among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents primarily from Mexico (35 %) and Cuba (31 %). A sample of 302 adolescents (53 % boys; mean age 14.51 years) from Miami (n = 152) and Los Angeles (n = 150) provided data on Hispanic and US cultural practices, values, and identifications at baseline and provided reports of cigarette use, alcohol use, sexual activity, and unprotected sex approximately 1 year later. Results indicated strong gender differences, with the majority of significant findings emerging for boys. Supporting the immigrant paradox (i.e., that becoming oriented toward US culture is predictive of increased health risks), individualist values predicted greater numbers of oral sex partners and unprotected sex occasions for boys. However, contrary to the immigrant paradox, for boys, both US practices and US identification predicted less heavy drinking, fewer oral and vaginal/anal sex partners, and less unprotected vaginal/anal sex. Ethnic identity (identification with one's heritage culture) predicted greater numbers of sexual partners but negatively predicted unprotected sex. Results indicate a need for multidimensional, multi-domain models of acculturation and suggest that more work is needed to determine the most effective ways to culturally inform prevention programs. PMID:23828449

  6. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  7. How Negative Affectivity Moderates the Relationship between Shocks, Embeddedness and Worker Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Brooks C.; Burton, James P.; Crossley, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated the unfolding model of turnover, job embeddedness theory and affective events theory to build and test a model specifying the relationship between negative shocks, on-the-job embeddedness and important employee behaviors. The results showed that embeddedness mediates the relationship between negative shocks and job search behaviors…

  8. Affective Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior: Linear and Non-linear Moderating Effects of Organizational Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a meta-analytical approach for testing moderating effects, the current study investigated organizational tenure as a moderator in the relation between affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We observed that, across 40 studies (N = 11,416 respondents), the effect size for the relation between…

  9. CENTRAL AMYGDALA LESIONS AFFECT BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC BALANCE DURING STRESS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a bilateral electrolytical lesion of the CEA on the behavioral and sympathetically induced cardiac response in the shock-probe/defensive-burying test have been analyzed in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA failed to affect defensive burying and accompanying tachycardiac response as

  10. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  11. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  12. Affective mentalizing and brain activity at rest in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Caminiti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Some of the observed effects may reflect specific compensatory mechanisms for the atrophic changes involving regions in charge of affective mentalizing. The analysis of specific resting-state networks thus highlights an intermediate level of analysis between abnormal brain structure and impaired behavioral performance in bvFTD, reflecting both dysfunction and compensation mechanisms.

  13. Ethical Ideologies: Do They Affect Shopping Behaviors and Perceptions of Morality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeon; Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2005-01-01

    Counterfeiting is a serious problem facing several industries, including the medical, agricultural, and apparel industries (Bloch, Bush, & Campbell, 1993). The authors investigated whether ethical viewpoints affect perceptions of the morality of particular shopping behaviors, attitudes toward counterfeit products, and intentions to purchase such…

  14. Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

  15. Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Serafini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, brain white matter (WM abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and MDD/suicidal behavior. Microstructural WM abnormalities may be located in neural circuits critically implicated in emotional processes and mood regulation resulting in enhanced vulnerability to psychiatric morbidity. WM abnormalities detected using DTI may contribute to functional deficits and help to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD as well as suicidal behavior. By a clinical point of view, research also suggested that affective temperaments may play a relevant role in the psychopathological characteristics of mood disorders, clinical trajectory of episodes and polarity, long-term outcome and suicidality. Unfortunately, only few studies investigated the association between affective temperaments and WM abnormalities and discussed their possible implications in patients with MDD and suicidal behavior. Using a comprehensive search of Medline database, the aim of the present study was to critically review the current literature on the association between WM alterations as assessed by MRI and DTI techniques, affective temperaments, MDD and suicidal behavior.

  16. Influence of humic acids on the migration behavior of radioactive and non-radioactive substances under conditions close to nature. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich in humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  17. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking. PMID:16262775

  18. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to investigate correlations between the developmental trajectories of adolescents' (N = 497) empathic dispositions and trajectories of their conflict behaviors towards both parents. There were some similarities between the associations of both empathy dimensions with conflict behaviors. Both empathy dimensions were associated with reduced conflict escalation with mothers, and increased problem solving with both parents. However, these associations were consistently stronger for perspective taking than for empathic concern. Furthermore, higher levels of compliance with mothers in early adolescence were uniquely associated with over-time increasing empathic concern. Perspective taking was uniquely associated with decreased withdrawal from conflicts. Perspective taking thus appears to be more strongly associated with a pattern of constructive conflict behaviors. PMID:26760479

  19. Effects of Trauma Intervention on HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Women with Co-Occurring Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…

  20. ACT HEALTHY: A Combined Cognitive-Behavioral Depression and Medication Adherence Treatment for HIV-Infected Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Magidson, Jessica F.; Schuster, Randi M.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The two most common comorbid conditions with HIV are substance use disorders and depression, and individuals with comorbid HIV, depression, and substance dependence face a more chronic and treatment-resistant course. As an example of how to adapt evidence-based approaches to a complex comorbid population, the current case study examined the…

  1. The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children's daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Leonhardt, Anja; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children's daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night's sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children's daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children's affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children's sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time. PMID:27236036

  2. Alterations in affective behavior during the time course of alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayian, Analía G; Busso, María J; Feleder, Carlos; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-09-15

    Alcohol hangover is a temporary state described as the unpleasant next-day effects after binge-like drinking. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. Affective behavior is impaired during the acute phase of alcohol intoxication; however, no reports indicate if similar effects are observed during withdrawal. The aim of this work was to study the time-extension and possible fluctuations in affective behavior during a hangover episode. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8g/kg BW) (hangover group). Anxiety, fear-related behavior and despair phenotype were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2h up to 20h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Also, anhedonia signs and pain perception disabilities were studied. Mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior during 4h and 14h after hangover onset when evaluated by the elevated-plus maze and open field test respectively (phangover animals by the increase of freezing and decrease of line crossings and rearing frequency during 16h after hangover onset (phangover mice during 14h (pHangover mice showed a significant decrease in pain perception when tested by tail immersion test at the beginning of hangover (phangover affective impairments. This study shows the long lasting effects of hangover over the phase of ethanol intoxication. PMID:23850352

  3. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882443

  4. Social environmental factors in Japan affecting the development of proper eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, H; Benkert, K; Takeuchi, H; Hagiwara, N; Sasaki, K; Kanemoto, H

    1999-11-01

    This article summarizes issues related to myofunctional disorders/dysphagia and focuses upon social and economic changes within Japanese culture affecting eating habits and behaviors in children. The authors suggest that unfavorable environmental factors negatively impact upon the acquisition of mastication and swallowing behaviors. The article includes discussion of prior research. Studies indicate that decreased observation of early childhood eating habits, dietary changes with regard to higher consumption of fast food and changes within the family, i.e. busy work schedules, decrease in family mealtimes, combine to incur negative change with regard to orofacial function. PMID:10863452

  5. Dance expertise modulates behavioral and psychophysiological responses to affective body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Gomila, Antoni; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Sivarajah, Nithura; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    The present study shows how motor expertise increases individuals' sensitivity to others' affective body movement. This enhanced sensitivity is evident in the experts' behavior and physiology. Nineteen affective movement experts (professional ballet dancers) and 24 controls watched 96 video clips of emotionally expressive body movements while they performed an affect rating task (subjective response), and their galvanic skin response was recorded (physiological response). The movements in the clips were either sad or happy, and in half of the trials, movements were played in the order in which they are learned (forward presentation), and in the other half, movements were played backward (control condition). Results showed that motor expertise in affective body movement specifically modulated both behavioral and physiological sensitivity to others' affective body movement, and that this sensitivity is particularly strong when movements are shown in the way they are learnt (forward presentation). The evidence is discussed within current theories of proprioceptive arousal feedback and motor simulation accounts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882181

  6. Childhood Trajectories of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Oppositional Behaviors and Prediction of Substance Abuse/Dependence: A 15-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Galéra, Cédric; Genolini, Christophe; Falissard, Bruno; Vitaro, Frank; Richard E Tremblay

    2012-01-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with ADHD are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are two important limits to these studies: a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood sub...

  7. The Effectiveness of Healthy Behavior Training Program in Changing Attitude of Students towards Substance Abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level

    OpenAIRE

    Afsar Khalili S; Zohreh S Chavoshzadeh; Mohammad hasan Radmanesh; Mahdi Mehdi Afkhami A

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was developing the healthy behavior to change the attitude of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level. Method: This research was carried out by two methods of descriptive-analytic and quasi experimental design. First, 60 students of Shahid Beheshti University were selected randomly (of 2000 students) from the University dormitory. Then, half of the students received the developing ...

  8. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  9. The association of both self-reported and behavioral impulsivity with the annual prevalence of substance use among early adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Loredo, Víctor; Fernández Hermida, José Ramón; Fernández Artamendi, Sergio; Carballo Crespo, José Luis; García Cueto, Eduardo; García Rodríguez, Olaya

    2015-01-01

    Background In relation to substance use, Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 14 can be largely classified in four groups, from highest to lowest prevalence: a) No substance use, b) Only alcohol use, c) Alcohol and tobacco use, and d) Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. The aim of the present study is to analyze the possible relationship between impulsivity and the substance-use group to which the young person belongs Methods One thousand three hundred and forty-eight adolescents aged 12 to 14 in no...

  10. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices of negative affect predict cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert A; Twining, Robert C; Jones, Joshua L; Slater, Jennifer M; Grigson, Patricia S; Carelli, Regina M

    2008-03-13

    The motivation to seek cocaine comes in part from a dysregulation of reward processing manifested in dysphoria, or affective withdrawal. Learning is a critical aspect of drug abuse; however, it remains unclear whether drug-associated cues can elicit the emotional withdrawal symptoms that promote cocaine use. Here we report that a cocaine-associated taste cue elicited a conditioned aversive state that was behaviorally and neurophysiologically quantifiable and predicted subsequent cocaine self-administration behavior. Specifically, brief intraoral infusions of a cocaine-predictive flavored saccharin solution elicited aversive orofacial responses that predicted early-session cocaine taking in rats. The expression of aversive taste reactivity also was associated with a shift in the predominant pattern of electrophysiological activity of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons from inhibitory to excitatory. The dynamic nature of this conditioned switch in affect and the neural code reveals a mechanism by which cues may exert control over drug self-administration. PMID:18341996

  11. Nortriptyline mediates behavioral effects without affecting hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersén, Asa; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gruber, Susanne H M;

    2009-01-01

    A prevailing hypothesis is that neurogenesis is reduced in depression and that the common mechanism for antidepressant treatments is to increase it in adult hippocampus. Reduced neurogenesis has been shown in healthy rats exposed to stress, but it has not yet been demonstrated in depressed patients....... Emerging studies now indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can, exert behavioral effects without affecting neurogenesis in mice. Here we extend our previous findings demonstrating that the number of BrdU positive cells in hippocampus was significantly higher in a rat model of depression......, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to the control strain the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). We also show that chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline exerts behavioral effects in the Porsolt forced swim test without affecting hippocampal cell proliferation in the FSL...

  12. Using multiple risk factors to assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective effects of learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, K J

    1994-03-01

    Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. PMID:8189396

  13. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun Mi Kim,1 Sung Yong Park,1 Young In Kim,1 Young Don Son,2 Un-Sun Chung,3,4 Kyung Joon Min,1 Doug Hyun Han1 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 4School Mental Health Resources and Research Center, Kyungpook National University Children’s Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Aim: Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network and the default mode network (DMN have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors.Methods: Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions ­including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors.Results: The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively

  14. Substance abuse in later life.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  15. How Sales Taxes Affect Customer and Firm Behavior: The Role of Search on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Fong, Nathan Minsheng; Simester, Duncan; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    When a multichannel retailer opens its first retail store in a state, the firm is obligated to collect sales taxes on all Internet and catalog orders shipped to that state. This article assesses how opening a store affects Internet and catalog demand. The authors analyze purchase behavior among customers who live far from the retail store but must now pay sales taxes on catalog and Internet purchases. A comparable group of customers in a neighboring state serves as a control. The results show...

  16. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on ...

  17. Effect of citizenship factors behavioral affecting on dimensions of managers' personality in organizational entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Ali VAZIRI, Seyed; SAFARI, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Entrepreneur manager respond to chaos, unrest and environmental uncertainty and try to create a strong strategy even it has natural short period. Furthermore, they provide lack of environmental uncertainty by their innovation in other organizations and they create new opportunity by destruction available opportunities. They are trying to achieve new opportunities sooner than competitors do. This research, studied citizenship factors behavioral affecting on dimensions of managers' pe...

  18. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Prescribing Behaviors, in Iran Pharmaceutical Market by Econometric Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmasebi, Nima; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prescribing behavior of physicians affected by many factors. The present study is aimed at discovering the simultaneous effects of the evaluated factors (including: price, promotion and demographic characteristics of physicians) and quantification of these effects. In order to estimate these effects, Fluvoxamine (an antidepressant drug) was selected and the model was figured out by panel data method in econometrics. We found that insurance and advertisement respectively are the most effective...

  19. Effects of songs with prosocial lyrics on prosocial thoughts, affect, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    "Previous research has shown that exposure to violent media increased aggression-related affect and thoughts, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior as well as decreased prosocial tendencies. The present research examined the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial media promotes prosocial outcomes. Three studies revealed that listening to songs with prosocial (relative to neutral) lyrics increased the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, led to more interpersonal empathy, and fostered ...

  20. CENTRAL AMYGDALA LESIONS AFFECT BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC BALANCE DURING STRESS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, B.; Koolhaas, JM; Bohus, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a bilateral electrolytical lesion of the CEA on the behavioral and sympathetically induced cardiac response in the shock-probe/defensive-burying test have been analyzed in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA failed to affect defensive burying and accompanying tachycardiac response as compared to sham-lesioned controls during the presentation of the electrified shock probe (unconditioned test). However, CEA lesioning attenuated the bradycardiac response and the immobility behav...

  1. A Study on Factors Affecting the Behavioral Intention to use Mobile Shopping Fashion Apps in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinovic, Jelena; Hong, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Mobile shopping is gaining increased attention in the mobile commerce research area. Trends show an increase in the development and usage of online shopping. Existing research has focused on mobile commerce and studied mobile shopping in general. This study addresses the present gap in the literature regarding the acceptance of mobile shopping applications for fashion goods (m-shopping fashion apps), by investigating the factors that affect users’ behavioral intention to use m-shopping fashio...

  2. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT. PMID:19454771

  3. A Model of Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men: Longitudinal Associations of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, Sexual Abuse, and the Coming-Out Process

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviors of young gay and bisexual men must be understood within the context of other health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse), population-specific factors (i.e., the coming-out process and gay-related stress), childhood sexual abuse, and other theoretical factors (e.g., safer sex intentions). The current report proposes and longitudinally examines a model of risk factors for subsequent sexual risk behaviors among young gay and bisexual men in New York City. As hypothesiz...

  4. Investigating Factors Affecting Environmental Behavior of Urban Residents: A Case Study in Tehran City- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kalantari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems such as air and water pollution, urban garbage and climate changes in urban areas are the results of human behavior. Only change in human behavior can reduce these environmental problems. Thus studying attitude and behavior of people is a precondition to change this situation. So the main objective of this study was to find out individual and social factors affecting environmental behavior of urban citizens. To achieve this objective a conceptual framework derived out from review of literature to examine relationships among personal factors, attitude towards environment and environmental behavior. To examine this conceptual model, 1200 individuals of Tehran residents were randomly chosen and interviewed about their environmental behaviors, opinions, knowledge and sources of information on environment. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis, student’s t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA and path analysis by SPSS software. It is emerged from the present study that education and improving problem-based knowledge of Tehran residents can change their environmental attitude and increase their feeling of stress towards environment. These changes in turn improve their preparedness to act friendly with the environment, particularly with the help of environmental legislation. Results of the study showed that environmental behavior of people in urban areas directly and indirectly are under the influence of variables like age, gender, income, education, problem-based knowledge, environmental legislation, environmental attitude, feeling of stress and preparedness to act of the residents. All these together can influence and change people’s behavior to preserve urban environment.

  5. Childhood characteristics associated with stage of substance use of American Indians: Family background, traumatic experiences, and childhood behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connell, Joan M; Novins, Douglas K.; Beals, Janette; Whitesell, Nancy; Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Croy, Calvin D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine childhood characteristics associated with stage of substance use in adulthood in two American Indian (AI) populations. Data were drawn from an epidemiologic study of two AI reservation populations for persons age 18–44 years (n=2070). We used descriptive and multivariate analysis to examine correlates of four mutually exclusive stages of substance use: lifetime abstinence (Stage 0), use of alcohol only (Stage 1A), use of marijuana/inhalants with or w...

  6. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pommy, Jessica M.; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-01-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  7. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  8. [The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact. PMID:23880836

  9. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  10. Principal Factors Affecting China Zero Environmental Risk: Behavior and Area Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find principal factors affecting CZER (China Zero Environmental Risk from behavior and area angle and the related advice can help people to solve environmental problems. So, in this study the factors’ selection, contribution and sequence by correlation, regression and principal component analysis, etc. were studied from behavior and area angle, which is different from the present work only studying individual behavior or individual area. To make sure this study applicable, data were collected by case study and such norms as KMO (KMO refers to Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, etc., were abided by. By this study, principal factors from behavior angle can be ordered by contribution as follows: Production action, market management, living waste disposal, public management, living action and production waste disposal. Principal factors from area angle can be ordered by contribution as follows: Neimenggu, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Qinghai, Zhejiang and Shaanxi. And the related advice is as follows: First, strict surveillance on production of waste from such behaviors as enterprise production and human living action by market management and public management, etc. Secondly, great encouragement to technological innovations friendly with the environment in waste disposal. And thirdly different emphasis of management in different areas, such as natural resources deterioration in Neimenggu and Qinghai, food quality and farming pollution in Jiangxi, industry pollution and water pollution in Shanghai and Zhejiang and pollution of resources excavation and refinement in Shaanxi, etc.

  11. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  12. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child e...

  13. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  14. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    OpenAIRE

    Lemak Christy; Wells Rebecca; D'Aunno Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizati...

  15. Energy sharing and energy feedback: Affective and behavioral reactions to communal energy displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eLeygue

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters and energy displays are being rolled out in many countries to help individuals monitor and reduce their energy usage. However, to date there is little in depth understanding of how they may change behavior. While there is currently a great deal of technical research into developing smart metering, little research has been conducted on how this affects the energy user. This research addresses this gap and explores the user perspective of energy displays when energy is considered as a shared resource. We report an online experiment conducted across the UK examining affective and behavioral responses to energy sharing situations incorporating different types of energy displays. Reactions differed depending on the type of display. In a situation where one person used more than their fair share of energy, displays showing the average amount of usage in the house were associated with feelings of guilt and fear and a decrease in intention to use energy. Displays that identified the person who overused the resource were associated with anger, and direct sanction intentions on those who were overusing energy. Findings are discussed in terms of the smart meter rollout and the potential utility of detailed energy monitoring technologies for behavior change.

  16. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields. PMID:25102927

  17. Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, M.M.; Buerkley, M.A.; Julius, M.L.; Vajda, A.M.; Norris, D.O.; Barber, L.B.; Furlong, E.T.; Schultz, M.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of embryonic and larval exposure to environmentally relevant (ng/L) concentrations of common antidepressants, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, and bupropion (singularly and in mixture) on C-start escape behavior were evaluated in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Embryos (postfertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 d and, after hatching, were allowed to grow in control well water until 12 d old. Similarly, posthatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 d to these compounds. High-speed (1,000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by-frame analysis of latency periods, escape velocities, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 d posthatch, fluoxetine and venlafaxine adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 d posthatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to fluoxetine but were affected by venlafaxine and bupropion exposure. Mixtures of these four antidepressant pharmaceuticals slowed predator avoidance behaviors in larval fathead minnows regardless of the exposure window. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on survival and, ultimately, reproductive fitness provides an avenue to assess the ecological relevance of exposure in an assay of relatively short duration. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  18. Energy literacy: Evaluating knowledge, affect, and behavior of students in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy literacy that can empower people to make thoughtful decisions and take responsible actions is more important as energy shortages have become pressing issues in the world. Energy literacy was measured among a sample of 2400 secondary students involved in a national energy education program in Taiwan. Response patterns related to student background and factors determining energy consumption behaviors were also studied. Energy literacy was high and positive, with greater impact as expected by grade (senior high school students outscored junior high school ones) and there were some effects due to gender and socioeconomic status. Students' performance on energy knowledge was acceptable (over 60% correct across grades) while a notable discrepancy between affect and behavior was identified indicating that there might not be a correspondence between what people say they would do and what they actually do. Energy saving behavior was more closely associated with the affect than other variables. Reasons for the findings and implications for energy education in the future are discussed

  19. Factors Affecting Health-Promoting Behaviors in Nursing Students at a University in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ülkü; Özen, Şükrü; Kahraman, Burcu Bayrak; Bostanoğlu, Hatice

    2016-07-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine factors affecting health-promoting behaviors in nursing students. The sample consisted of 245 students. A questionnaire about factors affecting lifestyle behavior and the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II were used to collect data from 245 nursing students during the spring semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. A significant difference was found between students with and without diagnosed health problems in terms of their mean scores on the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II subscales of health responsibility, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relations, as well as their total mean scores (p < .05). The exercise, nutrition, spiritual growth, and stress management subscale scores of those students regularly going for health checks were determined to be significantly higher than those of the students who did not obtain regular health checks. Students' healthy lifestyle behaviors were generally found to be at the medium level. This study provides evidence of the need for interventions to help nurses in Turkey. PMID:25632948

  20. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior. PMID:26209926

  1. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  2. Questioning the Link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  3. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  4. Does predation risk affect mating behavior? An experimental test in dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Franklin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: One of the most important trade-offs for many animals is that between survival and reproduction. This is particularly apparent when mating increases the risk of predation, either by increasing conspicuousness, reducing mobility or inhibiting an individual's ability to detect predators. Individuals may mitigate the risk of predation by altering their reproductive behavior (e.g. increasing anti-predator responses to reduce conspicuousness. The degree to which individuals modulate their reproductive behavior in relation to predation risk is difficult to predict because both the optimal investment in current and future reproduction (due to life-history strategies and level of predation risk may differ between the sexes and among species. Here, we investigate the effect of increased predation risk on the reproductive behavior of dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica. RESULTS: Females, but not males, showed a substantial increase in the number of inks (an anti-predator behavior before mating commenced in the presence of a predator (sand flathead Platycephalus bassensis. However, predation risk did not affect copulation duration, the likelihood of mating, female anti-predator behavior during or after mating or male anti-predator behavior at any time. CONCLUSIONS: Inking is a common anti-predator defense in cephalopods, thought to act like a smokescreen, decoy or distraction. Female dumpling squid are probably using this form of defense in response to the increase in predation risk prior to mating. Conversely, males were undeterred by the increase in predation risk. A lack of change in these variables may occur if the benefit of completing mating outweighs the risk of predation. Prioritizing current reproduction, even under predation risk, can occur when the chance of future reproduction is low, there is substantial energetic investment into mating, or the potential fitness payoffs of mating are high.

  5. Power quality affects teacher wellbeing and student behavior in three Minnesota Schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Poor power quality (dirty electricity) is ubiquitous especially in schools with fluorescent lights and computers. Previous studies have shown a relationship between power quality and student behavior/teacher health. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of power line filters to reduce dirty electricity in a school environment and to document changes in health and behavior among teachers and students. Method: We installed Graham Stetzer filters and dummy filters and measured power quality in three Minnesota Schools. Teachers completed a daily questionnaire regarding their health and the behavior of their students for an 8-week period. Teachers were unaware of which filters were installed at any one time (single blind study). Results: Dirty electricity was reduced by more than 90% in the three schools and during this period teacher health improved as did student behavior in the middle/elementary schools. Headaches, general weakness, dry eyes/mouth, facial flushing, asthma, skin irritations, overall mood including depression and anxiety improved significantly among staff. Of the 44 teachers who participated 64% were better, 30% were worse, and 6% did not change. Behavior of high school students did not improve but elementary/middle school students were more active in class; more responsive, more focused; had fewer health complaints; and had a better overall learning experience. Conclusions: Dirty electricity in schools may be adversely affecting wellbeing of teachers and behavior of their students, especially younger students in middle and elementary school. Power line filters improve power quality and may also protect those who are sensitive to this energy. Work on electric and magnetic field metrics with and without Stetzer filters urgently needs to be carried out to determine just what characteristics of the dirty electricity may be interacting with the people

  6. Power quality affects teacher wellbeing and student behavior in three Minnesota Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havas, Magda [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: mhavas@trentu.ca; Olstad, Angela [Melrose-Mindoro Elementary School, N181 State Road 108, Melrose WI, USA 54642 (United States)], E-mail: olstad@mel-min.k12.wi.us

    2008-09-01

    Background: Poor power quality (dirty electricity) is ubiquitous especially in schools with fluorescent lights and computers. Previous studies have shown a relationship between power quality and student behavior/teacher health. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of power line filters to reduce dirty electricity in a school environment and to document changes in health and behavior among teachers and students. Method: We installed Graham Stetzer filters and dummy filters and measured power quality in three Minnesota Schools. Teachers completed a daily questionnaire regarding their health and the behavior of their students for an 8-week period. Teachers were unaware of which filters were installed at any one time (single blind study). Results: Dirty electricity was reduced by more than 90% in the three schools and during this period teacher health improved as did student behavior in the middle/elementary schools. Headaches, general weakness, dry eyes/mouth, facial flushing, asthma, skin irritations, overall mood including depression and anxiety improved significantly among staff. Of the 44 teachers who participated 64% were better, 30% were worse, and 6% did not change. Behavior of high school students did not improve but elementary/middle school students were more active in class; more responsive, more focused; had fewer health complaints; and had a better overall learning experience. Conclusions: Dirty electricity in schools may be adversely affecting wellbeing of teachers and behavior of their students, especially younger students in middle and elementary school. Power line filters improve power quality and may also protect those who are sensitive to this energy. Work on electric and magnetic field metrics with and without Stetzer filters urgently needs to be carried out to determine just what characteristics of the dirty electricity may be interacting with the people.

  7. PATTERN OF ROOTING AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF SOME SPECIES OF INSECTICIDAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE AS AFFECTED BY GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, E.A; Aiyelari, O..P; Agele , S.O

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of promoting substances on bud retention, rooting and plantlets survival of rooted cuttings on selected tree species using growth promoting substances. Stem cuttings were treated with rooting-promoting substances, planted in plastic pots filled with top soil and arranged using a completely randomized design (CRD) in a screen house. Stem cuttings of pepper fruit, guava, bush mango and cashew were obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Feder...

  8. Self-mutilative behaviors in male substance-dependent inpatients and relationship with anger and aggression: mediator effect of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Cınar, Ozgul; Evren, Bilge; Celik, Selime

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of self-mutilation (SM) with anger and aggression in male substance-dependent inpatients. Also, we wanted to evaluate the mediator effect of childhood trauma on these relationships while controlling variables such as age, substance of dependence (alcohol/drug), and negative effect. Participants were consecutively admitted 200 male substance-dependent inpatients. Patients were investigated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Reports, the Buss-Perry's Aggression Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Rate of being married, current age, and age onset of regular substance use were lower, whereas being unemployed and history of childhood trauma (HCT) were higher in group with SM (n = 124, or 62.0%). Higher mean scale scores were found in SM group. Predictors of SM were being younger, impaired anger control, and physical aggression in logistic regression model. Being younger and the outward expression of anger (anger-out) predicted SM in the subgroup of patients without HCT, whereas being younger, severity of anger, and the inward expression of anger (anger-in) predicted SM in the subgroup of patients with HCT. Thus, to reduce self-mutilative behavior among substance-dependent patients, clinicians must improve anger control, particularly in younger patients. Type of strategy for coping with anger, which must be worked on, may differ in different subgroup patients, that is, focusing anger toward self among those with HCT, whereas anger toward others among those without. PMID:21632037

  9. Affective-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Woolfolk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an individually administered form of cognitive behavioral treatment for fibromyalgia. In an additive design, 76 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to either the experimental treatment (affective-cognitive behavioral therapy, 10 individual sessions, one per week administered concurrently with treatment-as-usual or to an unaugmented treatment-as-usual condition. Statistical analysis conducted at the end of treatment (3 months after the baseline assessment and at a followup (9 months after the baseline assessment indicated that the patients receiving the experimental treatment reported less pain and overall better functioning than control patients, both at posttreatment and at followup. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  10. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of 15–49 Age Group Women and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Saliha Altiparmak; Adalet Koca Kutlu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This study was planned to examine the healthy lifestyle behaviors and factors that affect women who are between 15-49 years old. METHOD: The study which is a cross sectional and descriptive was conducted on women (n=300) who are 15-49 age group and accepted to take in place of study date of June-August 2008. The sample of the study is a cluster sampling method. There were 10 families in each cluster and total 30 cluster. The families cluster were determined via systematic randomize sampl...

  11. The moderating role of distress tolerance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and suicidal behavior among trauma-exposed substance users in residential treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Bagge, Courtney L.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is associated with greater risk for suicidal behavior than either disorder alone. Research highlights the relevance of PTSD symptoms in particular to suicide risk within this population. Research has also provided support for an association between distress tolerance (DT) and both PTSD symptoms and suicidal behavior. This study examined the role of DT in the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and suicidal behavior in a sample of 164 SUD inpatients with a history of Criterion A traumatic exposure. Results indicated that DT moderated the relationship between PTSD symptoms (overall, re-experiencing, and hyperarousal) and medically-attended suicide attempts, with the magnitude of the relationship increasing at higher levels of DT. PMID:22852782

  12. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  13. Part-Time Work and Hurried Adolescence: The Links between Work Intensity, Social Activities, Health Behaviors, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Deborah J.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' part-time work intensity and its relation to participation in various activities as well as substance use. Two theoretical perspectives are considered: the "time trade-off perspective"; and "the precocious development perspective." Results provide evidence for a combination of both perspectives. (Author)

  14. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  15. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-06-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota-inflammasome-brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  16. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy–Based Text Messaging Intervention Versus Medical Management for HIV-Infected Substance Users: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kevin; Ybarra, Michele L; Reback, Cathy J; Rawson, Richard A; Chokron Garneau, Helene; Chavez, Kathryn; Venegas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for addictions and related conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are underutilized. Obstacles to implementation of CBT in clinical settings include limited availability of quality training, supervision, and certification in CBT for clinicians; high rates of clinician turnover and high caseloads; and limited qualifications of the workforce to facilitate CBT expertise. Objective Mobile phone–based delivery of CBT, if demonstrated to be feasible and effective, could be transformative in broadening its application and improving the quality of addiction treatment. No experimental interventions that deliver CBT targeting both drug use and medication adherence using text messaging have been previously reported; as such, the objective of this study is to develop and test an SMS-based treatment program for HIV-positive adults with comorbid substance use disorders. Methods With user input, we developed a 12-week CBT-based text messaging intervention (TXT-CBT) targeting antiretroviral (ART) adherence, risk behaviors, and drug use in a population of HIV-infected substance users. Results The intervention has been developed and is presently being tested in a pilot randomized clinical trial. Results will be reported later this year. Conclusions This investigation will yield valuable knowledge about the utility of a cost-effective, readily deployable text messaging behavioral intervention for HIV-infected drug users. PMID:27341852

  17. Putative involvement of the nitrergic system on the consolidation, but not initiation, of behavioral sensitization after conspecific alarm substance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Monica Gomes; Silva, Suéllen de Nazaré Dos Santos; Silva, Rhayra Xavier do Carmo; Oliveira, Karen Renata Herculano Matos; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2015-12-01

    Stressful manipulations can sensitize the behavior of an organism, increasing anxiety-like behavior after a delay; this long-term stress sensitization can represent the pathophysiological basis of trauma- and stress-related disorders (TRSDs), of which the most prevalent is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A role for the glutamate-nitric oxide pathway in this sensitization is implied by behavioral, neurophysiological and genomic data on different species. Here, we report on the long-term sensitization of anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish and the possible participation of nitric oxide in this process. Zebrafish exposed to a conspecific alarm substance (AS) show increased anxiety-like behavior at least 24h after stimulus delivery. Blocking nitric oxide synthesis with l-NAME (5mg/kg) 30min, but not 90min, after AS exposure blocks the sensitization of scototaxis and risk assessment, while treatment 90min after exposure blocks the sensitization of thigmotaxis and erratic swimming; l-NAME was not effective when administered 30min before AS exposure. These data suggest a participation of nitric oxide in the consolidation, but not in the initiation, of behavioral sensitization after predator threat. PMID:26257339

  18. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  19. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field. However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. The model was assessed based on the data collected from 238 participants using a survey questionnaire. Finally regression analysis was used on data in order to test hypothesizes of study. This study can be considered as an applied research from purpose perspective and descriptive-survey with regard to the nature and method.

  20. Chemosensory cues affect amygdaloid neurogenesis and alter behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Jia, X; Curtis, J T; Meredith, M; Wang, Z X

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of pheromonal exposure on adult neurogenesis and revealed the role of the olfactory pathways on adult neurogenesis and behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Subjects were injected with a cell proliferation marker [5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] and then exposed to their own soiled bedding or bedding soiled by a same- or opposite-sex conspecific. Exposure to opposite-sex bedding increased BrdU labeling in the amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus (DG), of female, but not male, voles, indicating a sex-, stimulus-, and brain region-specific effect. The removal of the main olfactory bulbs or lesioning of the vomeronasal organ (VNOX) in females reduced BrdU labeling in the AMY and DG, and inhibited the male bedding-induced BrdU labeling in the AMY, revealing the importance of an intact olfactory pathway for amygdaloid neurogenesis. VNOX increased anxiety-like behavior and altered social preference, but it did not affect social recognition memory in female voles. VNOX also reduced the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that co-expressed the neuronal marker TuJ1 in the AMY, but not the DG. Together, our data indicate the importance of the olfactory pathway in mediating brain plasticity in the limbic system as well as its role in behavior. PMID:24641515

  1. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  2. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  3. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  4. Factors Affecting Driver Yielding Behavior at a Mid-Block Zebra Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebra crossing is one of an important pedestrian facility but a number of mid-block zebra crossings for pedestrians in Thailand are not yet utilized. Although the law requires drivers to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians at crossing, within a marked crosswalk in Thailand, a number of drivers still will not yield for a pedestrian. This situation affects the safety of pedestrians and needs urgent attention of the relevant authorities/agencies to improve the situation, before the zebra crossings becomes a safety hazard. The objective of this paper is to investigate the driver behavior at zebra crossings and the factors that are affecting driver yield behavior are also explored. The questionnaire was produced by a Google Form and the drivers were recruited using a snowball sampling technique via a Facebook and Application LINE. Friends and family of the researcher were invited to complete the survey via Facebook and Application LINE and were also asked to pass on the questionnaire to their friends and family. A total of 445 people completed the survey. The descriptive statistics and the logistic regression were employed for analysis. The binary logit model was used with six attributes: age, sex, education, experience, type of vehicle, and knowledge of pedestrian’s right-of-way law was developed. The results indicated that more than 50% of drivers do not have an understanding of the pedestrian’s right-of-way law. The developed model revealed that the yielding behavior of the driver depends on age, education, and knowledge of the pedestrian right-of-way law. The odd number of knowledge of the pedestrian rightof- way law is 1.588. For this reason, educating the drivers to the pedestrian right-of-way law is a beginning point to improve the safety for pedestrians at a zebra crossing in Thailand.

  5. THE COMPARISON OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SELF-HARM BEHAVIOUR IN STIMULANTS/NARCOTIC SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Mirsoleimani

    2009-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.

  6. EFFECT OF JOB SKILLS TRAINING ON EMPLOYMENT AND JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN AN AMERICAN INDIAN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, K.; Pallas, D; Forcehimes, A.A.; Houck, J. M.; Bogenschutz, M. P.; Keyser-Marcus, L.; Svikis, D

    2010-01-01

    Employment difficulties are common among American Indian individuals in substance abuse treatment. To address this problem, the Southwest Node of NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network conducted a single-site adaptation of its national Job Seekers Workshop study in an American Indian treatment program, Na’Nizhoozhi Center (NCI). 102 (80% men, 100% American Indian) participants who were in residential treatment and currently unemployed were randomized to (1) a three session, manualized program (Job se...

  7. Imaging Imageability: Behavioral Effects and Neural Correlates of Its Interaction with Affect and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Chris F.; Cribben, Ivor; Cummine, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The construct of imageability refers to the extent to which a word evokes a tangible sensation. Previous research (Westbury et al., 2013) suggests that the behavioral effects attributed to a word's imageability can be largely or wholly explained by two objective constructs, contextual density and estimated affect. Here, we extend these previous findings in two ways. First, we show that closely matched stimuli on the three measures of contextual density, estimated affect, and human-judged imageability show a three-way interaction in explaining variance in LD RTs, but that imagebility accounts for no additional variance after contextual density and estimated affect are entered first. Secondly, we demonstrate that the loci and functional connectivity (via graphical models) of the brain regions implicated in processing the three variables during that task are largely over-lapping and similar. These two lines of evidence support the conclusion that the effect usually attributed to human-judged imageability is largely or entirely due to the effects of other correlated measures that are directly computable. PMID:27471455

  8. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  9. Surface coating affects behavior of metallic nanoparticles in a biological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurašin, Darija Domazet; Ćurlin, Marija; Capjak, Ivona; Crnković, Tea; Lovrić, Marija; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Silver (AgNPs) and maghemite, i.e., superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are promising candidates for new medical applications, which implies the need for strict information regarding their physicochemical characteristics and behavior in a biological environment. The currently developed AgNPs and SPIONs encompass a myriad of sizes and surface coatings, which affect NPs properties and may improve their biocompatibility. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of surface coating on colloidal stability and behavior of AgNPs and SPIONs in modelled biological environments using dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering techniques, as well as transmission electron microscopy to visualize the behavior of the NP. Three dispersion media were investigated: ultrapure water (UW), biological cell culture medium without addition of protein (BM), and BM supplemented with common serum protein (BMP). The obtained results showed that different coating agents on AgNPs and SPIONs produced different stabilities in the same biological media. The combination of negative charge and high adsorption strength of coating agents proved to be important for achieving good stability of metallic NPs in electrolyte-rich fluids. Most importantly, the presence of proteins provided colloidal stabilization to metallic NPs in biological fluids regardless of their chemical composition, surface structure and surface charge. In addition, an assessment of AgNP and SPION behavior in real biological fluids, rat whole blood (WhBl) and blood plasma (BlPl), revealed that the composition of a biological medium is crucial for the colloidal stability and type of metallic NP transformation. Our results highlight the importance of physicochemical characterization and stability evaluation of metallic NPs in a variety of biological systems including as many NP properties as possible. PMID:26977382

  10. Vessel noise affects beaked whale behavior: results of a dedicated acoustic response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement. PMID:22880022

  11. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Trust in the Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: a Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The current paper develops a conceptual framework to investigate the role of the two bases of trust (cognitive and affective), and foci of trust (supervisor and management) in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. The purpose of the current paper is to propose a framework for the multi dimensionality of trust­cognitive and affective trust, in mediating the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. It...

  12. Somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive intramural nerve structures of the human large intestine affected by carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kaleczyc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arrangement and chemical coding of enteric nerve structures in the human large intestine affected by cancer. Tissue samples comprising all layers of the intestinal wall were collected during surgery form both morphologically unchanged and pathologically altered segments of the intestine (n=15, and fixed by immersion in buffered paraformaldehyde solution. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5 and their chemical coding using antibodies against somatostatin (SOM, substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. The microscopic observations revealed distinct morphological differences in the enteric nerve system structure between the region adjacent to the cancer invaded area and the intact part of the intestine. In general, infiltration of the cancer tissue resulted in the gradual (depending on the grade of invasion first decomposition and reduction to final partial or complete destruction and absence of the neuronal elements. A comparative analysis of immunohistochemically labeled sections (from the unchanged and pathologically altered areas revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of CGRP-positive neurons and nerve fibres in both submucous and myenteric plexuses in the transitional zone between morphologically unchanged and cancer-invaded areas. In this zone, a decrease was also observed in the density of SP-positive nerve fibres in all intramural plexuses. Conversely, the investigations demonstrated statistically insignificant differences in number of SP- and SOM-positive neurons and a similar density of SOM-positive nerve fibres in the plexuses of the intact and pathologically changed areas. The differentiation between the potential adaptive changes in ENS or destruction of its elements by cancer invasion should be

  13. Lameness Affects Cow Feeding But Not Rumination Behavior as Characterized from Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Vivi M.; Nielsen, Birte L.; Robert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Konka, Jakub; Michie, Craig; Friggens, Nicolas C.

    2016-01-01

    Using automatic sensor data, this is the first study to characterize individual cow feeding and rumination behavior simultaneously as affected by lameness. A group of mixed-parity, lactating Holstein cows were loose-housed with free access to 24 cubicles and 12 automatic feed stations. Cows were milked three times/day. Fresh feed was delivered once daily. During 24 days with effectively 22 days of data, 13,908 feed station visits and 7,697 rumination events obtained from neck-mounted accelerometers on 16 cows were analyzed. During the same period, cows were locomotion scored on four occasions and categorized as lame (n = 9) or not lame (n = 7) throughout the study. Rumination time, number of rumination events, feeding time, feeding frequency, feeding rate, feed intake, and milk yield were calculated per day, and coefficients of variation were used to estimate variation between and within cows. Based on daily sums, using each characteristic as response, the effects of lameness and stage of lactation were tested in a mixed model. With rumination time as response, each of the four feeding characteristics, milk yield, and lameness were tested in a second mixed model. On a visit basis, effects of feeding duration, lameness, and milk yield on feed intake were tested in a third mixed model. Overall, intra-individual variation was <15% and inter-individual variation was up to 50%. Lameness introduced more inter-individual variation in feeding characteristics (26–50%) compared to non-lame cows (17–29%). Lameness decreased daily feeding time and daily feeding frequency, but increased daily feeding rate. Interestingly, lameness did not affect daily rumination behaviors, fresh matter intake, or milk yield. On a visit basis, a high feeding rate was associated with a higher feed intake, a relationship that was exacerbated in the lame cows. In conclusion, cows can be characterized in particular by their feeding behavior, and lame cows differ from their non

  14. What Affects Academic Functioning in Secondary Special Education Students with Serious Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…

  15. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  17. Interaction between uranium and humic acid (II): complexation, precipitation and migration behavior of U(VI) in the presence of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexation, precipitation, and migration behavior of uranium in the presence of humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA) were investigated by cation exchange, ultrafiltration and dynamic experiment, respectively. The results showed that (i) complex equilibrium between the uranium and humic substances was achieved at approximately 72 h, (ii) the coordination number varied from 1:1 to 1:2 (U(VI): humic acid) as pH increased from 3 to 6; and (iii), while the complex stability constant decreased when temperature increased, but increased with pH value. We found that the precipitation of uranyl could only be observed in presence of HA, and the precipitation was influenced by conditions, such as pH, uranium concentration, temperature, and the HA concentration. The maximum precipitation proportion up to 60% could be achieved in the condition of 40 mg/L HA solution at pH 6. We further observed that the migration behavior of uranium in soil in the presence of humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA) was different from that in the presence of inorganic colloid, and the effect of humic substances (HS) was limited. (authors)

  18. Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and early adolescent substance use: a test of a latent variable interaction and conditional indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Matthew D; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J

    2014-09-01

    Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however, findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% women, 83% White) to test a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was tested as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence. PMID:25134030

  19. Does parental mediation of media influence child outcomes? A meta-analysis on media time, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Kevin M; Coyne, Sarah M; Rasmussen, Eric E; Hawkins, Alan J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Erickson, Sage E; Memmott-Elison, Madison K

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined how parental mediation of media (restrictive mediation, active mediation, and coviewing) influenced child outcomes. Three meta-analyses, 1 for each type of mediation, were conducted on a total of 57 studies. Each analysis assessed the effectiveness of parental mediation on 4 pertinent child outcomes: media use, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior. The overall results indicated small, but significant relationships between child outcomes and restrictive mediation (r+ = -.06), and coviewing (r+ = .09). Overall active mediation was nonsignificant, though active mediation was individually related to lower levels of aggression (r+ = -.08), sexual behavior (r+ = -.06), and substance use (r+ = -.11). This analysis revealed that parents may have the ability to mitigate some of the adverse effects of the media by using certain mediation strategies. Overall, a cooperative effort from the communication and parenting fields is necessary for a comprehensive analysis of parental mediation as well as a disentanglement of the various parental mediation measures. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26914217

  20. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21275336

  1. Does a Permissive Workplace Substance Use Climate Affect Employees Who Do Not Use Alcohol and Drugs at Work? A U.S. National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to begin exploring the relations of multiple dimensions of workplace substance use climate (substance availability, workplace descriptive norms, and workplace injunctive norms) to perceived workplace safety, work strain, and employee morale among employees who do not use alcohol or drugs at work. Data were collected from a probability sample of employed adults in the U.S. (N = 2051) who do not engage in workplace alcohol or drug use. The results showed that all thre...

  2. Sexual compulsivity, state affect, and sexual risk behavior in a daily diary study of gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A; Mustanski, Brian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Researchers have identified a strong link between sexual compulsivity (SC) and risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Meanwhile, affect/mood has also been connected with negative sexual health outcomes (sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] transmission, sexual risk, sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol). Given that SC is characterized by marked distress around one's own sexual behavior, affect may play a central role in SC and HIV risk behavior. Data were taken from the Pillow Talk Project, a pilot study conducted in 2008-2009 with 50 highly sexually active MSM (9 or more male sex partners, ≤ 90 days), of which half displayed SC symptoms and half did not. Forty-seven men completed a daily diary online for 30 days (n = 1,060 diary days), reporting on their sexual behavior and concurrent affect: positive activation, negative activation, anxious arousal, and sexual activation. We conducted HLM analyses using daily affect (Level 1, within subjects) and SC and HIV status (Level 2, between subjects) to predict sexual behavior outcomes. Increased negative activation (characterized by fear, sadness, anger, and disgust) was associated with reduced sexual risk behavior, but less so among sexually compulsive MSM. Sexual activation was associated with increased sexual risk taking, but less so among sexually compulsive MSM. Anxious arousal was associated with increased sexual behavior, but not necessarily sexual risk taking. Findings indicate that affect plays key roles in sexual behavior and sexual risk taking; however, the association between affect and behavior may be different for sexually compulsive and non-sexually compulsive MSM. PMID:20853934

  3. Sexual behavior in a cohort of patient affected by fibromyalgia and/or vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ghizzani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, negatively impacts sexuality by provoking dispareunia, and loss of desire and of dyadic gratification. Chronic pain syndromes tend to associate and FM women have a higher probability to develop vulvodynia than women not affected by fibromyalgia. Vulvodynia, characterized by burning pain that interferes with sexual penetration, is classified as Genitopelvic/Penetration Disorders in DSM 5. The association between Fibromyalgia and vulvodynia is difficult to recognize because patients tend to attribute all symptoms to disease spread and not think that dyspareunia may have different origins. To establish the necessary criteria for the differential diagnosis between the two syndromes, we evaluated the characteristics of dyspareunia and sexual behavior of fibromyalgia patients versus vulvodynia patients and we found significant differences on the onset of burning pain, orgasmic capability, and sexual frequency.

  4. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. PMID:26584611

  5. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  6. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  7. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (Paircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  8. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qing DI; Bing ZHOU; Zheng-guang; LI, Qi-li LIN

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms,in this study,we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d.For comparison,we also used unexposed control rats.Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (LwEcPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups.We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD).We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals.After 29 d of airport noise exposure,the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d.In conclusion,exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors,plasma NE levels,and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  9. Reinforcements affect mechanical properties and wear behaviors of WC clad layer by gas tungsten arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► WC particles react completely with the steel matrix during the GTAW process. ► The same specimen has different morphologies under the SEM and OM. ► The evolution of this microstructure is proposed. ► Fe3W3C and M7C3 phases clearly affected the hardness and wear performance. -- Abstract: This work deals with the surface analysis, mechanical properties and wear performances of the clad layer, which is made from tungsten carbide (WC) powders on SKD61 die steel by the gas tungsten arc welding method. According to the experimental results, due to the high hardness and elastic modulus reinforcements (Fe3W3C and M7C3) existing in the WC clad layer, the WC clad specimen has excellent wear performance at different sliding speeds. According to the wear analysis, wear behaviors of the WC clad layer are two-body abrasion and oxidation wear. In addition, oxidation wear dominates the wear behaviors of the SKD61 die steel specimen at different sliding speeds.

  10. Population sex-ratio affecting behavior and physiology of overwintering bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipari, Saana; Haapakoski, Marko; Klemme, Ines; Palme, Rupert; Sundell, Janne; Ylönen, Hannu

    2016-05-15

    Many boreal rodents are territorial during the breeding season but during winter become social and aggregate for more energy efficient thermoregulation. Communal winter nesting and social interactions are considered to play an important role for the winter survival of these species, yet the topic is relatively little explored. Females are suggested to be the initiators of winter aggregations and sometimes reported to survive better than males. This could be due to the higher social tolerance observed in overwintering females than males. Hormonal status could also affect winter behavior and survival. For instance, chronic stress can have a negative effect on survival, whereas high gonadal hormone levels, such as testosterone, often induce aggressive behavior. To test if the winter survival of females in a boreal rodent is better than that of males, and to assess the role of females in the winter aggregations, we generated bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations of three different sex ratios (male-biased, female-biased and even density) under semi-natural conditions. We monitored survival, spatial behavior and hormonal status (stress and testosterone) during two winter months. We observed no significant differences in survival between the sexes or among populations with differing sex-ratios. The degree of movement area overlap was used as an indicator of social tolerance and potential communal nesting. Individuals in male biased populations showed a tendency to be solitary, whereas in female biased populations there was an indication of winter aggregation. Females living in male-biased populations had higher stress levels than the females from the other populations. The female-biased sex-ratio induced winter breeding and elevated testosterone levels in males. Thus, our results suggest that the sex-ratio of the overwintering population can lead to divergent overwintering strategies in bank voles. PMID:26976741

  11. The Role of Affect in the Maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa: Evidence from a Naturalistic Assessment of Momentary Behaviors and Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B.; le Grange, Daniel; Simonich, Heather K.; Cao, Li; Lavender, Jason M.; Gordon, Kathryn H.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship of affect and eating disorder behavior in anorexia nervosa (AN) using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were 118 adult females recruited at three sites from eating disorder treatment centers and community advertisements. All participants met full DSM-IV criteria or sub-threshold criteria for AN. Participants were provided handheld computers and asked to report positive affect, negative affect, loss of control (LOC) eating, purging, exerc...

  12. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  13. Combat PTSD and implicit behavioral tendencies for positive affective stimuli: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Nicole Clausen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prior cognitive research in PTSD has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach or pushed (avoid a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences. Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post-hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli.Conclusion: PTSD severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic approach-avoidance tendencies.

  14. Combat PTSD and Implicit Behavioral Tendencies for Positive Affective Stimuli: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ashley N.; Youngren, Westley; Sisante, Jason-Flor V.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Taylor, Charles; Aupperle, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cognitive research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the approach-avoidance task (AAT), Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach) or pushed (avoid) a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences). Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli. Conclusion: Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic

  15. The interactive role of working alliance and counselor-client interpersonal behaviors in adolescent substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Auerbach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explored the relationship between client and counselor perceptions of the working alliance and the interpersonal relationship dimensions of affiliation and control, and evaluated the relationship of perceptions of the alliance and of client and counselor interpersonal reactions to each other to client outcome after 3-6 months of treatment for substance abuse. Clients were 39 adolescents. Client and counselor ratings of the working alliance (using the Working Alliance Inventory-WAI and interpersonal appraisals of each other (using the Impact Message Inventory Circumplex-IMI-C were obtained during the second week of treatment. Outcome data using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN and the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS were obtained during the second week of treatment and again after three months and six months of treatment. Interpersonally the predominant impact clients and counselors had on each other was friendliness. For both clients and counselors feelings of affiliation with their counterpart was the relationship dimension most strongly associated with the perception of a working alliance. These findings, and significant associations obtained between WAI and IMI measures and outcome measures, have implications for future research on the role of alliance and interpersonal variables in substance abuse clients¿ response to treatment.

  16. Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy literacy, which encompasses broad content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral characteristics, will empower people to make appropriate energy-related choices and embrace changes in the way we harness and consume energy. Energy literacy was measured with a written questionnaire completed by 3708 secondary students in New York State, USA. Results indicate that students are concerned about energy problems (affective subscale mean 73% of the maximum attainable score), yet relatively low cognitive (42% correct) and behavioral (65% of the maximum) scores suggest that students may lack the knowledge and skills they need to effectively contribute toward solutions. High school (HS) students scored significantly better than middle school (MS) students on the cognitive subscale; gains were greatest on topics included in NY State educational standards, and less on topics related to 'practical' energy knowledge such as ways to save energy. Despite knowledge gains, there was a significant drop in energy conservation behavior between the MS and HS students. Intercorrelations between groups of questions indicate energy-related behaviors are more strongly related to affect than to knowledge. These findings underscore the need for education that improves energy literacy by impacting student attitudes, values and behaviors, as well as broad content knowledge. - Research highlights: → Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State, US, was measured with a written survey. → Students scored 42%, 65%, and 73% (out of 100%) on cognitive, affective, and behavioral subscales. → HS students scored higher on cognitive, but lower on behavioral questions than MS students. → Results suggest energy-related behaviors more closely related to affective factors than to knowledge. → Study underscores importance of influencing attitudes/values to realize energy-related behavioral change.

  17. Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWaters, Jan E., E-mail: dewaters@clarkson.ed [Clarkson University, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States); Powers, Susan E. [Clarkson University, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy literacy, which encompasses broad content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral characteristics, will empower people to make appropriate energy-related choices and embrace changes in the way we harness and consume energy. Energy literacy was measured with a written questionnaire completed by 3708 secondary students in New York State, USA. Results indicate that students are concerned about energy problems (affective subscale mean 73% of the maximum attainable score), yet relatively low cognitive (42% correct) and behavioral (65% of the maximum) scores suggest that students may lack the knowledge and skills they need to effectively contribute toward solutions. High school (HS) students scored significantly better than middle school (MS) students on the cognitive subscale; gains were greatest on topics included in NY State educational standards, and less on topics related to 'practical' energy knowledge such as ways to save energy. Despite knowledge gains, there was a significant drop in energy conservation behavior between the MS and HS students. Intercorrelations between groups of questions indicate energy-related behaviors are more strongly related to affect than to knowledge. These findings underscore the need for education that improves energy literacy by impacting student attitudes, values and behaviors, as well as broad content knowledge. - Research highlights: {yields} Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State, US, was measured with a written survey. {yields} Students scored 42%, 65%, and 73% (out of 100%) on cognitive, affective, and behavioral subscales. {yields} HS students scored higher on cognitive, but lower on behavioral questions than MS students. {yields} Results suggest energy-related behaviors more closely related to affective factors than to knowledge. {yields} Study underscores importance of influencing attitudes/values to realize energy-related behavioral change.

  18. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:9818990

  19. The Comparison of Neuro Behavioral Activity Mechanisms between Substance Abuse Sufferers under Maintenance Treatment and Non-Sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, H; S. Mortazavi; M Ghorbani; Ebrahimi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed at comparing preventive behavioral mechanisms behavioral tendencies, and the clash between drug users under maintenance treatmentandnon-users. Method: It was a causal-comparative study. All addicts of Esfahan city who had referred to one of the drug quitting centers constituted the study population. The selected sample consisted of 50drug users under maintenance treatment and 50non-users who were selected by convenience sampling. Gray- Wilson Personality Qu...

  20. PATTERN OF ROOTING AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF SOME SPECIES OF INSECTICIDAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE AS AFFECTED BY GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi, E.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of promoting substances on bud retention, rooting and plantlets survival of rooted cuttings on selected tree species using growth promoting substances. Stem cuttings were treated with rooting-promoting substances, planted in plastic pots filled with top soil and arranged using a completely randomized design (CRD in a screen house. Stem cuttings of pepper fruit, guava, bush mango and cashew were obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The experiments were conducted in 2010. The effects of growth promoting substances namely indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA applied 50 µM concentration and coconut water (50% dilution were evaluated on adventitious root formation, shoot growth (bud retention and survival of plantlets of hard- to semi-hardwood cuttings of tested tree species. The effects of growth promoting substances were significant on emergence of plantlets (rooting, growth and survival of plantlets. Number of sprouts (plantlets produced were highest in guava and pepper fruit followed by bush mango and cashew. The cuttings from guava and pepper fruit treated with coconut water and NAA promoted the survival of plantlets. Coconut water and NAA were found better than IBA and IAA in terms of bud retention and rooting, leaf development and survival of plantlets. In most of the tested species, wilting of leaves commenced 6 weeks after planting (WAP and attained 100% mortality thereafter except for pepper fruit cuttings dipped in coconut water. The treatments modified the rooting response among species by promoting percentages of rooting, reduction in bud abscission and plantlet survival. The results affirmed the possibility of propagating plantlets from stem cuttings of the tested species using growth promoting substances.

  1. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of 15–49 Age Group Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Altiparmak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was planned to examine the healthy lifestyle behaviors and factors that affect women who are between 15-49 years old. METHOD: The study which is a cross sectional and descriptive was conducted on women (n=300 who are 15-49 age group and accepted to take in place of study date of June-August 2008. The sample of the study is a cluster sampling method. There were 10 families in each cluster and total 30 cluster. The families cluster were determined via systematic randomize sample method from records in the 5th Primary Health Care Center in Manisa. For collecting data, a social demographic questionnaire and score Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP were used. For statistical analyses were used descriptive calculations, chi-square, student T-Test, correlation, logistic regression, and odds ratio. RESULTS: 51.7 % of women were in 15-29 age groups. The age mean of women 30.1±9.6 years. 42.6% of them were uneducated, 76% were married, 96% was house wife, 17, 4% no social security of them, %63.7 of them was low their income more than their outcome. The mean of total score of HPLP was 112.7±20.8. Subsection scores of the scale have founded as self actualization 33.4±7.4, health responsibility 19.4±5.8, exercise 7.8±3.3, interpersonal support 21.1±3.4, stress management 15.1±4.1, nutrition 15.5±3.3. CONCLUSION: It was found that level of the women’ healthy lifestyle behaviors was low. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 421-426

  2. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  3. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (pwalking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (pwalking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (pwalking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based lighting regimen that favors for both production and welfare of Broilers. PMID:26954120

  4. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  5. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior. PMID:21660614

  6. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cuadrado

    Full Text Available Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy.

  7. Depletion of TDP-43 affects Drosophila motoneurons terminal synapsis and locomotive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiguin, Fabian; Godena, Vinay K; Romano, Giulia; D'Ambrogio, Andrea; Klima, Raffaella; Baralle, Francisco E

    2009-05-19

    Pathological modifications in the highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein TDP-43 were recently associated to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a late-onset disorder that affects predominantly motoneurons [Neumann, M. et al. (2006) Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 314, 130-133, Sreedharan, J. et al. (2008) TDP-43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 319, 1668-1672, Kabashi, E. et al. (2008) TARDBP mutations in individuals with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat. Genet. 40, 572-574]. However, the function of TDP-43 in vivo is unknown and a possible direct role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. Here, we report that flies lacking Drosophila TDP-43 appeared externally normal but presented deficient locomotive behaviors, reduced life span and anatomical defects at the neuromuscular junctions. These phenotypes were rescued by expression of the human protein in a restricted group of neurons including motoneurons. Our results demonstrate the role of this protein in vivo and suggest an alternative explanation to ALS pathogenesis that may be more due to the lack of TDP 43 function than to the toxicity of the aggregates. PMID:19379745

  8. Modeling of 226Ra behavior in a Spanish estuary affected by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Odiel and Tinto rivers, southwest Spain, form a fully mixed estuary. An industrial area that includes a complex dedicated to the production of phosphate fertilizers is located by the Odiel River. This complex released phosphogypsum wastes directly to the Odiel River and also disposed them on open air piles located by the Tinto River. Due to new EU regulations, wastes are not directly released to the Odiel from 1998 on, although they are still disposed on the open air piles. The behavior of 226Ra in a system like this estuary is complex, since radionuclides are affected by tidal actions and interactions with sediments through adsorption/desorption reactions and erosion/deposition processes. A numerical 2D depth-averaged model of the estuary has been developed, including processes mentioned above. It has been applied to reproduce experimental data measured after a release from the industrial complex in the Odiel River and after an accidental release in the Tinto River from the gypsum piles. The model has also been applied to simulate the self-cleaning process observed in the estuary after the direct releases from the fertilizer complex were stopped. (author)

  9. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioerger

    Full Text Available Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention.

  10. The Protective Role of School Friendship Ties for Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviors among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy J.; Bunyan, Alden; Unger, Jennifer Beth; Valente, Thomas William

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the interplay among quantifiable aspects of peer bonds, friendship types, personal characteristics, and behavioral outcomes in schools in distressed neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to identify compensatory and protective factors that can be promoted in school-based prevention programs. Methods: The…

  11. The Effect of Factors Affecting Social Behavior and Prosocial Behavior (Case Study: City of Steel of Mobarakeh)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashallah Valikhani; Abbasali Behzadipur

    2015-01-01

    The present paper, titled ‘A Study of the Effects of Internal Marketing on Customer-oriented Prosocial Behaviors’ investigates the important role of internal marketing on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and, finally, role-prescribed customer service and extra-role customer service (prosocial behavior) among Standard of Isfahan Steel of Mobarakeh. A main hypothesis (speculating the significant effect of internal marketing on customer-oriented prosocial behavior) and eleven sub-hypo...

  12. Parenting style, emotional intelligence, and psycho-behavioral outcomes of Thai adolescents in HIV-affected families

    OpenAIRE

    Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2012-01-01

    Background: The adolescents children of HIV-infected parents tend to have several psycho-behavioral challenges including functioning at schools and in their families. Objective of this study is to examine 1) the role of parenting style, parent's quality of life, and family functioning in self-esteem and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected adolescents in Thailand, 2) associations of perceived social support, emotional intelligence and self-esteem of HIV-affected adolescents with their stres...

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  14. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behav...

  15. Effects of neonatal fluoxetine exposure on behavior across development in rats selectively bred for an infantile affective trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Germeyan, Sierra C

    2015-03-01

    Infants born to women with depressive symptoms are at higher risk for insecure attachment and behavioral problems. Thus current medical practice is to continue psychotropic medication of pregnant women with depression despite concerns about its behavioral teratology. There are few animal studies focused on long-term behavioral effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure; in addition, studies have not looked at individual differences in baseline affective state as a source of response variability. In this study, fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), was administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days 2-7 to model exposure to antidepressants in the human third trimester. Four behavioral measures were conducted from the neonatal to adult age periods in Low and High lines selectively bred for their rate of ultrasonic vocalizations after brief maternal separation. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased distress calls in both lines, but to a greater extent in High line rats than Low line. Neonatal fluoxetine also impaired motor coordination in neonates. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased social behavior in both juvenile and adult subjects. Fluoxetine-related reductions in anxiety behavior were not observed at the two older ages. As expected, High line subjects displayed more anxiety behavior than Low line subjects at all three test ages. These results suggest that there are may be significant behavioral consequences of antidepressant use during late pregnancy on offspring maternal attachment and social behavior, with implications for increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25503615

  16. Spatial distribution and partitioning behavior of selected poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in freshwater ecosystems: A French nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution and partitioning of 22 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 133 selected rivers and lakes were investigated at a nationwide scale in mainland France. ΣPFASs was in the range < LOD–725 ng L−1 in the dissolved phase (median: 7.9 ng L−1) and < LOD–25 ng g−1 dry weight (dw) in the sediment (median: 0.48 ng g−1 dw); dissolved PFAS levels were significantly lower at “reference” sites than at urban, rural or industrial sites. Although perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found to be the prevalent compound on average, a multivariate analysis based on neural networks revealed noteworthy trends for other compounds at specific locations and, in some cases, at watershed scale. For instance, several sites along the Rhône River displayed a peculiar PFAS signature, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) often dominating the PFAS profile (e.g., PFCAs > 99% of ΣPFASs in the sediment, likely as a consequence of industrial point source discharge). Several treatments for data below detection limits (non-detects) were used to compute descriptive statistics, differences among groups, and correlations between congeners, as well as log Kd and log Koc partition coefficients; in that respect, the Regression on Order Statistics (robust ROS) method was preferred for descriptive statistics computation while the Akritas–Theil–Sen estimator was used for regression and correlation analyses. Multiple regression results suggest that PFAS levels in the dissolved phase and sediment characteristics (organic carbon fraction and grain size) may be significant controlling factors of PFAS levels in the sediment. - Highlights: • A large-scale survey of PFASs in 133 French rivers and lakes is reported. • Descriptive statistics, correlations and partitioning coefficients were determined. • Non-detects were taken into account using functions from the NADA R-package. • Hot spots of PFAS contamination were found near large urban and industrial areas

  17. Impact of certain household micropollutants on bacterial behavior. Toxicity tests/study of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Laure; Merlin, Christophe; Hassenboehler, Lucille; Munoz, Jean-François; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Görner, Tatiana

    2013-10-01

    The impact of eight household micropollutants (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, sucralose, PFOA and PFOS (PFAAs)) on the laboratory bacterial strain Escherichia coli MG1655 and on activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant was studied. Growth-based toxicity tests on E. coli were performed for each micropollutants. The effect of micropollutants on activated sludge (at concentrations usually measured in wastewater up to concentrations disturbing the bacterial growth of E. coli) was examined in batch reactors and by comparison to a control reactor (without micropollutants). The bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by the sludge were measured by size exclusion chromatography and their overexpression was considered as an indicator of bacteria sensitivity to environmental changes. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the ammonium concentration were monitored to evaluate the biomass ability to remove the macropollution. Some micropollutants induced an increase of bound EPS in activated sludge flocs at concentrations depending on the micropollutant: erythromycin from 100 μg/L, ofloxacin from 10 μg/L, triclosan from 0.5 μg/L, 4-nonylphenol from 5000 μg/L and PFAAs from 0.1 μg/L. This suggests that the biomass had to cope with new conditions. Moreover, at high concentrations of erythromycin (10 mg/L) and ibuprofen (5 mg/L) bacterial populations were no longer able to carry out the removal of macropollution. Ibuprofen induced a decrease of bound EPS at all the studied concentrations, probably reflecting a decrease of general bacterial activity. The biomass was not sensitive to sucralose in terms of EPS production, however at very high concentration (1 g/L) it inhibited the COD decrease. Micropollution removal was also assessed. Ibuprofen, erythromycin, ofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol and triclosan were removed from wastewater, mainly by biodegradation. Sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater at all, and

  18. Lifetime history of traumatic events in an American Indian Community Sample: Heritability and relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Yehuda, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    American Indians appear to experience a higher rate of traumatic events than what has been reported in general population surveys. American Indians also suffer higher alcohol related death rates than any other ethnic group in the U.S. population. Therefore efforts to delineate factors which may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance use disorders (SUD) over the lifetime in American Indians are important because of the high b...

  19. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  20. Cognitive Load Does Not Affect the Behavioral and Cognitive Foundations of Social Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners’ cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias toward guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants’ positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect—that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners—depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.

  1. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. PMID:26422775

  2. Evaluating a selective prevention program for substance use and comorbid behavioral problems in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use and abuse is a growing problem among adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID). Substance use patterns in general population are similar to patterns among non-disabled peers, but substance use has more negative consequences for adolescents with mild to borderline ID, and they are at an increased risk for developing a substance use disorder. Nevertheless, effective and evidence based prevention programs for this groups are lacking. The study de...

  3. Affect regulation and HIV risk among youth in therapeutic schools

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last ...

  4. Effects of Experimentally Manipulated Peer Rejection on Children's Negative Affect, Self-Esteem, and Maladaptive Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lambert, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Children (n = 88) aged 8 and 10 years participated in a minimal group study in which their rejection versus acceptance, by one other person versus a group of three people, was experimentally manipulated. Analysis of their self-reported negative affect, self-esteem, and maladaptive social behavior, revealed that, regardless of the source of the…

  5. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the “food addiction” construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewp...

  6. Impact of certain household micropollutants on bacterial behavior. Toxicity tests/study of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, Laure, E-mail: laure.pasquini@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Environnement et Minéralurgie-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Merlin, Christophe [Laboratoire de Chimie, Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Hassenboehler, Lucille [Laboratoire Environnement et Minéralurgie-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Munoz, Jean-François [Laboratoire d' Hydrologie de Nancy, ANSES, 40 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy (France); Pons, Marie-Noëlle [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 Rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Görner, Tatiana [Laboratoire Environnement et Minéralurgie-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    The impact of eight household micropollutants (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, sucralose, PFOA and PFOS (PFAAs)) on the laboratory bacterial strain Escherichia coli MG1655 and on activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant was studied. Growth-based toxicity tests on E. coli were performed for each micropollutants. The effect of micropollutants on activated sludge (at concentrations usually measured in wastewater up to concentrations disturbing the bacterial growth of E. coli) was examined in batch reactors and by comparison to a control reactor (without micropollutants). The bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by the sludge were measured by size exclusion chromatography and their overexpression was considered as an indicator of bacteria sensitivity to environmental changes. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the ammonium concentration were monitored to evaluate the biomass ability to remove the macropollution. Some micropollutants induced an increase of bound EPS in activated sludge flocs at concentrations depending on the micropollutant: erythromycin from 100 μg/L, ofloxacin from 10 μg/L, triclosan from 0.5 μg/L, 4-nonylphenol from 5000 μg/L and PFAAs from 0.1 μg/L. This suggests that the biomass had to cope with new conditions. Moreover, at high concentrations of erythromycin (10 mg/L) and ibuprofen (5 mg/L) bacterial populations were no longer able to carry out the removal of macropollution. Ibuprofen induced a decrease of bound EPS at all the studied concentrations, probably reflecting a decrease of general bacterial activity. The biomass was not sensitive to sucralose in terms of EPS production, however at very high concentration (1 g/L) it inhibited the COD decrease. Micropollution removal was also assessed. Ibuprofen, erythromycin, ofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol and triclosan were removed from wastewater, mainly by biodegradation. Sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater at all, and

  7. Spatial distribution and partitioning behavior of selected poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in freshwater ecosystems: A French nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Gabriel; Giraudel, Jean-Luc [University of Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France); Botta, Fabrizio; Lestremau, François [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France. (France); Dévier, Marie-Hélène [University of Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France); Budzinski, Hélène [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France); Labadie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.labadie@u-bordeaux.fr [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, LPTC, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence, France. (France)

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution and partitioning of 22 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 133 selected rivers and lakes were investigated at a nationwide scale in mainland France. ΣPFASs was in the range < LOD–725 ng L{sup −1} in the dissolved phase (median: 7.9 ng L{sup −1}) and < LOD–25 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw) in the sediment (median: 0.48 ng g{sup −1} dw); dissolved PFAS levels were significantly lower at “reference” sites than at urban, rural or industrial sites. Although perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found to be the prevalent compound on average, a multivariate analysis based on neural networks revealed noteworthy trends for other compounds at specific locations and, in some cases, at watershed scale. For instance, several sites along the Rhône River displayed a peculiar PFAS signature, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) often dominating the PFAS profile (e.g., PFCAs > 99% of ΣPFASs in the sediment, likely as a consequence of industrial point source discharge). Several treatments for data below detection limits (non-detects) were used to compute descriptive statistics, differences among groups, and correlations between congeners, as well as log K{sub d} and log K{sub oc} partition coefficients; in that respect, the Regression on Order Statistics (robust ROS) method was preferred for descriptive statistics computation while the Akritas–Theil–Sen estimator was used for regression and correlation analyses. Multiple regression results suggest that PFAS levels in the dissolved phase and sediment characteristics (organic carbon fraction and grain size) may be significant controlling factors of PFAS levels in the sediment. - Highlights: • A large-scale survey of PFASs in 133 French rivers and lakes is reported. • Descriptive statistics, correlations and partitioning coefficients were determined. • Non-detects were taken into account using functions from the NADA R-package. • Hot spots of PFAS contamination were found

  8. Impact of certain household micropollutants on bacterial behavior. Toxicity tests/study of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of eight household micropollutants (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, sucralose, PFOA and PFOS (PFAAs)) on the laboratory bacterial strain Escherichia coli MG1655 and on activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant was studied. Growth-based toxicity tests on E. coli were performed for each micropollutants. The effect of micropollutants on activated sludge (at concentrations usually measured in wastewater up to concentrations disturbing the bacterial growth of E. coli) was examined in batch reactors and by comparison to a control reactor (without micropollutants). The bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by the sludge were measured by size exclusion chromatography and their overexpression was considered as an indicator of bacteria sensitivity to environmental changes. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the ammonium concentration were monitored to evaluate the biomass ability to remove the macropollution. Some micropollutants induced an increase of bound EPS in activated sludge flocs at concentrations depending on the micropollutant: erythromycin from 100 μg/L, ofloxacin from 10 μg/L, triclosan from 0.5 μg/L, 4-nonylphenol from 5000 μg/L and PFAAs from 0.1 μg/L. This suggests that the biomass had to cope with new conditions. Moreover, at high concentrations of erythromycin (10 mg/L) and ibuprofen (5 mg/L) bacterial populations were no longer able to carry out the removal of macropollution. Ibuprofen induced a decrease of bound EPS at all the studied concentrations, probably reflecting a decrease of general bacterial activity. The biomass was not sensitive to sucralose in terms of EPS production, however at very high concentration (1 g/L) it inhibited the COD decrease. Micropollution removal was also assessed. Ibuprofen, erythromycin, ofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol and triclosan were removed from wastewater, mainly by biodegradation. Sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater at all, and

  9. Shifts Toward Morningness During Behavioral Sleep Interventions Are Associated With Improvements in Depression, Positive Affect, and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Brant P; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Morningness-eveningness (M-E) is typically considered to be a trait-like construct. However, M-E could plausibly shift in concert with changes in circadian or homeostatic processes. We examined M-E changes across three studies employing behavioral or pharmacological sleep treatments. Baseline and posttreatment M-E scores were strongly correlated across all three samples. M-E showed small but systematic changes toward morningness in sleep-disturbed military veterans receiving behavioral interventions. No systematic M-E changes were observed in the two pharmacological studies (sleep-disturbed military veterans and adults with primary insomnia, respectively). In the behavioral study, M-E changes correlated with changes in depression, positive affect, and sleep quality. M-E changes also correlated with changes in positive affect in the adult insomnia group. M-E appears to exhibit state-like aspects in addition to trait-like aspects. PMID:26549156

  10. Test-and behavior-specific genetic factors affect WKY hypoactivity in tests of emotionality

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Amber E.; Solberg, Leah C.; Churchill, Gary A.; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Redei, Eva E.

    2006-01-01

    Inbred Wistar–Kyoto rats consistently display hypoactivity in tests of emotional behavior. We used them to test the hypothesis that the genetic factors underlying the behavioral decision-making process will vary in different environmental contexts. The contexts used were the open-field test (OFT), a novel environment with no explicit threats present, and the defensive-burying test (DB), a habituated environment into which a threat has been introduced. Rearing, a voluntary behavior was measure...

  11. Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Substance Abuse and Perinatal Outcomes: A Study Based on Linked Population Data in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Bonello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of mental and behavioral disorders (MBD due to substance use during peri-conception and pregnancy on perinatal outcomes are unclear. The adverse perinatal outcomes of primiparous mothers admitted to hospital with MBD due to substance use before and/or during pregnancy were investigated. Method: This study linked birth and hospital records in NSW, Australia. Subjects included primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBD due to use of alcohol, opioids or cannabinoids during peri-conception and pregnancy. Results: There were 304 primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBD due to alcohol use (MBDA, 306 for MBD due to opioids use (MBDO and 497 for MBD due to cannabinoids (MBDC between the 12 months peri-conception and the end of pregnancy. Primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBDA during pregnancy or during both peri-conception and pregnancy were significantly more likely to give birth to a baby of low birthweight (AOR = 4.03, 95%CI: 1.97–8.24 for pregnancy; AOR = 9.21, 95%CI: 3.76–22.57 both periods; preterm birth (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.52–6.97 for pregnancy; AOR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.50–11.01 both periods and admission to SCN or NICU (AOR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.31–4.49 for pregnancy; AOR = 4.03, 95%CI: 1.72–9.44 both periods. Primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBDO, MBDC or a combined diagnosis were almost three times as likely to give birth to preterm babies compared to mothers without hospital admissions for psychiatric or substance use disorders. Babies whose mothers were admitted to hospital with MBDO before and/or during pregnancy were six times more likely to be admitted to SCN or NICU (AOR = 6.29, 95%CI: 4.62–8.57. Conclusion: Consumption of alcohol, opioids or cannabinoids during peri-conception or pregnancy significantly increased the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.

  12. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  13. Childhood aggression in schools: The impact of behavioral patterns and contextual influences on teachers' cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Heather Krishna

    1999-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in the development and implementation of school-based interventions, aggressive behavior in schools remains a significant problem for both educators and the community as a whole. The present study was designed to examine possible contextual influences on the course and treatment of aggression in schools, in an effort to inform future intervention development. The aim of the present study was to examine possible influences on teachersâ response to reactive and...

  14. A Novel Mutant Allele of Pw1/Peg3 Does Not Affect Maternal Behavior or Nursing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizot, Anne-Lyse; Besson, Vanessa; Correra, Rosa Maria; Mazzola, Alessia; Lopes, Izolina; Courbard, Jean-Remy; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Parental imprinting is a mammalian-specific form of epigenetic regulation in which one allele of a gene is silenced depending on its parental origin. Parentally imprinted genes have been shown to play a role in growth, metabolism, cancer, and behavior. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying parental imprinting have been largely elucidated, the selective advantage of silencing one allele remains unclear. The mutant phenotype of the imprinted gene, Pw1/Peg3, provides a key example to illustrate the hypothesis on a coadaptation between mother and offspring, in which Pw1/Peg3 is required for a set of essential maternal behaviors, such as nursing, nest building, and postnatal care. We have generated a novel Pw1/Peg3 mutant allele that targets the last exon for the PW1 protein that contains >90% of the coding sequence resulting in a loss of Pw1/Peg3 expression. In contrast to previous reports that have targeted upstream exons, we observe that maternal behavior and lactation are not disrupted upon loss of Pw1/Peg3. Both paternal and homozygous Pw1/Peg3 mutant females nurse and feed their pups properly and no differences are detected in either oxytocin neuron number or oxytocin plasma levels. In addition, suckling capacities are normal in mutant pups. Consistent with previous reports, we observe a reduction of postnatal growth. These results support a general role for Pw1/Peg3 in the regulation of body growth but not maternal care and lactation. PMID:27187722

  15. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  16. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain : does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to p

  17. Variables Affecting Emerging Adults' Self-Reported Risk and Reckless Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangpatra, Krisna N. K.; Bradley, Graham L.; Glendon, A. Ian

    2009-01-01

    Young adults' behaviors are frequently characterized by risk-taking and recklessness. Few studies have examined the correlates of risk and reckless behaviors in emerging adults. Drawing on theories emphasising multifactorial effects of personality, social, and cognitive variables, this study explores psychosocial factors contributing to risk and…

  18. The Effects of the Premack Principle on Affective Behaviors of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawkey, Thomas D.; Griffith, Diane Le Penna

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of the applicability of behavior modification techniques to the operant crying behaviors (OCBs) in a regular kindergarten classroom was conducted. With baseline, reinforcement, and extinction conditions, the OCBs of two 5-year-old subjects were significantly decreased between baseline and reinforcement conditions. (Author/CS)

  19. Factors Affecting Isfahanian Mobile Banking Adoption Based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile banking is considered a new era in banking, in which banks are spending considerable amount of money to have it available to their customers and to cut their operations costs. The current exploratory study is an attempt to investigate the factors that influence Isfahanian’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior model (DTPB by additionally examining the effects of trust and perceived risk as components of attitude on behavioral intention. A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Isfahan city. Out of 400 questionnaires that have been distributed, 315 are returned (78.0%. Of these, five (5 responses had to be discarded due to invalid or incomplete data entries. Thus the sample comprising of a total of 310 respondents was used for analysis. The data was analyzed by AMOS software. Results of the study discovered that the decisive or crucial factors influencing mobile banking adoption are attitude and perceived behavioral control, However, social norms were the only factor found insignificant. The perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use ,compatibility, and trust under 'behavioral attitude' have positive effect on behavioral attitude; while perceived risk under 'behavioral attitude' has negative effect on behavioral attitude. the influence of the interpersonal influence under 'subjective norms' was also evident, while self-efficacy and facilitating condition under 'perceived behavioral control' are significant influential factors.

  20. Do public programs in ‘energy regions’ affect citizen attitudes and behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyze the effect of regional and municipal measures for promoting energy transition on citizen attitudes and behavior. We compare one township that has successfully implemented a comprehensive and systematic energy-saving program (the so-called e5 program) with a township without such a program. The results indicate that despite the program's ambitious aims, e5 implementation has almost no impact on citizen attitudes and behavior. In fact, there are some signs that it might even have slight negative side effects. - Highlights: • Comprehensive and systematic municipal energy transition framework. • Implemented measures slightly impact citizen attitudes. • Implemented measures yield only marginal positive effects on behavior. • Transition framework might also be accompanied by negative behavioral side effects. • Behavioral reactions need to be considered in transition frameworks

  1. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  2. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Trust in the Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Chhetri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops a conceptual framework to investigate the role of the two bases of trust (cognitive and affective, and foci of trust (supervisor and management in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. The purpose of the current paper is to propose a framework for the multi dimensionality of trust­cognitive and affective trust, in mediating the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. It is proposed that cognitive trust in management will mediate the relationship between distributive justice, and OCBO and between procedural justice and OCBO. It is also proposed that affective trust in immediate supervisor will mediate the relationship between Interactional Justice and citizenship behavior directed towards the individual.The paper attempts to understand if the bases of trust (cognitive and affective and foci of trust (trust in management and trust in immediate supervisor will answer the call of researchers for understanding the reason for the different impact of justice on OCB.

  3. Repeated and chronic administration of Vardenafil or Sildenafil differentially affects emotional and socio-sexual behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, H; Parmigiani, S; Nicolini, Y; Freschini, S; Gioiosa, L; Patrelli, T S; Palanza, P; Volpi, R

    2013-09-15

    Selective phosphodiesterases (PDEs) inhibitors have been widely studied as therapeutic agents for treatment of various human diseases, including cardiotonics, vasodilators, smooth muscle relaxants, antidepressants, antithrombotics, antiasthmatics, and agents for improving learning and memory. Although Sildenafil(®) and Vardenafil(®) have similar chemical formulae, the same target and interact with many of the same residues at the active site of phosphodiesterse-5 (PDE-5), they exhibit both in vitro and in vivo some important functional differences that could differentially affect behavior. Therefore we assessed whether repeated and chronic administration of Vardenafil and Sildenafil at a dose based upon human treatment can differentially affect aggressive, social, emotional and sexual behavior. To this aim, the effects of Sildenafil (10mg/kg) or Vardenafil (2mg/kg) (t.i.w., for 5 weeks) were observed in CD1 subordinate male mice in a low aggression and social subordination context. The results show that Sildenafil increased competitive aggression, environmental and social exploration, and reduced anxiety like behaviors as compared to controls, whereas Vardenafil had a significant major effect on appetitive and consummatory aspect of sexual behavior. This demonstrates that Sildenafil and Vardenafil, although being structurally and functionally similar, are characterized by different neuro-behavioral actions and can have differential therapeutic potentials. PMID:23850358

  4. Consumption of substances of abuse during pregnancy increases consumption in offspring: Possible underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinning ePoon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake of these substances, induce other behavioral changes, and affect neurochemical systems in several brain areas that are known to control behavior. More importantly, emerging studies are linking the function of the immune system to these neurochemicals and ingestion of these abused substances. This review article will summarize the prenatal rodent models used to study developmental changes in offspring caused by prenatal exposure to dietary fat, ethanol or nicotine. We will discuss the various techniques used for the administration of these substances into rodents and summarize the published outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to these substances. Lastly, this review will cover some of the recent evidence for the role of immune factors in causing these behavioral and neuronal changes.

  5. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers' parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal…

  6. Meeting Your Match: How Attractiveness Similarity Affects Approach Behavior in Mixed-Sex Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavio

  7. An Affective Events Model of Charismatic Leadership Behavior : A Review, Theoretical Integration, and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Although research has long focused on the consequences of leaders' charismatic behavior, the antecedents of such leadership are increasingly gaining scholarly attention. Nevertheless, the antecedent-oriented literature on charismatic leadership has been fragmented to date and lacks theoretical integ

  8. Vessel Noise Affects Beaked Whale Behavior: Results of a Dedicated Acoustic Response Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachel; Quick, Nicola Jane; Moretti, David; DiMarzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter Lloyd; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon Drummond

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A milit...

  9. Invisible Man: Exclusion from shared attention affects gaze behavior and self-reports

    OpenAIRE

    Böckler, A.; Hömke, P.; Sebanz, N.

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion results in lowered satisfaction of basic needs and shapes behavior in subsequent social situations. We investigated participants’ immediate behavioral response during exclusion from an interaction that consisted of establishing eye contact. A newly developed eye-tracker-based ‘‘looking game’’ was employed; participants exchanged looks with two virtual partners in an exchange where the player who had just been looked at chose whom to look at next. While some participants recei...

  10. Neurophysiological processing of emotion and parenting interact to predict inhibited behavior: an affective-motivational framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Ellen M; Huselid, Rebecca F; Decicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child's ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP), interacted with observed approach- (promotion) and avoidance- (prevention) oriented parenting practices to predict children's observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32) typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01). Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed. PMID:23847499

  11. Neurophysiological Processing of Emotion and Parenting Interact to Predict Inhibited Behavior: An Affective-Motivational Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child’s ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP, interacted with observed approach- (promotion and avoidance- (prevention oriented parenting practices to predict children’s observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32 typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01. Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed.

  12. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  13. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Olukunle Ayodeji; Moodley, Deshendran; Pillay, Anban W; Seebregts, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is flexible and extendable and provides new insights into the nature of and interrelationship between factors that influence TB adherence.

  14. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  15. Behavior of substances labeled with /sup 3/H-proline and /sup 3/H-fucose in the cellular processes of odontoblasts and ameloblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawsky, H.; Josephsen, K.

    1981-05-01

    Odontoblasts are cells with single cytoplasmic processes that grow longer as more dentin is elaborated. Ameloblasts also have single processes and it has been postulated that they too grow longer as more enamel is made. Support for this hypothesis was obtained using rat incisors to investigate the behavior of substances labeled with /sup 3/H-proline and /sup 3/H-fucose. A comparison was made between odontoblasts, which have processes known to grow and remain within the dentin, and the ameloblasts whose Tomes' processes are hypothesized to grow and leave remnants in the completed enamel. With /sup 3/H-proline, the odontoblast bodies are labeled at the early time intervals. With /sup 3/H-fucose, the cell bodies are labeled at the early intervals and the newly formed glycoproteins are deposited into the predentin. Almost immediately, these are progressively added to the dentin at the calcification front. With time a gradient of labeling extends from the unlabeled dentin toward the odontoblast bodies. Unlike the behavior of labeled proteins, by 1 and 2 days labeled glycoproteins appear along the entire length of the odontoblast processes. In the enamel, no Tomes' processes are present during maturation. With /sup 3/H-proline, reactions are adjacent to the cells and diffuse toward, but do not reach the dentino-enamel junction by 1 and 2 days. With /sup 3/H-fucose, reactions appear over the enamel near the cells. By 1 and 2 days no diffusive pattern is seen, but grains are concentrated near the dentino-enamel junction, in a region containing holes known to be the beginning of Tomes' processes. Since odontoblast glycoproteins migrate along odontoblast processes, it was postulated that cytoplasmic remnants were present in enamel along which ameloblast glycoproteins could also migrate to reach the holes at the dentino-enamel junction.

  16. Behavior of substances labeled with 3H-proline and 3H-fucose in the cellular processes of odontoblasts and ameloblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odontoblasts are cells with single cytoplasmic processes that grow longer as more dentin is elaborated. Ameloblasts also have single processes and it has been postulated that they too grow longer as more enamel is made. Support for this hypothesis was obtained using rat incisors to investigate the behavior of substances labeled with 3H-proline and 3H-fucose. A comparison was made between odontoblasts, which have processes known to grow and remain within the dentin, and the ameloblasts whose Tomes' processes are hypothesized to grow and leave remnants in the completed enamel. With 3H-proline, the odontoblast bodies are labeled at the early time intervals. With 3H-fucose, the cell bodies are labeled at the early intervals and the newly formed glycoproteins are deposited into the predentin. Almost immediately, these are progressively added to the dentin at the calcification front. With time a gradient of labeling extends from the unlabeled dentin toward the odontoblast bodies. Unlike the behavior of labeled proteins, by 1 and 2 days labeled glycoproteins appear along the entire length of the odontoblast processes. In the enamel, no Tomes' processes are present during maturation. With 3H-proline, reactions are adjacent to the cells and diffuse toward, but do not reach the dentino-enamel junction by 1 and 2 days. With 3H-fucose, reactions appear over the enamel near the cells. By 1 and 2 days no diffusive pattern is seen, but grains are concentrated near the dentino-enamel junction, in a region containing holes known to be the beginning of Tomes' processes. Since odontoblast glycoproteins migrate along odontoblast processes, it was postulated that cytoplasmic remnants were present in enamel along which ameloblast glycoproteins could also migrate to reach the holes at the dentino-enamel junction

  17. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  18. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele OA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion: The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is

  19. Counterproductive work behavior among frontline government employees: Role of personality, emotional intelligence, affectivity, emotional labor, and emotional exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Ponniah Raman; Murali Sambasivan; Naresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the effect of personality, emotional intelligence (EI), affectivity, emotional labor and emotional exhaustion on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) of front line employees in the government sector. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to 625 front line employees working at service counters in 25 ministries in Malaysia. We received responses from 519employees (response rate = 83%). The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeli...

  20. The Influence of Motivation and Attentional Style on Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Outcomes of an Exercise Class

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L.; Lane, AM; Bishop, DT

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1970s exercise classes have been a popular form of physical activity. A greater understanding of the personal factors that might influence the outcomes of such classes could help to minimize the high dropout rates associated with exercise. The study explored the effects of dominant attentional style and self-determination on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes following structured exercise classes. Data from 417 female participants revealed that those with a dominant ...

  1. The neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, affects Bombus impatiens (bumblebee) sonication behavior when consumed at doses below the LD50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated changes in sonication (or buzz-pollination) behavior of Bombus impatiens bumblebees, after consumption of the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid. We measured sonication frequency, sonication length, and flight (wing beat) frequency of marked bees collecting pollen from Solanum lycopsersicum (tomato), and then randomly assigned bees to consume 0, 0.0515, 0.515, or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid. We recorded the number of bees in each treatment group that resumed sonication behavior after consuming imidacloprid, and re-measured sonication and flight behavior for these bees. We did not find evidence that consuming 0.0515 ng imidacloprid affected the sonication length, sonication frequency, or flight frequency for bees that sonicated after consuming imidacloprid; we were unable to test changes in these variables for bees that consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng because we did not observe enough of these bees sonicating after treatment. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression to determine whether consuming imidacloprid affected the probability of engaging in further sonication behavior on S. lycopersicum and found that bumblebees who consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid were significantly less likely to sonicate after treatment than bees who consumed no imidacloprid. At the end of the experiment, we classified bees as dead or alive; our data suggest a trend of increasing mortality with higher doses of imidacloprid. Our results show that even modest doses of imidacloprid can significantly affect the likelihood of bumblebees engaging in sonication, a behavior critical for the pollination of a variety of crops and other plants. PMID:27189613

  2. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Dulcich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy, and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects.

  3. Pomegranate supplementation improves affective and motor behavior in mice after radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcich, Melissa S; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects. PMID:23662154

  4. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories. PMID:21299271

  5. External tagging does not affect the feeding behavior of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon vagabundus (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2009-11-10

    Increasingly, the ability to recognize individual fishes is important for studies of population dynamics, ecology, and behavior. Although a variety of methods exist, external tags remain one of the most widely applied because they are both effective and cost efficient. However, a key assumption is that neither the tagging procedure nor the presence of a tag negatively affects the individual. While this has been demonstrated for relatively coarse metrics such as growth and survival, few studies have examined the impact of tags and tagging on more subtle aspects of behavior. We tagged adult vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) occupying a 30-ha insular reef in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using a commonly-utilized t-bar anchor tag. We quantified and compared feeding behavior (bite rate), which is sensitive to stress, of tagged and untagged individuals over four separate sampling periods spanning 4 months post-tagging. Bite rates did not differ between tagged and untagged individuals at each sampling period and, combined with additional anecdotal observations of normal pairing behavior and successful reproduction, suggest that tagging did not adversely affect individuals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  6. Multiple Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Amygdala Regulate Affective Behaviors and Response to Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Yann S; Fote, Gianna M; Blakeman, Sam; Cahuzac, Emma L M; Newbold, Sylvia A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-05-01

    Electrophysiological and neurochemical studies implicate cholinergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in behaviors related to stress. Both animal studies and human clinical trials suggest that drugs that alter nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity can affect behaviors related to mood and anxiety. Clinical studies also suggest that abnormalities in cholinergic signaling are associated with major depressive disorder, whereas pre-clinical studies have implicated both β2 subunit-containing (β2*) and α7 nAChRs in the effects of nicotine in models of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We therefore investigated whether nAChR signaling in the amygdala contributes to stress-mediated behaviors in mice. Local infusion of the non-competitive non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine or viral-mediated downregulation of the β2 or α7 nAChR subunit in the amygdala all induced robust anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in several mouse behavioral models. Further, whereas α7 nAChR subunit knockdown was somewhat more effective at decreasing anxiety-like behavior, only β2 subunit knockdown decreased resilience to social defeat stress and c-fos immunoreactivity in the BLA. In contrast, α7, but not β2, subunit knockdown effectively reversed the effect of increased ACh signaling in a mouse model of depression. These results suggest that signaling through β2* nAChRs is essential for baseline excitability of the BLA, and a decrease in signaling through β2 nAChRs alters anxiety- and depression-like behaviors even in unstressed animals. In contrast, stimulation of α7 nAChRs by acetylcholine may mediate the increased depression-like behaviors observed during the hypercholinergic state observed in depressed individuals. PMID:26471256

  7. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  8. Does food insecurity affect parental characteristics and child behavior? Testing mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M Matta; Kim, Youngmi

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent's self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity's relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity's relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019

  9. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors....

  10. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence that...... the share of young people convicted for crimes, in particular violent crimes, in the neighborhood increases convictions of male assignees later in life. No such effects are found for other measures of neighborhood crime including the rate of committed crimes. Our findings suggest social interaction as...... a key channel through which neighborhood crime is linked to individual criminal behavior....

  11. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence that the share...... of young people convicted for crimes, in particular violent crimes, in the neighborhood increases convictions of male assignees later in life. No such effects are found for other measures of neighborhood crime including the rate of committed crimes. Our findings suggest social interaction as a key...... channel through which neighborhood crime is linked to individual criminal behavior...

  12. Counterproductive work behavior among frontline government employees: Role of personality, emotional intelligence, affectivity, emotional labor, and emotional exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah Raman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the effect of personality, emotional intelligence (EI, affectivity, emotional labor and emotional exhaustion on counterproductive work behavior (CWB of front line employees in the government sector. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to 625 front line employees working at service counters in 25 ministries in Malaysia. We received responses from 519employees (response rate = 83%. The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The main findings are: (1 personality factors of employees drive their EI, affectivity, emotional labor, emotional exhaustion, and CWB and (2 EI and affectivity impact emotional labor, emotional exhaustion and CWB. Through the integrated model, we have studied the indirect roles of emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. This is one of the few studies that have effectively integrated the five constructs into a single framework to study their effects on CWB.

  13. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  14. Culture, Communication, and Competence: A Commentary on Variables Affecting Social and Academic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The editors of this special issue have recruited six papers focused on the ways that language and communication interact with culture to influence student behavior. Two themes that emerge from these papers are the fundamental role of communication in learning and living, and the impact of culture on the functions of communication. The present…

  15. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem, Depression, and Negative Behaviors in Sexually Abused Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, K. Brent; Sorell, Gwendolyn T.

    1989-01-01

    Used symbolic interaction theoretical framework to predict association of seven variables with self-esteem, depression level, and negative behaviors of female adolescent incest victims (N=101). Found type of sexual act single most powerful distress predictor. Found age and race had unexpected associations with victim outcomes. (Author/CM)

  16. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  17. Diet induced alterations in gastrointestinal bacterial populations affect memory and learning behavior in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of dietary manipulation to influence learning and behavior is well recognized. While the mechanism of action is almost exclusively interpreted as direct effects of dietary constituents on neural functioning within the central nervous system (CNS), the role of dietary modification on bact...

  18. Respectfully Treating the Elderly: Affective and Behavioral Ways of American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…

  19. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  20. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  1. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms. PMID:25869276

  2. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and other substance use disorders in young adulthood: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhonen Tellervo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors for alcohol and other substance use disorders (SUDs have been identified, but it is not well understood whether their associations with SUD are independent of each other. In particular, it is not well known, whether the associations between behavioral and affective factors and SUDs are independent of other risk factors. The incidence of SUDs peaks by young adulthood making epidemiological studies of SUDs in young adults informative. Methods In a comprehensive population-based survey of mental health in Finnish young adults (aged 21-35 years, n = 605, structured clinical interview (SCID-I complemented by medical record data from all lifetime hospital and outpatient treatments were used to diagnose SUDs. We estimated the prevalences of lifetime DSM-IV SUDs, and investigated their associations with correlates from four domains representing: (1 behavioral and affective factors, (2 parental factors, (3 early initiation of substance use, and (4 educational factors. Independence of the association of behavioral and affective factors with SUD was investigated. Results Lifetime prevalences of abuse or dependence of any substance, alcohol, and any illicit substance were 14.2%, 13.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. Correlates from all four domains were associated with SUD. The associations between behavioral and affective factors (attention or behavior problems at school, aggression, anxiousness and SUD were largely independent of other correlates, whereas only daily smoking and low education associated with SUD after adjustment for behavioral and affective factors. Conclusion Alcohol use disorders are common in Finnish young adults, whereas other SUDs are less common than in many other developed countries. Our cross-sectional analyses suggested that the association between behavioral and affective factors and SUD was only partly accounted for by other correlates, such as early initiation of substance use and parental

  3. Cognitive Change across Cognitive-Behavioral and Light Therapy Treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder: What Accounts for Clinical Status the Next Winter?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Maggie; Rohan, Kelly J.; Sitnikov, Lilya; Mahon, Jennifer N.; Nillni, Yael I.; Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Vacek, Pamela M.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious treatments for seasonal affective disorder include light therapy and a seasonal affective disorder-tailored form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Using data from a parent clinical trial, these secondary analyses examined the relationship between cognitive change over treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment and mood outcomes the next winter. Sixty-nine participants were randomly assigned to 6-weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light ...

  4. Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 39(5), 693-705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted…

  5. Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao

    2006-01-01

    Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

  6. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on th

  7. The theory of "truth": how counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, James C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Evans, W Douglas; Nonnemaker, James; Blahut, Steven; Holden, Debra; Messeri, Peter; Haviland, M Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a theory-based model of the pathways by which exposure to the "truth" counterindustry media campaign influenced beliefs, attitudes, and smoking behavior in national random-digit-dial telephone surveys of 16,000 12- to 17-year-olds before, 8 months after, and 15 months after campaign launch. Consistent with concepts from the theory of reasoned action, youth in markets with higher levels of campaign exposure had more negative beliefs about tobacco industry practices and more negative attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Models also provided support for a social inoculation effect, because negative industry attitudes were associated with lower receptivity to protobacco advertising and with less progression along a continuum of smoking intentions and behavior. PMID:15631559

  8. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Consumer International Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pingjun Jiang; Jones, David B

    2014-01-01

    Few studies in the literature on electronic commerce provide empirical investigation of consumer behavior in the international online shopping context. This study identifies and discusses factors that influence international online purchases and profile the characteristics of those who purchase and those who do not purchase from online stores overseas in three main categories: the online shopping experiential factors, the international shopping motivational factors, and the international trus...

  9. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational ex...

  10. An Agent-Based Epidemic Simulation of Social Behaviors Affecting HIV Transmission among Taiwanese Homosexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations are currently used to identify epidemic dynamics, to test potential prevention and intervention strategies, and to study the effects of social behaviors on HIV transmission. The author describes an agent-based epidemic simulation model of a network of individuals who participate in high-risk sexual practices, using number of partners, condom usage, and relationship length to distinguish between high- and low-risk populations. Two new concepts—free links and fixed lin...

  11. Coprophagous behavior of rabbit pups affects implantation of cecal microbiota and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Sylvie; Gidenne, Thierry; Cauquil, Laurent; Bouchez, Olivier; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    During the first few weeks after delivery, female rabbits excrete fecal pellets, which are ingested by their pups. We hypothesized that maternal excretion of hard fecal pellets and the coprophagous behavior of their pups were involved in cecal microbiota implantation. Four groups were compared: in 1 group (FM), pups had free access to maternal fecal pellets; in a second group, ingestion of feces was prevented (NF); and in 2 additional groups, pups had access only to fecal pellets excreted by ...

  12. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence that the share of young people convicted for crimes, in particular violent crimes, in the neighborhood increases convictions of male assignees later in life. No such effects are found for other measures o...

  13. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ziqing Yao; Rongjun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased...

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  15. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Dulcich, Melissa S.; Hartman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavior...

  16. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundele OA; Moodley D; Pillay AW; Seebregts CJ

    2016-01-01

    Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factor...

  17. Why Do Social Support Affect Prosocial Service Behaviors? The Moderating Role of Service Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    Taking the multifoci perspective, the present study integrated social exchange and climate research to evaluate the effects of social exchange relationships (i.e., perceived organizational support [POS] and perceived team support [PTS]) on contact employees’ prosocial service behaviors. A dyad data of 197 contact employees and supervisors in a large supermarket chain of Taiwan showed that POS and PTS were positively associated with the exhibition of extra-role customer service. However, only ...

  18. Internalizing behavior in adolescent girls affects parental emotional overinvolvement: a cross-lagged twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direction and the etiology of the association between different parenting styles (parental emotional overinvolvement [EOI] and parental criticism) and internalizing behavior from adolescence to early adulthood. A longitudinal genetically informative cross-lagged design was applied to a population-based sample of Swedish twins contacted at age 16-17 (n = 2369) and at age 19-20 (n = 1705). Sex-limitation modelling revealed different effects for boys and girls. For girls, genetic influences on internalizing problems at age 16-17 independently explained 2.7% of the heritability in parental EOI at age 19-20. These results suggest that emotionally overinvolved and self-sacrificing parental behavior stems in part from daughters (but not sons) genetic predisposition for internalizing behavior. These findings highlight the importance of genetically influenced child-driven effects underlying the parenting-internalizing association, and clarify that the role of such effects may differ depending on sex, type of parenting and developmental period. PMID:20680431

  19. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Elston

    Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  20. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Thomas W; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639

  1. The protein binding substance Ibuprofen does not affect the T1 time or partition coefficient in contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawel Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR with T1 mapping enables quantification of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Various factors, however, can interfere with T1 measurements. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of co-medication with a typical protein binding drug (Ibuprofen on T1 values in vitro and in vivo. Methods 50 vials were prepared with different concentrations of gadobenate dimeglumine, Ibuprofen and human serum albumin in physiologic NaCl solution and imaged at 1.5T with a spin echo sequence at multiple TRs to measure T1 values and calculate relaxivities. 10 volunteers (5 men; 31±6.3 years were imaged at 1.5T. T1 values for myocardium and blood pool were determined for various time points after administration of 0.15mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine using a modified look-locker inversion-recovery sequence before and after administration of Ibuprofen over 24 hours. The partition coefficient was calculated as ΔR1myocardium/ΔR1blood, where R1=1/T1. Results In vitro no significant correlation was found between relaxivity and Ibuprofen concentration, neither in absence (r=−0.15, p=0.40 nor in presence of albumin (r=−0.32, p=0.30. In vivo there was no significant difference in post contrast T1 times of myocardium and blood, respectively and also in the partition coefficient between exam 1 and 2 (p>0.05. There was good agreement of the T1 times of myocardium and blood and the partition coefficient, respectively between exam 1 and 2. Conclusions Contrast enhanced T1 mapping is unaffected by co-medication with the protein binding substance Ibuprofen and has an excellent reproducibility.

  2. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  3. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  4. Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Arslan, Ruben C; Hagemeyer, Birk; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2015-10-01

    According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. PMID:26280840

  5. How urban environment affects travel behavior? Integrated Choice and Latent Variable Model for Travel Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Paix, Lissy; Bierlaire, Michel; Cherchi, Elisabetta;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between urban environment and travel behaviour is not a new problem. Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mobility of dwellers in different ways, such as frequency of trips, mode used, structure of the tours, and so on. At the same time, qualitative issues related to the...... individual attitude towards specific behaviour have recently become important in transport modelling contributing to a better understanding of travel demand. Following this research line, in this paper we study the effect of neighbourhood characteristics in the choice of the type of tours performed, but we...... assume that neighbourhood characteristics can also affect the individual propensity to travel and hence the choice of the tours throughout the propensity to travel. Since the propensity to travel is not observed, we employ hybrid choice models to estimate jointly the discrete choice of tours and the...

  6. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and hiv-related sexual risk behavior between black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, TP; Regan, R; Wilton, L.; Harawa, NT; Ou, SS; Wang, L.; Shoptaw, S.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, andHIVrelated sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n=839) to Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW; n=590). The study analyzed baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN061), a feasibility study of amulti-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Bivariate analyses compared BMSMO to BMSMWalong dem...

  7. Investigation of Factors Affecting Cracking Behavior in Paddy Soils (Case study: Guilan province)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Yazdani; M. Parsinejad; A.R Sepaskhah; Davatgar, N.; S. Araghinejad

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent irrigation of paddy fields with long intervals can cause cracks in heavy soils, facilitate loss of water and finally damage the crop. This study was carried out in order to investigate the cracking trend and some other factors affecting soil cracking in four different physiographical areas of paddy field. The study areas were Rasht, Shanderman, Astaneh and Khomam in Guilan province. The experiment was carried out in paddy fields with transplanted rice by determining the physical ...

  8. Do Stereotypic Images in Video Games Affect Attitudes and Behavior? Adolescents’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Alexandra; Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; O’Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescents’ attitudes about video games along with their self-reported play frequency. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 361), approximately evenly divided by grade and gender, were surveyed about whether video games have stereotypic images, involve harmful consequences or affect one’s attitudes, whether game playing should be regulated by parents or the government, and whether game playing is a personal choice. Adolescents who played video games frequently showed de...

  9. How a universal music education program affects time use, behavior, and school attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    It is still widely debated how non-cognitive skills can be affected by policy intervention. For example, universal music education programs are becoming increasingly popular among policy makers in Germany and other developed countries. These are intended to give children from poor families the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. Moreover, policymakers present these programs as innovative policies that are important for the personality development of young children. However, the effects...

  10. The Relationship of Affective Temperament and Emotional-Behavioral Difficulties to Internet Addiction in Turkish Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Canan; Onder Ozturk; Fatma Ozgun Ozturk; Mine Ekinci

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of affective temperament profiles and emotional and behavioural characteristics with Internet addiction among high school students. The study sample included 303 high school students. A sociodemographic characteristics data form, internet addiction scale (IAS), the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire were used to collect data. Of the sample...

  11. Formulation Changes Affect Material Properties and Cell Behavior in HA-Based Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lawyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop and optimize new scaffold materials for tissue engineering applications, it is important to understand how changes to the scaffold affect the cells that will interact with that scaffold. In this study, we used a hyaluronic acid- (HA- based hydrogel as a synthetic extracellular matrix, containing modified HA (CMHA-S, modified gelatin (Gtn-S, and a crosslinker (PEGda. By varying the concentrations of these components, we were able to change the gelation time, enzymatic degradation, and compressive modulus of the hydrogel. These changes also affected fibroblast spreading within the hydrogels and differentially affected the proliferation and metabolic activity of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In particular, PEGda concentration had the greatest influence on gelation time, compressive modulus, and cell spreading. MSCs appeared to require a longer period of adjustment to the new microenvironment of the hydrogels than fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were able to proliferate in all formulations over the course of two weeks, but MSCs did not. Metabolic activity changed for each cell type during the two weeks depending on the formulation. These results highlight the importance of determining the effect of matrix composition changes on a particular cell type of interest in order to optimize the formulation for a given application.

  12. Deletion of TDO2, IDO-1 and IDO-2 differentially affects mouse behavior and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Lay Khoon; Li, Kong M; Suarna, Cacang; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Stocker, Roland; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2016-10-01

    Tryptophan, an amino acid involved in routine energy metabolism, is a key modulator of sickness behaviors associated with inflammatory states and also plays roles in some psychiatric disorders. Tissue concentrations of tryptophan are regulated primarily by the enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), IDO2 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO, encoded by TDO2). Altered IDO1 and TDO activities have been linked to the perturbed serotonergic neurotransmission that may underlie certain psychopathologies. Here we assessed mice genetically modified to be deficient in IDO1, IDO2 or TDO2 for their behavior and cognitive function using an automated home cage system, the IntelliCage™. A well-established behavioural and cognitive test battery was applied during two periods (Runs 1 and 2, "R1" and "R2") separated by one month. Various tryptophan-related neurochemicals also were measured in brain extracts. IDO1(-/-) mice displayed remarkable reductions of early diurnal exploration in the IntelliCage and this persisted in R2. In contrast, early diurnal hyperactivity was observed in IDO2(-/-) mice in both R1 and R2. TDO2(-/-) mice displayed increased diurnal and nocturnal exploration, but only in R2. Cognitive assessment suggested enhanced reference memory in IDO2(-/-) mice in a complex patrolling task, while TDO deficiency was associated with enhanced performance in complex patrolling and discrimination reversal tasks. Neurochemical measures showed attenuated brain serotonin levels in IDO1(-/-) mice and augmented tryptophan and serotonin levels in TDO2(-/-) animals, respectively. No neurochemical alterations were detected in IDO2(-/-) mice. Taken together, these findings reveal complex and dissimilar patterns of behavioral and cognitive changes induced by knockout of three different tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:27316339

  13. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  14. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  15. Psychological and emotional methods of affecting consumers’ behavior: generalization of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Borodkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions with the development of trade, intensifying of competition and strengthening of general informative pressure on a man, the efficiency of traditional methods of stimulation of sales (in particular, discounts, bonuses, gifts, free concomitant services, price methods and etc. substantially grows short. Such a situation induces specialists (marketing specialists, managers, managers of companies to search for new unconventional and non-standard approaches of moving of commodities and services, in particular, directly in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean marketing technologies used for designing of consumers’ behavior. Specialists say that for successful moving of commodities it is necessary to call to the emotional, subconscious sphere. The role of marketing is taken to communication with a consumer directly in the places of sale, where there is the possibility to provide the most complete immersion of a consumer in the world of brand and to stimulate spontaneous purchases. The task of marketing consists in forming of so-called indoor-environment that is the atmosphere in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean visual (color, voice (audiomarketing and aromatic (aromamarketing design inside a building. The essence of such technologies consists in the influence on man’s subconsciousness and in the creation of manipulation mechanism of management of consumer’s actions and behavior by complex influence on 5 organs of man’s feeling such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, touch, taste. The article generalizes the existent experience of the use of psycho-emotional methods of stimulation of sales used to influence on consumer’s behavior. The authors describe the basic methods of psyho-emotional influence such as color, audiomarketing (or voice design and aromamarketing. It is marked that there is the necessity of the complex use of psyho-emotional methods and receptions from the point of view of their utility for all

  16. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  17. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  18. Exercise Effects on Motor and Affective Behavior and Catecholamine Neurochemistry in the MPTP-Lesioned Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Gorton, Lori M.; Vuckovic, Marta G.; Vertelkina, Nina; Giselle M. Petzinger; Jakowec, Michael W; Wood, Ruth I.

    2010-01-01

    This study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice to determine if exercise improves behavior and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) content. Male C57BL/6 mice received MPTP (4×20 mg/kg) or saline. They remained sedentary or exercised by treadmill or voluntary running wheel for 6 weeks (n=8/group). Saline-treated mice ran significantly faster on running wheels (22.8±1.0 m/min) than on treadmill (8.5±0.5 m/min), and MPTP lesion did not reduce voluntary exercise (19.3±1...

  19. Effects of an Educational and Support Program for Family and Friends of a Substance Abuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Platter, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Many family members are adversely affected by their loved ones drinking or drug problem. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in coping and enabling behaviors among family members who attended a community educational and psychosocial group for friends and family of a substance abuser, and to examine the concerns of these family…

  20. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.