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Sample records for affect actin cytoskeletal

  1. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd2+-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd2+ (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd2+-dependent effect, as only Cd2+ concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd2+] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd2+ exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd2+ concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations. • Glutathionylation requires glutathione synthesis but is

  2. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M., E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd{sup 2+}-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd{sup 2+}-dependent effect, as only Cd{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd{sup 2+}] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd{sup 2+} exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd{sup 2+} concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations.

  3. Dithiocarbamate propineb induces acetylcholine release through cytoskeletal actin depolymerization in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Stefano; Binaglia, Marco; Corsini, Emanuela; Boraso, Mariaserena; Grazi, Enrico; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina

    2008-11-10

    Neurological complications as well as movement disorders are relevant symptoms in animals and humans chronically exposed to dithiocarbamates. Using rat pheochromocytoma cells differentiated by NGF (PC12), we investigated whether propineb affects acetylcholine (Ach) release and the molecular mechanisms involved. Propineb (0.001-100 nM) dose-dependently increased Ach release from PC12. Thus, 0.001-1 nM propineb-induced Ach release, reaching a maximal effect ( approximately 50%) at 0.1-1 nM. Higher concentrations of propineb (10-100 nM) caused a progressive disappearance of the effect. Chelation of extra- and intracellular Ca(2+) did not affect Ach release by propineb, which was prevented by the actin stabilizer jasplakinolide (500 nM). Accordingly, actin depolymerization was observed after exposure of differentiated PC12 to 0.1-1 nM propineb, a loss of effect was evident at higher concentrations (100 nM), and the effect was Ca(2+)-independent. Disulfiram, a related dithiocarbamate not coordinated with Zn(2+), also depolymerized actin, suggesting the involvement of the organic structure of dithiocarbamates rather than the leakage of Zn(2+). Nevertheless, propineb did not depolymerize actin in a cell-free system. These data suggest that dithiocarbamates, through the activation of intracellular cascade(s), impair cytoskeletal actin. This effect may contribute to affect synaptic vesicles processing resulting in an impaired cholinergic transmission. PMID:18822360

  4. [Cytoskeletal actin and its associated proteins. Some examples in Protista].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, N; Carlier, M F; Brugerolle, G; Tardieux, I; Ausseil, J

    1998-06-01

    Many processes, cell motility being an example, require cells to remodel the actin cytoskeleton in response to both intracellular and extracellular signals. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton involves the rapid disassembly and reassembly of actin filaments, a phenomenon regulated by the action of particular actin-binding proteins. In recent years, an interest in studying actin regulation in unicellular organisms has arisen. Parasitic protozoan are among these organisms and studies of the cytoskeleton functions of these protozoan are relevant related to either cell biology or pathogenicity. To discuss recent data in this field, a symposium concerning "Actin and actin-binding proteins in protists" was held on May 8-11 in Paris, France, during the XXXV meeting of the French Society of Protistology. As a brief summary of the symposium we report here findings concerning the in vitro actin dynamic assembly, as well as the characterization of several actin-binding proteins from the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis and Plasmodium knowlesi. In addition, localization of actin in non-pathogen protists such as Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii is also presented. The data show that some actin-binding proteins facilitate organization of filaments into higher order structures as pseudopods, while others have regulatory functions, indicating very particular roles for actin-binding proteins. One of the proteins discussed during the symposium, the actin depolymerizing factor ADF, was shown to enhance the treadmilling rate of actin filaments. In vitro, ADF binds to the ADP-bound forms of G-actin and F-actin, thereby participating in and changing the rate of actin assembly. Biochemical approaches allowed the identification of a protein complex formed by HSP/C70-cap32-34 which might also be involved in depolymerization of F-actin in P. knowlesi. Molecular and cellular approaches were used to identify proteins such as ABP-120 and myosin

  5. Actin dynamics and the elasticity of cytoskeletal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a cell depends on its cytoskeleton, which includes an actin network. This network is transient and depends upon the continual polymerization and depolymerization of actin. The degradation of an actin network, and a corresponding reduction in cell stiffness, can indicate the presence of disease. Numerical simulations will be invaluable for understanding the physics of these systems and the correlation between actin dynamics and elasticity. Here we develop a model that is capable of generating actin network structures. In particular, we develop a model of actin dynamics which considers the polymerization, depolymerization, nucleation, severing, and capping of actin filaments. The structures obtained are then fed directly into a mechanical model. This allows us to qualitatively assess the effects of changing various parameters associated with actin dynamics on the elasticity of the material.

  6. A POROELASTIC MODEL FOR CELL CRAWLING INCLUDING MECHANICAL COUPLING BETWEEN CYTOSKELETAL CONTRACTION AND ACTIN POLYMERIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, L A; Shi, Y; Yang, L; Bayly, P V

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about the biophysical mechanisms involved in cell crawling, but how these processes are coordinated to produce directed motion is not well understood. Here, we propose a new hypothesis whereby local cytoskeletal contraction generates fluid flow through the lamellipodium, with the pressure at the front of the cell facilitating actin polymerization which pushes the leading edge forward. The contraction, in turn, is regulated by stress in the cytoskeleton. To test this hypothesis, finite element models for a crawling cell are presented. These models are based on nonlinear poroelasticity theory, modified to include the effects of active contraction and growth, which are regulated by mechanical feedback laws. Results from the models agree reasonably well with published experimental data for cell speed, actin flow, and cytoskeletal deformation in migrating fish epidermal keratocytes. The models also suggest that oscillations can occur for certain ranges of parameter values. PMID:21765817

  7. Beta-actin deficiency with oxidative posttranslational modifications in Rett syndrome erythrocytes: insights into an altered cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    Full Text Available Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1∶10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs, drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: -1.82±0.15, -2.15±0.06, and -2.59±0.48, respectively in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization.

  8. Arabidopsis Actin-Depolymerizing Factor-4 links pathogen perception, defense activation and transcription to cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Porter

    Full Text Available The primary role of Actin-Depolymerizing Factors (ADFs is to sever filamentous actin, generating pointed ends, which in turn are incorporated into newly formed filaments, thus supporting stochastic actin dynamics. Arabidopsis ADF4 was recently shown to be required for the activation of resistance in Arabidopsis following infection with the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst expressing the effector protein AvrPphB. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of RPS5, the cognate resistance protein of AvrPphB, was dramatically reduced in the adf4 mutant, suggesting a link between actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the transcriptional regulation of R-protein activation. By examining the PTI (PAMP Triggered Immunity response in the adf4 mutant when challenged with Pst expressing AvrPphB, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of the PTI-specific target gene FRK1 (Flg22-Induced Receptor Kinase 1. These data are in agreement with recent observations demonstrating a requirement for RPS5 in PTI-signaling in the presence of AvrPphB. Furthermore, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-signaling was significantly reduced in the adf4 mutant, while no such reduction was observed in the rps5-1 point mutation under similar conditions. Isoelectric focusing confirmed phosphorylation of ADF4 at serine-6, and additional in planta analyses of ADF4's role in immune signaling demonstrates that nuclear localization is phosphorylation independent, while localization to the actin cytoskeleton is linked to ADF4 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for ADF4 in controlling gene-for-gene resistance activation, as well as MAPK-signaling, via the coordinated regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics and R-gene transcription.

  9. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase binds to actin-based cytoskeletal elements in an isoprenylation-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, D A; Braun, P E

    1996-09-01

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is an isoprenylated protein enriched in myelin and oligodendrocytes but also present in several other tissues at low levels. CNP binds avidly to membranes and in addition possesses several characteristics of cytoskeletal proteins. The role of isoprenylation in the association of CNP with the cytoskeleton was analyzed by ectopic expression in L cells of epitope-tagged CNP1 and a non-isoprenylated mutant CNP1. Using nonionic detergent extraction, drug-mediated cytoskeletal disruption, and coimmunoprecipitation with an anti-actin antibody, we show that CNP1 is associated with actin-based cytoskeletal elements independently of its isoprenylation status. A control protein, p21c-H-ras, which is also modified by isoprenylation at its carboxyl-terminus, does not bind to cytoskeletal structures as judged by the same criteria. We present a model that accounts for the association of CNP1 with membranes and the cytoskeleton. PMID:8752099

  10. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the human. gamma. -actin gene: Differential evolution, location, and expression of the cytoskeletal BETA- and. gamma. -actin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, H.P.; Eddy, R.; Shows, T.; Kedes, L.; Gunning, P.

    1988-04-01

    The accumulation of the cytoskeletal ..beta..-and ..gamma..-actin mRNAs was determined in a variety of mouse tissues and organs. The ..beta..-iosform is always expressed in excess of the ..gamma..-isoform. However, the molar ratio of ..beta..- to ..gamma..-actin mRNA varies from 1.7 in kidney and testis to 12 in sarcomeric muscle to 114 in liver. The authors conclude that, whereas the cytoskeletal ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actins are truly coexpressed, their mRNA levels are subject to differential regulation between different cell types. The human ..gamma..-actin gene has been cloned and sequenced, and its chromosome location has been determined. The gene is located on human chromosome 17, unlike ..beta..-actin which is on chromosome 7. Thus, if these genes are also unlinked in the mouse, the coexpression of the ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin genes in rodent tissues cannot be determined by gene linkage. Comparison of the human ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin genes reveals that noncoding sequences in the 5'-flanking region and in intron III have been conserved since the duplication that gave rise to these two genes. In contrast, there are sequences in intron III and the 3'-untranslated region which are not present in the ..beta..-actin gene but are conserved between the human ..gamma..-actin and the Xenopus borealis type 1 actin genes. Such conserved noncoding sequences may contribute to the coexpression of ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin or to the unique regulation and function of the ..gamma..-actin gene. Finally, the authors demonstrate that the human ..gamma..-actin gene is expressed after introduction into mouse L cells and C2 myoblasts and that, upon fusion of C2 cells to form myotubes, the human ..gamma..-actin gene is appropriately regulated.

  11. Nano-ZnO leads to tubulin macrotube assembly and actin bundling, triggering cytoskeletal catastrophe and cell necrosis

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    García-Hevia, Lorena; Valiente, Rafael; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Renero-Lecuna, Carlos; González, Jesús; Rodríguez-Fernández, Lidia; Aguado, Fernando; Villegas, Juan C.; Fanarraga, Mónica L.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin filament bundling and structural changes in microtubules, transforming these highly dynamic 25 nm diameter polymers into rigid macrotubes of tubulin, severely affecting cell proliferation and survival. Our results demonstrate that nano-ZnO causes acute cytoskeletal collapse that triggers necrosis, followed by a late reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptotic process.Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin

  12. Adenosine Diphosphate Ribosylation Factor-GTPaseActivating Protein Stimulates the Transport of AUX1Endosome, Which Relies on Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Rice Root DevelopmentF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Du; Yunyuan XU; Yingdian Wang; Kang Chong

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin transport,which depends on polarized subcellular distribution of AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX1/LAX) influx carriers and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers,mediates various processes of plant growth and development.Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein,GNOM.However,the mediation of auxin influx carrier recycling is poorly understood.Here,we report that overexpression of OsAGAP,an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice,stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1.AUX1 endosomes could partially colocalize with FM4-64 labeled early endosome after actin disruption.Furthermore,OsAGAP is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization,and its overexpression tends to reduce the thickness and bundling of actin filaments.Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed exocytosis of the AUX1 recycling endosome was not affected in the OsAGAP overexpression cells,and was only slightly promoted when the actin filaments were completely disrupted by Lat B.Thus,we propose that AUX1 accumulation in the OsAGAP overexpression and actin disrupted cells may be due to the fact that endocytosis of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 early endosome was greatly promoted by actin cytoskeleton disruption.

  13. Xenopus cytoskeletal actin and human c-fos gene promoters share a conserved protein-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohun, T; Garrett, N; Treisman, R

    1987-03-01

    Xenopus laevis cytoskeletal actin gene promoters contain a 20-bp sequence homologous to the serum response element (SRE) required for transient human c-fos gene transcription in response to serum factors. Both sequences bind the same factor in HeLa cell extracts, as shown by binding competition, DNase I and dimethylsulphate (DMS) protection and DMS interference assays. A similar protein is present in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sequences containing the SRE homology are essential for constitutive activity of the actin promoter in both Xenopus and mouse cells, and a synthetic SRE functions as a promoter element in these cells. In mouse cells, transcription of both transfected Xenopus actin and actin/c-fos fusion genes is activated following serum stimulation. These data suggest that the SRE and its cognate protein form part of a regulatory pathway that has been highly conserved during evolution. PMID:3582369

  14. The Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Gene Product, merlin, Reverses the F-Actin Cytoskeletal Defects in Primary Human Schwannoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bashour, Anne-Marie; Meng, J.-J.; Ip, Wallace; MacCollin, Mia; Ratner, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Schwannoma tumors, which occur sporadically and in patients with neurofibromatosis, account for 8% of intracranial tumors and can only be treated by surgical removal. Most schwannomas have biallelic mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. We previously showed that schwannoma-derived Schwann cells exhibit membrane ruffling and aberrant cell spreading when plated onto laminin, indicative of fundamental F-actin cytoskeletal defects. Here we expand these observations to a large group of spora...

  15. Role of cyclic nucleotide-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics:Ca(2+](i and force suppression in forskolin-pretreated porcine coronary arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Hocking

    Full Text Available Initiation of force generation during vascular smooth muscle contraction involves a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+]i and phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC. However, reversal of these two processes alone does not account for the force inhibition that occurs during relaxation or inhibition of contraction, implicating that other mechanisms, such as actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, play a role in the suppression of force. In this study, we hypothesize that forskolin-induced force suppression is dependent upon changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. To focus on the actin cytoskeletal changes, a physiological model was developed in which forskolin treatment of intact porcine coronary arteries (PCA prior to treatment with a contractile agonist resulted in complete suppression of force. Pretreatment of PCA with forskolin suppressed histamine-induced force generation but did not abolish [Ca(2+]i rise or MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, forskolin pretreatment reduced filamentous actin in histamine-treated tissues, and prevented histamine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory proteins HSP20, VASP, cofilin, and paxillin. Taken together, these results suggest that forskolin-induced complete force suppression is dependent upon the actin cytoskeletal regulation initiated by the phosphorylation changes of the actin regulatory proteins and not on the MLC dephosphorylation. This model of complete force suppression can be employed to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for smooth muscle tone, and may offer cues to pathological situations, such as hypertension and vasospasm.

  16. Pharmacologic regulation of AMPK in breast cancer affects cytoskeletal properties involved with microtentacle formation and re-attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Kristi R; Whipple, Rebecca A; Boggs, Amanda E; Hessler, Lindsay K; Bhandary, Lekhana; Vitolo, Michele I; Thompson, Keyata; Martin, Stuart S

    2015-11-01

    The presence of tumor cells in the circulation is associated with a higher risk of metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Circulating breast tumor cells use tubulin-based structures known as microtentacles (McTNs) to re-attach to endothelial cells and arrest in distant organs. McTN formation is dependent on the opposing cytoskeletal forces of stable microtubules and the actin network. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular metabolic regulator that can alter actin and microtubule organization in epithelial cells. We report that AMPK can regulate the cytoskeleton of breast cancer cells in both attached and suspended conditions. We tested the effects of AMPK on microtubule stability and the actin-severing protein, cofilin. AMPK inhibition with compound c increased both microtubule stability and cofilin activation, which also resulted in higher McTN formation and re-attachment. Conversely, AMPK activation with A-769662 decreased microtubule stability and cofilin activation with concurrent decreases in McTN formation and cell re-attachment. This data shows for the first time that AMPK shifts the balance of cytoskeletal forces in suspended breast cancer cells, which affect their ability to form McTNs and re-attach. These results support a model where AMPK activators may be used therapeutically to reduce the metastatic efficiency of breast tumor cells. PMID:26431377

  17. The scaffolding protein IQGAP1 co-localizes with actin at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope: implications for cytoskeletal regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Michael A.; Henderson, Beric R.

    2012-01-01

    IQGAP1 is an important cytoskeletal regulator, known to act at the plasma membrane to bundle and cap actin filaments, and to tether the cortical actin meshwork to microtubules via plus-end binding proteins. Here we describe the novel subcellular localization of IQGAP1 at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope, where it co-located with F-actin. The IQGAP1 and F-actin staining overlapped that of microtubules at the nuclear envelope, revealing a pattern strikingly similar to that observed ...

  18. Mertk deficiency affects macrophage directional migration via disruption of cytoskeletal organization.

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    Yong Tang

    Full Text Available Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, weak spreading, loss of spindle-like body shape and lack of clear leading and trailing edges within the first few hours of culture, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse video photography recording showed that macrophage without Mertk conducted mainly random movement with oscillating swing around the cell body, and lost the directional migration action seen on the WT cells. Western blotting showed a decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Immunocytochemistry revealed that actin filaments and dynamic protein myosin II failed to concentrate in the leading edge of migrating cells. Microtubules were localized mainly in one side of mutant cell body, with no clear MTOC and associated radially-distributed microtubule bundles, which were clearly evident in the WT cells. Our results suggest that Mertk deficiency affects not only phagocytosis but also cell shape and migration, likely through a common regulatory mechanism on cytoskeletons.

  19. Mertk deficiency affects macrophage directional migration via disruption of cytoskeletal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Wu, Shen; Liu, Qian; Xie, Jiayi; Zhang, Jingxue; Han, Dong; Lu, Qingxian; Lu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, weak spreading, loss of spindle-like body shape and lack of clear leading and trailing edges within the first few hours of culture, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse video photography recording showed that macrophage without Mertk conducted mainly random movement with oscillating swing around the cell body, and lost the directional migration action seen on the WT cells. Western blotting showed a decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Immunocytochemistry revealed that actin filaments and dynamic protein myosin II failed to concentrate in the leading edge of migrating cells. Microtubules were localized mainly in one side of mutant cell body, with no clear MTOC and associated radially-distributed microtubule bundles, which were clearly evident in the WT cells. Our results suggest that Mertk deficiency affects not only phagocytosis but also cell shape and migration, likely through a common regulatory mechanism on cytoskeletons. PMID:25617898

  20. Cytoskeletal actin networks in motile cells are critically self-organized systems synchronized by mechanical interactions.

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    Cardamone, Luca; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent; Shahapure, Rajesh; DeSimone, Antonio

    2011-08-23

    Growing networks of actin fibers are able to organize into compact, stiff two-dimensional structures inside lamellipodia of crawling cells. We put forward the hypothesis that the growing actin network is a critically self-organized system, in which long-range mechanical stresses arising from the interaction with the plasma membrane provide the selective pressure leading to organization. We show that a simple model based only on this principle reproduces the stochastic nature of lamellipodia protrusion (growth periods alternating with fast retractions) and several of the features observed in experiments: a growth velocity initially insensitive to the external force; the capability of the network to organize its orientation; a load-history-dependent growth velocity. Our model predicts that the spectrum of the time series of the height of a growing lamellipodium decays with the inverse of the frequency. This behavior is a well-known signature of self-organized criticality and is confirmed by unique optical tweezer measurements performed in vivo on neuronal growth cones. PMID:21825142

  1. Phosphoproteome Profiling of SH-SY5y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Anesthetics: Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Affect the Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Cytoskeletal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joomin; Ahn, Eunsook; Park, Wyun Kon; Park, Seyeon

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics are used to decrease the spinal cord transmission of painful stimuli. However, the molecular or biochemical processes within cells that regulate anesthetic-induced responses at the cellular level are largely unknown. Here, we report the phosphoproteome profile of SH-SY5y human neuroblastoma cells treated with sevoflurane, a clinically used anesthetic. Phosphoproteins were isolated from cell lysates and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The phosphorylation of putative anesthetic-responsive marker proteins was validated using western blot analysis in cells treated with both sevoflurane and isoflurane. A total of 25 phosphoproteins were identified as differentially phosphorylated proteins. These included key regulators that signal cytoskeletal remodeling steps in pathways related to vesicle trafficking, axonal growth, and cell migration. These proteins included the Rho GTPase, Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein, Rho GTPase activating protein, actin-related protein, and actin. Sevoflurane and isoflurane also resulted in the dissolution of F-actin fibers in SH-SY5y cells. Our results show that anesthetics affect the phosphorylation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling pathways. PMID:27611435

  2. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

  3. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-08-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  4. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is Functionally Affected by Mutations on Actin Binding Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hai Dong; Wei-Ping Tang; Jia-Yao Liu

    2013-01-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin,and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments.To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L.AtADF1,we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo.Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G-and F-actin binding.The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A,R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding.Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L.plants overexpressing these mutants,we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth.Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional,unless the affinity foractin monomers is also affected.The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding,depolymerization of actin polymers,and therefore in the control of actin organization.

  5. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptotic-like blebbing in lens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Shimizu, M.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    DMPK, the product of the DM locus, is a member of the same family of serine-threonine protein kinases as the Rho-associated enzymes. In DM, membrane inclusions accumulate in lens fiber cells producing cataracts. Overexpression of DMPK in cultured lens epithelial cells led to apoptotic-like blebbing of the plasma membrane and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Enzymatically active DMPK was necessary for both effects; inactive mutant DMPK protein did not produce either effect. Active RhoA but not constitutive GDP-state mutant protein produced similar effects as DMPK. The similar actions of DMPK and RhoA suggest that they may function in the same regulatory network. The observed effects of DMPK may be relevant to the removal of membrane organelles during normal lens differentiation and the retention of intracellular membranes in DM lenses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Mertk Deficiency Affects Macrophage Directional Migration via Disruption of Cytoskeletal Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yong; Wu, Shen; Liu, Qian; Xie, Jiayi; Zhang, Jingxue; Han, Dong; Lu, Qingxian; Lu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, w...

  7. Post-polymerization crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E Emily; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Cellular cytoskeletal systems play many pivotal roles in living organisms by controlling cell shape, division, and migration, which ultimately govern morphology, physiology, and functions of animals. Although the cytoskeletal systems are distinct and play different roles, there is growing evidence that these diverse cytoskeletal systems coordinate their functions with each other. This coordination between cytoskeletal systems, often termed cytoskeletal crosstalk, has been identified when the dynamic state of one individual system affects the other system. In this review, we briefly describe some well-established examples of crosstalk between cytoskeletal systems and then introduce a newly discovered form of crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule network that does not appear to directly alter polymerization or depolymerization of either system. The biological impact and possible significance of this post-polymerization crosstalk between actin and microtubules will be discussed in detail. PMID:27058810

  8. Mapping the cytoskeletal prestress

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chan Young; Tambe, Dhananjay; Alencar, Adriano M.; Trepat, Xavier; Zhou, En Hua; Millet, Emil; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Cell mechanical properties on a whole cell basis have been widely studied, whereas local intracellular variations have been less well characterized and are poorly understood. To fill this gap, here we provide detailed intracellular maps of regional cytoskeleton (CSK) stiffness, loss tangent, and rate of structural rearrangements, as well as their relationships to the underlying regional F-actin density and the local cytoskeletal prestress. In the human airway smooth muscle cell, we used micro...

  9. Cytoskeletal dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    I worked with reconstitutted contractile acto-myosin systems containing mainly actin, actin cross-linkers and myosin motors. Contractility and rheology of such systems was studied using confocal microscopy and rheology....

  10. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  11. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2011-09-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  12. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A, E-mail: gpapoian@umd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  13. Regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by redox signaling and oxidative stress: implications for neuronal development and trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gonzalez-Billault

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A proper balance between chemical reduction and oxidation (known as redox balance is essential for normal cellular physiology. Deregulation in the production of oxidative species leads to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and aberrant post-translational modification of proteins, which in most cases induces injury, cell death and disease. However, physiological concentrations of oxidative species are necessary to support important cell functions, such as chemotaxis, hormone synthesis, immune response, cytoskeletal remodeling, Ca2+ homeostasis and others. Recent evidence suggests that redox balance regulates actin and microtubule dynamics in both physiological and pathological contexts. Microtubules and actin microfilaments contain certain amino acid residues that are susceptible to oxidation, which reduces the ability of microtubules to polymerize and causes severing of actin microfilaments in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In contrast, inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (e.g., due to NOXs leads to aberrant actin polymerization, decreases neurite outgrowth and affects the normal development and polarization of neurons. In this review, we summarize emerging evidence suggesting that both general and specific enzymatic sources of redox species exert diverse effects on cytoskeletal dynamics. Considering the intimate relationship between cytoskeletal dynamics and trafficking, we also discuss the potential effects of redox balance on intracellular transport via regulation of the components of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which may directly impact localization of proteins and vesicles across the soma, dendrites and axon of neurons.

  14. DISC1 knockdown impairs the tangential migration of cortical interneurons by affecting the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bolz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1 is a risk gene for a spectrum of major mental disorders. It has been shown to regulate radial migration as well as dendritic arborization during neurodevelopment and corticogenesis. In a previous study we demonstrated through in vitro experiments that DISC1 also controls the tangential migration of cortical interneurons originating from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE. Here we first show that DISC1 is necessary for the proper tangential migration of cortical interneurons in the intact brain. Expression of EGFP under the Lhx6 promotor allowed us to analyze exclusively interneurons transfected in the MGE after in utero electroporation. After 3 days in utero, DISC1 deficient interneurons displayed prolonged leading processes and, compared to control, fewer neurons reached the cortex. Time-lapse video microscopy of cortical feeder-layers revealed a decreased migration velocity due to a reduction of soma translocations. Immunostainings indicated that DISC1 is co-localized with F-actin in the growth cone-like structure of the leading process. DISC1 knockdown reduced F-actin levels whereas the overall actin level was not altered. Moreover, DISC1 knockdown also decreased levels of phosphorylated Girdin, which cross-links F-actin, as well as the Girdin-activator pAkt. In contrast, using time-lapse video microscopy of fluorescence-tagged tubulin and EB3 in fibroblasts, we found no effects on microtubule polymerization when DISC1 was reduced. However, DISC1 affected the acteylation of microtubules in the leading processes of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. Together, our results provide a mechanism how DISC1 might contribute to interneuron migration thereby explaining the reduced number of specific classes of cortical interneurons in some DISC1 mouse models.

  15. Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. PMID:26874250

  16. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  17. PTP-PEST controls EphA3 activation and ephrin-induced cytoskeletal remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mariam; Nievergall, Eva; Gegenbauer, Kristina; Llerena, Carmen; Atapattu, Lakmali; Hallé, Maxime; Tremblay, Michel L; Janes, Peter W; Lackmann, Martin

    2016-01-15

    Eph receptors and their corresponding membrane-bound ephrin ligands regulate cell positioning and establish tissue patterns during embryonic and oncogenic development. Emerging evidence suggests that assembly of polymeric Eph signalling clusters relies on cytoskeletal reorganisation and underlies regulation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTP-PEST (also known as PTPN12) is a central regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that an N-terminal fragment of PTP-PEST, generated through an ephrinA5-triggered and spatially confined cleavage mediated by caspase-3, attenuates EphA3 receptor activation and its internalisation. Isolation of EphA3 receptor signalling clusters within intact plasma membrane fragments obtained by detergent-free cell fractionation reveals that stimulation of cells with ephrin triggers effective recruitment of this catalytically active truncated form of PTP-PEST together with key cytoskeletal and focal adhesion proteins. Importantly, modulation of actin polymerisation using pharmacological and dominant-negative approaches affects EphA3 phosphorylation in a similar manner to overexpression of PTP-PEST. We conclude that PTP-PEST regulates EphA3 activation both by affecting cytoskeletal remodelling and through its direct action as a PTP controlling EphA3 phosphorylation, indicating its multifaceted regulation of Eph signalling. PMID:26644181

  18. Temperature change does not affect force between single actin filaments and HMM from rabbit muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, M.; Kawaguchi, K; M. Saito; Ishiwata, S

    2000-01-01

    The temperature dependence of sliding force, velocity, and unbinding force was studied on actin filaments when they were placed on heavy meromyosin (HMM) attached to a glass surface. A fluorescently labeled actin filament was attached to the gelsolin-coated surface of a 1-microm polystyrene bead. The bead was trapped by optical tweezers, and HMM-actin interaction was performed at 20-35 degrees C to examine whether force is altered by the temperature change. Our experiments demonstrate that sl...

  19. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger;

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental contaminants found in human and animal tissues worldwide. Neonatal exposure to the flame retardant 2,2', 4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) disrupts normal brain development in mice, and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior in the...... adult. The mechanisms underlying the late effects of early exposure are not clear. To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice, and the......-3 activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex....

  20. Bidirectional Interplay between Vimentin Intermediate Filaments and Contractile Actin Stress Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaming Jiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments contribute to cell migration and morphogenesis, but the interplay between these two central cytoskeletal elements has remained elusive. Here, we find that specific actin stress fiber structures, transverse arcs, interact with vimentin intermediate filaments and promote their retrograde flow. Consequently, myosin-II-containing arcs are important for perinuclear localization of the vimentin network in cells. The vimentin network reciprocally restricts retrograde movement of arcs and hence controls the width of flat lamellum at the leading edge of the cell. Depletion of plectin recapitulates the vimentin organization phenotype of arc-deficient cells without affecting the integrity of vimentin filaments or stress fibers, demonstrating that this cytoskeletal cross-linker is required for productive interactions between vimentin and arcs. Collectively, our results reveal that plectin-mediated interplay between contractile actomyosin arcs and vimentin intermediate filaments controls the localization and dynamics of these two cytoskeletal systems and is consequently important for cell morphogenesis.

  1. Effects of oridonin on cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma cells%冬凌草甲素对胰腺癌细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军楼; 沈洪; 徐力; 杨继兵; 于希忠; 孙志岭

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose:Traditional Chinese medicine with notable effect and little adverse reaction is increasingly concerned about the medical profession because of its great potential and advantage in treating pancreatic carcinoma. In this experiment, we studied the effects of oridonin on apoptosis and cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma SW1990 cells. Methods:SW1990 cells in culture medium were treated with different concentrations of oridonin. The inhibitory rate of the cells was measured by MTT assay. Morphology of cell apoptosis was observed by DAPI stain and cell apoptotic rate was detected by lfow cytometry (FCM). The morphological changes of F-actin were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Results:The growth of human pancreatic carcinoma SW1990 cells was signiifcantly inhibited by oridonin. Apoptosis morphological changes including condensation of chromatin and nuclear fragmentation were observed clearly by DAPI stain. The early apoptotic rate of SW1990 cells treated with 25, 50μmol/L oridonin was signiifcantly higher than that of the control group (3.78±0.46, 9.51±0.63 vs 0.73±0.06, P<0.05), and the late apoptotic rate and cell necrosis rate were also signiifcantly higher than that of the control group (14.40±1.78, 20.53±2.54 vs 4.16±0.31, P<0.05). F-actin was showed from polymerization to depolymerization after oridonin treatment. Conclusion:Oridonin can obviously inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of SW1990 cells. The mechanisms may involve the depolymerization of F-actin after treatment with oridonin.%背景与目的:中医药治疗肿瘤不良反应低且疗效显著,在防治胰腺癌方面有较大的潜力与优势,日益受到国内、外医学界的关注。本研究观察中草药冬凌草的有效成分冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990凋亡及细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响。方法:以不同浓度的冬凌草甲素作用于体外培养的SW1990细胞,采用MTT法检测细胞生长

  2. Effects of oridonin on cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma cells%冬凌草甲素对胰腺癌细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军楼; 沈洪; 徐力; 杨继兵; 于希忠; 孙志岭

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的:中医药治疗肿瘤不良反应低且疗效显著,在防治胰腺癌方面有较大的潜力与优势,日益受到国内、外医学界的关注。本研究观察中草药冬凌草的有效成分冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990凋亡及细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响。方法:以不同浓度的冬凌草甲素作用于体外培养的SW1990细胞,采用MTT法检测细胞生长抑制率,DAPI染色法染色后荧光显微镜观察细胞核凋亡、流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,激光共聚焦显微镜观察F-actin形态学变化。结果:冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990细胞具有明显的增殖抑制作用,荧光显微镜见到典型的凋亡形态学改变。流式细胞仪检测结果显示,25、50μmol/L冬凌草甲素给药组早期凋亡的百分率显著高于对照组(3.78±0.46,9.51±0.63 vs 0.73±0.06,P<0.05),晚期凋亡和坏死细胞的百分率也显著高于未给药组(14.40±1.78,20.53±2.54 vs 4.16±0.31,P<0.05)。细胞骨架蛋白F-actin呈现解聚状态。结论:冬凌草甲素可抑制胰腺癌SW1990细胞增殖,促进肿瘤细胞凋亡,其作用机制可能是药物引起了细胞骨架蛋白F-actin解聚。%Background and purpose:Traditional Chinese medicine with notable effect and little adverse reaction is increasingly concerned about the medical profession because of its great potential and advantage in treating pancreatic carcinoma. In this experiment, we studied the effects of oridonin on apoptosis and cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma SW1990 cells. Methods:SW1990 cells in culture medium were treated with different concentrations of oridonin. The inhibitory rate of the cells was measured by MTT assay. Morphology of cell apoptosis was observed by DAPI stain and cell apoptotic rate was detected by lfow cytometry (FCM). The morphological changes of F-actin were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Results:The growth of human pancreatic

  3. PIP2: choreographer of actin-adaptor proteins in the HIV-1 dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Gordon-Alonso, Mónica; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role during the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infection is affected by cellular proteins that influence the clustering of viral receptors or the subcortical actin cytoskeleton. Several of these actin-adaptor proteins are controlled by the second messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), an important regulator of actin organization. PIP2 production is induced by HIV-1 attachment and facilitates viral infection. However, the importance of PIP2 in regulating cytoskeletal proteins and thus HIV-1 infection has been overlooked. This review examines recent reports describing the roles played by actin-adaptor proteins during HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells, highlighting the influence of the signaling lipid PIP2 in this process. PMID:24768560

  4. Monitoring the cytoskeletal EGF response in live gastric carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Felkl

    Full Text Available Altered cell motility is considered to be a key factor in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. Epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling has been implicated in this process by affecting cytoskeletal organization and dynamics in multiple ways. To sort the temporal and spatial regulation of EGF-dependent cytoskeletal re-organization in relation to a cell's motile behavior time-lapse microscopy was performed on EGF-responsive gastric carcinoma-derived MKN1 cells co-expressing different fluorescently labeled cytoskeletal filaments and focal adhesion components in various combinations. The experiments showed that EGF almost instantaneously induces a considerable increase in membrane ruffling and lamellipodial activity that can be inhibited by Cetuximab EGF receptor antibodies and is not elicited in non-responsive gastric carcinoma Hs746T cells. The transient cell extensions are rich in actin but lack microtubules and keratin intermediate filaments. We show that this EGF-induced increase in membrane motility can be measured by a simple image processing routine. Microtubule plus-ends subsequently invade growing cell extensions, which start to accumulate focal complexes at the lamellipodium-lamellum junction. Such paxillin-positive complexes mature into focal adhesions by tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of zyxin. These adhesions then serve as nucleation sites for keratin filaments which are used to enlarge the neighboring peripheral keratin network. Focal adhesions are either disassembled or give rise to stable zyxin-rich fibrillar adhesions which disassemble in the presence of EGF to support formation of new focal adhesion sites in the cell periphery. Taken together the results serve as a basis for modeling the early cytoskeletal EGF response as a tightly coordinated and step-wise process which is relevant for the prediction of the effectiveness of anti-EGF receptor-based tumor therapy.

  5. AtFH1 formin mutation affects actin filament and microtubule dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosero, A.; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2013), s. 585-597. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Actin * Arabidopsis * At5g25500 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.794, year: 2013

  6. Antibodies to cytoskeletal proteins as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients suffering from chronic hepatitis, collagenosis and infectious mononucleosis, resp., as well as in blood donors antibodies against cytoskeletal antigens such as actin, myosin, actinin, desmin, keratin, and tubulin were determined by radioimmunoassay

  7. Cytoskeletal regulation of dermal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Xanthe L; Cowin, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but lost in mammals; however, there are some instances where glimpses of mammalian regenerative capacity do exist. Here we describe the unlocked potential that exists in mammals that may help us understand the process of regeneration post-injury and highlight the potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process. The precise function and regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to the success of the healing process and its manipulation may therefore facilitate regenerative healing. The gelsolin family of actin remodelling proteins in particular has been shown to have important functions in wound healing and family member Flightless I (Flii) is involved in both regeneration and repair. Understanding the interactions between different cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamic control of processes including cellular adhesion, contraction and motility may assist the development of therapeutics that will stimulate regeneration rather than repair. PMID:24710556

  8. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants. PMID:25784147

  9. Chorein Sensitive Arrangement of Cytoskeletal Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Honisch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chorein is a protein expressed in various cell types. Loss of function mutations of the chorein encoding gene VPS13A lead to chorea-acanthocytosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by movement disorder and behavioral abnormalities. Recent observations revealed that chorein is a powerful regulator of actin cytoskeleton in erythrocytes, platelets, K562 and endothelial HUVEC cells. Methods: In the present study we have used Western blotting to study actin polymerization dynamics, laser scanning microscopy to evaluate in detail the role of chorein in microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments cytoskeleton architecture and RT-PCR to assess gene transcription of the cytoskeletal proteins. Results: We report here powerful depolymerization of actin microfilaments both, in erythrocytes and fibroblasts isolated from chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Along those lines, morphological analysis of fibroblasts from chorea-acanthocytosis patients showed disarranged microtubular network, when compared to fibroblasts from healthy donors. Similarly, the intermediate filament networks of desmin and cytokeratins showed significantly disordered organization with clearly diminished staining in patient's fibroblasts. In line with this, RT-PCR analysis revealed significant downregulation of desmin and cytokeratin gene transcripts. Conclusion: Our results provide for the first time evidence that defective chorein is accompanied by significant structural disorganization of all cytoskeletal structures in human fibroblasts from chorea-acanthocytosis patients.

  10. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Turkel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab. Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems.

  11. Inhibition of actin polymerisation by low concentration Latrunculin B affects endocytosis and alters exocytosis in shank and tip of tobacco pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, A; Idilli, A I; Rodighiero, S; Caccianiga, M

    2012-09-01

    Pollen tube growth depends on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton that regulates cytoplasmic streaming and secretion. To clarify whether actin also plays a role in pollen tube endocytosis, Latrunculin B (LatB) was employed in internalisation experiments with tobacco pollen tubes, using the lipophilic dye FM4-64 and charged nanogold. Time-lapse analysis and dissection of endocytosis allowed us to identify internalisation pathways with different sensitivity to LatB. Co-localisation experiments and ultrastructural observations using positively charged nanogold revealed that LatB significantly inhibited endocytosis in the pollen tube shank, affecting internalisation of the plasma membrane (PM) recycled for secretion, as well as that conveyed to vacuoles. In contrast, endocytosis of negatively charged nanogold in the tip, which is also conveyed to vacuoles, was not influenced. Experiments of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of the apical and subapical PM revealed domains with different rates of fluorescence recovery and showed that these differences depend on the actin cytoskeleton integrity. These results show the presence of distinct degradation pathways by demonstrating that actin-dependent and actin-indepedent endocytosis both operate in pollen tubes, internalising tracts of PM to be recycled and broken down. Intriguingly, although most studies concentrate on exocytosis and distension in the apex, the present paper shows that uncharacterised, actin-dependent secretory activity occurs in the shank of pollen tubes. PMID:22288466

  12. Rho, nuclear actin, and actin-binding proteins in the regulation of transcription and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches on many signaling pathways. During the past decade, actin has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression. Nuclear actin plays a key role in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and pre-mRNA processing. In addition, the "status" of the actin cytoskeleton is used as a signaling intermediate by at least the MKL1-SRF and Hippo-pathways, which culminate in the transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal and growth-promoting genes, respectively. Rho GTPases may therefore regulate gene expression by controlling either cytoplasmic or nuclear actin dynamics. Although the regulation of nuclear actin polymerization is still poorly understood, many actin-binding proteins, which are downstream effectors of Rho, are found in the nuclear compartment. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms and key proteins that may mediate the transcriptional regulation by Rho GTPases through actin. PMID:24603113

  13. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA's) were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation. (author)

  14. Cell Forces and Cytoskeletal Order Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discher, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    Nematic, Smectic and Isotropic Order parameters have found wide-spread use in characterizing all manner of soft matter systems, but have not yet been applied to characterize and understand the structures within living cells, particularly cytoskeletal structures. Several examples will be used to illustrate the utility of such analyses, ranging from experiments on stem cells attached to or in various elastic matrices to embryonic heart tissue and simulations of membrane cytoskeletons under all manner of stressing. Recently developed theory will be shown to apply in general with account of cell contractility, matrix elasticity and dimensionality as well as cell shape and a newly defined ``cytoskeletal polarizability.'' The latter property of cells is likely different between different cell types due to different amounts of key cytoskeletal components with some types of stem cells being more polarizable than others. Evidence of coupling to the nucleus as a viscoelastic inclusion will also be presented. [4pt] References: (1) P. Dalhaimer, D.E. Discher, T. Lubensky. Crosslinked actin networks exhibit liquid crystal elastomer behavior, including soft-mode elasticity. Nature Physics 3: 354-360 (2007). (2) A. Zemel, F.Rehfeldt, A.E.X. Brown, D.E. Discher, and S.A. Safran. Optimal matrix rigidity in the self-polarization of stem cells. Nature Physics 6: 468 - 473 (2010).

  15. Measurements and models of cytoskeletal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Roger

    2006-11-01

    Much attention has recently focused on understanding the rheology of living cells and reconstituted actin gels using a variety of experimental methods (e.g., single- and multi-particle tracking, magnetic twisting cytometry, AFM indentation) and several different models or descriptors (e.g., biopolymer models, tensegrity, cellular solids, power-law rheology), but the debate continues regarding the fundamental basis for the experimental observations. Our recent studies examine the time-dependent behavior of neutrophils as they deform to enter a narrow channel with capillary-scale dimensions. A sudden drop in the shear modulus is observed, followed by recovery to pre-deformation values in < 1 minute. These rheological changes coincide with a reduction in f-actin content and a transient increase in calcium ion concentration [Ca^++], and the change in storage modulus can be prevented by calcium chelation, suggesting that these observations are causally linked. Cells lacking the ability to increase [Ca^++] also become activated more rapidly following deformation, and the time to activation is independent of intracellular strain rates, contrary to experiments lacking the chelating agent. To better understand these processes and the nature of cytoskeletal rheology in general, we have developed a Brownian dynamics model for cytoskeletal self-assembly and subsequent rheological measurement by single particle tracking. Cross-linking proteins are included possessing a range of properties that lead to a variety of cytoskeletal structures from a fine, homogeneous mesh to a structure containing large stress fibers of varying thickness. These results are described in a multi-dimensional phase space that takes into account the geometry, dimensions and stiffness of the cross-linkers.

  16. Actinic Cheilitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... actinic cheilitis. Overview Actinic cheilitis, sometimes known as "farmer's lip" or "sailor's lip," is a precancerous condition ... Last Updated: 22 Dec 2008 Information for other ages: Table of Contents: Overview Who's At Risk Signs ...

  17. Antiepileptic teratogen valproic acid (VPA) modulates organisation and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, P S; Skladchikova, G; Kawa, A;

    1999-01-01

    control cells and cells treated with VPA, indicating that VPA affected the cytoskeletal determinants of cell morphology. Furthermore, VPA treatment induced an increase of F-actin, and of FAK, paxillin, vinculin, and phosphotyrosine in focal adhesion complexes. These changes were accompanied by increased...... adhesion of VPA-treated cells to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with an RGD-containing peptide reducing integrin binding to components of the extracellular matrix partially reverted the motility inhibition induced by VPA, indicating that altered adhesion contributed to, but was not the sole reason for......, VPA caused a redistribution of the actin severing protein gelsolin, and left the cells unable to respond to treatment with a gelsolin-peptide known to reduce the amount of gelsolin bound to phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), leaving a larger amount of the protein in a potential actin binding...

  18. Actin gene family in Branchiostoma belched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved cytoskeletal protein that is found in essentially all eukaryotic cells,which plays a paramount role in several basic functions of the organism, such as the maintenance of cellshape, cell division, cell mobility and muscle contraction. However, little is known about actin gene family inChinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri). Here we systemically analyzed the actin genes family inBranchiostoma belched and found that amphioxus contains 33 actin genes. These genes have undergoneextensive expansion through tandem duplications by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, we also providedevidence indicating that actin genes have divergent functions by specializing their EST data in both Bran-chiostoma belched and Branchiostoma florida. Our results provided an alternative explanation for the evolu-tion of actin genes, and gave new insights into their functional roles.

  19. Mechanosensitive kinetic preference of actin-binding protein to actin filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Taiji

    2016-04-01

    The kinetic preference of actin-binding proteins to actin filaments is altered by external forces on the filament. Such an altered kinetic preference is largely responsible for remodeling the actin cytoskeletal structure in response to intracellular forces. During remodeling, actin-binding proteins and actin filaments interact under isothermal conditions, because the cells are homeostatic. In such a temperature homeostatic state, we can rigorously and thermodynamically link the chemical potential of actin-binding proteins to stresses on the actin filaments. From this relationship, we can construct a physical model that explains the force-dependent kinetic preference of actin-binding proteins to actin filaments. To confirm the model, we have analyzed the mechanosensitive alternation of the kinetic preference of Arp2/3 and cofilin to actin filaments. We show that this model captures the qualitative responses of these actin-binding proteins to the forces, as observed experimentally. Moreover, our theoretical results demonstrate that, depending on the structural parameters of the binding region, actin-binding proteins can show different kinetic responses even to the same mechanical signal tension, in which the double-helix nature of the actin filament also plays a critical role in a stretch-twist coupling of the filament.

  20. N-WASp is required for Schwann cell cytoskeletal dynamics, normal myelin gene expression and peripheral nerve myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fuzi; Dong, Baoxia; Georgiou, John; Jiang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jinyi; Bharioke, Arjun; Qiu, Frank; Lommel, Silvia; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Roder, John C.; Eyer, Joel; Chen, Xiequn; Peterson, Alan C.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Schwann cells elaborate myelin sheaths around axons by spirally wrapping and compacting their plasma membranes. Although actin remodeling plays a crucial role in this process, the effectors that modulate the Schwann cell cytoskeleton are poorly defined. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp), is upregulated in myelinating Schwann cells coincident with myelin elaboration. When N-WASp is conditionally deleted in Schwann cells at the onset of myelination, the cells continue to ensheath axons but fail to extend processes circumferentially to elaborate myelin. Myelin-related gene expression is also severely reduced in the N-WASp-deficient cells and in vitro process and lamellipodia formation are disrupted. Although affected mice demonstrate obvious motor deficits these do not appear to progress, the mutant animals achieving normal body weights and living to advanced age. Our observations demonstrate that N-WASp plays an essential role in Schwann cell maturation and myelin formation. PMID:21385763

  1. Cytoskeletal Dynamics: Concepts in Measles Virus Replication and Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with most viruses, measles virus (MV relies on the integrity of the cytoskeleton of its host cells both with regard to efficient replication in these cells, but also retention of their motility which favors viral dissemination. It is, however, the surface interaction of the viral glycoprotein (gp complex with receptors present on lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs, that signals effective initiation of host cell cytoskeletal dynamics. For DCs, these may act to regulate processes as diverse as viral uptake and sorting, but also the ability of these cells to successfully establish and maintain functional immune synapses (IS with T cells. In T cells, MV signaling causes actin cytoskeletal paralysis associated with a loss of polarization, adhesion and motility, which has been linked to activation of sphingomyelinases and subsequent accumulation of membrane ceramides. MV modulation of both DC and T cell cytoskeletal dynamics may be important for the understanding of MV immunosuppression at the cellular level.

  2. Bacterial Subversion of Host Actin Dynamics at the Plasma Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Carabeo, Rey

    2011-01-01

    Invasion of non-phagocytic cells by a number of bacterial pathogens involves the subversion of the actin cytoskeletal remodelling machinery to produce actin-rich cell surface projections designed to engulf the bacteria. The signalling that occurs to induce these actin-rich structures has considerable overlap amongst a diverse group of bacteria. The molecular organisation within these structures act in concert to internalise the invading pathogen. This dynamic process could be subdivided into ...

  3. Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbok; Kolodziej, Peter A

    2002-03-01

    Coordination of F-actin and microtubule dynamics is important for cellular motility and morphogenesis, but little is known about underlying mechanisms. short stop (shot) encodes an evolutionarily conserved, neuronally expressed family of rod-like proteins required for sensory and motor axon extension in Drosophila melanogaster. We identify Shot isoforms that contain N-terminal F-actin and C-terminal microtubule-binding domains, and that crosslink F-actin and microtubules in cultured cells. The F-actin- and microtubule-binding domains of Shot are required in the same molecule for axon extension, though the length of the connecting rod domain can be dramatically reduced without affecting activity. Shot therefore functions as a cytoskeletal crosslinker in axon extension, rather than mediating independent interactions with F-actin and microtubules. A Ca(2+)-binding motif located adjacent to the microtubule-binding domain is also required for axon extension, suggesting that intracellular Ca(2+) release may regulate Shot activity. These results suggest that Shot coordinates regulated interactions between F-actin and microtubules that are crucial for neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:11874915

  4. MAPK uncouples cell cycle progression from cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization in cycling cells

    OpenAIRE

    Margadant, Coert; Cremers, Lobke; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Boonstra, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cytoskeletal tension supports growth-factor-induced proliferation, and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in growth factor-stimulated cells prevents the re-expression of cyclin D and cell cycle re-entry from quiescence. In contrast to cells that enter the cell cycle from G0, cycling cells continuously express cyclin D, and are subject to major cell shape changes during the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the cell cycle requirements for cytoskeletal tension and cell sprea...

  5. Actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar keratosis; Sun-induced skin changes - keratosis; Keratosis - actinic (solar) ... laser treatment called photodynamic therapy Chemical peels Skin creams such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and imiquimod

  6. The anti-actin drugs latrunculin and cytochalasin affect the maturation of spruce somatic embryos in different ways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková, Zuzana; Eliášová, Kateřina; Vágner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 221, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 90-99. ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12FR017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Somatic embryogenesis * Cytoskeleton * Actin Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2014

  7. Comparative genome analysis of cortactin and HS1: the significance of the F-actin binding repeat domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seggelen Vera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In human carcinomas, overexpression of cortactin correlates with poor prognosis. Cortactin is an F-actin-binding protein involved in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell migration by promoting actin-related protein (Arp2/3 mediated actin polymerization. It shares a high amino acid sequence and structural similarity to hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1 although their functions differ considerable. In this manuscript we describe the genomic organization of these two genes in a variety of species by a combination of cloning and database searches. Based on our analysis, we predict the genesis of the actin-binding repeat domain during evolution. Results Cortactin homologues exist in sponges, worms, shrimps, insects, urochordates, fishes, amphibians, birds and mammalians, whereas HS1 exists in vertebrates only, suggesting that both genes have been derived from an ancestor cortactin gene by duplication. In agreement with this, comparative genome analysis revealed very similar exon-intron structures and sequence homologies, especially over the regions that encode the characteristic highly conserved F-actin-binding repeat domain. Cortactin splice variants affecting this F-actin-binding domain were identified not only in mammalians, but also in amphibians, fishes and birds. In mammalians, cortactin is ubiquitously expressed except in hematopoietic cells, whereas HS1 is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells. In accordance with their distinct tissue specificity, the putative promoter region of cortactin is different from HS1. Conclusions Comparative analysis of the genomic organization and amino acid sequences of cortactin and HS1 provides inside into their origin and evolution. Our analysis shows that both genes originated from a gene duplication event and subsequently HS1 lost two repeats, whereas cortactin gained one repeat. Our analysis genetically underscores the significance of the F-actin binding domain in

  8. Modulators of cytoskeletal reorganization in CA1 hippocampal neurons show increased expression in patients at mid-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F Kao

    Full Text Available During the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD, hippocampal neurons undergo cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in degenerative as well as regenerative changes. As neurofibrillary tangles form and dystrophic neurites appear, sprouting neuronal processes with growth cones emerge. Actin and tubulin are indispensable for normal neurite development and regenerative responses to injury and neurodegenerative stimuli. We have previously shown that actin capping protein beta2 subunit, Capzb2, binds tubulin and, in the presence of tau, affects microtubule polymerization necessary for neurite outgrowth and normal growth cone morphology. Accordingly, Capzb2 silencing in hippocampal neurons resulted in short, dystrophic neurites, seen in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Here we demonstrate the statistically significant increase in the Capzb2 expression in the postmortem hippocampi in persons at mid-stage, Braak and Braak stage (BB III-IV, non-familial AD in comparison to controls. The dynamics of Capzb2 expression in progressive AD stages cannot be attributed to reactive astrocytosis. Moreover, the increased expression of Capzb2 mRNA in CA1 pyramidal neurons in AD BB III-IV is accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB, mediator of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Thus, the up-regulation of Capzb2 and TrkB may reflect cytoskeletal reorganization and/or regenerative response occurring in hippocampal CA1 neurons at a specific stage of AD progression.

  9. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... and location of spectrin and vinculin in fish muscle and of the location of talin. The results are discussed in terms of muscle structure, function and post-mortem tenderisation. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  10. Comparative genome analysis of cortactin and HSI : the significance of the F-actin binding repeat domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, AGSH; Schuuring-Scholtes, E; Seggelen, VV; Kluin, PM; Schuuring, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: In human carcinomas, overexpression of cortactin correlates with poor prognosis. Cortactin is an F-actin-binding protein involved in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell migration by promoting actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 mediated actin polymerization. It shares a high amino acid seque

  11. Cytoskeletal reorganizations in human umbilical vein endothelial cells as a result of cytokine exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of HUVECs in culture with several cytokines and phorbol esters caused reorganizations of the actin and microtubule networks, as well as a redistribution of focal contract proteins. However, expression of the cytoskeletal proteins which link cells, via integrins, to the substrate, was not significantly affected. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of endothelial cells after treatment with interleukin-1 alpha and beta, gamma-interferon, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate allowed us to observe reductions in the areas of cell-cell contact, redistribution of the stress fiber network, and concomitant changes in focal contacts. Microtubule arrays in TNF-treated cells became bundled. Phorbol esters induced formation of microtubule organizing centers not seen in resting or TNF-treated HUVECs. Talin was distributed along stress fibers and not exclusively in focal contacts. Vitronectin receptor was observed in focal contacts, occasionally at cell-cell contacts, and in vesicular structures close to the lumenal surface, after both types of treatment. Although these morphological changes were easily observed by indirect immunofluorescence, no quantitative differences in specific cytoskeletal proteins were detected by immunoblots and [35S]cysteine metabolic labeling experiments

  12. Yersinia outer protein YopE affects the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum through targeting of multiple Rho family GTPases

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vlahou, Georgia

    2009-07-14

    Abstract Background All human pathogenic Yersinia species share a virulence-associated type III secretion system that translocates Yersinia effector proteins into host cells to counteract infection-induced signaling responses and prevent phagocytosis. Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently used to study the effects of bacterial virulence factors produced by internalized pathogens. In this study we explored the potential of Dictyostelium as model organism for analyzing the effects of ectopically expressed Yersinia outer proteins (Yops). Results The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence factors YopE, YopH, YopM and YopJ were expressed de novo within Dictyostelium and their effects on growth in axenic medium and on bacterial lawns were analyzed. No severe effect was observed for YopH, YopJ and YopM, but expression of YopE, which is a GTPase activating protein for Rho GTPases, was found to be highly detrimental. GFP-tagged YopE expressing cells had less conspicuous cortical actin accumulation and decreased amounts of F-actin. The actin polymerization response upon cAMP stimulation was impaired, although chemotaxis was unaffected. YopE also caused reduced uptake of yeast particles. These alterations are probably due to impaired Rac1 activation. We also found that YopE predominantly associates with intracellular membranes including the Golgi apparatus and inhibits the function of moderately overexpressed RacH. Conclusion The phenotype elicited by YopE in Dictyostelium can be explained, at least in part, by inactivation of one or more Rho family GTPases. It further demonstrates that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as an efficient and easy-to-handle model organism in order to analyze the function of a translocated GAP protein of a human pathogen.

  13. Yersinia outer protein YopE affects the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum through targeting of multiple Rho family GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All human pathogenic Yersinia species share a virulence-associated type III secretion system that translocates Yersinia effector proteins into host cells to counteract infection-induced signaling responses and prevent phagocytosis. Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently used to study the effects of bacterial virulence factors produced by internalized pathogens. In this study we explored the potential of Dictyostelium as model organism for analyzing the effects of ectopically expressed Yersinia outer proteins (Yops. Results The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence factors YopE, YopH, YopM and YopJ were expressed de novo within Dictyostelium and their effects on growth in axenic medium and on bacterial lawns were analyzed. No severe effect was observed for YopH, YopJ and YopM, but expression of YopE, which is a GTPase activating protein for Rho GTPases, was found to be highly detrimental. GFP-tagged YopE expressing cells had less conspicuous cortical actin accumulation and decreased amounts of F-actin. The actin polymerization response upon cAMP stimulation was impaired, although chemotaxis was unaffected. YopE also caused reduced uptake of yeast particles. These alterations are probably due to impaired Rac1 activation. We also found that YopE predominantly associates with intracellular membranes including the Golgi apparatus and inhibits the function of moderately overexpressed RacH. Conclusion The phenotype elicited by YopE in Dictyostelium can be explained, at least in part, by inactivation of one or more Rho family GTPases. It further demonstrates that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as an efficient and easy-to-handle model organism in order to analyze the function of a translocated GAP protein of a human pathogen.

  14. Altered cytoskeletal structures in transformed cells exhibiting obviously metastatic capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZHONGXIANG; WUBINGQUAN; 等

    1990-01-01

    Cytoskeletal changes in transformed cells (LM-51) eshibiting obviously metastatic capabilities were investigated by utilization of double-fluorescent labelling through combinations of:(1) tubulin indirect immunofluorescence plus Rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actins;(2) indirect immunofluorescent staining with α-actinin polyclonal-and vinculin monoclonal antibodies.The LM-51 cells which showed metastatic index of >50% were derived from lung metastasis in nude mice after subcutaneous inoculation of human highly metastatic tumor DNA transfected NIH3T3 cell transformants.The parent NIH3T3 cells exhibited well-organized microtubules,prominent stress fibers and adhesion plaques while their transformants showed remarkable cytoskeletal alterations:(1)reduced microtubules but increased MTOC fluorescence;(2)disrupted stress fibers and fewer adhesion plaques with their protein components redistributed in the cytoplasm;(3)Factin-and α-actinin/vinculin aggregates appeared in the cytoplasm.These aggregates were dot-like,varied in size(0.1-0.4μm) and number,located near the ventral surface of the cells.TPA-induced actin/vinculin bodies were studied too.Indications that actin and α-actinin/vinculin redistribution might be important alterations involved in the expression of metastatic capabilities of LM-51 transformed cells were discussed.

  15. Forcing it on: Cytoskeletal dynamics during lymphocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2012-02-01

    Formation of the immune synapse during lymphocyte activation involves cell spreading driven by large scale physical rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and the cell membrane. Several recent observations suggest that mechanical forces are important for efficient T cell activation. How forces arise from the dynamics of the cytoskeleton and the membrane during contact formation, and their effect on signaling activation is not well understood. We have imaged membrane topography, actin dynamics and the spatiotemporal localization of signaling clusters during the very early stages of spreading. Formation of signaling clusters was closely correlated with the movement and topography of the membrane in contact with the activating surface. Further, we observed membrane waves driven by actin polymerization originating at these signaling clusters. Actin-driven membrane protrusions likely play an important role in force generation at the immune synapse. In order to study cytoskeletal forces during T-cell activation, we studied cell spreading on elastic gels. We found that gel stiffness influences cell morphology, actin dynamics and receptor activation. Efforts to determine the quantitative relationships between cellular forces and signaling are underway. Our results suggest a role for cytoskeleton driven forces during signaling activation in lymphocytes.

  16. Addition of Phenylboronic Acid to Malus domestica Pollen Tubes Alters Calcium Dynamics, Disrupts Actin Filaments and Affects Cell Wall Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Gao, Sai; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A key role of boron in plants is to cross-link the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) through borate diester linkages. Phenylboronic acid (PBA) can form the same reversible ester bonds but cannot cross-link two molecules, so can be used as an antagonist to study the function of boron. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PBA on apple (Malus domestica) pollen tube growth and the underlying regulatory mechanism. We observed that PBA caused an inhibition of pollen germination, tube growth and led to pollen tube morphological abnormalities. Fluorescent labeling, coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique, revealed that PBA induced an increase in extracellular Ca2+ influx, thereby elevating the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]c and disrupting the [Ca2+]c gradient, which is critical for pollen tube growth. Moreover the organization of actin filaments was severely perturbed by the PBA treatment. Immunolocalization studies and fluorescent labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR) suggested that PBA caused an increase in the abundance of callose, de-esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) at the tip. However, it had no effect on the deposition of the wall polymers cellulose. These effects are similar to those of boron deficiency in roots and other organs, indicating that PBA can induce boron deficiency symptoms. The results provide new insights into the roles of boron in pollen tube development, which likely include regulating [Ca2+]c and the formation of the actin cytoskeleton, in addition to the synthesis and assembly of cell wall components. PMID:26886907

  17. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  18. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  19. The role of the cofilin-actin rod stress response in neurodegenerative diseases uncovers potential new drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Munsie, Lise N.; Truant, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The cofilin-actin rod stress response is an actin cytoskeletal dynamic arrest that occurs in cells under a variety of stress conditions. Upon stress, the rapidly activated cofilin saturates actin filaments causing them to bundle into rod structures in either the nucleus or cytoplasm, halting actin polymerization and thus freeing ATP. Importantly, these rods dissociate quickly following relief of the transient stress. The rods form inappropriately in neurons involved in the progression of Alzh...

  20. Probing mechanics and activity of cytoskeletal networks using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Nikta

    2013-03-01

    We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as multi-scale micro-probes to monitor transport and fluctuations in cytoskeletal networks. SWNTs are nanometer-diameter hollow carbon filaments with micrometer lengths and a tunable bending stiffness. Their persistence length varies between 20-100 microns. We study the motion of individual SWNTs in reconstituted actin networks by near-infrared fluorescence microscopy. At long times, SWNTs reptate through the networks. At short times, SWNTs sample the spectrum of thermal fluctuations in the networks. We can calculate complex shear moduli from recorded fluctuations and observe power-law scaling in equilibrium actin networks. In the non-equilibrium cytoskeleton of cells we have targeted SWNTs to kinesin motors and thereby to their microtubule tracks. We observe both transport along the tracks as well as active fluctuations of the tracks themselves. Human Frontier Science Program Cross-Disciplinary Fellow

  1. Cytosolic Proteins From Tobacco Pollen Tubes That Crosslink Microtubules and Actin Filaments In Vitro Are Metabolic Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnoli, Silvia; Faleri, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Baskin, Tobias I.; Cresti, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    In plant cells, many processes require cooperative action of both microtubules and actin filaments, but proteins mediating interactions between these cytoskeletal members are mostly undiscovered. Here, we attempt to identify such proteins by affinity purification. Cytosol from Nicotiana tabacum (tob

  2. Initiation of Chondrocyte Self-Assembly Requires an Intact Cytoskeletal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hu, Jerry C Y; Yamada, Soichiro; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembly and self-organization have recently emerged as robust scaffold-free tissue engineering methodologies that can be used to generate various tissues, including cartilage, vessel, and liver. Self-assembly, in particular, is a scaffold-free platform for tissue engineering that does not require the input of exogenous energy to the system. Although self-assembly can generate functional tissues, most notably neocartilage, the mechanisms of self-assembly remain unclear. To study the self-assembling process, we used articular chondrocytes as a model to identify parameters that can affect this process. Specifically, the roles of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules, surface-bound collagen, and the actin cytoskeletal network were investigated. Using time-lapse imaging, we analyzed the early stages of chondrocyte self-assembly. Within hours, chondrocytes rapidly coalesced into cell clusters before compacting to form tight cellular structures. Chondrocyte self-assembly was found to depend primarily on integrin function and secondarily on cadherin function. In addition, actin or myosin II inhibitors prevented chondrocyte self-assembly, suggesting that cell adhesion alone is not sufficient, but rather the active contractile actin cytoskeleton is essential for proper chondrocyte self-assembly and the formation of neocartilage. Better understanding of the self-assembly mechanisms allows for the rational modulation of this process toward generating neocartilages with improved properties. These findings are germane to understanding self-assembly, an emerging platform for tissue engineering of a plethora of tissues, especially as these neotissues are poised for translation. PMID:26729374

  3. Regulation of the formation of osteoclastic actin rings by proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 interacting with gelsolin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiang; Xie, Yi; Du, Quan-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Jun; FENG, XU; Mei, Lin; McDonald, Jay M.; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Osteoclast activation is important for bone remodeling and is altered in multiple bone disorders. This process requires cell adhesion and extensive actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a major cell adhesion–activated tyrosine kinase in osteoclasts, plays an important role in regulating this event. The mechanisms by which PYK2 regulates actin cytoskeletal organization and osteoclastic activation remain largely unknown. In this paper, we provide evidence tha...

  4. Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering, signalosome assembl, y and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has ...

  5. Pathogenic microbes manipulate cofilin activity to subvert actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei; He, Zhendan

    2016-09-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin proteins are key players in controlling the temporal and spatial extent of actin dynamics, which is crucial for mediating host-pathogen interactions. Pathogenic microbes have evolved molecular mechanisms to manipulate cofilin activity to subvert the actin cytoskeletal system in host cells, promoting their internalization into the target cells, modifying the replication niche and facilitating their intracellular and intercellular dissemination. The study of how these pathogens exploit cofilin pathways is crucial for understanding infectious disease and providing potential targets for drug therapies. PMID:25853495

  6. Spiral actin-polymerization waves can generate amoeboidal cell crawling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoeboidal cell crawling on solid substrates is characterized by protrusions that seemingly appear randomly along the cell periphery and drive the cell forward. For many cell types, it is known that the protrusions result from polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, little is known about how the formation of protrusions is triggered and whether the appearance of subsequent protrusions is coordinated. Recently, the spontaneous formation of actin-polymerization waves was observed. These waves have been proposed to orchestrate the cytoskeletal dynamics during cell crawling. Here, we study the impact of cytoskeletal polymerization waves on cell migration using a phase-field approach. In addition to directionally moving cells, we find states reminiscent of amoeboidal cell crawling. In this framework, new protrusions are seen to emerge from a nucleation process, generating spiral actin waves in the cell interior. Nucleation of new spirals does not require noise, but occurs in a state that is apparently displaying spatio-temporal chaos. (paper)

  7. Formation of actin networks in microfluidic concentration gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, Natalja; Herren, Florian; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Pfohl, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The physical properties of cytoskeletal networks are contributors in a number of mechanical responses of cells including cellular deformation and locomotion, and are crucial for the proper action of living cells. Local chemical gradients modulate cytoskeletal functionality including the interactions of the cytoskeleton with other cellular components. Actin is a major constituent of the cytoskeleton. Introducing a microfluidic-based platform, we explored the impact of concentration gradients on the formation and structural properties of actin networks. Microfluidics-controlled flow-free steady state experimental conditions allow for the generation of chemical gradients of different profiles, such as linear or step-like. We discovered specific features of actin networks emerging in defined gradients. In particular, we analyzed the effects of spatial conditions on network properties, bending rigidities of network links, and the network elasticity.

  8. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition. PMID:26240174

  9. Identification and characterization of a set of conserved and new regulators of cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryavanshi Narendra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell migration is essential during development and in human disease progression including cancer. Most cell migration studies concentrate on known or predicted components of migration pathways. Results Here we use data from a genome-wide RNAi morphology screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells together with bioinformatics to identify 26 new regulators of morphology and cytoskeletal organization in human cells. These include genes previously implicated in a wide range of functions, from mental retardation, Down syndrome and Huntington's disease to RNA and DNA-binding genes. We classify these genes into seven groups according to phenotype and identify those that affect cell migration. We further characterize a subset of seven genes, FAM40A, FAM40B, ARC, FMNL3, FNBP3/FBP11, LIMD1 and ZRANB1, each of which has a different effect on cell shape, actin filament distribution and cell migration. Interestingly, in several instances closely related isoforms with a single Drosophila homologue have distinct phenotypes. For example, FAM40B depletion induces cell elongation and tail retraction defects, whereas FAM40A depletion reduces cell spreading. Conclusions Our results identify multiple regulators of cell migration and cytoskeletal signalling that are highly conserved between Drosophila and humans, and show that closely related paralogues can have very different functions in these processes.

  10. Precortical Phase of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Related Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T; Bohl, Jürgen; Wharton, Stephen B; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rüb, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most frequent progressive neuropsychiatric disorder worldwide leading to dementia. We systematically investigated the presence and extent of the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology in serial thick tissue sections through all subcortical brain nuclei that send efferent projections to the transentorhinal and entorhinal regions in three individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage 0 cortical cytoskeletal pathology and fourteen individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage I cortical cytoskeletal pathology by means of immunostainings with the anti-tau antibody AT8. These investigations revealed consistent AT8 immunoreactive tau cytoskeletal pathology in a subset of these subcortical nuclei in the Braak and Braak AD stage 0 individuals and in all of these subcortical nuclei in the Braak and Braak AD stage I individuals. The widespread affection of the subcortical nuclei in Braak and Braak AD stage I shows that the extent of the early subcortical tau cytoskeletal pathology has been considerably underestimated previously. In addition, our novel findings support the concept that subcortical nuclei become already affected during an early 'pre-cortical' evolutional phase before the first AD-related cytoskeletal changes occur in the mediobasal temporal lobe (i.e. allocortical transentorhinal and entorhinal regions). The very early involved subcortical brain regions may represent the origin of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology, from where the neuronal cytoskeletal pathology takes an ascending course toward the secondarily affected allocortex and spreads transneuronally along anatomical pathways in predictable sequences. PMID:26193084

  11. Probing GFP-actin diffusion in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is continuously remodeled by polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Consequently, the relative content of polymerized filamentous actin (F-actin) and monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is subject to temporal and spatial fluctuations. Since fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled actin it seems likely that FCS allows us to determine the dynamics and hence indirectly the structural properties of the cytoskeleton components with high spatial resolution. To this end we investigate the FCS signal of GFP-actin in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells and explore the inherent spatial and temporal signatures of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the free green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reference, we find that actin diffusion inside cells is dominated by G-actin and slower than diffusion in diluted cell extract. The FCS signal in the dense cortical F-actin network near the cell membrane is probed using the cytoskeleton protein LIM and is found to be slower than cytosolic G-actin diffusion. Furthermore, we show that polymerization of the cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide leads to a substantial decrease of G-actin diffusion. Pronounced fluctuations in the distribution of the FCS correlation curves can be induced by latrunculin, which is known to induce actin waves. Our work suggests that the FCS signal of GFP-actin in combination with scanning or spatial correlation techniques yield valuable information about the local dynamics and concomitant cytoskeletal properties

  12. Effect of collagen I and fibronectin on the adhesion, elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Depending on the metastatic origin, prostate cancer cells differ in their affinity to COL1. → COL1 affects specifically the F-actin and cell elasticity of bone-derived prostate cancer cells. → Cell elasticity can be used as a biomarker for cancer cells from different metastases. -- Abstract: Despite of intensive research efforts, the precise mechanism of prostate cancer metastasis in bone is still not fully understood. Several studies have suggested that specific matrix production by the bone cells, such as collagen I, supports cancer cell invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagen I (COL1) and fibronectin (FN) on cell adhesion, cell elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells. Two cell lines, bone marrow- (PC3) and lymph node-derived (LNCaP) were cultivated on COL1 and FN (control protein). By using a quantitative adhesion assay and time-lapse analysis, it was found that PC3, but not LNCaP, adhered strongly and were more spread on COL1. Next, PC3 and LNCaP were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and flatness shape factor and cellular Young's modulus were calculated. The shape analysis revealed that PC3 were significantly flatter when grown on COL1 in comparison to LNCaP. In general, PC3 were also significantly stiffer than LNCaP and furthermore, their stiffness increased upon interaction with COL1. Since cell stiffness is strongly dependent on actin organization, phalloidin-based actin staining was performed and revealed that, of the two cell types as well as the two different matrix proteins, only PC3 grown on COL1 formed robust actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, our study showed that PC3 cells have a strong affinity towards COL1. On this matrix protein, the cells adhered strongly and underwent a specific cell flattening. Moreover, with the establishment of PC3 contact to COL1 a significant increase of PC3 stiffness was observed due to a profound cytoskeletal rearrangement.

  13. Photoelectron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy of cytoskeletal elements in the same cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadakavukaren, K K; Chen, L. B.; Habliston, D L; Griffith, O. H.

    1983-01-01

    Pt K2 rat kangaroo epithelial cells and Rat-1 fibroblasts were grown on conductive glass discs, fixed, and permeabilized, and the cytoskeletal elements actin, keratin, and vimentin were visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. After the fluorescence microscopy, the cells were postfixed and dehydrated for photoelectron microscopy. The contrast in these photoelectron micrographs is primarily topographical in origin, and the presence of fluorescent dyes at low density does not contribute signi...

  14. Cytoskeletal Interactions at the Nuclear Envelope Mediated by Nesprins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surayya Taranum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesprin-1 is a giant tail-anchored nuclear envelope protein composed of an N-terminal F-actin binding domain, a long linker region formed by multiple spectrin repeats and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Based on this structure, it connects the nucleus to the actin cytoskeleton. Earlier reports had shown that Nesprin-1 binds to nuclear envelope proteins emerin and lamin through C-terminal spectrin repeats. These repeats can also self-associate. We focus on the N-terminal Nesprin-1 sequences and show that they interact with Nesprin-3, a further member of the Nesprin family, which connects the nucleus to the intermediate filament network. We show that upon ectopic expression of Nesprin-3 in COS7 cells, which are nearly devoid of Nesprin-3 in vitro, vimentin filaments are recruited to the nucleus and provide evidence for an F-actin interaction of Nesprin-3 in vitro. We propose that Nesprins through interactions amongst themselves and amongst the various Nesprins form a network around the nucleus and connect the nucleus to several cytoskeletal networks of the cell.

  15. Hierarchical self-organization of cytoskeletal active networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is facilitated through the action of motor proteins that crosslink the actin filaments and transport them relative to each other. Here, we present a combined experimental-computational study that probes the dynamic evolution of mixtures of actin filaments and clusters of myosin motors. While on small spatial and temporal scales the system behaves in a very noisy manner, on larger scales it evolves into several well distinct patterns such as bundles, asters and networks. These patterns are characterized by junctions with high connectivity, whose formation is possible due to the organization of the motors in ‘oligoclusters’ (intermediate-size aggregates). The simulations reveal that the self-organization process proceeds through a series of hierarchical steps, starting from local microscopic moves and ranging up to the macroscopic large scales where the steady-state structures are formed. Our results shed light on the mechanisms involved in processes such as cytokinesis and cellular contractility, where myosin motors organized in clusters operate cooperatively to induce the structural organization of cytoskeletal networks. (paper)

  16. On the significance of microtubule flexural behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics.One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that "every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior," i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can exceed the axial energy

  17. On the significance of microtubule flexural behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mehrbod

    Full Text Available Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics.One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that "every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior," i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can

  18. Lamin A/C and emerin regulate MKL1-SRF activity by modulating actin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Yee; Jaalouk, Diana E; Vartiainen, Maria K; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-05-23

    Laminopathies, caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, represent a diverse group of diseases that include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome. Most LMNA mutations affect skeletal and cardiac muscle by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Loss of structural function and altered interaction of mutant lamins with (tissue-specific) transcription factors have been proposed to explain the tissue-specific phenotypes. Here we report in mice that lamin-A/C-deficient (Lmna(-/-)) and Lmna(N195K/N195K) mutant cells have impaired nuclear translocation and downstream signalling of the mechanosensitive transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 (MKL1), a myocardin family member that is pivotal in cardiac development and function. Altered nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of MKL1 was caused by altered actin dynamics in Lmna(-/-) and Lmna(N195K/N195K) mutant cells. Ectopic expression of the nuclear envelope protein emerin, which is mislocalized in Lmna mutant cells and also linked to EDMD and DCM, restored MKL1 nuclear translocation and rescued actin dynamics in mutant cells. These findings present a novel mechanism that could provide insight into the disease aetiology for the cardiac phenotype in many laminopathies, whereby lamin A/C and emerin regulate gene expression through modulation of nuclear and cytoskeletal actin polymerization. PMID:23644458

  19. Lamin A/C and emerin regulate MKL1/SRF activity by modulating actin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Yee; Jaalouk, Diana E.; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Laminopathies, caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, represent a diverse group of diseases that include Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).1 The majority of LMNA mutations affect skeletal and cardiac muscle by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Loss of structural function and disturbed interaction of mutant lamins with (tissue-specific) transcription factors have been proposed to explain the tissue-specific phenotypes.1 We report here that lamin A/C-deficient (Lmna−/−) and Lmna N195K mutant cells have impaired nuclear translocation and downstream signaling of the mechanosensitive transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 (MKL1), a myocardin family member that is pivotal in cardiac development and function.2 Disturbed nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of MKL1 was caused by altered actin dynamics in Lmna−/− and N195K mutant cells. Ectopic expression of the nuclear envelope protein emerin, which is mislocalized in Lmna mutant cells and also linked to EDMD and DCM, restored MKL1 nuclear translocation and rescued actin dynamics in mutant cells. These findings present a novel mechanism that could provide insight into the disease etiology for the cardiac phenotype in many laminopathies, whereby lamins A/C and emerin regulate gene expression through modulation of nuclear and cytoskeletal actin polymerization. PMID:23644458

  20. F-actin-like filaments formed by plasmid segregation protein ParM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Ent, Fusinita; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Amos, Linda A.;

    2002-01-01

    of Escherichia coli formed by ParM, a plasmid-encoded protein required for accurate segregation of low-copy-number plasmid R1. We show here that ParM polymerizes into double helical protofilaments with a longitudinal repeat similar to filamentous actin (F-actin) and MreB filaments that maintain the cell shape...... compared with F-actin, despite the similar arrangement of the subunits within the filaments. Thus, there is now evidence for cytoskeletal structures, formed by actin-like filaments that are involved in plasmid partitioning in E.coli. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 16...

  1. Dynamics of active actin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Simone

    2014-03-01

    Local mechanical and structural properties of a eukaryotic cell are determined by its cytoskeleton. To adapt to their environment, cells rely on constant self-organized rearrangement processes of their actin cytoskeleton. To shed light on the principles underlying these dynamic self-organization processes we investigate a minimal reconstituted active system consisting of actin filaments, crosslinking molecules and molecular motor filaments. Using quantitative fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, we show, that these minimal model systems exhibit a generic structure formation mechanism. The competition between force generation by molecular motors and the stabilization of the network by crosslinking proteins results in a highly dynamic reorganization process which is characterized by anomalous transport dynamics with a superdiffusive behavior also found in intracellular dynamics. In vitro, these dynamics are governed by chemical and physical parameters that alter the balance of motor and crosslinking proteins, such as pH. These findings can be expected to have broad implications in our understanding of cytoskeletal regulation in vivo.

  2. Fluorescence staining of the actin cytoskeleton in living cells with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin.

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, L S; Yocum, R R; Nothnagel, E A; Webb, W W

    1980-01-01

    An active fluorescent derivative of the actin-binding mushroom toxin phallacidin has been synthesized. Convenient methods were developed to stain actin cytoskeletal structures in living and fixed cultured animal cells and actively streaming algal cells. Actin binding specificity was demonstrated by competitive binding experiments and comparative staining of well-known structures. Large populations of living animal cells in culture were readily stained by using a relatively mild lysolecithin p...

  3. From pollen actin to crop male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Actin plays an important role in the life activity of animal and plant cells. Pollen cells have plenty of actin whose structure and characteristics are very similar to the animal actin. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of plant actin gene are very similar to those of the animal gene. The content of pollen actin from male sterile plants is much more lower than that from its maintainer plants. The expression of actin gene is organ-specific during the plant development. The expression quantity of actin gene in pollen is much more higher than those from root, stem and leaf. The expression plasmid of the anti-sense actin gene was constructed, transferred to the protoplasts of wheat and tomato to inhibit the expression of actin gene in pollen and thus the male sterile plants of wheat and tomato were obtained. The actin in pollens from the transgenic plants was reduced significantly, whereas the pistil was not affected. This study might pave a new way to breeding male sterile lines for the application of hybrid vigor of wheat and tomato.

  4. Antenna mechanism of length control of actin cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya; Kondev, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This antenna mechanism involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentra...

  5. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  6. The effects of the small GTPase RhoA on the muscarinic contraction of airway smooth muscle result from its role in regulating actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwu; Du, Liping; Gunst, Susan J

    2010-08-01

    The small GTPase RhoA increases the Ca(2+) sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation by inhibiting the activity of MLC phosphatase. RhoA is also a known regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and actin polymerization in many cell types. In airway smooth muscle (ASM), contractile stimulation induces MLC phosphorylation and actin polymerization, which are both required for active tension generation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the primary mechanism by which RhoA regulates active tension generation in intact ASM during stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh). RhoA activity was inhibited in canine tracheal smooth muscle tissues by expressing the inactive RhoA mutant, RhoA T19N, in the intact tissues or by treating them with the cell-permeant RhoA inhibitor, exoenzyme C3 transferase. RhoA inactivation reduced ACh-induced contractile force by approximately 60% and completely inhibited ACh-induced actin polymerization but inhibited ACh-induced MLC phosphorylation by only approximately 20%. Inactivation of MLC phosphatase with calyculin A reversed the reduction in MLC phosphorylation caused by RhoA inactivation, but calyculin A did not reverse the depression of active tension and actin polymerization caused by RhoA inactivation. The MLC kinase inhibitor, ML-7, inhibited ACh-induced MLC phosphorylation by approximately 80% and depressed active force by approximately 70% but did not affect ACh-induced actin polymerization, demonstrating that ACh-stimulated actin polymerization occurs independently of MLC phosphorylation. We conclude that the RhoA-mediated regulation of ACh-induced contractile tension in ASM results from its role in mediating actin polymerization rather than from effects on MLC phosphatase or MLC phosphorylation. PMID:20445174

  7. Calponin 3 Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement in Trophoblastic Cell Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shibukawa, Yukinao; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Daimon, Etsuko; Tajiri, Michiko; Okada, Yuka; Ikawa, Masahito; Wada, Yoshinao

    2010-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is an intriguing differentiation process, essential for placental development and maturation. A proteomic approach identified a cytoplasmic protein, calponin 3 (CNN3), related to the fusion of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. CNN3 was expressed in cytotrophoblasts in human placenta. CNN3 gene knockdown promoted actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and syncytium formation in BeWo cells, suggesting CNN3 to be a negative regulator of trophoblast fusion. Indeed, CNN3 depletion promoted Be...

  8. Arginine ADP-ribosylation mechanism based on structural snapshots of iota-toxin and actin complex

    OpenAIRE

    Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Tsumori, Yayoi; Qiu, Hao; Oda, Masataka; Sakurai, Jun; Nagahama, Masahiro; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin (Ia) mono-ADP ribosylates Arg177 of actin, leading to cytoskeletal disorganization and cell death. To fully understand the reaction mechanism of arginine-specific mono-ADP ribosyl transferase, the structure of the toxin-substrate protein complex must be characterized. Recently, we solved the crystal structure of Ia in complex with actin and the nonhydrolyzable NAD+ analog βTAD (thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide); however, the structures of the NAD+...

  9. Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering, signalosome assembl, y and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has considered actin largely for its ‘scaffolding’ function. We examine the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in TCR signaling and immune synapse formation with an emphasis on how poroelasticity, an ensemble feature of actin dynamics with the cytosol, relates to how T cells respond to stimulation. PMID:24117819

  10. Regulation of T-cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2013-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering signalosome assembly and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has considered actin largely for its 'scaffolding' function. We examine the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in TCR signaling and immune synapse formation with an emphasis on how poroelasticity, an ensemble feature of actin dynamics with the cytosol, relates to how T cells respond to stimulation. PMID:24117819

  11. The interplay of nonlinearity and architecture in equilibrium cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between cytoskeletal architecture and the nonlinearity of the interactions due to bucklable filaments plays a key role in modulating the cell's mechanical stability and affecting its structural rearrangements. We study a model of cytoskeletal structure treating it as an amorphous network of hard centers rigidly cross-linked by nonlinear elastic strings, neglecting the effects of motorization. Using simulations along with a self-consistent phonon method, we show that this minimal model exhibits diverse thermodynamically stable mechanical phases that depend on excluded volume, cross-link concentration, filament length, and stiffness. Within the framework set by the free energy functional formulation and making use of the random first order transition theory of structural glasses, we further estimate the characteristic densities for a kinetic glass transition to occur in this model system. Network connectivity strongly modulates the transition boundaries between various equilibrium phases, as well as the kinetic glass transition density. PMID:21219010

  12. Cell stress promotes the association of phosphorylated HspB1 with F-actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Clarke

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the small heat shock protein, HspB1, has a direct influence on the dynamics of cytoskeletal elements, in particular, filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization. In this study we have assessed the influence of HspB1 phosphorylation on its interaction(s with F-actin. We first determined the distribution of endogenous non-phosphorylated HspB1, phosphorylated HspB1 and F-actin in neuroendocrine PC12 cells by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. We then investigated a potential direct interaction between HspB1 with F-actin by precipitating F-actin directly with biotinylated phalloidin followed by Western analyses; the reverse immunoprecipitation of HspB1 was also carried out. The phosphorylation influence of HspB1 in this interaction was investigated by using pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK. In control cells, HspB1 interacts with F-actin as a predominantly non-phosphorylated protein, but subsequent to stress there is a redistribution of HspB1 to the cytoskeletal fraction and a significantly increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin. Our data demonstrate HspB1 is found in a complex with F-actin both in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms, with an increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin after heat stress. Overall, our study combines both cellular and biochemical approaches to show cellular localization and direct demonstration of an interaction between endogenous HspB1 and F-actin using methodolgy that specifically isolates F-actin.

  13. Orexin A reverses propofol and thiopental induced cytoskeletal rearrangement in rat neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, D; Gerhardsson, H; Bjornstrom, K

    2014-08-01

    Orexin A (OA) is an endogenous peptide regulating awakefulness, known to reduce anaesthesia in animals, but on cellular level its mechanisms to reverse anaesthetics are unknown. Primary cortical cell cultures from newborn rat brains are used and live cell light microscopy is performed to measure 1) neurite retraction after propofol, thiopental, barbituric acid and ketamine exposure and 2) the effect of OA application either before or after anaesthetics. Cytoskeletal reorganization is evaluated with fluorescence microscopy, protein changes are detected with Western blots and mass spectrometry is used to identify proteins after treatment with anaesthetics and/or OA. Adult rats are anaesthesized with propofol, and the cytoskeletal morphology is studied. Orexin A reverses and inhibits neurite retraction and actin ring formation induced by propofol and thiopental. No effect on retraction or actin rings was seen for ketamine (not active on gamma-aminobutiric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors), the non-anaesthetic barbituric acid, OA or solvents used. OA increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 50 kDa protein, identified as vimentin. Propofol induces an immediate granular appearance of vimentin, which OAreverses to a smooth distribution. Cytoskeletal morphology changes are also induced by propofol in vivo. All OA effects are blocked with an orexin receptor1 (OX1) antagonist. We conclude that OA reverses the GABAA receptor mediated cellular effects of both propofol and thiopental in rat brain cells. The morphologic changes of actin and vimentin caused by propofol and thiopental, and the subsequent reversal by OA, deepens our understanding of the mechanisms of anaesthesia. PMID:25179085

  14. Actin restructuring during Salmonella typhimurium infection investigated by confocal and super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jason J.; Kunde, Yuliya A.; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Werner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    We have used super-resolution optical microscopy and confocal microscopy to visualize the cytoskeletal restructuring of HeLa cells that accompanies and enables Salmonella typhimurium internalization. Herein, we report the use of confocal microscopy to verify and explore infection conditions that would be compatible with super-resolution optical microscopy, using Alexa-488 labeled phalloidin to stain the actin cytoskeletal network. While it is well known that actin restructuring and cytoskeletal rearrangements often accompany and assist in bacterial infection, most studies have employed conventional diffraction-limited fluorescence microscopy to explore these changes. Here we show that the superior spatial resolution provided by single-molecule localization methods (such as direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) enables more precise visualization of the nanoscale changes in the actin cytoskeleton that accompany bacterial infection. In particular, we found that a thin (100-nm) ring of actin often surrounds an invading bacteria 10 to 20 min postinfection, with this ring being transitory in nature. We estimate that a few hundred monofilaments of actin surround the S. typhimurium in this heretofore unreported bacterial internalization intermediate.

  15. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  16. Plectin reinforces vascular integrity by mediating crosstalk between the vimentin and the actin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanagic-Myers, Selma; Rus, Stefanie; Wolfram, Michael; Brunner, Daniela; Goldmann, Wolfgang H; Bonakdar, Navid; Fischer, Irmgard; Reipert, Siegfried; Zuzuarregui, Aurora; Walko, Gernot; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-11-15

    Mutations in the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin result in multisystemic diseases affecting skin and muscle with indications of additional vascular system involvement. To study the mechanisms underlying vascular disorders, we established plectin-deficient endothelial cell and mouse models. We show that apart from perturbing the vimentin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells, plectin deficiency leads to severe distortions of adherens junctions (AJs), as well as tight junctions, accompanied by an upregulation of actin stress fibres and increased cellular contractility. Plectin-deficient endothelial cell layers were more leaky and showed reduced mechanical resilience in fluid-shear stress and mechanical stretch experiments. We suggest that the distorted AJs and upregulated actin stress fibres in plectin-deficient cells are rooted in perturbations of the vimentin cytoskeleton, as similar phenotypes could be mimicked in wild-type cells by disruption of vimentin filaments. In vivo studies in endothelium-restricted conditional plectin-knockout mice revealed significant distortions of AJs in stress-prone aortic arch regions and increased pulmonary vascular leakage. Our study opens a new perspective on cytoskeleton-controlled vascular permeability, where a plectin-organized vimentin scaffold keeps actomyosin contractility 'in-check' and maintains AJ homeostasis. PMID:26519478

  17. Rab11 and actin cytoskeleton participate in Giardia lamblia encystation, guiding the specific vesicles to the cyst wall.

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    Araceli Castillo-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia passes through two stages during its life cycle, the trophozoite and the cyst. Cyst formation involves the synthesis of cyst wall proteins (CWPs and the transport of CWPs into encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Active vesicular trafficking is essential for encystation, but the molecular machinery driving vesicular trafficking remains unknown. The Rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to several intracellular compartments through their association with cytoskeletal motor proteins. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we found a relationship between Rab11 and the actin cytoskeleton in CWP1 transport. Confocal microscopy showed Rab11 was distributed throughout the entire trophozoite, while in cysts it was translocated to the periphery of the cell, where it colocalized with ESVs and microfilaments. Encystation was also accompanied by changes in rab11 mRNA expression. To evaluate the role of microfilaments in encystation, the cells were treated with latrunculin A. Scanning electron microscopy showed this treatment resulted in morphological damages to encysted parasites. The intensity of fluorescence-labeled Rab11 and CWP1 in ESVs and cyst walls was reduced, and rab11 and cwp1 mRNA levels were down-regulated. Furthermore, knocking down Rab11 with a hammerhead ribozyme resulted in an up to 80% down-regulation of rab11 mRNA. Although this knockdown did not appear lethal for trophozoites and did not affect cwp1 expression during the encystation, confocal images showed CWP1 was redistributed throughout the cytosol. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Rab11 participates in the early and late encystation stages by regulating CWP1 localization and the actin-mediated transport of ESVs towards the periphery. In addition, alterations in the dynamics of actin affected rab11 and cwp1 expression. Our results provide new information about the molecules involved in Giardia encystation and

  18. ACF7 Is a Hair-Bundle Antecedent, Positioned to Integrate Cuticular Plate Actin and Somatic Tubulin

    OpenAIRE

    Antonellis, Patrick J.; Pollock, Lana M.; Chou, Shih-Wei; Hassan, Ahmed; Geng, Ruishuang; Chen, Xi; Fuchs, Elaine; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Auer, Manfred; McDermott, Brian M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The precise morphology of the mechanosensitive hair bundle requires seamless integration of actin and microtubule networks. Here, we identify Acf7a (actin crosslinking family protein 7a) as a protein positioned to bridge these distinct cytoskeletal networks in hair cells. By imaging Acf7a–Citrine fusion protein in zebrafish and immunolabeling of vestibular and cochlear mouse hair cells, we show that Acf7a and ACF7 circumscribe, underlie, and are interwoven into the cuticular plate (CP), and t...

  19. A role for the actin-bundling protein l-plastin in the regulation of leukocyte integrin function

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Samuel L.; Wang, Jun; Turck, Christoph W; Brown, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    Regulation of leukocyte integrin avidity is a crucial aspect of inflammation and immunity. The actin cytoskeleton has an important role in the regulation of integrin function, but the cytoskeletal proteins involved are largely unknown. Because inflammatory stimuli that activate integrin-mediated adhesion in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes cause phosphorylation of the actin-bundling protein l-plastin, we tested whether l-plastin phosphorylation was involved in integrin ...

  20. miR-8 modulates cytoskeletal regulators to influence cell survival and epithelial organization in Drosophila wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Kelsey; Rachmaninoff, Nicholas; Moncada, Kea; Pula, Katharine; Kennell, Jennifer; Buttitta, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The miR-200 microRNA family plays important tumor suppressive roles. The sole Drosophila miR-200 ortholog, miR-8 plays conserved roles in Wingless, Notch and Insulin signaling - pathways linked to tumorigenesis, yet homozygous null animals are viable and often appear morphologically normal. We observed that wing tissues mosaic for miR-8 levels by genetic loss or gain of function exhibited patterns of cell death consistent with a role for miR-8 in modulating cell survival in vivo. Here we show that miR-8 levels impact several actin cytoskeletal regulators that can affect cell survival and epithelial organization. We show that loss of miR-8 can confer resistance to apoptosis independent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition while the persistence of cells expressing high levels of miR-8 in the wing epithelium leads to increased JNK signaling, aberrant expression of extracellular matrix remodeling proteins and disruption of proper wing epithelial organization. Altogether our results suggest that very low as well as very high levels of miR-8 can contribute to hallmarks associated with cancer, suggesting approaches to increase miR-200 microRNAs in cancer treatment should be moderate. PMID:26902111

  1. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal pathology is still fragmentary. Investigation of serial 100 μm-thick brain tissue sections through the thalamus of clinically diagnosed AD patients with Braak and Braak AD stage V or VI cytoskeletal pathologies immunostained with the anti-tau AT8 antibody, along with the affection of the extraterritorial reticular nucleus of the thalamus, reveals a consistent and severe tau immunoreactive cytoskeletal pathology in the limbic nuclei of the thalamus (e.g., paraventricular, anterodorsal and laterodorsal nuclei, limitans-suprageniculate complex). The thalamic nuclei integrated into the associative networks of the human brain (e.g., ventral anterior and mediodorsal nuclei) are only mildly affected, while its motor precerebellar (ventral lateral nucleus) and sensory nuclei (e.g., lateral and medial geniculate bodies, ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, parvocellular part of the ventral posterior medial nucleus) are more or less spared. The highly stereotypical and characteristic thalamic distribution pattern of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology represents an anatomical mirror of the hierarchical topographic distribution of the cytoskeletal pathology in the interconnected regions of the cerebral cortex of AD patients. These pathoanatomical parallels support the pathophysiological concept of a transneuronal spread of the disease process of AD along anatomical pathways. The AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus most likely contributes substantially to the neuropsychiatric disease symptoms (e.g., dementia), attention deficits, oculomotor dysfunctions, altered non-discriminative aspects of pain experience of AD patients, and the disruption of their

  2. Cofilin-induced cooperative conformational changes of actin subunits revealed using cofilin-actin fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Nobuhisa; Hirose, Keiko; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments induced by cofilin binding, we engineered a fusion protein made of Dictyostelium cofilin and actin. The filaments of the fusion protein were functionally similar to actin filaments bound with cofilin in that they did not bind rhodamine-phalloidin, had quenched fluorescence of pyrene attached to Cys374 and showed enhanced susceptibility of the DNase loop to cleavage by subtilisin. Quantitative analyses of copolymers made of different ratios of the fusion protein and control actin further demonstrated that the fusion protein affects the structure of multiple neighboring actin subunits in copolymers. Based on these and other recent related studies, we propose a mechanism by which conformational changes induced by cofilin binding is propagated unidirectionally to the pointed ends of the filaments, and cofilin clusters grow unidirectionally to the pointed ends following this path. Interestingly, the fusion protein was unable to copolymerize with control actin at pH 6.5 and low ionic strength, suggesting that the structural difference between the actin moiety in the fusion protein and control actin is pH-sensitive. PMID:26842224

  3. Dynamic Actin Controls Polarity Induction de novo in Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatrix Zaban; Jan Maisch; Peter Nick

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity and axes are central for plant morphogenesis.To study how polarity and axes are induced de novo,we investigated protoplasts of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv.BY-2 expressing fluorescentlytagged cytoskeletal markers.We standardized the system to such a degree that we were able to generate quantitative data on the temporal patterns of regeneration stages.The synthesis of a new cell wall marks the transition to the first stage of regeneration,and proceeds after a long preparatory phase within a few minutes.During this preparatory phase,the nucleus migrates actively,and cytoplasmic strands remodel vigorously.We probed this system for the effect of anti-cytoskeletal compounds,inducible bundling of actin,RGD-peptides,and temperature.Suppression of actin dynamics at an early stage leads to aberrant tripolar cells,whereas suppression of microtubule dynamics produces aberrant sausagelike cells with asymmetric cell walls.We integrated these data into a model,where the microtubular cytoskeleton conveys positional information between the nucleus and the membrane controlling the release or activation of components required for cell wall synthesis.Cell wall formation is followed by the induction of a new cell pole requiring dynamic actin filaments,and the new cell axis is manifested as elongation growth perpendicular to the orientation of the aligned cortical microtubules.

  4. Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilaç, Cemal; Şahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. PMID:25441468

  5. Cortactin promotes exosome secretion by controlling branched actin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Seema; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hong, Nan Hyung; Kirkbride, Kellye C; Grega-Larson, Nathan E; Seiki, Motoharu; Tyska, Matthew J; Weaver, Alissa M

    2016-07-18

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that influence cellular behavior and enhance cancer aggressiveness by carrying bioactive molecules. The mechanisms that regulate exosome secretion are poorly understood. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulatory protein cortactin promotes exosome secretion. Knockdown or overexpression of cortactin in cancer cells leads to a respective decrease or increase in exosome secretion, without altering exosome cargo content. Live-cell imaging revealed that cortactin controls both trafficking and plasma membrane docking of multivesicular late endosomes (MVEs). Regulation of exosome secretion by cortactin requires binding to the branched actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex and to actin filaments. Furthermore, cortactin, Rab27a, and coronin 1b coordinately control stability of cortical actin MVE docking sites and exosome secretion. Functionally, the addition of purified exosomes to cortactin-knockdown cells rescued defects of those cells in serum-independent growth and invasion. These data suggest a model in which cortactin promotes exosome secretion by stabilizing cortical actin-rich MVE docking sites. PMID:27402952

  6. Antenna Mechanism of Length Control of Actin Cables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishibanya Mohapatra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This "antenna mechanism" involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentration of myosin motors delivering Smy1. These results provide testable predictions of the antenna mechanism of actin-cable length control.

  7. Calponin 3 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in trophoblastic cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibukawa, Yukinao; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Daimon, Etsuko; Tajiri, Michiko; Okada, Yuka; Ikawa, Masahito; Wada, Yoshinao

    2010-11-15

    Cell-cell fusion is an intriguing differentiation process, essential for placental development and maturation. A proteomic approach identified a cytoplasmic protein, calponin 3 (CNN3), related to the fusion of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. CNN3 was expressed in cytotrophoblasts in human placenta. CNN3 gene knockdown promoted actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and syncytium formation in BeWo cells, suggesting CNN3 to be a negative regulator of trophoblast fusion. Indeed, CNN3 depletion promoted BeWo cell fusion. CNN3 at the cytoplasmic face of cytoskeleton was dislocated from F-actin with forskolin treatment and diffused into the cytoplasm in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Phosphorylation sites were located at Ser293/296 in the C-terminal region, and deletion of this region or site-specific disruption of Ser293/296 suppressed syncytium formation. These CNN3 mutants were colocalized with F-actin and remained there after forskolin treatment, suggesting that dissociation of CNN3 from F-actin is modulated by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal region unique to CNN3 in the CNN family proteins. The mutant missing these phosphorylation sites displayed a dominant negative effect on cell fusion, while replacement of Ser293/296 with aspartic acid enhanced syncytium formation. These results indicated that CNN3 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement which is required for the plasma membranes of trophoblasts to become fusion competent. PMID:20861310

  8. Loss of cytoskeletal proteins and lens cell opacification in the selenite cataract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, H; David, L L; Hiraoka, T; Clark, J I

    1997-03-01

    This study of lens protein composition found that some cytoskeletal proteins were degraded during the earliest stages of cataract formation. Cataract was induced in 13-14 day old rats by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 mumol kg-1). By 24 hr after the injection of selenite, the ratio of insoluble to soluble protein increased as lens opacification began. The increase in insoluble protein aggregates was correlated with an accelerated loss of proteins having molecular weights of 42, 55/57 and 235 kDa which reacted with antibodies to the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin/vimentin and spectrin, respectively. We observed the loss of 49, 60 and 90 kDa proteins which were not identified. In the lenses of animals protected from protein aggregation and opacification by administration of 1.5 mmol kg-1 pantethine, the pattern of proteins in SDS-PAGE gels resembled the pattern for proteins from transparent lenses of normal untreated animals and loss of cytoskeletal proteins was prevented. PMID:9196390

  9. Cyclin G2 Promotes Hypoxia- Driven Local Invasion of Glioblastoma by Orchestrating Cytoskeletal Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Fujimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microenvironmental conditions such as hypoxia potentiate the local invasion of malignant tumors including glioblastomas by modulating signal transduction and protein modification, yet the mechanism by which hypoxia controls cytoskeletal dynamics to promote the local invasion is not well defined. Here, we show that cyclin G2 plays pivotal roles in the cytoskeletal dynamics in hypoxia-driven invasion by glioblastoma cells. Cyclin G2 is a hypoxia-induced and cytoskeleton-associated protein and is required for glioblastoma expansion. Mechanistically, cyclin G2 recruits cortactin to the juxtamembrane through its SH3 domain-binding motif and consequently promotes the restricted tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in concert with src. Moreover, cyclin G2 interacts with filamentous actin to facilitate the formation of membrane ruffles. In primary glioblastoma, cyclin G2 is abundantly expressed in severely hypoxic regions such as pseudopalisades, which consist of actively migrating glioma cells. Furthermore, we show the effectiveness of dasatinib against hypoxia-driven, cyclin G2-involved invasion in vitro and in vivo. Our findings elucidate the mechanism of cytoskeletal regulation by which severe hypoxia promotes the local invasion and may provide a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.

  10. Epigenetic repression of ribosomal RNA transcription by ROCK-dependent aberrant cytoskeletal organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tse-Hsiang; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Lee, Hsiao-Hui; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis is regulated by cellular energy and proliferation status. In this study, we investigated rRNA gene transcription in response to cytoskeletal stress. Our data revealed that the cell shape constrained by isotropic but not elongated micropatterns in HeLa cells led to a significant reduction in rRNA transcription dependent on ROCK. Expression of a dominant-active form of ROCK also repressed rRNA transcription. Isotropic constraint and ROCK over-activation led to different types of aberrant F-actin organization, but their suppression effects on rRNA transcription were similarly reversed by inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) or overexpression of a dominant negative form of Nesprin, which shields the signal transmitted from actin filament to the nuclear interior. We further showed that the binding of HDAC1 to the active fraction of rDNA genes is increased by ROCK over-activation, thus reducing H3K9/14 acetylation and suppressing transcription. Our results demonstrate an epigenetic control of active rDNA genes that represses rRNA transcription in response to the cytoskeletal stress. PMID:27350000

  11. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil); Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative

  12. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to 32P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca2+/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca2+ quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights:

  13. Patterning and lifetime of plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase is dependent on actin organization in Arabidopsis interphase cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampathkumar, A.; Gutierrez, R.; McFarlane, H.E.; Bringmann, M.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.; Samuels, L.; Ketelaar, T.; Ehrhardt, D.W.; Persson, S.

    2013-01-01

    The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons regulate cell shape across phyla, from bacteria to metazoans. In organisms with cell walls, the wall acts as a primary constraint of shape, and generation of specific cell shape depends on cytoskeletal organization for wall deposition and/or cell expansion. In

  14. Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Færgeman, Nils J;

    2014-01-01

    Spectrins and plakins are important communicators linking cytoskeletal components to each other and to cellular junctions. Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) belongs to the spectraplakin family and is involved in control of microtubule dynamics. Complete knock out of MACF1 in mice is...

  15. Glutamyl phosphate is an activated intermediate in actin crosslinking by actin crosslinking domain (ACD toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kudryashova

    Full Text Available Actin Crosslinking Domain (ACD is produced by several life-threatening Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as part of larger toxins and delivered into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells via Type I or Type VI secretion systems. Upon delivery, ACD disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by catalyzing intermolecular amide bond formation between E270 and K50 residues of actin, leading to the formation of polymerization-deficient actin oligomers. Ultimately, accumulation of the crosslinked oligomers results in structural and functional failure of the actin cytoskeleton in affected cells. In the present work, we advanced in our understanding of the ACD catalytic mechanism by discovering that the enzyme transfers the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP to the E270 actin residue, resulting in the formation of an activated acyl phosphate intermediate. This intermediate is further hydrolyzed and the energy of hydrolysis is utilized for the formation of the amide bond between actin subunits. We also determined the pH optimum for the reaction and the kinetic parameters of ACD catalysis for its substrates, ATP and actin. ACD showed sigmoidal, non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for actin (K(0.5 = 30 µM reflecting involvement of two actin molecules in a single crosslinking event. We established that ACD can also utilize Mg(2+-GTP to support crosslinking, but the kinetic parameters (K(M = 8 µM and 50 µM for ATP and GTP, respectively suggest that ATP is the primary substrate of ACD in vivo. The optimal pH for ACD activity was in the range of 7.0-9.0. The elucidated kinetic mechanism of ACD toxicity adds to understanding of complex network of host-pathogen interactions.

  16. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xionggao [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Shaochong, E-mail: zhshaochong@163.com [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous

  17. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. ► Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous-transformed human RPE cells undergo cytoskeletal rearrangements via Rac1 GTPase-dependent pathways that modulate LIMK1 and

  18. The role of actin networks in cellular mechanosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatov, Mikheil

    behavior as in cancer metastasis. In addition to stiffness, the local geometry or topography of the surface has been shown to modulate the movement, morphology, and cytoskeletal organization of cells. However, the effect of topography on fluctuations of intracellular structures, which arise from motor driven activity on a viscoelastic actin network are not known. I have used nanofabricated substrates with parallel ridges to show that the cell shape, the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions all align along the direction of the ridges, exhibiting a biphasic dependence on the spacing between ridges. I further demonstrated that palladin bands along actin stress fibers undergo a complex diffusive motion with velocities aligned along the direction of ridges. These results provide insight into the mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing of the environment, suggesting a complex interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and cellular adhesions in coordinating cellular response to surface topography. Overall, this work has advanced our understanding of mechanisms that govern cellular responses to their physical environment.

  19. Mechanism of Actin Filament Bundling by Fascin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Silvia; Collins, Agnieszka; Yang, Changsong; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto (UPENN); (UPENN-MED)

    2013-03-07

    Fascin is the main actin filament bundling protein in filopodia. Because of the important role filopodia play in cell migration, fascin is emerging as a major target for cancer drug discovery. However, an understanding of the mechanism of bundle formation by fascin is critically lacking. Fascin consists of four {beta}-trefoil domains. Here, we show that fascin contains two major actin-binding sites, coinciding with regions of high sequence conservation in {beta}-trefoil domains 1 and 3. The site in {beta}-trefoil-1 is located near the binding site of the fascin inhibitor macroketone and comprises residue Ser-39, whose phosphorylation by protein kinase C down-regulates actin bundling and formation of filopodia. The site in {beta}-trefoil-3 is related by pseudo-2-fold symmetry to that in {beta}-trefoil-1. The two sites are {approx}5 nm apart, resulting in a distance between actin filaments in the bundle of {approx}8.1 nm. Residue mutations in both sites disrupt bundle formation in vitro as assessed by co-sedimentation with actin and electron microscopy and severely impair formation of filopodia in cells as determined by rescue experiments in fascin-depleted cells. Mutations of other areas of the fascin surface also affect actin bundling and formation of filopodia albeit to a lesser extent, suggesting that, in addition to the two major actin-binding sites, fascin makes secondary contacts with other filaments in the bundle. In a high resolution crystal structure of fascin, molecules of glycerol and polyethylene glycol are bound in pockets located within the two major actin-binding sites. These molecules could guide the rational design of new anticancer fascin inhibitors.

  20. Effects of polymerization and nucleotide identity on the conformational dynamics of the bacterial actin homolog MreB

    OpenAIRE

    Colavin, Alexandre; Hsin, Jen; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments drive many dynamic cellular processes, such as the regulation of shape by actin networks in eukaryotes and by the actin homolog MreB in rod-shaped bacteria. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate close parallels between the conformational dynamics of actin and MreB, in which polymerization induces flattening of MreB subunits that restructures the ATP binding pocket to promote hydrolysis. We also find that ATP-bound MreB filaments are substan...

  1. Cytoskeletal elements in the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermann, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Mayer, Frank

    2002-09-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogenic eubacterium lacking a cell wall. Three decades ago, a "rod", an intracellular cytoskeletal structure, was discovered that was assumed to define and stabilize the elongated cell shape. Later, by treatment with detergent, a "Triton shell" (i.e. a fraction of detergent-insoluble cell material) could be obtained, believed to contain additional cytoskeletal elements. Now, by application of a modified Triton X-100 treatment, we are able to demonstrate that M. pneumoniae possesses a cytoskeleton consisting of a blade-like rod and a peripheral lining located close to the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane, exhibiting features of a highly regular network. Attached "stalks" may support the cytoplasmic membrane. The rod was connected to the cell periphery by "spokes" and showed a defined ultrastructure. Its proximal end was found to be attached to a wheel-like complex. Fibrils extended from the proximal end of the rod into the cytoplasm.

  2. Cytoskeletal network morphology regulates intracellular transport dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, David; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable time scales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that r...

  3. Abelson tyrosine kinase links PDGFbeta receptor activation to cytoskeletal regulation of NMDA receptors in CA1 hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazely Michael A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that PDGF receptor activation indirectly inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA currents by modifying the cytoskeleton. PDGF receptor ligand is also neuroprotective in hippocampal slices and cultured neurons. PDGF receptors are tyrosine kinases that control a variety of signal transduction pathways including those mediated by PLCγ. In fibroblasts Src and another non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Abelson kinase (Abl, control PDGF receptor regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. The mechanism whereby PDGF receptor regulates cytoskeletal dynamics in central neurons remains poorly understood. Results Intracellular applications of active Abl, but not heat-inactivated Abl, decreased NMDA-evoked currents in isolated hippocampal neurons. This mimics the effects of PDGF receptor activation in these neurons. The Abl kinase inhibitor, STI571, blocked the inhibition of NMDA currents by Abl. We demonstrate that PDGF receptors can activate Abl kinase in hippocampal neurons via mechanisms similar to those observed previously in fibroblasts. Furthermore, PDGFβ receptor activation alters the subcellular localization of Abl. Abl kinase is linked to actin cytoskeletal dynamics in many systems. We show that the inhibition of NMDA receptor currents by Abl kinase is blocked by the inclusion of the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and that activation of Abl correlates with an increase in ROCK tyrosine phosphorylation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that PDGFβ receptors act via an interaction with Abl kinase and Rho kinase to regulated cytoskeletal regulation of NMDA receptor channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  4. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Estes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo.

  5. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Kathleen A; Szumowski, Suzannah C; Troemel, Emily R

    2011-09-01

    The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo. PMID:21949650

  6. β-Actin protein expression differs in the submandibular glands of male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zou, Ye; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Lingfei; Hu, Qiaoyun; Li, Ting; Yao, Chenjuan; Yu, Shali; Wang, Xiaoke; Wang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males. β-actin protein is majorly distributed in acinar cells of SMG. There is no significant difference in the expression level of β-actin protein between females and castrated males. After castrated male ICR mice are treated with 10 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) for 3 weeks, the levels of β-actin protein in SMG decrease. The numbers of duct per unit area increase, whereas the numbers of acinus per unit area decrease after TP administration. These data suggest that β-actin protein is mainly distributed in acinar cells of SMG and results in a marked sexual dimorphism in mice. PMID:27079296

  7. Chorein Sensitivity of Actin Polymerization, Cell Shape and Mechanical Stiffness of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial cell stiffness plays a key role in endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure. Actin polymerization and distribution of microfilaments is essential for mechanical cell stiffness. Chorein, a protein encoded by the VPS13A gene, defective in chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc, is involved in neuronal cell survival as well as cortical actin polymerization of erythrocytes and blood platelets. Chorein is expressed in a wide variety of further cells, yet nothing is known about the impact of chorein on cells other than neurons, erythrocytes and platelets. The present study explored whether chorein is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and addressed the putative role of chorein in the regulation of cytoskeletal architecture, stiffness and survival of those cells. Methods: In HUVECs with or without silencing of the VPS13A gene, VPS13A mRNA expression was determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR, cytoskeletal organization visualized by confocal microscopy, G/F actin ratio and phosphorylation status of focal adhesion kinase quantified by western blotting, cell death determined by flow cytometry, mechanical properties studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM and cell morphology analysed by scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM. Results: VPS13A mRNA expression was detectable in HUVECs. Silencing of the VPS13A gene attenuated the filamentous actin network, decreased the ratio of soluble G-actin over filamentous F-actin, reduced cell stiffness and changed cell morphology as compared to HUVECs silenced with negative control siRNA. These effects were paralleled by a significant decrease in FAK phosphorylation following VPS13A silencing. Moreover, silencing of the VPS13A gene increased caspase 3 activity and induced necrosis in HUVECs. Conclusions: Chorein is a novel regulator of cytoskeletal architecture, cell shape, mechanical stiffness and survival of vascular endothelial cells.

  8. Emerging roles of actin cytoskeleton regulating enzymes in drug addiction: Actin or reactin’?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Adrian; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons rely on their cytoskeleton to give them shape and stability, and on cytoskeletal dynamics for growth and synaptic plasticity. Because drug addiction is increasingly seen as the inappropriate learning of strongly reinforcing stimuli, the role of the cytoskeleton in shaping drug memories has been of increasing interest in recent years. Does the cytoskeleton have an active role in shaping these memories, and to what extent do alterations in the cytoskeleton reflect the acute actions of drug exposure, or homeostatic reactions to the chronic exposure to drugs of abuse? Here we will review recent advances in understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in the development of drug addiction, with a focus on actin filaments, as they have been studied in greater detail. PMID:23428655

  9. The plant actin cytoskeleton responds to signals from microbe-associated molecular patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Henty-Ridilla

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly exposed to a large and diverse array of microbes; however, most plants are immune to the majority of potential invaders and susceptible to only a small subset of pathogens. The cytoskeleton comprises a dynamic intracellular framework that responds rapidly to biotic stresses and supports numerous fundamental cellular processes including vesicle trafficking, endocytosis and the spatial distribution of organelles and protein complexes. For years, the actin cytoskeleton has been assumed to play a role in plant innate immunity against fungi and oomycetes, based largely on static images and pharmacological studies. To date, however, there is little evidence that the host-cell actin cytoskeleton participates in responses to phytopathogenic bacteria. Here, we quantified the spatiotemporal changes in host-cell cytoskeletal architecture during the immune response to pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Two distinct changes to host cytoskeletal arrays were observed that correspond to distinct phases of plant-bacterial interactions i.e. the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs during pattern-triggered immunity (PTI and perturbations by effector proteins during effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS. We demonstrate that an immediate increase in actin filament abundance is a conserved and novel component of PTI. Notably, treatment of leaves with a MAMP peptide mimic was sufficient to elicit a rapid change in actin organization in epidermal cells, and this actin response required the host-cell MAMP receptor kinase complex, including FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1. Finally, we found that actin polymerization is necessary for the increase in actin filament density and that blocking this increase with the actin-disrupting drug latrunculin B leads to enhanced susceptibility of host plants to pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Reversibility and Viscoelastic Properties of Micropillar Supported and Oriented Magnesium Bundled F-Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Maier

    Full Text Available Filamentous actin is one of the most important cytoskeletal elements. Not only is it responsible for the elastic properties of many cell types, but it also plays a vital role in cellular adhesion and motility. Understanding the bundling kinetics of actin filaments is important in the formation of various cytoskeletal structures, such as filopodia and stress fibers. Utilizing a unique pillar-structured microfluidic device, we investigated the time dependence of bundling kinetics of pillar supported free-standing actin filaments. Microparticles attached to the filaments allowed the measurement of thermal motion, and we found that bundling takes place at lower concentrations than previously found in 3-dimensional actin gels, i.e. actin filaments formed bundles in the presence of 5-12 mM of magnesium chloride in a time-dependent manner. The filaments also displayed long term stability for up to hours after removing the magnesium ions from the buffer, which suggests that there is an extensive hysteresis between cation induced crosslinking and decrosslinking.

  11. DNA segregation by the bacterial actin AlfA during Bacillus subtilis growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Eric; Herrera, Nick C; Gunderson, Felizza Q.; Derman, Alan I.; Dance, Amber L; Sims, Jennifer; Larsen, Rachel A.; Pogliano, Joe

    2006-01-01

    We here identify a protein (AlfA; actin like filament) that defines a new family of actins that are only distantly related to MreB and ParM. AlfA is required for segregation of Bacillus subtilis plasmid pBET131 (a mini pLS32-derivative) during growth and sporulation. A 3-kb DNA fragment encoding alfA and a downstream gene (alfB) is necessary and sufficient for plasmid stability. AlfA-GFP assembles dynamic cytoskeletal filaments that rapidly turn over (t1/2

  12. A multi-structural single cell model of force-induced interactions of cytoskeletal components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sara; Clausen, Casper H; Perrault, Cecile M; Fletcher, Daniel A; Lacroix, Damien

    2013-08-01

    Several computational models based on experimental techniques and theories have been proposed to describe cytoskeleton (CSK) mechanics. Tensegrity is a prominent model for force generation, but it cannot predict mechanics of individual CSK components, nor explain the discrepancies from the different single cell stimulating techniques studies combined with cytoskeleton-disruptors. A new numerical concept that defines a multi-structural 3D finite element (FE) model of a single-adherent cell is proposed to investigate the biophysical and biochemical differences of the mechanical role of each cytoskeleton component under loading. The model includes prestressed actin bundles and microtubule within cytoplasm and nucleus surrounded by the actin cortex. We performed numerical simulations of atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments by subjecting the cell model to compressive loads. The numerical role of the CSK components was corroborated with AFM force measurements on U2OS-osteosarcoma cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts exposed to different cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs. Computational simulation showed that actin cortex and microtubules are the major components targeted in resisting compression. This is a new numerical tool that explains the specific role of the cortex and overcomes the difficulty of isolating this component from other networks in vitro. This illustrates that a combination of cytoskeletal structures with their own properties is necessary for a complete description of cellular mechanics. PMID:23702149

  13. Hypotonicity and cell volume regulation in shark rectal gland: role of organic osmolytes and F-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyadeh, F N; Mills, J W; Kleinzeller, A

    1992-03-01

    Hypotonic stress (reduction of external tonicity from approximately 900 mosM and 295 mM NaCl to approximately 600 mosM and 135 mM NaCl) produced a relatively slow regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland cells. During the 5-h experiment, cell K+ content remained unchanged; cell content of Na+ and Cl- dropped in the initial swelling phase by some 50% (reflecting the corresponding reduction in medium NaCl), and then remained unchanged during volume recovery phase. Also, cellular fluxes of 86Rb+ and urea were not affected by hypotonic stress. However, hypotonicity enhanced 10- to 20-fold the efflux of organic cell osmolytes taurine, betaine, and trimethyloxamine, and this accounted for the loss of osmotically obliged water during RVD. Enhancement of osmolyte efflux by hypotonic stress was abolished by readjusting the low-Na+ saline to isotonicity (approximately 900 mosM) with innocuous cations (choline+, Li+, or N-methylglucamine+). The results suggest that reduction of medium tonicity may be the determinant for the RVD response to hypotonic stress. The above properties of the observed RVD were also displayed when studying changes on cell F-actin at the basolateral cell face; hypotonic stress (medium with 135 mM NaCl) produced a rapid disappearance of fluorescence related to this cytoskeletal component, whereas no such changes were seen in low-Na+ salines made isotonic with choline or N-methylglucamine chloride nor in a saline made hyposmolar by omitting urea. Hence, hypotonicity is required to affect F-actin organization (depolymerization?). These changes of F-actin fluorescence are transient; they were completed within 5-10 min of hypotonic stress, and afterwards a gradual reconstitution of cell F-actin organization was seen. The above observations are consistent with the assumption that, in shark rectal gland cells, transient loss of cytoskeleton (F-actin) organization at the basolateral cell face, induced by hypotonicity

  14. Structure of the F-actin-tropomyosin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Ecken, Julian; Müller, Mirco; Lehman, William; Manstein, Dietmar J; Penczek, Pawel A; Raunser, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) is the major protein of muscle thin filaments, and actin microfilaments are the main component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Mutations in different actin isoforms lead to early-onset autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, and multiple variations of myopathies. In striated muscle fibres, the binding of myosin motors to actin filaments is mainly regulated by tropomyosin and troponin. Tropomyosin also binds to F-actin in smooth muscle and in non-muscle cells and stabilizes and regulates the filaments there in the absence of troponin. Although crystal structures for monomeric actin (G-actin) are available, a high-resolution structure of F-actin is still missing, hampering our understanding of how disease-causing mutations affect the function of thin muscle filaments and microfilaments. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of F-actin at a resolution of 3.7 Å in complex with tropomyosin at a resolution of 6.5 Å, determined by electron cryomicroscopy. The structure reveals that the D-loop is ordered and acts as a central region for hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that stabilize the F-actin filament. We clearly identify map density corresponding to ADP and Mg(2+) and explain the possible effect of prominent disease-causing mutants. A comparison of F-actin with G-actin reveals the conformational changes during filament formation and identifies the D-loop as their key mediator. We also confirm that negatively charged tropomyosin interacts with a positively charged groove on F-actin. Comparison of the position of tropomyosin in F-actin-tropomyosin with its position in our previously determined F-actin-tropomyosin-myosin structure reveals a myosin-induced transition of tropomyosin. Our results allow us to understand the role of individual mutations in the genesis of actin- and tropomyosin-related diseases and will serve as a strong foundation for the targeted

  15. Actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation and Rac1 activity has implications on ROS production, cell migration and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sehar Saleem; Parray, Arif Ali; Mushtaq, Umar; Fazili, Khalid Majid; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) and Rac1 are part of a signaling pathway via the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). Both SNTA1 and Rac1 proteins are over-expressed in various carcinomas. It is through the DGC signaling pathway that SNTA1 has been shown to act as a link between the extra cellular matrix, the internal cell signaling apparatus and the actin cytoskeleton. SNTA1 is involved in the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton and actin reorganization. Rac1 also controls actin cytoskeletal organization in the cell. In this study, we present the interplay between f-actin, SNTA1 and Rac1. We analyzed the effect of actin depolymerization on SNTA1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity using actin depolymerizing drugs, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. Our results indicate a marked decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of SNTA1 upon actin depolymerization. Results suggest that actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation leads to loss of interaction between SNTA1 and Rac1, with a concomitant loss of Rac1 activation. The loss of SNTA1tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity by actin depolymerization results in increased apoptosis, decreased cell migration and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in breast carcinoma cells. Collectively, our results present a possible role of f-actin in the SNTA1-Rac1 signaling pathway and implications of actin depolymerization on cell migration, ROS production and apoptosis. PMID:27048259

  16. Coupled actin-lamin biopolymer networks and protecting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Rocklin, D. Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming; Schwarz, J. M.

    The mechanical properties of cells are largely determined by networks of semiflexible biopolymers forming the cytoskeleton. Similarly, the mechanical properties of cell nuclei are also largely determined by networks of semiflexible biopolymers forming the nuclear cytoskeleton. In particular, a network of filamentous lamin sits just inside the inner nuclear membrane to presumably protect the heart of the cell nucleus--the DNA. It has been demonstrated over the past decade that the actin cytoskeletal biopolymer network and the lamin biopolymer network are coupled via a sequence of proteins bridging the outer and inner nuclear membranes, known as the LINC complex. We, therefore, probe the consequences of such a coupling in a model biopolymer network system via numerical simulations to understand the resulting deformations in the lamin network in response to perturbations in the actin cytoskeletal network. We find, for example, that the force transmission across the coupled system can depend sensitively on the concentration of LINC complexes. Such study could have implications for mechanical mechanisms of the regulation of transcription since DNA couples to lamin via lamin-binding domains so that deformations in the lamin network may result in deformations in the DNA.

  17. Run-and-tumble dynamics of cytoskeletal motor proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, Anne E; Rieger, Heiko; Shaebani, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motor proteins are involved in major intracellular transport processes which are vital for maintaining appropriate cellular function. The motor exhibits distinct states of motility: active motion along filaments, and effectively stationary phase in which it detaches from the filaments and performs passive diffusion in the vicinity of the detachment point due to cytoplasmic crowding. The transition rates between motion and pause phases are asymmetric in general, and considerably affected by changes in environmental conditions which influences the efficiency of cargo delivery to specific targets. By considering the motion of molecular motor on a single filament as well as a dynamic filamentous network, we present an analytical model for the dynamics of self-propelled particles which undergo frequent pause phases. The interplay between motor processivity, structural properties of filamentous network, and transition rates between the two states of motility drastically changes the dynamics: multiple t...

  18. Ionising Radiation Immediately Impairs Synaptic Plasticity-Associated Cytoskeletal Signalling Pathways in HT22 Cells and in Mouse Brain: An In Vitro/In Vivo Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Stefan J.; Buratovic, Sonja; von Toerne, Christine; Moertl, Simone; Stenerlöw, Bo; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Atkinson, Michael J.; Eriksson, Per; Tapio, Soile

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from brain malignancies are treated with high-dose ionising radiation. However, this may lead to severe learning and memory impairment. Preventive treatments to minimise these side effects have not been possible due to the lack of knowledge of the involved signalling pathways and molecular targets. Mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were irradiated with acute gamma doses of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy. Changes in the cellular proteome were investigated by isotope-coded protein label technology and tandem mass spectrometry after 4 and 24 hours. To compare the findings with the in vivo response, male NMRI mice were irradiated on postnatal day 10 with a gamma dose of 1.0 Gy, followed by evaluation of the cellular proteome of hippocampus and cortex 24 hours post-irradiation. Analysis of the in vitro proteome showed that signalling pathways related to synaptic actin-remodelling were significantly affected at 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy but not at 0.5 Gy after 4 and 24 hours. We observed radiation-induced reduction of the miR-132 and Rac1 levels; miR-132 is known to regulate Rac1 activity by blocking the GTPase-activating protein p250GAP. In the irradiated hippocampus and cortex we observed alterations in the signalling pathways similar to those in vitro. The decreased expression of miR-132 and Rac1 was associated with an increase in hippocampal cofilin and phospho-cofilin. The Rac1-Cofilin pathway is involved in the modulation of synaptic actin filament formation that is necessary for correct spine and synapse morphology to enable processes of learning and memory. We suggest that acute radiation exposure leads to rapid dendritic spine and synapse morphology alterations via aberrant cytoskeletal signalling and processing and that this is associated with the immediate neurocognitive side effects observed in patients treated with ionising radiation. PMID:25329592

  19. Ionising radiation immediately impairs synaptic plasticity-associated cytoskeletal signalling pathways in HT22 cells and in mouse brain: an in vitro/in vivo comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Kempf

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from brain malignancies are treated with high-dose ionising radiation. However, this may lead to severe learning and memory impairment. Preventive treatments to minimise these side effects have not been possible due to the lack of knowledge of the involved signalling pathways and molecular targets. Mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were irradiated with acute gamma doses of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy. Changes in the cellular proteome were investigated by isotope-coded protein label technology and tandem mass spectrometry after 4 and 24 hours. To compare the findings with the in vivo response, male NMRI mice were irradiated on postnatal day 10 with a gamma dose of 1.0 Gy, followed by evaluation of the cellular proteome of hippocampus and cortex 24 hours post-irradiation. Analysis of the in vitro proteome showed that signalling pathways related to synaptic actin-remodelling were significantly affected at 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy but not at 0.5 Gy after 4 and 24 hours. We observed radiation-induced reduction of the miR-132 and Rac1 levels; miR-132 is known to regulate Rac1 activity by blocking the GTPase-activating protein p250GAP. In the irradiated hippocampus and cortex we observed alterations in the signalling pathways similar to those in vitro. The decreased expression of miR-132 and Rac1 was associated with an increase in hippocampal cofilin and phospho-cofilin. The Rac1-Cofilin pathway is involved in the modulation of synaptic actin filament formation that is necessary for correct spine and synapse morphology to enable processes of learning and memory. We suggest that acute radiation exposure leads to rapid dendritic spine and synapse morphology alterations via aberrant cytoskeletal signalling and processing and that this is associated with the immediate neurocognitive side effects observed in patients treated with ionising radiation.

  20. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  1. Control of actin-based motility through localized actin binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of cell biological and biomimetic systems use actin polymerization to drive motility. It has been suggested that an object such as a bacterium can propel itself by self-assembling a high concentration of actin behind it, if it is repelled by actin. However, it is also known that it is essential for the moving object to bind actin. Therefore, a key question is how the actin tail can propel an object when it both binds and repels the object. We present a physically consistent Brownian dynamics model for actin-based motility that includes the minimal components of the dendritic nucleation model and allows for both attractive and repulsive interactions between actin and a moveable disc. We find that the concentration gradient of filamentous actin generated by polymerization is sufficient to propel the object, even with moderately strong binding interactions. Additionally, actin binding can act as a biophysical cap, and may directly control motility through modulation of network growth. Overall, this mechanism is robust in that it can drive motility against a load up to a stall pressure that depends on the Young’s modulus of the actin network and can explain several aspects of actin-based motility. (paper)

  2. Fibronectin in cultured rat keratinocytes: distribution, synthesis, and relationship to cytoskeletal proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibson, W T; Couchman, J R; Badley, R A; Saunders, H J; Smith, C G

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether epidermal cells can synthesise fibronectin and whether the distribution of this glycoprotein is related to the adhesion and cytoskeletal organisation of these cells. The production of fibronectin by newborn rat epidermal cells was shown by indirect...... immunofluorescence staining of cultures grown in the absence of a feeder layer using an antiserum which had been cross-adsorbed with foetal calf serum proteins to remove antibodies which recognised serum fibronectin. The distribution of fibronectin in areas of cell-cell and cell-substratum contact...... revealed evidence of a relationship between external fibronectin and internal structure in epidermal cells. Immunofluorescence showed that tonofilaments (keratin) and microtubules were present as fibrillar arrays but were not related to fibronectin distribution. Vimentin and desmin were absent. Actin was...

  3. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to microtubule components (ß-tubulin, particularly in the area close to the epipharyngeal groove. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in some notochordal cells and in the area of the notochordal attachment to the sheath. Thus muscular nature of notochordal cells was shown by immunohistochemistry in tissue section. Our results confirm that genes encoding intermediate filament proteins, microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved during evolution. Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath.

  4. Molecular Mechanotransduction: how forces trigger cytoskeletal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlicher, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical stresses elicit cellular reactions mediated by chemical signals. Defective responses to forces underlie human medical disorders, such as cardiac failure and pulmonary injury. Despite detailed knowledge of the cytoskeleton's structure, the specific molecular switches that convert mechanical stimuli into chemical signals have remained elusive. Here we identify the actin-binding protein, filamin A (FLNa) as a central mechanotransduction element of the cytoskeleton by using Fluorescence Loss After photoConversion (FLAC), a novel high-speed alternative to FRAP. We reconstituted a minimal system consisting of actin filaments, FLNa and two FLNa-binding partners: the cytoplasmic tail of ß-integrin, and FilGAP. Integrins form an essential mechanical linkage between extracellular and intracellular environments, with ß integrin tails connecting to the actin cytoskeleton by binding directly to filamin. FilGAP is a FLNa-binding GTPase-activating protein specific for Rac, which in vivo regulates cell spreading and bleb formation. We demonstrate that both externally-imposed bulk shear and myosin II driven forces differentially regulate the binding of integrin and FilGAP to FLNa. Consistent with structural predictions, strain increases ß-integrin binding to FLNa, whereas it causes FilGAP to dissociate from FLNa, providing a direct and specific molecular basis for cellular mechanotransduction. These results identify the first molecular mechanotransduction element within the actin cytoskeleton, revealing that mechanical strain of key proteins regulates the binding of signaling molecules. Moreover, GAP activity has been shown to switch cell movement from mesenchymal to amoeboid motility, suggesting that mechanical forces directly impact the invasiveness of cancer.

  5. Electrophoresis and orientation of F-actin in agarose gels.

    OpenAIRE

    Borejdo, J; Ortega, H.

    1989-01-01

    F-Actin was electrophoresed on agarose gels. In the presence of 2 mM MgCl2 and above pH 8.5 F-actin entered 1% agarose; when the electric field was 2.1 V/cm and the pH was 8.8, F-actin migrated through a gel as a single band at a rate of 2.5 mm/h. Labeling of actin with fluorophores did not affect its rate of migration, but an increase in ionic strength slowed it down. After the electrophoresis actin was able to bind phalloidin and heavy meromyosin (HMM) and it activated Mg2+-dependent ATPase...

  6. Cytoskeletal inhibitors, anti-adhesion molecule antibodies, and lectins inhibit hepatocyte spheroid formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of cytoskeletons, adhesion molecules, membrane-glycosylations, and proteoglycans in forming the shape of adult rat hepatocyte spheroids. Isolated hepatocytes were cultured on dishes coated with chondroitin sulfate phosphatidyl ethanolamine (CS-PE. Spheroid-forming ability was observed after adding cytoskeletal inhibitors (cytochalasin D, colchicine, okadaic acid, mycalolide B, anti-adhesion molecule antibodies (anti-E-cadherin, anti-connexin 32, anti-zo-1, a glycosphingolipid synthetic inhibitor (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, a proteoglycan synthetic inhibitor (p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, and several lectins. Localization of actin was studied using confocal microscopy after rhodamine-phalloidin staining. Adding cytoskeletal inhibitors on the initial day resulted in weakly clustered cell aggregates rather than smoothly formed spheroids. These effects disappeared at lower reagent concentrations. When reagents were added on day 3, after the formation of spheroids, only mycalolide B was associated with an irregular spheroid surface; the others had no effect. Adding the anti-E-cadherin, anti-connexin 32 on the initial day showed inhibition of spheroid formation, but anti-zo-1 and proteoglycan synthetic inhibitor had no effects. Among the several lectins, only Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA, Ricinus communis Agglutinin I (RCA-I, and Concanavalin A (ConA showed inhibition. These results suggest that cytoskeletal conformation and some adhesion molecules are necessary to form spheroids. Based on the interactions between lectins and hepatocytes in the present study, hepatocytes appear to contain an N-linked complex or N-linked hybrid glycosylated chains.

  7. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha F Kornfeld

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as

  8. Cytoskeletal binding proteins distinguish cultured dental follicle cells and periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Tian, Ye; Yang, Yaling; Chen, Guoqing; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) derived from the ectomesenchymal tissue, have been shown to exhibit stem/progenitor cell properties and the ability to induce tissue regeneration. Stem cells in dental follicle differentiate into cementoblasts, periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts, these cells form cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, respectively. While stem cells in dental follicle are a precursor to periodontal ligament fibroblasts, the molecular changes that distinguish cultured DFCs from PDLCs are still unknown. In this study, we have compared the immunophenotypic features and cell cycle status of the two cell lines. The results suggest that DFCs and PDLCs displayed similar features related to immunophenotype and cell cycle. Then we employed an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics strategy to reveal the molecular differences between the two cell types. A total of 2138 proteins were identified and 39 of these proteins were consistently differentially expressed between DFCs and PDLCs. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the protein subsets expressed higher in PDLCs were related to actin binding, cytoskeletal protein binding, and structural constituent of muscle. Upon validation by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) and caldesmon 1 (CALD1) were expressed higher in PDLCs than in DFCs. Our results suggested that PDLCs display enhanced actin cytoskeletal dynamics relative to DFCs while DFCs may exhibit a more robust antioxidant defense ability relative to PDLCs. This study expands our knowledge of the cultured DFCs and PDLCs proteome and provides new insights into possible mechanisms responsible for the different biological features observed in each cell type. PMID:26708290

  9. Estradiol influences the mechanical properties of human fetal osteoblasts through cytoskeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were quantified using AFM. ► Estradiol causes significant decrease in the stiffness of osteoblasts. ► Decreased stiffness was caused by decreased density of f-actin network. ► Stiffness changes were not associated with mineralized matrix of osteoblasts. ► Estradiol increases inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts. -- Abstract: Estrogen is known to have a direct effect on bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. The cellular and molecular effects of estrogen on osteoblasts and osteoblasts-like cells have been extensively studied. However, the effect of estrogen on the mechanical property of osteoblasts has not been studied yet. It is important since mechanical property of the mechanosensory osteoblasts could be pivotal to its functionality in bone remodeling. This is the first study aimed to assess the direct effect of estradiol on the apparent elastic modulus (E∗) and corresponding cytoskeletal changes of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19). The cells were cultured in either medium alone or medium supplemented with β-estradiol and then subjected to Atomic Force Microscopy indentation (AFM) to determine E∗. The underlying changes in cytoskeleton were studied by staining the cells with TRITC-Phalloidin. Following estradiol treatment, the cells were also tested for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. With estradiol treatment, E∗ of osteoblasts significantly decreased by 43–46%. The confocal images showed that the changes in f-actin network observed in estradiol treated cells can give rise to the changes in the stiffness of the cells. Estradiol also increases the inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells. Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were not associated with changes in the synthesized mineralized matrix of the cells. Thus, a decrease in osteoblast stiffness with estrogen treatment was

  10. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  11. Diffusion in Cytoplasm: Effects of Excluded Volume Due to Internal Membranes and Cytoskeletal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Igor L.; Kraikivski, Pavel; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2009-01-01

    The intricate geometry of cytoskeletal networks and internal membranes causes the space available for diffusion in cytoplasm to be convoluted, thereby affecting macromolecule diffusivity. We present a first systematic computational study of this effect by approximating intracellular structures as mixtures of random overlapping obstacles of various shapes. Effective diffusion coefficients are computed using a fast homogenization technique. It is found that a simple two-parameter power law prov...

  12. Berberine induces dedifferentiation by actin cytoskeleton reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Chung, Ki-Wha; Seo, Sung-Yum; Kim, Song-Ja

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a nonrheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, the majority of which is extracted from Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis). Although numerous studies have revealed the anticancer activity of BBR, its effects on normal cells, such as chondrocytes, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions remain elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of BBR on rabbit articular chondrocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms, focusing on actin cytoskeletal reorganization. BBR induced dedifferentiation by inhibiting activation of phosphoinositide-3(PI3)-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 kinase and PI3-kinase/Akt with SB203580 and LY294002, respectively, accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation. BBR also caused actin cytoskeletal architecture reorganization and, therefore, we investigated if these effects were involved in the dedifferentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D reversed the BBR-induced dedifferentiation by activating PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. In contrast, the induction of actin filament aggregation by jasplakinolide accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation via PI3-kinase/Akt inhibition and p38 kinase activation. Taken together, these data suggest that BBR strongly induces dedifferentiation, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization is a crucial requirement for this effect. Furthermore, the dedifferentiation activity of BBR appears to be mediated via PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes. PMID:26851252

  13. The dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibits bone resorption by rapidly disrupting actin rings of osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirukonda, Gnanasagar J; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakayama, Takahiro; Yamashita, Teruhito; Nakamura, Yukio; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagami, Kimitoshi; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    The cytoskeletal organization of osteoclasts is required for bone resorption. Binding of dynamin with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was previously suggested to be required for the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the role of the GTPase activity of dynamin in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as well as in the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of dynasore, an inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, on the bone-resorbing activity of and actin ring formation in mouse osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. Dynasore inhibited the formation of resorption pits in osteoclast cultures by suppressing actin ring formation and rapidly disrupting actin rings in osteoclasts. A time-lapse image analysis showed that dynasore shrank actin rings in osteoclasts within 30 min. The intraperitoneal administration of dynasore inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone loss in mouse femurs. These in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the GTPase activity of dynamin is critical for the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts and that dynasore is a seed for the development of novel anti-resorbing agents. PMID:26063501

  14. Effects of fixation protocol and gravistimulation on cytoskeletal organization in Brassica rapa roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2012-07-01

    In preparation for a flight experiment we have studied the optimization of the staining protocols for microtubules and actin filaments in Brassica rapa seedlings. Microtubules (MT) were stained with monoclonal antibody (mAb) YOL 1/34. F-actin (FA) staining was achieved with C4 mAb antibody. Fixative prepared more than three weeks before use produces specimens that stained poorly. Storage in fixative for more than four weeks resulted in noticeably poorer staining. Staining was best in cortical cells but more difficult and less consistent in cap cells, especially for FA. In addition, the quality of staining of root cap cells was dependent on the age of the formaldehyde. The organization of the MTs corresponded with previously published descriptions; FA was prominent in the stele with thick and numerous parallel bundles; cortical cells showed less dense and less directional organization of mostly thinner filaments. FA organization was determined by tissue rather than by differential elongation. The organization of MTs in cortical cells of curving roots was uniformly circular and perpendicular to the long cell axis despite different cell length. The effect of clinorotation around the horizontal axis and centrifugation on the cytoskeletal organization was inconsistent. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  15. Quantitative analysis of cytoskeletal reorganization during epithelial tissue sealing by large-volume electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltsov, Mikhail; Dubé, Nadia; Yu, Zhou; Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Haselmann-Weiss, Uta; Brunner, Damian; Frangakis, Achilleas S

    2015-05-01

    The closure of epidermal openings is an essential biological process that causes major developmental problems such as spina bifida in humans if it goes awry. At present, the mechanism of closure remains elusive. Therefore, we reconstructed a model closure event, dorsal closure in fly embryos, by large-volume correlative electron tomography. We present a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the cytoskeletal reorganization, enabling separated epidermal cells to seal the epithelium. After establishing contact through actin-driven exploratory filopodia, cells use a single lamella to generate 'roof tile'-like overlaps. These shorten to produce the force, 'zipping' the tissue closed. The shortening overlaps lack detectable actin filament ensembles but are crowded with microtubules. Cortical accumulation of shrinking microtubule ends suggests a force generation mechanism in which cortical motors pull on microtubule ends as for mitotic spindle positioning. In addition, microtubules orient filopodia and lamellae before zipping. Our 4D electron microscopy picture describes an entire developmental process and provides fundamental insight into epidermal closure. PMID:25893916

  16. Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraley Tamara S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 is a LIM domain containing protein localized to the nucleus and the actin cytoskeleton. CRP1 has been demonstrated to bind the actin-bundling protein α-actinin and proposed to modulate the actin cytoskeleton; however, specific regulatory mechanisms have not been identified. Results CRP1 expression increased actin bundling in rat embryonic fibroblasts. Although CRP1 did not affect the bundling activity of α-actinin, CRP1 was found to stabilize the interaction of α-actinin with actin bundles and to directly bundle actin microfilaments. Using confocal and photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET microscopy, we demonstrate that there are two populations of CRP1 localized along actin stress fibers, one associated through interaction with α-actinin and one that appears to bind the actin filaments directly. Consistent with a role in regulating actin filament cross-linking, CRP1 also localized to the membrane ruffles of spreading and PDGF treated fibroblasts. Conclusion CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling by directly cross-linking actin filaments and stabilizing the interaction of α-actinin with actin filament bundles.

  17. Mechanical force-induced polymerization and depolymerization of F-actin at water/solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqiang; Hu, Xiuyuan; Lei, Haozhi; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Actin molecules are among the three main cytoskeleton proteins of cells and undergo rapid cycling to regulate critical processes such as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the dynamics as well as biological functions of actin polymerization and depolymerization both in vivo and in vitro, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals are not fully understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the effect of a physical force that is exerted directly on the actin cytoskeleton. In this paper, we have explored how the mechanical force affects the actin polymerization and depolymerization behaviors at water/solid interfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in liquid. By raster scanning an AFM probe on a substrate surface with a certain load, it was found that actin monomers could polymerize into filaments without the help of actin related proteins (ARPs). Further study indicated that actin monomers were inclined to form filaments only under a small scanning load. The polymerized actin filaments would be depolymerized when the mechanical force was stronger. A possible mechanism has been suggested to explain the mechanical force induced actin polymerization.Actin molecules are among the three main cytoskeleton proteins of cells and undergo rapid cycling to regulate critical processes such as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the dynamics as well as biological functions of actin polymerization and depolymerization both in vivo and in vitro, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals are not fully understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the effect of a physical force that is exerted directly on the actin cytoskeleton. In this paper, we have explored how the mechanical force affects the actin

  18. Simultaneous tracking of 3D actin and microtubule strains in individual MLO-Y4 osteocytes under oscillatory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Andrew D; Qiu, Jun; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X Edward

    2013-02-22

    Osteocytes in vivo experience complex fluid shear flow patterns to activate mechanotransduction pathways. The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons have been shown to play an important role in the osteocyte's biochemical response to fluid shear loading. The dynamic nature of physiologically relevant fluid flow profiles (i.e., 1Hz oscillatory flow) impedes the ability to image and study both actin and MT cytoskeletons simultaneously in the same cell with high spatiotemporal resolution. To overcome these limitations, a multi-channel quasi-3D microscopy technique was developed to track the actin and MT networks simultaneously under steady and oscillatory flow. Cells displayed high intercellular variability and intracellular cytoskeletal variability in strain profiles. Shear Exz was the predominant strain in both steady and oscillatory flows in the form of viscoelastic creep and elastic oscillations, respectively. Dramatic differences were seen in oscillatory flow, however. The actin strains displayed an oscillatory strain profile more often than the MT networks in all the strains tested and had a higher peak-to-trough strain magnitude. Taken together, the actin networks are the more responsive cytoskeletal networks in osteocytes under oscillatory flow and may play a bigger role in mechanotransduction pathway activation and regulation. PMID:23352617

  19. Capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments by a high-affinity profilin-actin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNubile, M J; Huang, S

    1997-01-01

    Profilin, a ubiquitous 12 to 15-kDa protein, serves many functions, including sequestering monomeric actin, accelerating nucleotide exchange on actin monomers, decreasing the critical concentration of the barbed end of actin filaments, and promoting actin polymerization when barbed ends are free. Most previous studies have focused on profilin itself rather than its complex with actin. A high-affinity profilin-actin complex (here called profilactin) can be isolated from a poly-(L)-proline (PLP) column by sequential elution with 3 M and 7 M urea. Profilactin inhibited the elongation rate of pyrenyl-G-actin from filament seeds in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Much greater inhibition of elongation was observed with spectrin-F-actin than gelsolin-F-actin seeds, suggesting that the major effect of profilactin was due to capping the barbed ends of actin filaments. Its dissociation constant for binding to filament ends was 0.3 microM; the on- and off-rate constants were estimated to be 1.7 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 and 4.5 x 10(-4) s-1, respectively. Purified profilin (obtained by repetitive applications to a PLP column and assessed by silver-stained polyacylamide gels) did not slow the elongation rate of pyrenyl-G-actin from filament seeds. Capping protein could not be detected by Western blotting in the profilactin preparation, but low concentrations of gelsolin did contaminate our preparation. However, prolonged incubation with either calcium or EGTA did not affect capping activity, implying that contaminating gelsolin-actin complexes were not primarily responsible for the observed capping activity. Reapplication of the profilactin preparation to PLP-coupled Sepharose removed both profilin and actin and concurrently eliminated its capping activity. Profilactin that was reapplied to uncoupled Sepharose retained its capping activity. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) was the most potent phosphoinositol in reducing the capping activity of profilactin

  20. Cucurbitacin covalent bonding to cysteine thiols: the filamentous-actin severing protein Cofilin1 as an exemplary target

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, M.; Schuldt, M.; Munro, J; Borucka, D.; Cameron, J.; Baugh, M.; Mleczak, A; Lilla, S.; Morrice, N.; Olson, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cucurbitacins are a class of triterpenoid natural compounds with potent bioactivities that led to their use as traditional remedies, and which continue to attract considerable attention as chemical biology tools and potential therapeutics. One obvious target is the actin-cytoskeleton; treatment with cucurbitacins results in cytoskeletal rearrangements that impact upon motility and cell morphology. Findings: Cucurbitacin reacted with protein cysteine thiols as well as dithiothr...

  1. Visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments in fixed BY-2 suspension cells using an optimised whole mount immunolabelling protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Wedzony, M.; Dubas, E.; Kieft, H; Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre

    2006-01-01

    Excellent visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments was obtained in fixed tobacco BY-2 suspension cells after optimising a protocol for whole mount immunolabelling. The procedure is based on modification of fixation, cell wall digestion, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, post fixation, and blocking. The most critical aspects of successful preservation and visualization of cytoskeletal elements appeared to be: a two-step fixation with paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde before enzym...

  2. The Actin-Cytoskeleton Pathway and Its Potential Role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Human Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaan, Ziad; Qadan, Motaz; Eichenberger, Maurice Robert; Galandiuk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: To improve our understanding of the various clinical phenotypes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) and provide potential targets for early diagnosis and future therapy, we sought to identify new candidate genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis and progression of this disorder. Recent evidence has implicated the actin-cytoskeleton pathway in the development of metastatic sporadic CRC through cytoskeletal proteins such as fasc...

  3. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  4. Methods for modeling cytoskeletal and DNA filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the models that researchers use to represent the conformations and dynamics of cytoskeletal and DNA filaments. It focuses on models that address individual filaments in continuous space. Conformation models include the freely jointed, Gaussian, angle-biased chain (ABC), and wormlike chain (WLC) models, of which the first three bend at discrete joints and the last bends continuously. Predictions from the WLC model generally agree well with experiment. Dynamics models include the Rouse, Zimm, stiff rod, dynamic WLC, and reptation models, of which the first four apply to isolated filaments and the last to entangled filaments. Experiments show that the dynamic WLC and reptation models are most accurate. They also show that biological filaments typically experience strong hydrodynamic coupling and/or constrained motion. Computer simulation methods that address filament dynamics typically compute filament segment velocities from local forces using the Langevin equation and then integrate these velocities with explicit or implicit methods; the former are more versatile and the latter are more efficient. Much remains to be discovered in biological filament modeling. In particular, filament dynamics in living cells are not well understood, and current computational methods are too slow and not sufficiently versatile. Although primarily a review, this paper also presents new statistical calculations for the ABC and WLC models. Additionally, it corrects several discrepancies in the literature about bending and torsional persistence length definitions, and their relations to flexural and torsional rigidities. (topical review)

  5. Role of actin in auxin transport and transduction of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Basu, S.; Brady, S.; Muday, G.

    Transport of the plant hormone auxin is polar and the direction of the hormone movement appears to be controlled by asymmetric distribution of auxin transport protein complexes. Changes in the direction of auxin transport are believed to drive asymmetric growth in response to changes in the gravity vector. To test the possibility that asymmetric distribution of the auxin transport protein complex is mediated by attachment to the actin cytoskeleton, a variety of experimental approaches have been used. The most direct demonstration of the role of the actin cytoskeleton in localization of the protein complex is the ability of one protein in this complex to bind to affinity columns containing actin filaments. Additionally, treatments of plant tissues with drugs that fragment the actin c toskeleton reducey polar transport. In order to explore this actin interaction and the affect of gravity on auxin transport and developmental polarity, embryos of the brown alga, Fucus have been examined. Fucus zygotes are initially symmetrical, but develop asymmetry in response to environmental gradients, with light gradients being the best- characterized signal. Gravity will polarize these embryos and gravity-induced polarity is randomized by clinorotation. Auxin transport also appears necessary for environmental controls of polarity, since auxin efflux inhibitors perturb both photo- and gravity-polarization at a very discrete temporal window within six hours after fertilization. The actin cytoskeleton has previously been shown to reorganize after fertilization of Fucus embryos leading to formation of an actin patch at the site of polar outgrowth. These actin patches still form in Fucus embryos treated with auxin efflux inhibitors, yet the position of these patches is randomized. Together, these results suggest that there are connections between the actin cytoskeleton, auxin transport, and gravity oriented growth and development. (Supported by NASA Grant: NAG2-1203)

  6. Simulated microgravity inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via depolymerizing F-actin to impede TAZ nuclear translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Luo, Qing; Lin, Chuanchuan; Kuang, Dongdong; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces observed bone loss in space flight, and reduced osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) partly contributes to this phenomenon. Abnormal regulation or functioning of the actin cytoskeleton induced by microgravity may cause the inhibited osteogenesis of BMSCs, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal changes regulate nuclear aggregation of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which is indispensable for osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Moreover, we utilized a clinostat to model simulated microgravity (SMG) and demonstrated that SMG obviously depolymerized F-actin and hindered TAZ nuclear translocation. Interestingly, stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide (Jasp) significantly rescued TAZ nuclear translocation and recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in SMG, independently of large tumor suppressor 1(LATS1, an upstream kinase of TAZ). Furthermore, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) also significantly recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in SMG through the F-actin-TAZ pathway. Taken together, we propose that the depolymerized actin cytoskeleton inhibits osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through impeding nuclear aggregation of TAZ, which provides a novel connection between F-actin cytoskeleton and osteogenesis of BMSCs and has important implications in bone loss caused by microgravity. PMID:27444891

  7. Experimental and computational assessment of F-actin influence in regulating cellular stiffness and relaxation behaviour of fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallqvist, Björn; Fielden, Matthew L; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Nordgren, Niklas; Kroon, Martin; Gad, Annica K B

    2016-06-01

    In biomechanics, a complete understanding of the structures and mechanisms that regulate cellular stiffness at a molecular level remain elusive. In this paper, we have elucidated the role of filamentous actin (F-actin) in regulating elastic and viscous properties of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Specifically, we performed colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) on BjhTERT fibroblast cells incubated with Latrunculin B (LatB), which results in depolymerisation of F-actin, or DMSO control. We found that the treatment with LatB not only reduced cellular stiffness, but also greatly increased the relaxation rate for the cytoplasm in the peripheral region and in the vicinity of the nucleus. We thus conclude that F-actin is a major determinant in not only providing elastic stiffness to the cell, but also in regulating its viscous behaviour. To further investigate the interdependence of different cytoskeletal networks and cell shape, we provided a computational model in a finite element framework. The computational model is based on a split strain energy function of separate cellular constituents, here assumed to be cytoskeletal components, for which a composite strain energy function was defined. We found a significant influence of cell geometry on the predicted mechanical response. Importantly, the relaxation behaviour of the cell can be characterised by a material model with two time constants that have previously been found to predict mechanical behaviour of actin and intermediate filament networks. By merely tuning two effective stiffness parameters, the model predicts experimental results in cells with a partly depolymerised actin cytoskeleton as well as in untreated control. This indicates that actin and intermediate filament networks are instrumental in providing elastic stiffness in response to applied forces, as well as governing the relaxation behaviour over shorter and longer time-scales, respectively. PMID:26766328

  8. Study of the influence of actin-binding proteins using linear analyses of cell deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Gustavo R; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Mirzaei, Zahra; Simmons, Craig A

    2015-07-21

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the deformability of the cell and in mechanosensing. Here we analyze the contributions of three major actin cross-linking proteins, myosin II, α-actinin and filamin, to cell deformability, by using micropipette aspiration of Dictyostelium cells. We examine the applicability of three simple mechanical models: for small deformation, linear viscoelasticity and drop of liquid with a tense cortex; and for large deformation, a Newtonian viscous fluid. For these models, we have derived linearized equations and we provide a novel, straightforward methodology to analyze the experiments. This methodology allowed us to differentiate the effects of the cross-linking proteins in the different regimes of deformation. Our results confirm some previous observations and suggest important relations between the molecular characteristics of the actin-binding proteins and the cell behavior: the effect of myosin is explained in terms of the relation between the lifetime of the bond to actin and the resistive force; the presence of α-actinin obstructs the deformation of the cytoskeleton, presumably mainly due to the higher molecular stiffness and to the lower dissociation rate constants; and filamin contributes critically to the global connectivity of the network, possibly by rapidly turning over cross-links during the remodeling of the cytoskeletal network, thanks to the higher rate constants, flexibility and larger size. The results suggest a sophisticated relationship between the expression levels of actin-binding proteins, deformability and mechanosensing. PMID:26059185

  9. Actin marker lines in grapevine reveal a gatekeeper function of guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Buchholz, Günther; Nick, Peter

    2014-08-15

    Resistance to abiotic and biotic stress is a central topic for sustainable agriculture, especially in grapevine, one of the field crops with the highest economic output per acreage. As early cellular factors for plant defense, actin microfilaments (AF) are of high relevance. We therefore generated a transgenic actin marker line for grapevine by expressing a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein and the second actin-binding domain of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin, AtFIM1. Based on this first cytoskeletal-marker line in grapevine, the response of AFs to phytopathogenic microorganisms could be followed in vivo. Upon inoculation with fluorescently labeled strains of phytopathogenic bacteria, actin responses were confined to the guard cells. In contrast, upon contact with zoospores of Plasmopara viticola, not only the guard cells, but also epidermal pavement cells, where no zoospores had attached responded with the formation of a perinuclear actin basket. Our data support the hypothesis that guard cells act as pacemakers of defense, dominating the responses of the remaining epidermal cells. PMID:24973589

  10. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting 35S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with 3H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval

  11. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Appakkudal R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slit2 is a ~ 200 kDa secreted glycoprotein that has been recently shown to regulate immune functions. However, not much is known about its role in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. Results In the present study, we have shown that the N-terminal fragment of Slit2 (Slit2N (~120 kDa inhibits replication of both CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses in T-cell lines and peripheral blood T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T-cells. In addition, we showed that Slit2N blocks cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking viral entry into T-cells. We also ruled out Slit2N-mediated inhibition of various other steps in the life cycle including binding, integration and viral transcription. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism revealed that Slit2N mediates its functional effects by binding to Robo1 receptor. Furthermore, we found that Slit2N inhibited Gp120-induced Robo1-actin association suggesting that Slit2N may inhibit cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating HIV-1 entry. Studies into the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 revealed that Slit2N abrogated HIV-1 envelope-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics in both T-cell lines and primary T-cells. We further showed that Slit2N specifically attenuated the HIV-1 envelope-induced signaling pathway consisting of Rac1, LIMK and cofilin that regulates actin polymerization. Conclusions Taken together, our results show that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 replication through novel mechanisms involving modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells.

  12. Progresses in studies of nuclear actin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaojuan; ZENG Xianlu; SONG Zhaoxia; HAO Shui

    2004-01-01

    Actin is a protein abundant in cells. Recently, it has been proved to be universally existent in the nuclei of many cell types. Actin and actin-binding proteins, as well as actin-related proteins, are necessary for the mediation of the conformation and function of nuclear actin, including the transformation of actin between unpolymerized and polymerized, chroinatin remodeling, regulation of gene expression and RNA processing as well as RNA transportation. In this paper, we summarized the progresses in the research of nu clear actin.

  13. Estradiol influences the mechanical properties of human fetal osteoblasts through cytoskeletal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, Padmalosini [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Chwee Teck [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Taeyong, E-mail: bielt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were quantified using AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol causes significant decrease in the stiffness of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased stiffness was caused by decreased density of f-actin network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stiffness changes were not associated with mineralized matrix of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol increases inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts. -- Abstract: Estrogen is known to have a direct effect on bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. The cellular and molecular effects of estrogen on osteoblasts and osteoblasts-like cells have been extensively studied. However, the effect of estrogen on the mechanical property of osteoblasts has not been studied yet. It is important since mechanical property of the mechanosensory osteoblasts could be pivotal to its functionality in bone remodeling. This is the first study aimed to assess the direct effect of estradiol on the apparent elastic modulus (E{sup Asterisk-Operator }) and corresponding cytoskeletal changes of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19). The cells were cultured in either medium alone or medium supplemented with {beta}-estradiol and then subjected to Atomic Force Microscopy indentation (AFM) to determine E{sup Asterisk-Operator }. The underlying changes in cytoskeleton were studied by staining the cells with TRITC-Phalloidin. Following estradiol treatment, the cells were also tested for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. With estradiol treatment, E{sup Asterisk-Operator} of osteoblasts significantly decreased by 43-46%. The confocal images showed that the changes in f-actin network observed in estradiol treated cells can give rise to the changes in the stiffness of the cells. Estradiol also increases the inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells. Estradiol induced stiffness

  14. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesi...

  15. Mimicking the mechanical properties of the cell cortex by the self-assembly of an actin cortex in vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tianzhi; Srivastava, Vasudha; Ren, Yixin; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2014-04-01

    The composite of the actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane plays important roles in many biological events. Here, we employed the emulsion method to synthesize artificial cells with biomimetic actin cortex in vesicles and characterized their mechanical properties. We demonstrated that the emulsion method provides the flexibility to adjust the lipid composition and protein concentrations in artificial cells to achieve the desired size distribution, internal microstructure, and mechanical properties. Moreover, comparison of the cortical elasticity measured for reconstituted artificial cells to that of real cells, including those manipulated using genetic depletion and pharmacological inhibition, strongly supports that actin cytoskeletal proteins are dominant over lipid molecules in cortical mechanics. Our study indicates that the assembly of biological systems in artificial cells with purified cellular components provides a powerful way to answer biological questions.

  16. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  17. A Potential Yeast Actin Allosteric Conduit Dependent on Hydrophobic Core Residues Val-76 and Trp-79*

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Stokasimov, Ema; Fields, Jonathon; Rubenstein, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Intramolecular allosteric interactions responsible for actin conformational regulation are largely unknown. Previous work demonstrated that replacing yeast actin Val-76 with muscle actin Ile caused decreased nucleotide exchange. Residue 76 abuts Trp-79 in a six-residue linear array beginning with Lys-118 on the surface and ending with His-73 in the nucleotide cleft. To test if altering the degree of packing of these two residues would affect actin dynamics, we constructed V76I, W79F, and W79Y...

  18. The pathogen-actin connection: A platform for defense signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, B; Henty, Jessica L; Porter, K J; Staiger, Chris J

    2011-09-08

    The cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of cytoplasmic polymers, plays a central role in numerous fundamental processes, such as development, reproduction, and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As a platform for innate immune responses in mammalian cells, the actin cytoskeleton is a central component in the organization and activation of host defenses, including signaling and cellular repair. In plants, our understanding of the genetic and biochemical responses in both pathogen and host that are required for virulence and resistance has grown enormously. Additional advances in live-cell imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics have markedly altered our view of actin turnover in plants. In this review, we outline current knowledge of host resistance following pathogen perception, both in terms of the genetic interactions that mediate defense signaling, as well as the biochemical and cellular processes that are required for defense signaling.

  19. When fat is not bad: the regulation of actin dynamics by phospholipid signaling molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman ePleskot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the plant morphogenesis and is involved in polar cell growth, movement of subcellular organelles, cell division, and plant defense. Organization of actin cytoskeleton undergoes dynamic remodeling in response to internal developmental cues and diverse environmental signals. This dynamic behavior is regulated by numerous actin-binding proteins that integrate various signaling pathways. Production of the signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidic acid affects the activity and subcellular distribution of several actin-binding proteins, and typically correlates with increased actin polymerization. Here we review current knowledge of the inter-regulatory dynamics between signaling phospholipids and the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells.

  20. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%). PMID:26049089

  1. Regulation of water flow by actin-binding protein-induced actin gelatin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, T.; Suzuki, A.; Stossel, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    Actin filaments inhibit osmotically driven water flow (Ito, T., K.S. Zaner, and T.P. Stossel. 1987. Biophys. J. 51: 745-753). Here we show that the actin gelation protein, actin-binding protein (ABP), impedes both osmotic shrinkage and swelling of an actin filament solution and reduces markedly the concentration of actin filaments required for this inhibition. These effects depend on actin filament immobilization, because the ABP concentration that causes initial impairment of water flow by a...

  2. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications.

  3. Coupling of the hydration water dynamics and the internal dynamics of actin detected by quasielastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Quasielastic neutron scattering spectra of F-actin and G-actin were measured. ► Analysis of the samples in D2O and H2O provided the spectra of hydration water. ► The first layer hydration water around F-actin is less mobile than around G-actin. ► This difference in hydration water is in concert with the internal dynamics of actin. ► Water outside the first layer behaves bulk-like but influenced by the first layer. -- Abstract: In order to characterize dynamics of water molecules around F-actin and G-actin, quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on powder samples of F-actin and G-actin, hydrated either with D2O or H2O, at hydration ratios of 0.4 and 1.0. By combined analysis of the quasielastic neutron scattering spectra, the parameter values characterizing the dynamics of the water molecules in the first hydration layer and those of the water molecules outside of the first layer were obtained. The translational diffusion coefficients (DT) of the hydration water in the first layer were found to be 1.2 × 10−5 cm2/s and 1.7 × 10−5 cm2/s for F-actin and G-actin, respectively, while that for bulk water was 2.8 × 10−5 cm2/s. The residence times were 6.6 ps and 5.0 ps for F-actin and G-actin, respectively, while that for bulk water was 0.62 ps. These differences between F-actin and G-actin, indicating that the hydration water around G-actin is more mobile than that around F-actin, are in concert with the results of the internal dynamics of F-actin and G-actin, showing that G-actin fluctuates more rapidly than F-actin. This implies that the dynamics of the hydration water is coupled to the internal dynamics of the actin molecules. The DT values of the water molecules outside of the first hydration layer were found to be similar to that of bulk water though the residence times are strongly affected by the first hydration layer. This supports the recent observation on intracellular water that shows bulk-like behavior

  4. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  5. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O.; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N.; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca2+ influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca2+-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension. PMID:27510430

  6. Detection of cytoskeletal proteins in small cell lung carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložánková, M.; Lukáš, Z.; Viklický, Vladimír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (1999), s. 47-49. ISSN 0231-5882 Grant ostatní: MŠk1(CZ) OE10a/EU1450 Keywords : cytoskeletal proteins * small cell lung carcinoma Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 1999

  7. Artificial cytoskeletal structures within enzymatically active bio-inorganic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinash Krishna; Li, Mei; Olof, Sam N; Patil, Avinash J; Mann, Stephen

    2013-02-11

    The fabrication of enzymatically active, semi-permeable bio-inorganic protocells capable of self-assembling a cytoskeletal-like interior and undergoing small-molecule dephosphorylation reactions is described. Reversible disassembly of an amino acid-derived supramolecular hydrogel within the internalized reaction space is used to tune the enzymatic activity of the nanoparticle-bounded inorganic compartments. PMID:23027575

  8. Actin-associated protein palladin promotes tumor cell invasion by linking extracellular matrix degradation to cell cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Gucciardo, Erika; Lohi, Jouko; Li, Rui; Sugiyama, Nami; Carpen, Olli; Lehti, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast carcinomas, characterized by unfavorable prognosis and frequent metastases, are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. During this process, cancer cells undergo cytoskeletal reorganization and up-regulate membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), which functions in actin-based pseudopods to drive invasion by extracellular matrix degradation. However, the mechanisms that couple matrix proteolysis to the actin cytoskeleton in cell invasion have remained unclear. On the basis of a yeast two-hybrid screen for the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail-binding proteins, we identify here a novel Src-regulated protein interaction between the dynamic cytoskeletal scaffold protein palladin and MT1-MMP. These proteins were coexpressed in invasive human basal-like breast carcinomas and corresponding cell lines, where they were associated in the same matrix contacting and degrading membrane complexes. The silencing and overexpression of the 90-kDa palladin isoform revealed the functional importance of the interaction with MT1-MMP in pericellular matrix degradation and mesenchymal tumor cell invasion, whereas in MT1-MMP–negative cells, palladin overexpression was insufficient for invasion. Moreover, this invasion was inhibited in a dominant-negative manner by an immunoglobulin domain–containing palladin fragment lacking the dynamic scaffold and Src-binding domains. These results identify a novel protein interaction that links matrix degradation to cytoskeletal dynamics and migration signaling in mesenchymal cell invasion. PMID:24989798

  9. Surface adsorption and hopping cause probe-size-dependent microrheology of actin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Tang, Jay X.

    2011-04-01

    A network of filaments formed primarily by the abundant cytoskeletal protein actin gives animal cells their shape and elasticity. The rheological properties of reconstituted actin networks have been studied by tracking micron-sized probe beads embedded within the networks. We investigate how microrheology depends on surface properties of probe particles by varying the stickiness of their surface. For this purpose, we chose carboxylate polystyrene (PS) beads, silica beads, bovine serum albumin (BSA) -coated PS beads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) -grafted PS beads, which show descending stickiness to actin filaments, characterized by confocal imaging and microrheology. Probe size dependence of microrheology is observed for all four types of beads. For the slippery PEG beads, particle-tracking microrheology detects weaker networks using smaller beads, which tend to diffuse through the network by hopping from one confinement “cage” to another. This trend is reversed for the other three types of beads, for which microrheology measures stiffer networks for smaller beads due to physisorption of nearby filaments to the bead surface. We explain the probe size dependence with two simple models. We also evaluate depletion effect near nonadsorption bead surface using quantitative image analysis and discuss the possible impact of depletion on microrheology. Analysis of these effects is necessary in order to accurately define the actin network rheology both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. CLIC5 Stabilizes Membrane-Actin Filament Linkages at the Base of Hair Cell Stereocilia in a Molecular Complex with Radixin, Taperin, and Myosin VI

    OpenAIRE

    Salles, Felipe T.; Andrade, Leonardo R.; Tanda, Soichi; Grati, M’hamed; Plona, Kathleen L.; Gagnon, Leona H.; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Kachar, Bechara; Berryman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride intracellular channel 5 protein (CLIC5) was originally isolated from microvilli in complex with actin binding proteins including ezrin, a member of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) family of membrane-cytoskeletal linkers. CLIC5 concentrates at the base of hair cell stereocilia and is required for normal hearing and balance in mice, but its functional significance is poorly understood. This study investigated the role of CLIC5 in postnatal development and maintenance of hair bundles. Co...

  11. The neurogenic basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 concomitantly increases mitochondrial mass and regulates cytoskeletal organization in the early stages of neuronal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kathleen Baxter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role during neurogenesis by providing energy in the form of ATP for cytoskeletal remodelling, outgrowth of neuronal processes, growth cone activity and synaptic activity. However, the fundamental question of how differentiating neurons control mitochondrial biogenesis remains vastly unexplored. Since our previous studies have shown that the neurogenic bHLH (basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 is sufficient to induce differentiation of the neuronal progenitor-like PC12 cells and that it triggers expression of mitochondrial-related genes, we investigated whether NeuroD6 could modulate the mitochondrial biomass using our PC12-ND6 cellular paradigm. Using a combination of flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation, we demonstrate that NeuroD6 stimulates maximal mitochondrial mass at the lamellipodia stage, thus preceding axonal growth. NeuroD6 triggers remodelling of the actin and microtubule networks in conjunction with increased expression of the motor protein KIF5B, thus promoting mitochondrial movement in developing neurites with accumulation in growth cones. Maintenance of the NeuroD6-induced mitochondrial mass requires an intact cytoskeletal network, as its disruption severely reduces mitochondrial mass. The present study provides the first evidence that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in co-ordinating increase in mitochondrial mass with cytoskeletal remodelling, suggestive of a role of this transcription factor as a co-regulator of neuronal differentiation and energy metabolism.

  12. Cellular Levels of Signaling Factors Are Sensed by β-actin Alleles to Modulate Transcriptional Pulse Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kalo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional response of β-actin to extra-cellular stimuli is a paradigm for transcription factor complex assembly and regulation. Serum induction leads to a precisely timed pulse of β-actin transcription in the cell population. Actin protein is proposed to be involved in this response, but it is not known whether cellular actin levels affect nuclear β-actin transcription. We perturbed the levels of key signaling factors and examined the effect on the induced transcriptional pulse by following endogenous β-actin alleles in single living cells. Lowering serum response factor (SRF protein levels leads to loss of pulse integrity, whereas reducing actin protein levels reveals positive feedback regulation, resulting in elevated gene activation and a prolonged transcriptional response. Thus, transcriptional pulse fidelity requires regulated amounts of signaling proteins, and perturbations in factor levels eliminate the physiological response, resulting in either tuning down or exaggeration of the transcriptional pulse.

  13. Oxidative stress and alterations in actin cytoskeleton trigger glutathione efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradamante, Silvia; Villa, Alessandro; Versari, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; Orlandi, Ivan; Vai, Marina

    2010-12-01

    A marked deficiency in glutathione (GSH), the most abundant antioxidant in living systems, plays a major role in aging and the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from neurological disorders to early atherosclerosis and the impairment of various immunological functions. In an attempt to shed light on GSH homeostasis, we carried out the space experiment SCORE (Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidative stress response evaluation) during the FOTON-M3 mission. Microgravity and hyperoxic conditions induced an enormous extracellular release of GSH from S. cerevisiae cells (≈40% w/dw), changed the distribution of the buds, and activated the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and cell integrity/PKC pathways, as well as protein carbonylation. The results from the single spaceflight experiment were validated by a complete set of experiments under conditions of simulated microgravity and indicate that cytoskeletal alterations are mainly responsible for the observed effects. The results of ground experiments in which we induced cytoskeletal modifications by means of treatment with dihydrocytochalasin B (DHCB), a potent inhibitor of actin polymerisation, or (R)-(+)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride monohydrate (Y-27632), a selective ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase) inhibitor, confirmed the role of actin in GSH efflux. We also found that the GSH release can be inhibited using the potent chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). PMID:20708643

  14. Regulation of Latent Membrane Protein 1 Signaling through Interaction with Cytoskeletal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Holthusen, Kirsten; Talaty, Pooja; Everly, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces constitutive signaling in EBV-infected cells to ensure the survival of the latently infected cells. LMP1 is localized to lipid raft domains to induce signaling. In the present study, a genome-wide screen based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was performed to identify LMP1-binding proteins. Several actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins were identified in the screen. Overexpression of these proteins affecte...

  15. Induction of membrane ceramides: a novel strategy to interfere with T lymphocyte cytoskeletal reorganisation in viral immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gassert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Silencing of T cell activation and function is a highly efficient strategy of immunosuppression induced by pathogens. By promoting formation of membrane microdomains essential for clustering of receptors and signalling platforms in the plasma membrane, ceramides accumulating as a result of membrane sphingomyelin breakdown are not only essential for assembly of signalling complexes and pathogen entry, but also act as signalling modulators, e. g. by regulating relay of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K signalling. Their role in T lymphocyte functions has not been addressed as yet. We now show that measles virus (MV, which interacts with the surface of T cells and thereby efficiently interferes with stimulated dynamic reorganisation of their actin cytoskeleton, causes ceramide accumulation in human T cells in a neutral (NSM and acid (ASM sphingomyelinase-dependent manner. Ceramides induced by MV, but also bacterial sphingomyelinase, efficiently interfered with formation of membrane protrusions and T cell spreading and front/rear polarisation in response to beta1 integrin ligation or alphaCD3/CD28 activation, and this was rescued upon pharmacological or genetic ablation of ASM/NSM activity. Moreover, membrane ceramide accumulation downmodulated chemokine-induced T cell motility on fibronectin. Altogether, these findings highlight an as yet unrecognised concept of pathogens able to cause membrane ceramide accumulation to target essential processes in T cell activation and function by preventing stimulated actin cytoskeletal dynamics.

  16. Steady-state nuclear actin levels are determined by export competent actin pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, Kari-Pekka; Huet, Guillaume; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies in the last decade have irrevocably promoted actin into a fully fledged member of the nuclear compartment, where it, among other crucial tasks, facilitates transcription and chromatin remodeling. Changes in nuclear actin levels have been linked to different cellular processes: decreased nuclear actin to quiescence and increased nuclear actin to differentiation. Importin 9 and exportin 6 transport factors are responsible for the continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of actin, but the mechanisms, which result in modulated actin levels, have not been characterized. We find that in cells growing under normal growth conditions, the levels of nuclear actin vary considerably from cell to cell. To understand the basis for this, we have extensively quantified several cellular parameters while at the same time recording the import and export rates of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged actin. Surprisingly, our dataset shows that the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic fluorescence intensity, but not nuclear shape, size, cytoplasm size, or their ratio, correlates negatively with both import and export rate of actin. This suggests that high-nuclear actin content is maintained by both diminished import and export. The high nuclear actin containing cells still show high mobility of actin, but it is not export competent, suggesting increased binding of actin to nuclear complexes. Creation of such export incompetent actin pool would ensure enough actin is retained in the nucleus and make it available for the various nuclear functions described for actin. PMID:23749625

  17. Association of thrombospondin-1 with the actin cytoskeleton of human thrombin-activated platelets through an alphaIIbbeta3- or CD36-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumet, Anne; Jesus, Nando de; Legrand, Chantal; Dubernard, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an adhesive glycoprotein which, when secreted from alpha-granules of activated platelets, can bind to the cell surface and participate in platelet aggregate formation. In this study, we show that thrombin activation leads to the rapid and specific association of a large amount of secreted alpha-granular TSP-1 with the actin cytoskeleton. This cytoskeletal association of TSP-1 was correlated with platelet secretion, but not aggregation, and was inhibited by cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Association of TSP-1 with the actin cytoskeleton was mediated by membrane receptors, as shown by using MAII, a TSP-1-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibited both TSP-1 surface binding to activated platelets and cytoskeletal association. TSP-1 and its potential membrane receptors, e.g. alphaIIbbeta3 integrin, CD36 and CD47, concomitantly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. However, studies on platelets from a patient with type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia lacking alphaIIbbeta3 and another with barely detectable CD36 showed normal TSP-1 surface expression and association with the actin cytoskeleton. Likewise, no involvement of CD47 in TSP-1 association with the actin cytoskeleton could be inferred from experiments with control platelets using the function-blocking anti-CD47 antibody B6H12. Finally, assembly of signalling complexes, as observed through translocation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and kinases to the actin cytoskeleton, was found to occur in concert with cytoskeletal association of TSP-1, in control platelets as well as in thrombasthenic and CD36-deficient platelets. Our results imply a role for the actin cytoskeleton in the membrane-surface expression process of TSP-1 molecules and suggest a possible coupling of TSP-1 receptors to signalling events occurring independently of alphaIIbbeta3 or CD36. These results provide new insights into the link between surface-bound TSP-1 and the contractile actin

  18. Intracellular transport driven by cytoskeletal motors: General mechanisms and defects

    CERN Document Server

    Appert-Rolland, Cecile; Santen, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Cells are strongly out-of-equilibrium systems driven by continuous energy supply. They carry out many vital functions requiring active transport of various ingredients and organelles, some being small, others being large. The cytoskeleton, composed of three types of filaments, determines the shape of the cell and plays a role in cell motion. It also serves as a road network for the so-called cytoskeletal motors. These molecules can attach to a cytoskeletal filament, perform directed motion, possibly carrying along some cargo, and then detach. It is a central issue to understand how intracellular transport driven by molecular motors is regulated, in particular because its breakdown is one of the signatures of some neuronal diseases like the Alzheimer. We give a survey of the current knowledge on microtubule based intracellular transport. We first review some biological facts obtained from experiments, and present some modeling attempts based on cellular automata. We start with background knowledge on the origi...

  19. Visualization of Cytoskeletal Elements by the Atomic Force Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Berdyyeva, T; Sokolov, I

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize cytoskeletal fibers in human foreskin epithelial cells. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in a low concentration was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized in either liquid or air-dried ambient conditions. These two types of scanning provide complimentary information. Scanning in liquid visualizes the surface filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas scanning in air shows both the surface filaments and the total "volume" of the cytoskeletal fibers. The smallest fibers observed were ca. 50 nm in diameter. The lateral resolution of this technique was ca.20 nm, which can be increased to a single nanometer level by choosing sharper AFM tips. Because the AFM is a true three dimensional technique, we are able to quantify the observed cytoskeleton by its density and volume. The types of fibers can be identified by their size, similar to...

  20. Actin filaments at the leading edge of cancer cells are characterized by a high mobile fraction and turnover regulation by profilin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Lorente

    Full Text Available Cellular motility is the basis for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In the case of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women, metastasis represents the most devastating stage of the disease. The central role of cellular motility in cancer development emphasizes the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process. In this context, tumor development and metastasis would be the consequence of a loss or defect of the mechanisms that control cytoskeletal remodeling. Profilin I belongs to a family of small actin binding proteins that are thought to assist in actin filament elongation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Traditionally, Profilin I has been considered to be an essential control element for actin polymerization and cell migration. Expression of Profilin I is down-regulated in breast and various other cancer cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a breast cancer cell line, further inhibition of Profilin I expression promotes hypermotility and metastatic spread, a finding that contrasts with the proposed role of Profilin in enhancing polymerization. In this report, we have taken advantage of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP of GFP-actin to quantify and compare actin dynamics at the leading edge level in both cancer and non-cancer cell models. Our results suggest that (i a high level of actin dynamics (i.e., a large mobile fraction of actin filaments and a fast turnover is a common characteristic of some cancer cells; (ii actin polymerization shows a high degree of independence from the presence of extracellular growth factors; and (iii our results also corroborate the role of Profilin I in regulating actin polymerization, as raising the intracellular levels of Profilin I decreased the mobile fraction ratio of actin filaments and slowed their polymerization rate; furthermore, increased Profilin levels also led to reduced individual cell velocity and directionality.

  1. Dynamical organization of the cytoskeletal cortex probed by micropipette aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Brugués, Jan; Maugis, Benoit; Casademunt, Jaume; Nassoy, Pierre; Amblard, François; Sens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Bleb-based cell motility proceeds by the successive inflation and retraction of large spherical membrane protrusions (“blebs”) coupled with substrate adhesion. In addition to their role in motility, cellular blebs constitute a remarkable illustration of the dynamical interactions between the cytoskeletal cortex and the plasma membrane. Here we study the bleb-based motions of Entamoeba histolytica in the constrained geometry of a micropipette. We construct a generic theoretical model that comb...

  2. Cytoskeletal disease: a role in the etiology of adult periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binderman, I; Gadban, N; Yaffe, A

    2014-01-01

    All cells and organisms across the evolutionary spectrum, from the most primitive to the most complex, are mechanosensitive. As the cytoskeleton is a key in controlling the normal basal prestress of cells and therefore is involved in virtually all physiological cellular processes, abnormalities in this essential cellular characteristic may result in diseases. Indeed, many diseases have now been associated with abnormalities in cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal proteins. We propose that adult periodontitis is, at least in part, such a cytoskeletal disease. It is well established that adult periodontitis starts by bacterial invasion at the interface between the tooth surface and marginal gingiva that induces a local inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells release metalloproteinases which degrade gingival collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of local tissue integrity that reduces the normal prestressed cell-extracellular matrix network. This is a major signaling trigger that induces a local and rapid release of ATP, which then activates P2X receptors and stimulates a calcium influx, further activating osteoclastic resorption of the alveolar bone. As periodontitis is a chronic disease, it seems reasonable to suggest that agents that maintain cytoskeletal tensegrity, for example, inhibitors of ATP receptors, may diminish the bone loss and may have a role in future periodontal therapy. PMID:23679579

  3. Differential effects of LifeAct-GFP and actin-GFP on cell mechanics assessed using micropipette aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Stephen D Thorpe; Wang, Zhao; Thompson, Clare L.; Gavara, Nuria; Knight, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic structure involved in many fundamental cellular processes including the control of cell morphology, migration and biomechanics. Recently LifeAct-GFP (green fluorescent protein) has been proposed for visualising actin structure and dynamics in live cells as an alternative to actin-GFP which has been shown to affect cell mechanics. Here we compare the two approaches in terms of their effect on cellular mechanical behaviour. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hM...

  4. Actinic Keratoses: A Comprehensive Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Sherrif F.; Brown, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Actinic keratoses are common intra-epidermal neoplasms that lie on a continuum with squamous cell carcinoma. Tightly linked to ultraviolet irradiation, they occur in areas of chronic sun exposure, and early treatment of these lesions may prevent their progression to invasive disease. A large variety of effective treatment modalities exist, and the optimal therapeutic choice is dependent on a variety of patient- and physician-associated variables. Many established and more recent approaches ar...

  5. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced actin glutathionylation controls actin dynamics in neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Jiro; Li, Jingyu; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Mondal, Subhanjan; Bajrami, Besnik; Hattori, Hidenori; Jia, Yonghui; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Zhong, Jia; Ye, Keqiang; Chang, Christopher J; Ho, Ye-Shih; Zhou, Jun; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The regulation of actin dynamics is pivotal for cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis, and thus is crucial for neutrophils to fulfill their roles in innate immunity. Many factors have been implicated in signal-induced actin polymerization, however the essential nature of the potential negative modulators are still poorly understood. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-dependent physiologically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) negatively regulate actin polymerization in stimulated neutrophils via driving reversible actin glutathionylation. Disruption of glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), an enzyme that catalyzes actin deglutathionylation, increased actin glutathionylation, attenuated actin polymerization, and consequently impaired neutrophil polarization, chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Consistently, Grx1-deficient murine neutrophils showed impaired in vivo recruitment to sites of inflammation and reduced bactericidal capability. Together, these results present a physiological role for glutaredoxin and ROS- induced reversible actin glutathionylation in regulation of actin dynamics in neutrophils. PMID:23159440

  6. Megakaryocytes regulate expression of Pyk2 isoforms and caspase-mediated cleavage of actin in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacena, Melissa A; Eleniste, Pierre P; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Huang, Su; Shivanna, Mahesh; Meijome, Tomas E; Mayo, Lindsey D; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-05-18

    The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast (OB) precursors are essential for elaborating the bone-forming activity of mature OBs. However, the mechanisms regulating OB proliferation and function are largely unknown. We reported that OB proliferation is enhanced by megakaryocytes (MKs) via a process that is regulated in part by integrin signaling. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and survival in a variety of cells. Pyk2 is also activated by integrin signaling and regulates actin remodeling in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the role of Pyk2 and actin in the MK-mediated increase in OB proliferation. Calvarial OBs were cultured in the presence of MKs for various times, and Pyk2 signaling cascades in OBs were examined by Western blotting, subcellular fractionation, and microscopy. We found that MKs regulate the temporal expression of Pyk2 and its subcellular localization. We also found that MKs regulate the expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Pyk2 in OBs, which may regulate OB differentiation and proliferation. MKs also induced cytoskeletal reorganization in OBs, which was associated with the caspase-mediated cleavage of actin, an increase in focal adhesions, and the formation of apical membrane ruffles. Moreover, BrdU incorporation in MK-stimulated OBs was blocked by the actin-polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide. Collectively, our studies reveal that Pyk2 and actin play an important role in MK-regulated signaling cascades that control OB proliferation and may be important for therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing bone formation in metabolic diseases of the skeleton. PMID:22447931

  7. Megakaryocytes Regulate Expression of Pyk2 Isoforms and Caspase-mediated Cleavage of Actin in Osteoblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacena, Melissa A.; Eleniste, Pierre P.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Huang, Su; Shivanna, Mahesh; Meijome, Tomas E.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast (OB) precursors are essential for elaborating the bone-forming activity of mature OBs. However, the mechanisms regulating OB proliferation and function are largely unknown. We reported that OB proliferation is enhanced by megakaryocytes (MKs) via a process that is regulated in part by integrin signaling. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and survival in a variety of cells. Pyk2 is also activated by integrin signaling and regulates actin remodeling in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the role of Pyk2 and actin in the MK-mediated increase in OB proliferation. Calvarial OBs were cultured in the presence of MKs for various times, and Pyk2 signaling cascades in OBs were examined by Western blotting, subcellular fractionation, and microscopy. We found that MKs regulate the temporal expression of Pyk2 and its subcellular localization. We also found that MKs regulate the expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Pyk2 in OBs, which may regulate OB differentiation and proliferation. MKs also induced cytoskeletal reorganization in OBs, which was associated with the caspase-mediated cleavage of actin, an increase in focal adhesions, and the formation of apical membrane ruffles. Moreover, BrdU incorporation in MK-stimulated OBs was blocked by the actin-polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide. Collectively, our studies reveal that Pyk2 and actin play an important role in MK-regulated signaling cascades that control OB proliferation and may be important for therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing bone formation in metabolic diseases of the skeleton. PMID:22447931

  8. Hierarchical self-organization of cytoskeletal active networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Daniel; Keasar, Chen; Farago, Oded

    2012-01-01

    The structural reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is facilitated through the action of motor proteins that crosslink the actin filaments and transport them relative to each other. Here, we present a combined experimental-computational study that probes the dynamic evolution of mixtures of actin filaments and clusters of myosin motors. While on small spatial and temporal scales the system behaves in a very noisy manner, on larger scales it evolves into several well distinct patterns such as bundles, asters, and networks. These patterns are characterized by junctions with high connectivity, whose formation is possible due to the organization of the motors in "oligoclusters" (intermediate-size aggregates). The simulations reveal that the self-organization process proceeds through a series of hierarchical steps, starting from local microscopic moves and ranging up to the macroscopic large scales where the steady-state structures are formed. Our results shed light into the mechanisms involved in processes li...

  9. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  10. Mesoscopic model of actin-based propulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available Two theoretical models dominate current understanding of actin-based propulsion: microscopic polymerization ratchet model predicts that growing and writhing actin filaments generate forces and movements, while macroscopic elastic propulsion model suggests that deformation and stress of growing actin gel are responsible for the propulsion. We examine both experimentally and computationally the 2D movement of ellipsoidal beads propelled by actin tails and show that neither of the two models can explain the observed bistability of the orientation of the beads. To explain the data, we develop a 2D hybrid mesoscopic model by reconciling these two models such that individual actin filaments undergoing nucleation, elongation, attachment, detachment and capping are embedded into the boundary of a node-spring viscoelastic network representing the macroscopic actin gel. Stochastic simulations of this 'in silico' actin network show that the combined effects of the macroscopic elastic deformation and microscopic ratchets can explain the observed bistable orientation of the actin-propelled ellipsoidal beads. To test the theory further, we analyze observed distribution of the curvatures of the trajectories and show that the hybrid model's predictions fit the data. Finally, we demonstrate that the model can explain both concave-up and concave-down force-velocity relations for growing actin networks depending on the characteristic time scale and network recoil. To summarize, we propose that both microscopic polymerization ratchets and macroscopic stresses of the deformable actin network are responsible for the force and movement generation.

  11. Engagement of CD81 induces ezrin tyrosine phosphorylation and its cellular redistribution with filamentous actin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Greg P.; Rajapaksa, Ranjani; Liu, Raymond; Sharpe, Orr; Kuo, Chiung-Chi; Wald Krauss, Sharon; Sagi, Yael; Davis, R. Eric; Staudt, Louis M.; Sharman, Jeff P.; Robinson, William H.; Levy, Shoshana

    2009-06-09

    CD81 is a tetraspanin family member involved in diverse cellular interactions in the immune and nervous systems and in cell fusion events. However, the mechanism of action of CD81 and of other tetraspanins has not been defined. We reasoned that identifying signaling molecules downstream of CD81 would provide mechanistic clues. We engaged CD81 on the surface of Blymphocytes and identified the induced tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins by mass spectrometry. This analysis showed that the most prominent tyrosine phosphorylated protein was ezrin, an actin binding protein and a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family. We also found that CD81 engagement induces spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and that Syk was involved in tyrosine phosphorylation of ezrin. Ezrin colocalized with CD81 and F-actin upon stimulation and this association was disrupted when Syk activation was blocked. Taken together, these studies suggest a model in which CD81 interfaces between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton by activating Syk, mobilizing ezrin, and recruiting F-actin to facilitate cytoskeletal reorganization and cell signaling. This may be a mechanism explaining the pleiotropic effects induced in response to stimulating cells by anti-CD81 antibodies or by the hepatitis C virus, which uses this molecule as its key receptor.

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H. [de Duve Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Horman, Sandrine, E-mail: sandrine.horman@uclouvain.be [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research - Pole of Cardiovascular Research, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-{beta}(CaMKK{beta}), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKK{beta} inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  13. The Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil up-regulates astrocytic glutamate transport subsequent to actin remodelling in murine cultured astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cl; O'Shea, Rd; Bischof, L;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Glutamate transporters play a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis and the astrocytic transporters, EAAT1 and EAAT2, are functionally dominant. Astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play important roles in various neuropathologies wherein astrocytes...... undergo cytoskeletal changes. Astrocytic plasticity is well documented, but the interface between EAAT function, actin and the astrocytic cytoskeleton is poorly understood. Because Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key determinant of actin polymerization, we investigated the effects of ROCK inhibitors on EAAT...... activity and astrocytic morphology. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The functional activity of glutamate transport was determined in murine cultured astrocytes after exposure to the ROCK inhibitors Fasudil (HA-1077) and Y27632 using biochemical, molecular and morphological approaches. Cytochemical analyses assessed...

  14. Evaluation of actinic cheilitis using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Takahama, Ademar; Souza Azevedo, Rebeca; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant disorder that mostly affects the vermilion border of the lower lip and can lead to squamous cell carcinoma. Because of its heterogeneous clinical aspect, it is difficult to indicate representative biopsy area. Late diagnosis is a limiting factor of therapeutic possibilities available to treat oral cancer. The diagnosis of actinic cheilitis is mainly based on clinical and histopathological analysis and it is a time consuming procedure to get the results. Information about the organization and chemical composition of the tissues can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy techniques without the need for biopsy. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and allow a quick and non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries and to help clinicians with the early diagnosis of actinic cheilitis. This study aims to evaluate the fluorescence lifetime parameters at the discrimination of three degrees of epithelial dysplasia, the most important predictor of malignant development, described in up to 100% of actinic cheilitis cases.

  15. Cytoskeletal mechanics in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, H.; Wang, N.; Narishige, T.; Ingber, D. E.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the cellular contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy results not from an abnormality intrinsic to the myofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton but rather from an increased density of the microtubule component of the extramyofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton. To determine how, in physical terms, this increased microtubule density mechanically overloads the contractile apparatus at the cellular level, we measured cytoskeletal stiffness and apparent viscosity in isolated cardiocytes via magnetic twisting cytometry, a technique by which magnetically induced force is applied directly to the cytoskeleton through integrin-coupled ferromagnetic beads coated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Measurements were made in two groups of cardiocytes from cats with right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding: (1) those from the pressure-overloaded RV and (2) those from the normally loaded same-animal control left ventricle (LV). Cytoskeletal stiffness increased almost twofold, from 8.53 +/- 0.77 dyne/cm2 in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 16.46 +/- 1.32 dyne/cm2 in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Cytoskeletal apparent viscosity increased almost fourfold, from 20.97 +/- 1.92 poise in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 87.85 +/- 6.95 poise in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. In addition to these baseline data showing differing stiffness and, especially, apparent viscosity in the two groups of cardiocytes, microtubule depolymerization by colchicine was found to return both the stiffness and the apparent viscosity of the pressure overload-hypertrophied RV cells fully to normal. Conversely, microtubule hyperpolymerization by taxol increased the stiffness and apparent viscosity values of normally loaded LV cardiocytes to the abnormal values given above for pressure-hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Thus, increased microtubule density constitutes primarily a viscous load on

  16. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  17. Insight into the assembly properties and functional organisation of the magnetotactic bacterial actin-like homolog, MamK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Sonkaria

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB synthesize magnetosomes, which are intracellular vesicles comprising a magnetic particle. A series of magnetosomes arrange themselves in chains to form a magnetic dipole that enables the cell to orient itself along the Earth's magnetic field. MamK, an actin-like homolog of MreB has been identified as a central component in this organisation. Gene deletion, fluorescence microscopy and in vitro studies have yielded mechanistic differences in the filament assembly of MamK with other bacterial cytoskeletal proteins within the cell. With little or no information on the structural and behavioural characteristics of MamK outside the cell, the mamK gene from Magnetospirillium gryphiswaldense was cloned and expressed to better understand the differences in the cytoskeletal properties with its bacterial homologues MreB and acitin. Despite the low sequence identity shared between MamK and MreB (22% and actin (18%, the behaviour of MamK monitored by light scattering broadly mirrored that of its bacterial cousin MreB primarily in terms of its pH, salt, divalent metal-ion and temperature dependency. The broad size variability of MamK filaments revealed by light scattering studies was supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM imaging. Filament morphology however, indicated that MamK conformed to linearly orientated filaments that appeared to be distinctly dissimilar compared to MreB suggesting functional differences between these homologues. The presence of a nucleotide binding domain common to actin-like proteins was demonstrated by its ability to function both as an ATPase and GTPase. Circular dichroism and structural homology modelling showed that MamK adopts a protein fold that is consistent with the 'classical' actin family architecture but with notable structural differences within the smaller domains, the active site region and the overall surface electrostatic potential.

  18. Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harty Ronald N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly co-localized in transfected cells as determined by confocal microscopy. In addition, actin was packaged into budding VP40 VLPs as determined by a functional budding assay and protease protection assay. Co-expression of a membrane-anchored form of Ebola virus GP enhanced the release of both VP40 and actin in VLPs. Lastly, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin-A suggests that actin may play a functional role in budding of VP40/GP VLPs. These data suggest that VP40 may interact with cellular actin, and that actin may play a role in assembly and/or budding of Ebola VLPs.

  19. Architecture and Connectivity Govern Actin Network Contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennomani, Hajer; Letort, Gaëlle; Guérin, Christophe; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Cao, Wenxiang; Nédélec, François; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Actomyosin contractility plays a central role in a wide range of cellular processes, including the establishment of cell polarity, cell migration, tissue integrity, and morphogenesis during development. The contractile response is variable and depends on actomyosin network architecture and biochemical composition. To determine how this coupling regulates actomyosin-driven contraction, we used a micropatterning method that enables the spatial control of actin assembly. We generated a variety of actin templates and measured how defined actin structures respond to myosin-induced forces. We found that the same actin filament crosslinkers either enhance or inhibit the contractility of a network, depending on the organization of actin within the network. Numerical simulations unified the roles of actin filament branching and crosslinking during actomyosin contraction. Specifically, we introduce the concept of "network connectivity" and show that the contractions of distinct actin architectures are described by the same master curve when considering their degree of connectivity. This makes it possible to predict the dynamic response of defined actin structures to transient changes in connectivity. We propose that, depending on the connectivity and the architecture, network contraction is dominated by either sarcomeric-like or buckling mechanisms. More generally, this study reveals how actin network contractility depends on its architecture under a defined set of biochemical conditions. PMID:26898468

  20. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Rajendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States); Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Bin [Jeollanamdo Development Institute for Korean Traditional Medicine, Jangheung gun, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook, E-mail: dbkim@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  1. Gamma-diketone axonopathy: analyses of cytoskeletal motors and highways in CNS myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P; LoPachin, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of alpha- or beta-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45-80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high-molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of gamma-diketone axonopathy. PMID:20554699

  2. γ-Diketone Axonopathy: Analyses of Cytoskeletal Motors and Highways in CNS Myelinated Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; LoPachin, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of α- or β-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45–80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high–molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of γ-diketone axonopathy. PMID:20554699

  3. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  4. Wash interacts with lamin and affects global nuclear organization

    OpenAIRE

    Verboon, Jeffrey M; Rincon-Arano, Hector; Werwie, Timothy R.; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Scalzo, David; Nandakumar, Vivek; Groudine, Mark; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The cytoplasmic functions of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family (WAS) proteins are well established and include roles in cytoskeleton reorganization and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions important for membrane/vesicle trafficking, morphogenesis, immune response and signal transduction. Mis-regulation of these proteins is associated with immune deficiency and metastasis [1-4]. Cytoplasmic WAS proteins act as effectors of Rho family GTPases and polymerize branched actin through the Arp2/3 complex...

  5. Actinic Cheilitis: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Neil Hamilton; Khammissa, Razia; Meyerov, Robin; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2011-01-01

    In actinic cheilitis, the current view is that the keratinocytes have undergone transformation forming a field of epithelium with the potential for neoplastic transformation. Clinical features include diffuse and poorly demarcated atrophic, erosive or keratotic plaques that may affect some parts of, or the entire vermilion border. Fair-complexioned people, those with albinism and people with eversion of the lip are all subject to actinic cheilitis. Prophylactic measures against all forms of s...

  6. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  7. Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Izabela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin dynamics, and without consideration for the subcellular distribution of the perturbed actin cytoskeleton. Results Here, we in addition to toxins use conditional expression of the major actin regulatory protein LIM kinase-1 (LIMK1, and shRNA knock-down of cofilin to modulate the cellular F/G-actin ratio in the Ra2 microglia cell line, and we use Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP in β-actin-YFP-transduced cells to obtain a dynamic measure of actin recovery rates (actin turn-over rates in different F/G-actin states of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data demonstrate that stimulated NADPH oxidase function was severely impaired only at extreme actin recovery rates and F/G-actin ratios, and surprisingly, that any moderate changes of these parameters of the actin cytoskeleton invariably resulted in an increased NADPH oxidase activity. Conclusion moderate actin polymerization and depolymerization both increase the FMLP and PMA-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity of microglia, which is directly correlated with neither actin recovery rate nor F/G- actin ratio. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase functions in an enhanced state of activity in stimulated phagocytes despite widely different states of the actin cytoskeleton.

  8. Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Pedersen, Line Hjortshøj; Byg, Luise;

    2010-01-01

    Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin d...

  9. Force of an actin spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  10. 12S-lipoxygenase protein associates with α-actin fibers in human umbilical artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study sets out to characterize the intracellular localization of the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in angiotensin-II induced signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Immunohistochemical analysis of VSMC in vitro or human umbilical arteries in vivo showed a clear cytoplasmic localization. On immunogold electron microscopy, 12-LO was found primarily associated with cytoplasmic VSMC muscle fibrils. Upon angiotensin-II treatment of cultured VSMC, immunoprecipitated 12-LO was found bound to α-actin, a component of the cytoplasmic myofilaments. 12-LO/α-actin binding was blocked by VSMC pretreatment with the 12-LO inhibitors, baicalien or esculetine and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, the binding of 12-LO to α-actin was not associated with 12-LO serine or tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest a previously unrecognized angiotensin-II dependent protein interaction in VSMC through which 12-LO protein may be trafficked, for yet undiscovered purposes towards the much more abundantly expressed cytoskeletal protein α-actin

  11. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro

  12. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail: hvwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  13. A radioimmunoassay for determination of anti-actin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of spontaneously occurring human anti-actin antibodies and experimentally produced rabbit anti-actin antibodies was investigated in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). Three structurally different in vitro forms of actin, monomeric G-actin, filamentous F-actin and aggregated denatured actin were used as antigens. Human anti-actin antibodies reacted with F- and G-actin but not with aggregated actin, while rabbit anti-actin antibodies gave a strong reaction with all 3 forms of actin indicating differences in antibody specificities. The results of the anti-actin RIA were compared with those obtained by indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) on cryostat sections of rat stomach. The anti-actin RIA discriminated between patients' sera and control sera in most cases, although the indirect IFL test gave more conclusive results. The seemingly low sensitivity of the anti-actin RIA compared with that of indirect IFL test for detection of human anti-actin antibodies is probably due to favourable antigen distribution in tissue, not available in the solid phase. The anti-actin RIA was able to detect anti-actin antibodies in 8 out of 8 immunized rabbits although only two produced antibodies detectable by indirect IFL. The differences in reactivity between the two methods may depend on the presence of aggregated denatured actin in the antigen preparation used for immunization and exposure of the corresponding antigenic determinants of actin on the solid phase. (Auth.)

  14. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  15. The maternal-to-zygotic transition targets actin to promote robustness during morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liuliu; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Lua, Rhonald C; Lichtarge, Olivier; Golding, Ido; Sokac, Anna Marie

    2013-11-01

    Robustness is a property built into biological systems to ensure stereotypical outcomes despite fluctuating inputs from gene dosage, biochemical noise, and the environment. During development, robustness safeguards embryos against structural and functional defects. Yet, our understanding of how robustness is achieved in embryos is limited. While much attention has been paid to the role of gene and signaling networks in promoting robust cell fate determination, little has been done to rigorously assay how mechanical processes like morphogenesis are designed to buffer against variable conditions. Here we show that the cell shape changes that drive morphogenesis can be made robust by mechanisms targeting the actin cytoskeleton. We identified two novel members of the Vinculin/α-Catenin Superfamily that work together to promote robustness during Drosophila cellularization, the dramatic tissue-building event that generates the primary epithelium of the embryo. We find that zygotically-expressed Serendipity-α (Sry-α) and maternally-loaded Spitting Image (Spt) share a redundant, actin-regulating activity during cellularization. Spt alone is sufficient for cellularization at an optimal temperature, but both Spt plus Sry-α are required at high temperature and when actin assembly is compromised by genetic perturbation. Our results offer a clear example of how the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to promote the robustness of early developmental events. Specifically, the Spt and Sry-α collaboration is informative when it comes to genes that show both a maternal and zygotic requirement during a given morphogenetic process. For the cellularization of Drosophilids, Sry-α and its expression profile may represent a genetic adaptive trait with the sole purpose of making this extreme event more reliable. Since all morphogenesis depends on cytoskeletal remodeling, both in embryos and adults, we suggest that robustness-promoting mechanisms aimed at actin could be effective at

  16. Multicolour Multilevel STED nanoscopy of Actin/Spectrin Organization at Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidenstein, Sven C.; D’Este, Elisa; Böhm, Marvin J.; Danzl, Johann G.; Belov, Vladimir N.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2016-05-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy of multiple fluorophores still requires development. Here we present simultaneous three-colour stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy relying on a single STED beam at 620 nm. Toggling the STED beam between two or more power levels (“multilevelSTED”) optimizes resolution and contrast in all colour channels, which are intrinsically co-aligned and well separated. Three-colour recording is demonstrated by imaging the nanoscale cytoskeletal organization in cultured hippocampal neurons. The down to ~35 nm resolution identified periodic actin/betaII spectrin lattices along dendrites and spines; however, at presynaptic and postsynaptic sites, these patterns were found to be absent. Both our multicolour scheme and the 620 nm STED line should be attractive for routine STED microscopy applications.

  17. Cytoskeletal organization and collagen orientation in the fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, L; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Sire, J Y

    1988-09-01

    Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were used to analyze the relationships between the organization of collagen fibrils in elasmoid scales, and the orientation of microtubules and actin microfilaments in the scleroblasts producing this collagenous stroma. Attention was focused on the basal plate of the scales because of the highly ordered three-dimensional arrangement of the collagen fibrils in superimposed plies forming an acellular plywood-like structure. The collagen fibrils are synthesized by the scleroblasts forming a monolayered pseudo-epithelium, the hyposquama, at the lowest surface of the scale. Fully developed scales with a low collagen deposition rate were compared with regenerating scales active in fibrillogenesis. When an ordered array of the collagen fibrils is found, the innermost collagen fibrils are coaligned with microtubules and actin microfilaments. Thus, because of this coalignment, microtubules and actin microfilaments of the hyposquamal scleroblasts are subjected to consecutive alterations during the formation of the plies of the basal plate. The sequence of events when the collagen fibrils change their direction from one ply to the other in the basal plate is deduced from immunofluorescence and phase-contrast-microscopic observations. During the formation of the orthogonal plywood-like structure in the regenerating scales, first microtubules may change their curse with a rotating angle of about 90 degrees; then, actin microfilaments are disorganized and reorganized by interacting mechanically with the microtubules with which they are coaligned. Collagen fibrils are synthesized in a direction that is roughly perpendicular to that of the preceding ply. The unknown signals inducing the change in direction of the cytoskeleton may be transmitted throughout the hyposquama via gap junctions. PMID:3052849

  18. A quantitative analysis of contractility in active cytoskeletal protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, Poul M; Koenderink, Gijsje H; Cuvelier, Damien; Dogic, Zvonimir; Koeleman, Bernard N; Brieher, William M; Field, Christine M; Mahadevan, L; Weitz, David A

    2008-04-15

    Cells actively produce contractile forces for a variety of processes including cytokinesis and motility. Contractility is known to rely on myosin II motors which convert chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into forces on actin filaments. However, the basic physical principles of cell contractility remain poorly understood. We reconstitute contractility in a simplified model system of purified F-actin, muscle myosin II motors, and alpha-actinin cross-linkers. We show that contractility occurs above a threshold motor concentration and within a window of cross-linker concentrations. We also quantify the pore size of the bundled networks and find contractility to occur at a critical distance between the bundles. We propose a simple mechanism of contraction based on myosin filaments pulling neighboring bundles together into an aggregated structure. Observations of this reconstituted system in both bulk and low-dimensional geometries show that the contracting gels pull on and deform their surface with a contractile force of approximately 1 microN, or approximately 100 pN per F-actin bundle. Cytoplasmic extracts contracting in identical environments show a similar behavior and dependence on myosin as the reconstituted system. Our results suggest that cellular contractility can be sensitively regulated by tuning the (local) activity of molecular motors and the cross-linker density and binding affinity. PMID:18192374

  19. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal path

  20. Dynamics of an actin spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

  1. Rac1 at the crossroad of actin dynamics and neuroinflammation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia D'Ambrosi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rac1 is a major player of the Rho family of small GTPases that controls multiple cell signaling pathways, such as the organization of cytoskeleton (including adhesion and motility, cell proliferation, apoptosis and activation of immune cells. In the nervous system, in particular, Rac1 GTPase plays a key regulatory function of both actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics and thus it is central to axonal growth and stability, as well as dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Rac1 is also a crucial regulator of NADPH-dependent membrane oxidase (NOX, a prominent source of ROS, thus having a central role in the inflammatory response and neurotoxicity mediated by microglia cells in the nervous system. As such, alterations in Rac1 activity might well be involved in the processes that give rise to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, a complex syndrome where cytoskeletal disturbances in motor neurons and redox alterations in the inflammatory compartment play pivotal and synergic roles in the final disease outcomes. Here we will discuss the genetic and mechanistic evidence indicating the relevance of Rac1 dysregulation in the pathogenesis of ALS.

  2. Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen Izabela; Pedersen Line H; Byg Luise; Suzuki Kazuhiro; Sumimoto Hideki; Vilhardt Frederik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin dynamics, and without consideration for the subcellular distribution of the perturbed actin cytoskeleton. Results Here, we in addition to toxins use conditional expression of the ma...

  3. Dendritic cell podosome dynamics does not depend on the F-actin regulator SWAP-70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Götz

    Full Text Available In addition to classical adhesion structures like filopodia or focal adhesions, dendritic cells similar to macrophages and osteoclasts assemble highly dynamic F-actin structures called podosomes. They are involved in cellular processes such as extracellular matrix degradation, bone resorption by osteoclasts, and trans-cellular diapedesis of lymphocytes. Besides adhesion and migration, podosomes enable dendritic cells to degrade connective tissue by matrix metalloproteinases. SWAP-70 interacts with RhoGTPases and F-actin and regulates migration of dendritic cells. SWAP-70 deficient osteoclasts are impaired in F-actin-ring formation and bone resorption. In the present study, we demonstrate that SWAP-70 is not required for podosome formation and F-actin turnover in dendritic cells. Furthermore, we found that toll-like receptor 4 ligand induced podosome disassembly and podosome-mediated matrix degradation is not affected by SWAP-70 in dendritic cells. Thus, podosome formation and function in dendritic cells is independent of SWAP-70.

  4. Head-neck domain of Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA2, fused with GFP produces F-actin patterns that coincide with fast organelle streaming in different plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holweg Carola L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoskeletal mechanisms that underlie organelle transport in plants are intimately linked to acto-myosin function. This function is mediated by the attachment of myosin heads to F-actin and the binding of cargo to the tails. Acto-myosin also powers vigorous cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. Class XI myosins exhibit strikingly fast velocities and may have extraordinary roles in cellular motility. Studies of the structural basis of organelle transport have focused on the cargo-binding tails of myosin XI, revealing a close relationship with the transport of peroxisomes, mitochondria, and Golgi-vesicles. Links between myosin heads and F-actin-based motility have been less investigated. To address this function, we performed localization studies using the head-neck domain of AtMYA2, a myosin XI from Arabidopsis. Results We expressed the GFP-fused head-neck domain of MYA2 in epidermal cells of various plant species and found that it associated with F-actin. By comparison to other markers such as fimbrin and talin, we revealed that the myosin-labeled F-actin was of a lower quality and absent from the fine microfilament arrays at the cell cortex. However, it colocalized with cytoplasmic (transvacuolar F-actin in areas coinciding with the tracks of fast organelles. This observation correlates well with the proposed function of myosin XI in organelle trafficking. The fact that organelle streaming was reduced in cells expressing the GFP-MYA2-head6IQ indicated that the functionless motor protein inhibits endogenous myosins. Furthermore, co-expression of the GFP-MYA2-head6IQ with other F-actin markers disrupted its attachment to F-actin. In nuclei, the GFP-myosin associated with short bundles of F-actin. Conclusion The localization of the head of MYA2 in living plant cells, as investigated here for the first time, suggests a close linkage between this myosin XI and cytoplasmic microfilaments that support the rapid streaming of

  5. Towards Experimental Tests of Quantum Effects in Cytoskeletal Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Miller, J H; Nawarathna, D; Skoulakis, E M C; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Kolomenskij, A A; Schüssler, H A; Luduena, R F; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Mershin, Andreas; Sanabria, Hugo; Miller, John H.; Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthna; Skoulakis, Efthimios M.C.; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E.; Kolomenskii, Alexadre A.; Schuessler, Hans A.; Luduena, Richard F.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2005-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly is going to play a significant role in material science and possibly the information technology of the future. Tubulin, microtubules (MTs) and the cytoskeleton are dynamic, self-assembling systems and we asked whether their structure and function contain the clues on how to fabricate biomolecular information processing devices. Here we review our neurobiological studies of transgenic Drosophila that strongly suggest the microtubular cytoskeleton is near the 'front lines' of intracellular information manipulation and storage. We also establish that spectroscopic techniques such as refractometry, surface plasmon resonance sensing and dielectric spectroscopy, coupled with molecular dynamic simulations and (quantum) electrodynamic analytical theory are useful tools in the study of the electrodynamic and possible quantum effects in cytoskeletal proteins. Implicit in our driving question is the possibility that...

  6. Cytoskeletal logic: a model for molecular computation via Boolean operations in microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beltra, R; Hameroff, S R; Dayhoff, J E

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors and dynamic activities within living cells are organized by the cytoskeleton: intracellular networks of interconnected protein polymers which include microtubules (MTs), actin, intermediate filaments, microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) and other protein structures. Cooperative interactions among cytoskeletal protein subunit conformational states have been used to model signal transmission and information processing. In the present work we present a theoretical model for molecular computing in which Boolean logic is implemented in parallel networks of individual MTs interconnected by MAPs. Conformational signals propagate on MTs as in data buses and in the model MAPs are considered as Boolean operators, either as bit-lines (like MTs) where a signal can be transported unchanged between MTs ('BUS-MAP'), or as bit-lines where a Boolean operation is performed in one of the two MAP-MT attachments ('LOGIC-MAP'). Three logic MAPs have been defined ('NOT-MAP, 'AND-MAP', 'XOR-MAP') and used to demonstrate addition, subtraction and other arithmetic operations. Although our choice of Boolean logic is arbitrary, the simulations demonstrate symbolic manipulation in a connectionist system and suggest that MT-MAP networks can perform computation in living cells and are candidates for future molecular computing devices. PMID:8318677

  7. A LIM Domain Protein from Tobacco Involved in Actin-Bundling and Histone Gene Transcription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danièle Moes; Sabrina Gatti; Céline Hoffmann; Monika Dieterle; Flora Moreau; Katrin Neumann; Marc Schumacher

    2013-01-01

    The two LIM domain-containing proteins from plants (LIMs) typically exhibit a dual cytoplasmic-nuclear distribution,suggesting that,in addition to their previously described roles in actin cytoskeleton organization,they participate in nuclear processes.Using a south-western blot-based screen aimed at identifying factors that bind to plant histone gene promoters,we isolated a positive clone containing the tobacco LIM protein WLIM2 (NtWLIM2) cDNA.Using both green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion-and immunology-based strategies,we provide clear evidence that NtWLIM2 localizes to the actin cytoskeleton,the nucleus,and the nucleolus.Interestingly,the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by latrunculin B significantly increases NtWLIM2 nuclear fraction,pinpointing a possible novel cytoskeletal-nuclear crosstalk.Biochemical and electron microscopy experiments reveal the ability of NtWLIM2 to directly bind to actin filaments and to crosslink the latter into thick actin bundles.Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that NtWLIM2 specifically binds to the conserved octameric cis-elements (Oct) of the Arabidopsis histone H4A748 gene promoter and that this binding largely relies on both LIM domains.Importantly,reporter-based experiments conducted in Arabidopsis and tobacco protoplasts confirm the ability of NtWLIM2 to bind to and activate the H4A748 gene promoter in live cells.Expression studies indicate the constitutive presence of NtWLIM2 mRNA and NtWLIM2 protein during tobacco BY-2 cell proliferation and cell cycle progression,suggesting a role of NtWLIM2 in the activation of basal histone gene expression.Interestingly,both live cell and in vitro data support NtWLIM2 di/oligomerization.We propose that NtWLIM2 functions as an actin-stabilizing protein,which,upon cytoskeleton remodeling,shuttles to the nucleus in order to modify gene expression.

  8. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). PMID:24196339

  9. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  10. Syndecan proteoglycan contributions to cytoskeletal organization and contractility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okina, E; Manon-Jensen, T; Whiteford, J R; Couchman, J R

    2009-01-01

    Cells exert tension on the extracellular matrix through specific receptors that link to the actin cytoskeleton. The best characterized are the integrins, which, when activated and clustered, can link to the extracellular matrix at specialized adhesion zones, known as focal contacts or focal...... adhesions. However, other transmembrane receptors can also localize there, including one transmembrane proteoglycan, syndecan-4. This heparan sulfate proteoglycan can also link directly to the cytoskeleton through alpha-actinin, and can signal through protein kinase C. In turn, the pathway leads to RhoA and...

  11. Alix regulates cortical actin and the spatial distribution of endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Alicia; Bache, Kristi G; Brech, Andreas; Stenmark, Harald

    2005-06-15

    Alix/AIP1 is a proline-rich protein that has been implicated in apoptosis, endocytic membrane trafficking and viral budding. To further elucidate the functions of Alix, we used RNA interference to specifically suppress its expression. Depletion of Alix caused a striking redistribution of early endosomes from a peripheral to a perinuclear location. The redistribution of endosomes did not affect transferrin recycling or degradation of endocytosed epidermal growth factor receptors, although the uptake of transferrin was mildly reduced when Alix was downregulated. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy showed that multivesicular endosomes of Alix-depleted cells contained normal amounts of CD63, whereas their levels of lysobisphosphatidic acid were reduced. Alix depletion also caused an accumulation of unusual actin structures that contained clathrin and cortactin, a protein that couples membrane dynamics to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest that Alix functions in the actin-dependent intracellular positioning of endosomes, but that it is not essential for endocytic recycling or for trafficking of membrane proteins between early and late endosomes in non-polarised cells. PMID:15914539

  12. Gamma-Diketone central neuropathy: quantitative analyses of cytoskeletal components in myelinated axons of the rat rubrospinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopachin, Richard M; Jortner, Bernard S; Reid, Maria L; Monir, Alim

    2005-12-01

    Loss of axon caliber is a primary component of gamma-diketone neuropathy [LoPachin RM, DeCaprio AP. gamma-Diketone central neuropathy: axon atrophy and the role of cytoskeletal protein adduction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;199:20-34]. It is possible that this effect is mediated by changes in the density of cytoskeletal components and corresponding spatial relationships. To examine this possibility, morphometric methods were used to quantify the effects of 2,5-hexanedione (HD) intoxication on neurofilament-microtubule densities and nearest neighbor distances in myelinated rubrospinal axons. Rats were exposed to HD at one of two daily dose-rates (175 or 400 mg/kg per day, gavage) until a moderate level of neurotoxicity was achieved (99 or 21 days of intoxication, respectively) as determined by gait analysis and measurements of hindlimb grip strength. Results indicate that, regardless of dose-rate, HD intoxication did not cause changes in axonal neurofilament (NF) density, but did significantly increase microtubule (MT) density. No consistent alterations in interneurofilament or NF-MT distances were detected by ultrastructural morphometric analyses. These data suggest that the axon atrophy induced by HD was not mediated by major disruptions of stationary cytoskeletal organization. Recent biochemical studies of spinal cord from HD intoxicated rats showed that, although the NF protein content in the stationary cytoskeleton (polymer fraction) was not affected, the mobile subunit pool was depleted substantially [LoPachin RM, He D, Reid ML, Opanashuk LA. 2,5-Hexanedione-induced changes in the monomeric neurofilament protein content of rat spinal cord fractions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;198:61-73]. The stability of the polymer fraction during HD intoxication is consistent with the absence of significant ultrastructural modifications noted in the present study. Together, these findings implicate loss of mobile NF proteins as the primary mechanism of axon atrophy. PMID

  13. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced actin glutathionylation controls actin dynamics in neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Jiro; Li, Jingyu; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Mondal, Subhanjan; Bajrami, Besnik; Hattori, Hidenori; Jia, Yonghui; Dickinson, Bryan C; Zhong, Jia; Ye, Keqiang; Chang, Christopher J.; Ho, Ye-Shih; Zhou, Jun; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of actin dynamics is pivotal for cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis, and thus is crucial for neutrophils to fulfill their roles in innate immunity. Many factors have been implicated in signal-induced actin polymerization, however the essential nature of the potential negative modulators are still poorly understood. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-dependent physiologically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) negatively regulate actin poly...

  14. Nuclear actin levels as an important transcriptional switch

    OpenAIRE

    Huet, Guillaume; Skarp, Kari-Pekka; Vartiainen, Maria K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear actin levels have recently been linked to different cellular fates, suggesting that actin could act as a switch between altered transcriptional states. Here we discuss our latest results on the mechanisms by which nuclear actin levels are regulated and their implications to the functional significance of nuclear actin.

  15. Nuclear actin levels as an important transcriptional switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Guillaume; Skarp, Kari-Pekka; Vartiainen, Maria K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear actin levels have recently been linked to different cellular fates, suggesting that actin could act as a switch between altered transcriptional states. Here we discuss our latest results on the mechanisms by which nuclear actin levels are regulated and their implications to the functional significance of nuclear actin. PMID:22771994

  16. Actin expression in trypanosomatids (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ligia Cristina Kalb; Pinho, Rosana Elisa Gonçalves Gonçalves; Lima, Carla Vanessa de Paula; Fragoso, Stênio Perdigão; Soares, Maurilio José

    2013-08-01

    Heteroxenic and monoxenic trypanosomatids were screened for the presence of actin using a mouse polyclonal antibody produced against the entire sequence of the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene, encoding a 41.9 kDa protein. Western blot analysis showed that this antibody reacted with a polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa in the whole-cell lysates of parasites targeting mammals (T. cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major), insects (Angomonas deanei, Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai and Strigomonas culicis) and plants (Phytomonas serpens). A single polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa was detected in the whole-cell lysates of T. cruzi cultured epimastigotes, metacyclic trypomastigotes and amastigotes at similar protein expression levels. Confocal microscopy showed that actin was expressed throughout the cytoplasm of all the tested trypanosomatids. These data demonstrate that actin expression is widespread in trypanosomatids. PMID:23903980

  17. Actin expression in trypanosomatids (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Cristina Kalb Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heteroxenic and monoxenic trypanosomatids were screened for the presence of actin using a mouse polyclonal antibody produced against the entire sequence of the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene, encoding a 41.9 kDa protein. Western blot analysis showed that this antibody reacted with a polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa in the whole-cell lysates of parasites targeting mammals (T. cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major, insects (Angomonas deanei, Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai and Strigomonas culicis and plants (Phytomonas serpens. A single polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa was detected in the whole-cell lysates of T. cruzi cultured epimastigotes, metacyclic trypomastigotes and amastigotes at similar protein expression levels. Confocal microscopy showed that actin was expressed throughout the cytoplasm of all the tested trypanosomatids. These data demonstrate that actin expression is widespread in trypanosomatids.

  18. Actinic review of EUV masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heiko; Ruoff, Johannes; Harnisch, Wolfgang; Kaiser, Winfried

    2010-04-01

    Management of mask defects is a major challenge for the introduction of EUV for HVM production. Once a defect has been detected, its printing impact needs to be predicted. Potentially the defect requires some repair, the success of which needs to be proven. This defect review has to be done with an actinic inspection system that matches the imaging conditions of an EUV scanner. During recent years, several concepts for such an aerial image metrology system (AIMS™) have been proposed. However, until now no commercial solution exists for EUV. Today, advances in EUV optics technology allow envisioning a solution that has been discarded before as unrealistic. We present this concept and its technical cornerstones.While the power requirement for the EUV source is less demanding than for HVM lithography tools, radiance, floor space, and stability are the main criteria for source selection. The requirement to emulate several generations of EUV scanners demands a large flexibility for the ilumination and imaging systems. New critical specifications to the EUV mirrors in the projection microscope can be satisfied using our expertise from lithographic mirrors. In summary, an EUV AIMS™ meeting production requirements seems to be feasible.

  19. A potential yeast actin allosteric conduit dependent on hydrophobic core residues val-76 and trp-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Stokasimov, Ema; Fields, Jonathon; Rubenstein, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    Intramolecular allosteric interactions responsible for actin conformational regulation are largely unknown. Previous work demonstrated that replacing yeast actin Val-76 with muscle actin Ile caused decreased nucleotide exchange. Residue 76 abuts Trp-79 in a six-residue linear array beginning with Lys-118 on the surface and ending with His-73 in the nucleotide cleft. To test if altering the degree of packing of these two residues would affect actin dynamics, we constructed V76I, W79F, and W79Y single mutants as well as the Ile-76/Phe-79 and Ile-76/Tyr-79 double mutants. Tyr or Phe should decrease crowding and increase protein flexibility. Subsequent introduction of Ile should restore packing and dampen changes. All mutants showed decreased growth in liquid medium. W79Y alone was severely osmosensitive and exhibited vacuole abnormalities. Both properties were rescued by Ile-76. Phe-79 or Tyr decreased the thermostability of actin and increased its nucleotide exchange rate. These effects, generally greater for Tyr than for Phe, were reversed by introduction of Ile-76. HD exchange showed that the mutations caused propagated conformational changes to all four subdomains. Based on results from phosphate release and light-scattering assays, single mutations affected polymerization in the order of Ile, Phe, and Tyr from least to most. Introduction of Ile-76 partially rescued the polymerization defects caused by either Tyr-79 or Phe-79. Thus, alterations in crowding of the 76-79 residue pair can strongly affect actin conformation and behavior, and these results support the theory that the amino acid array in which they are located may play a central role in actin regulation. PMID:20442407

  20. A kinematic description of the trajectories of Listeria monocytogenes propelled by actin comet tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Dhananjay; Shenoy, Vivek

    2007-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes propels itself in the cytoplasm of the infected cells by forming a filamentous comet tail assembled by the polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, actin. While a great deal is known about the molecular processes that lead to actin based movement, most macroscale aspects of motion, including the nature of the trajectories traced out by the motile bacteria are not well understood. Listeria moving between a glass-slide and cover slip in a Xenopus frog egg extract motility assay is observed to display a number of geometrically fascinating trajectories including sine curves, serpentine shapes, circles, and a variety of spirals. We have developed a dynamic model that provides a unified description of these seemingly unrelated trajectories. A key ingredient of the model is a torque (not included in any microscopic models to date) that arises from the rotation of the propulsive force about the body-axis of the bacterium. The trajectories of bacteria executing both steady and saltatory motion are found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of our dynamic model. When the constraints that lead to planar motion are removed, our model predicts motion along regular helical trajectories, observed in recent experiments. We discover from the analysis of the trajectories of spherical beads that the comet tail revolves around the bead.

  1. The actin-binding ERM protein Moesin directly regulates spindle assembly and function during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmos, Péter; Kristó, Ildikó; Szikora, Szilárd; Jankovics, Ferenc; Lukácsovich, Tamás; Kari, Beáta; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin proteins are highly conserved, actin-binding cytoskeletal proteins that play an essential role in microvilli formation, T-cell activation, and tumor metastasis by linking actin filaments to the plasma membrane. Recent studies demonstrated that the only Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin protein of Drosophila melanogaster, Moesin, is involved in mitotic spindle function through stabilizing cell shape and microtubules at the cell cortex. We previously observed that Moesin localizes to the mitotic spindle; hence, we tested for the biological significance of this surprising localization and investigated whether it plays a direct role in spindle function. To separate the cortical and spindle functions of Moesin during mitosis we combined cell biological and genetic methods. We used early Drosophila embryos, in which mitosis occurs in the absence of a cell cortex, and found in vivo evidence for the direct requirement of Moesin in mitotic spindle assembly and function. We also found that the accumulation of Moesin precedes the construction of the microtubule spindle, and the fusiform structure formed by Moesin persists even after the microtubules have disassembled. PMID:27006187

  2. Intracellular photoactivation of caged cGMP induces myosin II and actin responses in motile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Anielski, Alexander; Gerhardt, Matthias; Beta, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in eukaryotic cells. It is assumed to regulate the association of myosin II with the cytoskeleton of motile cells. When cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum are exposed to chemoattractants or to increased osmotic stress, intracellular cGMP levels rise, preceding the accumulation of myosin II in the cell cortex. To directly investigate the impact of intracellular cGMP on cytoskeletal dynamics in a living cell, we released cGMP inside the cell by laser-induced photo-cleavage of a caged precursor. With this approach, we could directly show in a live cell experiment that an increase in intracellular cGMP indeed induces myosin II to accumulate in the cortex. Unexpectedly, we observed for the first time that also the amount of filamentous actin in the cell cortex increases upon a rise in the cGMP concentration, independently of cAMP receptor activation and signaling. We discuss our results in the light of recent work on the cGMP signaling pathway and suggest possible links between cGMP signaling and the actin system. PMID:24136144

  3. Stimulation of Actin Polymerization by Filament Severing

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, A E

    2005-01-01

    The extent and dynamics of actin polymerization in solution are calculated as functions of the filament severing rate, using a simple model of in vitro polymerization. The model is solved by both analytic theory and stochastic-growth simulation. The results show that severing essentially always enhances actin polymerization by freeing up barbed ends, if barbed-end cappers are present. Severing has much weaker effects if only pointed-end cappers are present. In the early stages of polymerizati...

  4. Expression of GFP-mTalin reveals an actin-related role for the Arabidopsis Class II formin AtFH12

    OpenAIRE

    Cvrčková, F.; Grunt, M.; Žárský, V.

    2012-01-01

    Formins (FH2 proteins) are implicated in F-actin nucleation and other aspects of cytoskeletal organization. Plants possess two formin clades, relatively well-described Class I formins and so far poorly characterized Class II formins. Comparison of Class II formin genes of two Arabidopsis species, A. thaliana and A. lyrata, indicates dynamic evolution within the Class II formin clade. Disruption of an outlier A. thaliana Class II formin gene, AtFH12 (At1g42980), whose expression is induced by ...

  5. Crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of the two actin-depolymerization factors of the malaria parasite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression, purification and crystallization of Plasmodium actin-depolymerization factors 1 and 2 are described. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively, and the structures of both proteins in solution were characterized. The malaria parasite Plasmodium depends on its actin-based motor system for motility and host-cell invasion. Actin-depolymerization factors are important regulatory proteins that affect the rate of actin turnover. Plasmodium has two actin-depolymerization factors which seem to have different functions and display low sequence homology to the higher eukaryotic family members. Plasmodium actin-depolymerization factors 1 and 2 have been crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to maximum resolutions of 2.0 and 2.1 Å and belonged to space groups P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 68.8, c = 76.0 Å, and P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.6, b = 57.9, c = 40.5 Å, respectively, indicating the presence of one or two molecules per asymmetric unit in both cases

  6. Cytoskeletal proteins participate in conserved viral strategies across kingdoms of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Marcella L; Pogliano, Joe

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of tubulin-like cytoskeletal proteins carried on the genomes of bacteriophages that are actively used for phage propagation during both the lytic and lysogenic cycle have revealed that there at least two ways that viruses can utilize a cytoskeleton; co-opt the host cytoskeleton or bring their own homologues. Either strategy underscores the deep evolutionary relationship between viruses and cytoskeletal proteins and points to a conservation of viral strategies that crosses the kingdoms of life. Here we review some of the most recent discoveries about tubulin cytoskeletal elements encoded by phages and compare them to some of the strategies utilized by the gammaherpesvirues of mammalian cells. PMID:24055040

  7. Effect of the ulcerogenic agents ethanol, acetylsalicylic acid and taurocholate on actin cytoskeleton and cell motility in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siamak Bidel; Harri Mustonen; Giti Khalighi-Sikaroudi; Eero Lehtonen; Pauli Puolakkainen; Tuula Kiviluoto; Eero Kivilaakso

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ulcerogenic agents on actin cytoskeleton and cell motility and the contribution of oxidative stress.METHODS: Rat gastric mucosal cell monolayers were cultured on coverslips. The cells were exposed, with or without allopurinol (2 mmol/L), for 15 min to ethanol (10-150 mL/L), ASA (1-20 mmol/L) or taurocholate (1-20 mmol/L), then the cells were processed for actin and vinculin staining. Cell migration after wounding was also measured.RESULTS: Exposure to 10 mL/L ethanol caused divergence of zonula adherens-associated actin bundles of adjacent cells and decreased rate of migration. These actions were opposed by xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Exposure to 50 mL/L ethanol induced degradation and divergence of zonula adherens-associated vinculin from adjacent cells,which was, again, partially reverted by allopurinol. With 1 mmol/L ASA actin filaments became shorter and thicker.However, higher concentrations (10, 20 mmol/L) of ASA returned microfilaments thinner and longer, and decreased rate of migration. Zonula adherens-associated actin bundles were moderately distorted with 10 mmol/L ASA and with 10 mmol/L taurocholate. Exposure to taurocholate provoked changes resembling those of ASA. Taurocholate 5-20 mmol/L decreased the rate of migration dose dependently. The effects of ASA and taurocholate were not prevented by allopurinol.CONCLUSION: All ulcerogenic agents decreased the rate of migration dose dependently and induced divergence of zonula adherens-associated actin bundles of adjacent cells.In addition, ethanol and ASA caused degradation of actin cytoskeleton. Oxidative stress seems to underlie ethanol,but not ASA or taurocholate, induced cytoskeletal damage.

  8. Sarcomeric pattern formation by actin cluster coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Friedrich

    Full Text Available Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells.

  9. Brain-Specific Cytoskeletal Damage Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Is There a Common Pattern between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhak, Ahmed; Junker, Andreas; Brettschneider, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus; Tumani, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathophysiological pathway involving axonal degeneration despite different etiological triggers. Analysis of cytoskeletal markers such as neurofilaments, protein tau and tubulin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be a useful approach to detect the process of axonal damage and its severity during disease course. In this article, we review the published literature regarding brain-specific CSF markers for cytoskeletal damage in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to evaluate their utility as a biomarker for disease progression in conjunction with imaging and histological markers which might also be useful in other neurodegenerative diseases associated with affection of the upper motor neurons. A long-term benefit of such an approach could be facilitating early diagnostic and prognostic tools and assessment of treatment efficacy of disease modifying drugs. PMID:26263977

  10. Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene L G Newton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus and important human pathogens such as Dengue and Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within and transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221/+ and chic(1320/+ or villin (qua(6-396/+ either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results and cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, and number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies and chic(221 heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype and conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission and maintenance within Drosophila.

  11. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  12. The Cytoskeletal Regulatory Scaffold Protein GIT2 Modulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liao, Shaoxi; Nelson, Erik R.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Spurney, Robert F.; Guilak, Farshid; Premont, Richard T.; Gesty-Palmer, Diane

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal structure, membrane trafficking, and G protein-coupled receptor internalization. Since dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization plays key roles both in osteoblast differentiation and in the maintenance of osteoclast polarity during bone resorption, we hypothesized that skeletal physiology would be altered in GIT2−/− mice. We found that adult GIT2−/− mice have de...

  13. Osteoclasts and monocytes have similar cytoskeletal structures and adhesion property in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Zallone, A Z; Teti, A; Primavera, M V; Naldini, L; Marchisio, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of some cytoskeletal structures (microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments) has been studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and affinity purified antibodies in osteoclasts isolated from medullary bone of laying hens and in hen blood monocytes cultured in vitro. Both cell types show similar patterns of distribution of cytoskeletal structures and this further supports the concept that these cells are closely related. Osteoclasts and monocytes are also simi...

  14. Endothelial permeability is controlled by spatially defined cytoskeletal mechanics: AFM force mapping of pulmonary endothelial monolayer

    OpenAIRE

    Birukova, Anna A.; Arce, Fernando T.; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Dudek, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Lal, Ratnesh; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2008-01-01

    Actomyosin contraction directly regulates endothelial cell (EC) permeability, but intracellular redistribution of cytoskeletal tension associated with EC permeability is poorly understood. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), EC permeability assays and fluorescence microscopy to link barrier regulation, cell remodeling and cytoskeletal mechanical properties in EC treated with barrier-protective as well as barrier-disruptive agonists. Thrombin, VEGF and H2O2 increased EC permeability, disrup...

  15. Differential effects of LifeAct-GFP and actin-GFP on cell mechanics assessed using micropipette aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Thorpe, Stephen D; Wang, Zhao; Thompson, Clare L; Gavara, Nuria; Knight, Martin M

    2016-01-25

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic structure involved in many fundamental cellular processes including the control of cell morphology, migration and biomechanics. Recently LifeAct-GFP (green fluorescent protein) has been proposed for visualising actin structure and dynamics in live cells as an alternative to actin-GFP which has been shown to affect cell mechanics. Here we compare the two approaches in terms of their effect on cellular mechanical behaviour. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were analysed using micropipette aspiration and the effective cellular equilibrium and instantaneous moduli calculated using the standard linear solid model. We show that LifeAct-GFP provides clearer visualisation of F-actin organisation and dynamics. Furthermore, LifeAct-GFP does not alter effective cellular mechanical properties whereas actin-GFP expression causes an increase in the cell modulus. Interestingly, LifeAct-GFP expression did produce a small (~10%) increase in the percentage of cells exhibiting aspiration-induced membrane bleb formation, whilst actin-GFP expression reduced blebbing. Further studies examined the influence of LifeAct-GFP in other cell types, namely chondrogenically differentiated hMSCs and murine chondrocytes. LifeAct-GFP also had no effect on the moduli of these non-blebbing cells for which mechanical properties are largely dependent on the actin cortex. In conclusion we show that LifeAct-GFP enables clearer visualisation of actin organisation and dynamics without disruption of the biomechanical properties of either the whole cell or the actin cortex. Thus the study provides new evidence supporting the use of LifeAct-GFP rather than actin-GFP for live cell microscopy and the study of cellular mechanobiology. PMID:26792287

  16. Structural Basis of Actin Filament Nucleation by Tandem W Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous nucleation of actin is very inefficient in cells. To overcome this barrier, cells have evolved a set of actin filament nucleators to promote rapid nucleation and polymerization in response to specific stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation remains poorly understood. This is hindered largely by the fact that actin nucleus, once formed, rapidly polymerizes into filament, thus making it impossible to capture stable multisubunit actin nucleus. Here, we report an effective double-mutant strategy to stabilize actin nucleus by preventing further polymerization. Employing this strategy, we solved the crystal structure of AMPPNP-actin in complex with the first two tandem W domains of Cordon-bleu (Cobl, a potent actin filament nucleator. Further sequence comparison and functional studies suggest that the nucleation mechanism of Cobl is probably shared by the p53 cofactor JMY, but not Spire. Moreover, the double-mutant strategy opens the way for atomic mechanistic study of actin nucleation and polymerization.

  17. Actin-dependent mechanisms in AMPA receptor trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Hanley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR number and subtype at the synapse is crucial for the regulation of excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and the consequent formation of appropriate neural circuits during learning and memory. AMPAR trafficking involves the dynamic processes of exocytosis, endocytosis and endosomal recycling, all of which involve the actin cytoskeleton. The actin cytoskeleton is highly dynamic and highly regulated by an abundance of actin-binding proteins and upstream signalling pathways that modulate actin polymerization and depolymerisation. Actin dynamics generate forces that manipulate membranes in the process of vesicle biogenesis, and also for propelling vesicles through the cytoplasm to reach their destination. In addition, trafficking mechanisms exploit more stable aspects of the actin cytoskeleton by using actin-based motor proteins to traffic vesicular cargo along actin filaments. Numerous studies have shown that actin dynamics are critical for AMPAR localization and function. The identification of actin-binding proteins that physically interact with AMPAR subunits, and research into their mode of action is starting to shed light on the mechanisms involved. Such proteins either regulate actin dynamics to modulate mechanical forces exerted on AMPAR-containing membranes, or associate with actin filaments to target or transport AMPAR-containing vesicles to specific subcellular regions. In addition, actin-regulatory proteins that do not physically interact with AMPARs may influence AMPAR trafficking by regulating the local actin environment in the dendritic spine.

  18. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  19. Low ozone concentrations stimulate cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Costanzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone therapy is a modestly invasive procedure based on the regeneration capabilities of low ozone concentrations and used in medicine as an alternative/adjuvant treatment for different diseases. However, the cellular mechanisms accounting for the positive effects of mild ozonization are still largely unexplored. To this aim, in the present study the effects of low ozone concentrations (1 to 20 µg O3/mL O2 on structural and functional cell features have been investigated in vitro by using morphological, morphometrical, cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques at bright field, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Cells exposed to pure O2 or air served as controls. The results demonstrated that the effects of ozoneadministration are dependent on gas concentration, and the cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription may be differently affected. This suggests that, to ensure effective and permanent metabolic cell activation, ozone treatments should take into account the cytological and cytokinetic features of the different tissues. 

  20. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Persson

    Full Text Available Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached" or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  1. Canonical and Noncanonical G-Protein Signaling Helps Coordinate Actin Dynamics To Promote Macrophage Phagocytosis of Zymosan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ning-Na; Becker, Steven; Boularan, Cedric; Kamenyeva, Olena; Vural, Ali; Hwang, Il-Young; Shi, Chong-Shan; Kehrl, John H

    2014-01-01

    Both chemotaxis and phagocytosis depend upon actin-driven cell protrusions and cell membrane remodeling. While chemoattractant receptors rely upon canonical G-protein signaling to activate downstream effectors, whether such signaling pathways affect phagocytosis is contentious. Here, we report that Gαi nucleotide exchange and signaling helps macrophages coordinate the recognition, capture, and engulfment of zymosan bioparticles. We show that zymosan exposure recruits F-actin, Gαi proteins, an...

  2. Chemotactic peptide modulation of actin assembly and locomotion in neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the state of actin polymerization in neutrophils and the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- induced changes in the locomotive behavior of neutrophils, the mean rate of locomotion (mROL), the percent G-actin, and the relative F- actin content of neutrophils were determined. The mROL was quantified by analysis of the locomotion of individual cells; the percentage of total actin as G-actin was measured by DNase I inhibition; and the F- actin was d...

  3. The interaction between actin and FA fragment of diphtheria toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Ünlü, A.; Bektaş, M.; Şener, S.; Nurten, R.

    2012-01-01

    Actin protein has many other cellular functions such as movement, chemotaxis, secretion and cytodiaresis. Besides, it have structural function. Actin is a motor protein that it has an important role in the movement process of toxin in the cell. It is known that F-actin gives carriage support during the endosomal process. Actin is found in globular (G) and filamentous (F) structure in the cell. The helix of actin occurs as a result of polymerisation of monomeric G-actin molecules through seque...

  4. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  5. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W P; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  6. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hassanpour

    Full Text Available Adseverin (Ads, a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG. Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion.

  7. D-loop of Actin Differently Regulates the Motor Function of Myosins II and V*

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Hiroaki; Mikhailenko, Sergey V; Okabe, Harumi; Taguchi, Hideki; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2009-01-01

    To gain more information on the manner of actin-myosin interaction, we examined how the motile properties of myosins II and V are affected by the modifications of the DNase I binding loop (D-loop) of actin, performed in two different ways, namely, the proteolytic digestion with subtilisin and the M47A point mutation. In an in vitro motility assay, both modifications significantly decreased the gliding velocity on myosin II-heavy meromyosin due to a weaker generated force but increased it on m...

  8. The Na+–H+ exchanger-1 induces cytoskeletal changes involving reciprocal RhoA and Rac1 signaling, resulting in motility and invasion in MDA-MB-435 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing body of evidence shows that the tumour microenvironment is essential in driving neoplastic progression. The low serum component of this microenvironment stimulates motility/invasion in human breast cancer cells via activation of the Na+–H+ exchanger (NHE) isoform 1, but the signal transduction systems that underlie this process are still poorly understood. We undertook the present study to elucidate the role and pattern of regulation by the Rho GTPases of this serum deprivation-dependent activation of both NHE1 and subsequent invasive characteristics, such as pseudopodia and invadiopodia protrusion, directed cell motility and penetration of normal tissues. The present study was performed in a well characterized human mammary epithelial cell line representing late stage metastatic progression, MDA-MB-435. The activity of RhoA and Rac1 was modified using their dominant negative and constitutively active mutants and the activity of NHE1, cell motility/invasion, F-actin content and cell shape were measured. We show for the first time that serum deprivation induces NHE1-dependent morphological and cytoskeletal changes in metastatic cells via a reciprocal interaction of RhoA and Rac1, resulting in increased chemotaxis and invasion. Deprivation changed cell shape by reducing the amount of F-actin and inducing the formation of leading edge pseudopodia. Serum deprivation inhibited RhoA activity and stimulated Rac1 activity. Rac1 and RhoA were antagonistic regulators of both basal and stimulated tumour cell NHE1 activity. The regulation of NHE1 activity by RhoA and Rac1 in both conditions was mediated by an alteration in intracellular proton affinity of the exchanger. Interestingly, the role of each of these G-proteins was reversed during serum deprivation; basal NHE1 activity was regulated positively by RhoA and negatively by Rac1, whereas RhoA negatively and Rac1 positively directed the stimulation of NHE1 during serum deprivation. Importantly, the same

  9. α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenin is an angiogenic factor which is involved in tumorigenesis. However, no particular intracellular protein is known to interact directly with angiogenin. In the present study, we reported the identification of α-actinin-2, an actin-crosslinking protein, as a potential angiogenin-interacting partner by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was confirmed by different approaches. First, angiogenin was pulled down together with His-tagged α-actinin-2 by Ni2+-agarose resins. Second, α-actinin-2 was coimmunoprecipitated with angiogenin by anti-angiogenin monoclonal antibody. Third, the in vivo interaction of these two proteins was revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. Since members of α-actinin family play pivotal roles in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, the interaction between α-actinin-2 and angiogenin may underline one possible mechanism of angiogenin in angiogenesis. Our finding presents the first evidence of an interaction of a cytosolic protein with angiogenin, which might be a novel interference target for anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor therapy

  10. Cations Stiffen Actin Filaments by Adhering a Key Structural Element to Adjacent Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocky, Glen M; Baker, Joseph L; Bradley, Michael J; Sinitskiy, Anton V; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-05-26

    Ions regulate the assembly and mechanical properties of actin filaments. Recent work using structural bioinformatics and site-specific mutagenesis favors the existence of two discrete and specific divalent cation binding sites on actin filaments, positioned in the long axis between actin subunits. Cation binding at one site drives polymerization, while the other modulates filament stiffness and plays a role in filament severing by the regulatory protein, cofilin. Existing structural methods have not been able to resolve filament-associated cations, and so in this work we turn to molecular dynamics simulations to suggest a candidate binding pocket geometry for each site and to elucidate the mechanism by which occupancy of the "stiffness site" affects filament mechanical properties. Incorporating a magnesium ion in the "polymerization site" does not seem to require any large-scale change to an actin subunit's conformation. Binding of a magnesium ion in the "stiffness site" adheres the actin DNase-binding loop (D-loop) to its long-axis neighbor, which increases the filament torsional stiffness and bending persistence length. Our analysis shows that bound D-loops occupy a smaller region of accessible conformational space. Cation occupancy buries key conserved residues of the D-loop, restricting accessibility to regulatory proteins and enzymes that target these amino acids. PMID:27146246

  11. Actin Cytoskeleton Contributes to the Elastic Modulus of Embryonic Tendon During Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R.; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L.; Hockaday, Laura A.; Marturano, Joseph E.; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J.; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties. PMID:25721681

  12. Myopathy-inducing mutation H40Y in ACTA1 hampers actin filament structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chun; Fan, Jun; Messer, Andrew E; Marston, Steve B; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ochala, Julien

    2016-08-01

    In humans, more than 200 missense mutations have been identified in the ACTA1 gene. The exact molecular mechanisms by which, these particular mutations become toxic and lead to muscle weakness and myopathies remain obscure. To address this, here, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation, and we used a broad range of biophysical assays to determine how the lethal and myopathy-related H40Y amino acid substitution in actin affects the structure, stability, and function of this protein. Interestingly, our results showed that H40Y severely disrupts the DNase I-binding-loop structure and actin filaments. In addition, we observed that normal and mutant actin monomers are likely to form distinctive homopolymers, with mutant filaments being very stiff, and not supporting proper myosin binding. These phenomena underlie the toxicity of H40Y and may be considered as important triggering factors for the contractile dysfunction, muscle weakness and disease phenotype seen in patients. PMID:27112274

  13. Actin protofilament orientation in deformation of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    OpenAIRE

    Picart, C.; Dalhaimer, P.; Discher, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    The red cell's spectrin-actin network is known to sustain local states of shear, dilation, and condensation, and yet the short actin filaments are found to maintain membrane-tangent and near-random azimuthal orientations. When calibrated with polarization results for single actin filaments, imaging of micropipette-deformed red cell ghosts has allowed an assessment of actin orientations and possible reorientations in the network. At the hemispherical cap of the aspirated projection, where the ...

  14. Dendritic Actin Filament Nucleation Causes Traveling Waves and Patches

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Anders E

    2010-01-01

    The polymerization of actin via branching at a cell membrane containing nucleation-promoting factors is simulated using a stochastic-growth methodology. The polymerized-actin distribution displays three types of behavior: a) traveling waves, b) moving patches, and c) random fluctuations. Increasing actin concentration causes a transition from patches to waves. The waves and patches move by a treadmilling mechanism which does not require myosin II. The effects of downregulation of key proteins on actin wave behavior are evaluated.

  15. Dendritic Actin Filament Nucleation Causes Traveling Waves and Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders E.

    2010-06-01

    The polymerization of actin via branching at a cell membrane containing nucleation-promoting factors is simulated using a stochastic-growth methodology. The polymerized-actin distribution displays three types of behavior: (a) traveling waves, (b) moving patches, and (c) random fluctuations. Increasing actin concentration causes a transition from patches to waves. The waves and patches move by a treadmilling mechanism not involving myosin II. The effects of downregulation of key proteins on actin wave behavior are evaluated.

  16. Measurement and Analysis of in vitro Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Lynda K.; Rosen, Michael K.; Padrick, Shae B.

    2013-01-01

    The polymerization of actin underlies force generation in numerous cellular processes. While actin polymerization can occur spontaneously, cells maintain control over this important process by preventing actin filament nucleation and then allowing stimulated polymerization and elongation by several regulated factors. Actin polymerization, regulated nucleation and controlled elongation activities can be reconstituted in vitro, and used to probe the signaling cascades cells use to control when ...

  17. Force Generation by Endocytic Actin Patches in Budding Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Anders E.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane deformation during endocytosis in yeast is driven by local, templated assembly of a sequence of proteins including polymerized actin and curvature-generating coat proteins such as clathrin. Actin polymerization is required for successful endocytosis, but it is not known by what mechanisms actin polymerization generates the required pulling forces. To address this issue, we develop a simulation method in which the actin network at the protein patch is modeled as an active gel. The def...

  18. Daylight photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R-M;

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for non-melanoma skin cancers including actinic keratoses (AKs) because it allows treatment of large areas; it has a high response rate and results in an excellent cosmesis. However, conventional PDT for AKs is associated with inconveniently lon...

  19. Saturable binding of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein (EMAP) on microtubules, but not filamentous actin or vimentin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenmüller, B; Ahrens, D P; Li, Q; Suprenant, K A

    2001-11-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein (EMAP) is a 75-kDa, WD-repeat protein associated with the mitotic spindle apparatus. To understand EMAP's biological role, it is important to determine its affinity for microtubules (MTs) and other cytoskeletal components. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a low-cost, bubble-column bioreactor to express EMAP as a hexahistidine fusion (6his) protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells. After optimizing cell growth conditions, up to 30 mg of EMAP was obtained in the soluble cell lysate from a 1-liter culture. EMAP was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process that included immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC) and anion-exchange chromatography. In vitro binding studies on cytoskeletal components were performed with the 6his-EMAP. EMAP bound to MTs, but not actin or vimentin filaments, with an intrinsic dissociation constant of 0.18 microM and binding stoichiometry of 0.7 mol EMAP per mol tubulin heterodimer. In addition, we show that a strong MT binding domain resides in the 137 amino acid, NH(2)-terminus of EMAP and a weaker binding site in the WD-domain. Previous work has shown that the EMAP concentration in the sea urchin egg is over 4 microM. Together, these results show that there is sufficient EMAP in the egg to regulate the assembly of a large pool of maternally stored tubulin. PMID:11807937

  20. Competition of two distinct actin networks for actin defines a bistable switch for cell polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Alexis J.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Han, Sangyoon J.; Bui, D A.; Davidson, Michael; Mogilner, Alex; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking polarization enables functional plasticity of cells and tissues and is yet not well understood. Here we show that epithelial cells, hard-wired to maintain a static morphology and to preserve tissue organization, can spontaneously switch to a migratory polarized phenotype upon relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We find that myosin-II engages actin in the formation of cortical actomyosin bundles and thus makes it unavailable for deployment in the process of dendritic growth normally driving cell motility. At low contractility regimes epithelial cells polarize in a front-back manner due to emergence of actin retrograde flows powered by dendritic polymerization of actin. Coupled to cell movement, the flows transport myosin-II from the front to the back of the cell, where the motor locally “locks” actin in contractile bundles. This polarization mechanism could be employed by embryonic and cancer epithelial cells in microenvironments where high contractility-driven cell motion is inefficient. PMID:26414403

  1. Dynamics and Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Haiyun

    2007-01-01

    @@ The actin cytoskeleton constituted of globular actin (G-actin) is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic cells and plays crucial roles in diverse physiological processes in plant cells, such as cytoplasmic streaming, organelle and nucleus positioning, cell morphogenesis, cell division, tip growth, etc.

  2. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D1 encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E2 synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on different Hu

  3. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  4. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  5. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts is

  6. Cytoskeletal arrangement and its intercellular connection in wheat young leaf cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEIXIANGYUN; LINGCHENGJIAN

    1993-01-01

    By using the techniques of partial digestion of cell wall and selective extraction,we examined the cytoskeleton of wheat yong leaf cells under scanning electron microscope(SEM).A 3-dimensional cytoskeletal system,showing some new features,was observed.The cortical network located beneath the cross wall was an anastomosing organization.The association of nucleus with the cell wall by some skeletal filaments was also found.It is notice able that there were cytoskeletal filaments,which passed through cell wall and connected together with cytoskeletal arrays of adjacent cells,Thus,it is possible that an integral skeletal network existed within the yong leaf tissue of wheat.

  7. Chronic actinic dermatitis - A study of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD, one of the immune mediated photo-dermatoses, comprises a spectrum of conditions including persistent light reactivity, photosensitive eczema and actinic reticuloid. Diagnostic criteria were laid down about 20 years back, but clinical features are the mainstay in diagnosis. In addition to extreme sensitivity to UVB, UVA and/or visible light, about three quarters of patients exhibit contact sensitivity to several allergens, which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CAD. This study was undertaken to examine the clinical features of CAD in India and to evaluate the relevance of patch testing and photo-aggravation testing in the diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The clinical data of nine patients with CAD were analyzed. Histopathology, patch testing and photo-aggravation testing were also performed. Results: All the patients were males. The average age of onset was 57 years. The first episode was usually noticed in the beginning of summer. Later the disease gradually tended to be perennial, without any seasonal variations. The areas affected were mainly the photo-exposed areas in all patients, and the back in three patients. Erythroderma was the presenting feature in two patients. The palms and soles were involved in five patients. Patch testing was positive in seven of nine patients. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CAD mainly depended upon the history and clinical features. The incidence of erythroderma and palmoplantar eczema was high in our series. Occupation seems to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of CAD.

  8. Chronologic and actinically induced aging in human facial skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and histologic stigmata of aging are much more prominent in habitually sun-exposed skin than in sun-protected skin, but other possible manifestations of actinically induced aging are almost unexplored. We have examined the interrelation of chronologic and actinic aging using paired preauricular (sun-exposed) and postauricular (sun-protected) skin specimens. Keratinocyte cultures derived from sun-exposed skin consistently had a shorter in vitro lifespan but increased plating efficiency compared with cultures derived from adjacent sun-protected skin of the same individual, confirming a previous study of different paired body sites. Electron microscopic histologic sections revealed focal abnormalities of keratinocyte proliferation and alignment in vitro especially in those cultures derived from sun-exposed skin and decreased intercellular contact in stratified colonies at late passage, regardless of donor site. One-micron histologic sections of the original biopsy specimens revealed no striking site-related keratinocyte alterations, but sun-exposed specimens had fewer epidermal Langerhans cells (p less than 0.001), averaging approximately 50 percent the number in sun-protected skin, a possible exaggeration of the previously reported age-associated decrease in this cell population. These data suggest that sun exposure indeed accelerates aging by several criteria and that, regardless of mechanism, environmental factors may adversely affect the appearance and function of aging skin in ways amenable to experimental quantitation

  9. Deficiency in Cardiac Dystrophin Affects the Abundance of the α-/β-Dystroglycan Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lohan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Duchenne muscular dystrophy is primarily categorised as a skeletal muscle disease, deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin also affects the heart. The central transsarcolemmal linker between the actin membrane cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix is represented by the dystrophin-associated dystroglycans. Chemical cross-linking analysis revealed no significant differences in the dimeric status of the α-/β-dystroglycan subcomplex in the dystrophic mdx heart as compared to normal cardiac tissue. In analogy to skeletal muscle fibres, heart muscle also exhibited a greatly reduced abundance of both dystroglycans in dystrophin-deficient cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the degree of reduction in α-dystroglycan is more pronounced in matured mdx skeletal muscle as contrasted to the mdx heart. The fact that the deficiency in dystrophin triggers a similar pathobiochemical response in both types of muscle suggests that the cardiomyopathic complications observed in x-linked muscular dystrophy might be initiated by the loss of the dystrophin-associated surface glycoprotein complex.

  10. Cell cycle regulation and cytoskeletal remodelling are critical processes in the nutritional programming of embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common "gatekeepers" which may drive nutritional programming.Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (P<0.05. This occurred in the absence of damage to the glomerular ultrastructure. Microarray, proteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency.The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel

  11. The Structural Basis of Actin Organization by Vinculin and Metavinculin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Laura Y; Thompson, Peter M; Lee, Hyunna T; Pershad, Mihir; Campbell, Sharon L; Alushin, Gregory M

    2016-01-16

    Vinculin is an essential adhesion protein that links membrane-bound integrin and cadherin receptors through their intracellular binding partners to filamentous actin, facilitating mechanotransduction. Here we present an 8.5-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction and pseudo-atomic model of the vinculin tail (Vt) domain bound to F-actin. Upon actin engagement, the N-terminal "strap" and helix 1 are displaced from the Vt helical bundle to mediate actin bundling. We find that an analogous conformational change also occurs in the H1' helix of the tail domain of metavinculin (MVt) upon actin binding, a muscle-specific splice isoform that suppresses actin bundling by Vt. These data support a model in which metavinculin tunes the actin bundling activity of vinculin in a tissue-specific manner, providing a mechanistic framework for understanding metavinculin mutations associated with hereditary cardiomyopathies. PMID:26493222

  12. Wnt Signalling Promotes Actin Dynamics during Axon Remodelling through the Actin-Binding Protein Eps8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanna Stamatakou

    Full Text Available Upon arrival at their synaptic targets, axons slow down their growth and extensively remodel before the assembly of presynaptic boutons. Wnt proteins are target-derived secreted factors that promote axonal remodelling and synaptic assembly. In the developing spinal cord, Wnts secreted by motor neurons promote axonal remodelling of NT-3 responsive dorsal root ganglia neurons. Axon remodelling induced by Wnts is characterised by growth cone pausing and enlargement, processes that depend on the re-organisation of microtubules. However, the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton has remained unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt3a regulates the actin cytoskeleton by rapidly inducing F-actin accumulation in growth cones from rodent DRG neurons through the scaffold protein Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1 and the serine-threonine kinase Gsk3β. Importantly, these changes in actin cytoskeleton occurs before enlargement of the growth cones is evident. Time-lapse imaging shows that Wnt3a increases lamellar protrusion and filopodia velocity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of actin assembly demonstrates that Wnt3a increases actin dynamics. Through a yeast-two hybrid screen, we identified the actin-binding protein Eps8 as a direct interactor of Dvl1, a scaffold protein crucial for the Wnt signalling pathway. Gain of function of Eps8 mimics Wnt-mediated axon remodelling, whereas Eps8 silencing blocks the axon remodelling activity of Wnt3a. Importantly, blockade of the Dvl1-Eps8 interaction completely abolishes Wnt3a-mediated axonal remodelling. These findings demonstrate a novel role for Wnt-Dvl1 signalling through Eps8 in the regulation of axonal remodeling.

  13. WIP Remodeling Actin behind the Scenes: How WIP Reshapes Immune and Other Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Barda-Saad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Actin polymerization is a fundamental cellular process regulating immune cell functions and the immune response. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp is an actin nucleation promoting factor, which is exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cells, where it plays a key regulatory role in cytoskeletal dynamics. WASp interacting protein (WIP was first discovered as the binding partner of WASp, through the use of the yeast two hybrid system. WIP was later identified as a chaperone of WASp, necessary for its stability. Mutations occurring at the WASp homology 1 domain (WH1, which serves as the WIP binding site, were found to cause the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT. WAS manifests as an immune deficiency characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, and hematopoietic malignancies, demonstrating the importance of WIP for WASp complex formation and for a proper immune response. WIP deficiency was found to lead to different abnormalities in the activity of various lymphocytes, suggesting differential cell-dependent roles for WIP. Additionally, WIP deficiency causes cellular abnormalities not found in WASp-deficient cells, indicating that WIP fulfills roles beyond stabilizing WASp. Indeed, WIP was shown to interact with various binding partners, including the signaling proteins Nck, CrkL and cortactin. Recent studies have demonstrated that WIP also takes part in non immune cellular processes such as cancer invasion and metastasis, in addition to cell subversion by intracellular pathogens. Understanding of numerous functions of WIP can enhance our current understanding of activation and function of immune and other cell types.

  14. Emerging roles of actin cytoskeleton regulating enzymes in drug addiction: Actin or reactin’?

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenfluh, Adrian; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons rely on their cytoskeleton to give them shape and stability, and on cytoskeletal dynamics for growth and synaptic plasticity. Because drug addiction is increasingly seen as the inappropriate learning of strongly reinforcing stimuli, the role of the cytoskeleton in shaping drug memories has been of increasing interest in recent years. Does the cytoskeleton have an active role in shaping these memories, and to what extent do alterations in the cytoskeleton reflect the acute actions of d...

  15. A small molecule inhibitor of tropomyosin dissociates actin binding from tropomyosin-directed regulation of actin dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa T. Bonello; Miro Janco; Jeff Hook; Alex Byun; Mark Appaduray; Irina Dedova; Sarah Hitchcock-DeGregori; Hardeman, Edna C.; Justine R. Stehn; Till Böcking; Gunning, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    The tropomyosin family of proteins form end-to-end polymers along the actin filament. Tumour cells rely on specific tropomyosin-containing actin filament populations for growth and survival. To dissect out the role of tropomyosin in actin filament regulation we use the small molecule TR100 directed against the C terminus of the tropomyosin isoform Tpm3.1. TR100 nullifies the effect of Tpm3.1 on actin depolymerisation but surprisingly Tpm3.1 retains the capacity to bind F-actin in a cooperativ...

  16. Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmel Frédéric

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion Our

  17. Isolation of a strawberry gene fragment encoding an actin depolymerizing factor-like protein from genotypes resistant to Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontivero, Marta; Zamora, Gustavo Martínez; Salazar, Sergio; Ricci, Juan Carlos Díaz; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) have been recently implicated in plant defense against pathogenic fungi, associated with the cytoskeletal rearrangements that contribute to establish an effective barrier against fungal ingress. In this work, we identified a DNA fragment corresponding to a part of a gene predicted to encode an ADF-like protein in genotypes of Fragaria ananassa resistant to the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. Bulked segregant analysis combined with AFLP was used to identify polymorphisms linked to resistance in hybrids derived from the cross between the resistant cultivar 'Sweet Charlie' and the susceptible cultivar 'Pájaro'. The sequence of one out of three polymorphic bands detected showed significant BLASTX hits to ADF proteins from other plants. Two possible exons were identified and bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of the ADF homology domain with two actin-binding sites, an N-terminal phosphorylation site, and a nuclear localization signal. In addition to its possible application in strawberry breeding programs, these finding may contribute to investigate the role of ADFs in plant resistance against fungi. PMID:22107362

  18. Drosophila sosie functions with βH-Spectrin and actin organizers in cell migration, epithelial morphogenesis and cortical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Urwyler

    2012-08-01

    Morphogenesis in multicellular organisms requires the careful coordination of cytoskeletal elements, dynamic regulation of cell adhesion and extensive cell migration. sosie (sie is a novel gene required in various morphogenesis processes in Drosophila oogenesis. Lack of sie interferes with normal egg chamber packaging, maintenance of epithelial integrity and control of follicle cell migration, indicating that sie is involved in controlling epithelial integrity and cell migration. For these functions sie is required both in the germ line and in the soma. Consistent with this, Sosie localizes to plasma membranes in the germ line and in the somatic follicle cells and is predicted to present an EGF-like domain on the extracellular side. Two positively charged residues, C-terminal to the predicted transmembrane domain (on the cytoplasmic side, are required for normal plasma membrane localization of Sosie. Because sie also contributes to normal cortical localization of βH-Spectrin, it appears that cortical βH-Spectrin mediates some of the functions of sosie. sie also interacts with the genes coding for the actin organizers Filamin and Profilin and, in the absence of sie function, F-actin is less well organized and nurse cells frequently fuse.

  19. Actin flow and talin dynamics govern rigidity sensing in actin-integrin linkage through talin extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiroaki; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Lim, Chwee Teck; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    At cell-substrate adhesion sites, the linkage between actin filaments and integrin is regulated by mechanical stiffness of the substrate. Of potential molecular regulators, the linker proteins talin and vinculin are of particular interest because mechanical extension of talin induces vinculin binding with talin, which reinforces the actin-integrin linkage. For understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanism of rigidity sensing at cell-substrate adhesion sites, we constructed a simple physical model to examine a role of talin extension in the stiffness-dependent regulation of actin-integrin linkage. We show that talin molecules linking between retrograding actin filaments and substrate-bound integrin are extended in a manner dependent on substrate stiffness. The model predicts that, in adhesion complexes containing ≈30 talin links, talin is extended enough for vinculin binding when the substrate is stiffer than 1 kPa. The lifetime of talin links needs to be 2-5 s to achieve an appropriate response of talin extension against substrate stiffness. Furthermore, changes in actin velocity drastically shift the range of substrate stiffness that induces talin-vinculin binding. Our results suggest that talin extension is a key step in sensing and responding to substrate stiffness at cell adhesion sites. PMID:25142525

  20. Comparative dynamics of retrograde actin flow and focal adhesions: formation of nascent adhesions triggers transition from fast to slow flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Y Alexandrova

    Full Text Available Dynamic actin network at the leading edge of the cell is linked to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs, and at the same time it undergoes retrograde flow with different dynamics in two distinct zones: the lamellipodium (peripheral zone of fast flow, and the lamellum (zone of slow flow located between the lamellipodium and the cell body. Cell migration involves expansion of both the lamellipodium and the lamellum, as well as formation of new FAs, but it is largely unknown how the position of the boundary between the two flow zones is defined, and how FAs and actin flow mutually influence each other. We investigated dynamic relationship between focal adhesions and the boundary between the two flow zones in spreading cells. Nascent FAs first appeared in the lamellipodium. Within seconds after the formation of new FAs, the rate of actin flow decreased locally, and the lamellipodium/lamellum boundary advanced towards the new FAs. Blocking fast actin flow with cytochalasin D resulted in rapid dissolution of nascent FAs. In the absence of FAs (spreading on poly-L-lysine-coated surfaces retrograde flow was uniform and the velocity transition was not observed. We conclude that formation of FAs depends on actin dynamics, and in its turn, affects the dynamics of actin flow by triggering transition from fast to slow flow. Extension of the cell edge thus proceeds through a cycle of lamellipodium protrusion, formation of new FAs, advance of the lamellum, and protrusion of the lamellipodium from the new base.

  1. Comparative dynamics of retrograde actin flow and focal adhesions: formation of nascent adhesions triggers transition from fast to slow flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Arnold, Katya; Schaub, Sébastien; Vasiliev, Jury M; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Bershadsky, Alexander D; Verkhovsky, Alexander B

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic actin network at the leading edge of the cell is linked to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs), and at the same time it undergoes retrograde flow with different dynamics in two distinct zones: the lamellipodium (peripheral zone of fast flow), and the lamellum (zone of slow flow located between the lamellipodium and the cell body). Cell migration involves expansion of both the lamellipodium and the lamellum, as well as formation of new FAs, but it is largely unknown how the position of the boundary between the two flow zones is defined, and how FAs and actin flow mutually influence each other. We investigated dynamic relationship between focal adhesions and the boundary between the two flow zones in spreading cells. Nascent FAs first appeared in the lamellipodium. Within seconds after the formation of new FAs, the rate of actin flow decreased locally, and the lamellipodium/lamellum boundary advanced towards the new FAs. Blocking fast actin flow with cytochalasin D resulted in rapid dissolution of nascent FAs. In the absence of FAs (spreading on poly-L-lysine-coated surfaces) retrograde flow was uniform and the velocity transition was not observed. We conclude that formation of FAs depends on actin dynamics, and in its turn, affects the dynamics of actin flow by triggering transition from fast to slow flow. Extension of the cell edge thus proceeds through a cycle of lamellipodium protrusion, formation of new FAs, advance of the lamellum, and protrusion of the lamellipodium from the new base. PMID:18800171

  2. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Wang, Xue; Dong, Chun-Hai; Yang, Jian Ming; Yao, Xiao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin) or polymeric form (F-actin). Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1-actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1-actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA) methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin. PMID:27414648

  3. Actin filaments growing against a barrier with fluctuating shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2016-06-01

    We study force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against a nonrigid obstacle, in the presence of an external load. The filaments polymerize by either moving the whole obstacle, with a large energy cost, or by causing local distortion in its shape which costs much less energy. The nonrigid obstacle also has local thermal fluctuations due to which its shape can change with time and we describe this using fluctuations in the height profile of a one-dimensional interface with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We find the shape fluctuations of the barrier strongly affect the force generation mechanism. The qualitative nature of the force-velocity curve is crucially determined by the relative time scale of filament and barrier dynamics. The height profile of the barrier also shows interesting variation with the external load. Our analytical calculations within mean-field theory show reasonable agreement with our simulation results.

  4. Actin filaments growing against a barrier with fluctuating shape

    CERN Document Server

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We study force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against a non-rigid obstacle, in presence of an external load. The filaments polymerize by either moving the whole obstacle, with a large energy cost, or by causing local distortion in its shape which costs much less energy. The non-rigid obstacle also has local thermal fluctuations due to which its shape can change with time and we describe this using fluctuations in the height profile of a one dimensional interface with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We find the shape fluctuations of the barrier strongly affects the force generation mechanism. The qualitative nature of the force-velocity curve is crucially determined by the relative time-scale of filament and barrier dynamics. The height profile of the barrier also shows interesting variation with the external load. Our analytical calculation within mean-field theory shows reasonable agreement with our simulation results.

  5. Adhesion and cytoskeletal organisation of fibroblasts in response to fibronectin fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R; Johansson, S;

    1986-01-01

    , they do not form stress fibres terminating in focal adhesions. An additional external stimulus is needed for this cytoskeletal reorganisation and may be provided by one of two heparin-binding fragments of fibronectin. The two 'signals' required for complete adhesion need not be provided simultaneously...

  6. CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves identified as cytoskeletal and major vault proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsvik, Bjørn Einar; Jonsson, Henrik; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J;

    2006-01-01

    To identify possible CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves, we used anti-fish CYP1A antibodies combined with one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and found that two of the main CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in digestive gland of Mytilus edulis, were cytoskeletal...

  7. Gelsolin mediates calcium-dependent disassembly of Listeria actin tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laura; Arnaudeau, Serge; Gibson, Bruce; Li, Wei; Krause, Ryoko; Hao, Binghua; Bamburg, James R.; Lew, Daniel P.; Demaurex, Nicolas; Southwick, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of actin filament assembly and disassembly has not been clearly defined. We show that reduction of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) to <40 nM in Listeria monocytogenes-infected, EGFP–actin-transfected Madin–Darby canine kidney cells results in a 3-fold lengthening of actin filament tails. This increase in tail length is the consequence of marked slowing of the actin filament disassembly rate, without a significant change in assembly rate. The Ca2+-sensitive actin-severing protein gelsolin concentrates in the Listeria rocket tails at normal resting [Ca2+]i and disassociates from the tails when [Ca2+]i is lowered. Reduction in [Ca2+]i also blocks the severing activity of gelsolin, but not actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin microinjected into Listeria-infected cells. In Xenopus extracts, Listeria tail lengths are also calcium-sensitive, markedly shortening on addition of calcium. Immunodepletion of gelsolin, but not Xenopus ADF/cofilin, eliminates calcium-sensitive actin-filament shortening. Listeria tail length is also calcium-insensitive in gelsolin-null mouse embryo fibroblasts. We conclude that gelsolin is the primary Ca2+-sensitive actin filament recycling protein in the cell and is capable of enhancing Listeria actin tail disassembly at normal resting [Ca2+]i (145 nM). These experiments illustrate the unique and complementary functions of gelsolin and ADF/cofilin in the recycling of actin filaments. PMID:15671163

  8. Sequence and comparative genomic analysis of actin-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jean; Oma, Yukako; Vallar, Laurent; Friederich, Evelyne; Poch, Olivier; Winsor, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    Actin-related proteins (ARPs) are key players in cytoskeleton activities and nuclear functions. Two complexes, ARP2/3 and ARP1/11, also known as dynactin, are implicated in actin dynamics and in microtubule-based trafficking, respectively. ARP4 to ARP9 are components of many chromatin-modulating complexes. Conventional actins and ARPs codefine a large family of homologous proteins, the actin superfamily, with a tertiary structure known as the actin fold. Because ARPs and actin share high sequence conservation, clear family definition requires distinct features to easily and systematically identify each subfamily. In this study we performed an in depth sequence and comparative genomic analysis of ARP subfamilies. A high-quality multiple alignment of approximately 700 complete protein sequences homologous to actin, including 148 ARP sequences, allowed us to extend the ARP classification to new organisms. Sequence alignments revealed conserved residues, motifs, and inserted sequence signatures to define each ARP subfamily. These discriminative characteristics allowed us to develop ARPAnno (http://bips.u-strasbg.fr/ARPAnno), a new web server dedicated to the annotation of ARP sequences. Analyses of sequence conservation among actins and ARPs highlight part of the actin fold and suggest interactions between ARPs and actin-binding proteins. Finally, analysis of ARP distribution across eukaryotic phyla emphasizes the central importance of nuclear ARPs, particularly the multifunctional ARP4. PMID:16195354

  9. Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Prachee; Onishi, Masayuki; Karpiak, Joel; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Mackinder, Luke; Jonikas, Martin C; Sale, Winfield S; Shoichet, Brian; Pringle, John R; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-09-01

    Assembly of cilia and flagella requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly regulated kinesin-based transport system that moves cargo from the basal body to the tip of flagella [1]. The recruitment of IFT components to basal bodies is a function of flagellar length, with increased recruitment in rapidly growing short flagella [2]. The molecular pathways regulating IFT are largely a mystery. Because actin network disruption leads to changes in ciliary length and number, actin has been proposed to have a role in ciliary assembly. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, conventional actin is found in both the cell body and the inner dynein arm complexes within flagella [3, 4]. Previous work showed that treating Chlamydomonas cells with the actin-depolymerizing compound cytochalasin D resulted in reversible flagellar shortening [5], but how actin is related to flagellar length or assembly remains unknown. Here we utilize small-molecule inhibitors and genetic mutants to analyze the role of actin dynamics in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that actin plays a role in IFT recruitment to basal bodies during flagellar elongation and that when actin is perturbed, the normal dependence of IFT recruitment on flagellar length is lost. We also find that actin is required for sufficient entry of IFT material into flagella during assembly. These same effects are recapitulated with a myosin inhibitor, suggesting that actin may act via myosin in a pathway by which flagellar assembly is regulated by flagellar length. PMID:25155506

  10. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation

  11. Actin turnover is required to prevent axon retraction driven by endogenous actomyosin contractility

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Gianluca; Yee, Hal F.; Letourneau, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    Growth cone motility and guidance depend on the dynamic reorganization of filamentous actin (F-actin). In the growth cone, F-actin undergoes turnover, which is the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. However, the function of F-actin turnover is not clear. We used jasplakinolide (jasp), a cell-permeable macrocyclic peptide that inhibits F-actin turnover, to study the role of F-actin turnover in axon extension. Treatment with jasp caused axon retraction, demonstrating that axon ...

  12. Isolation of a 5-kilodalton actin-sequestering peptide from human blood platelets.

    OpenAIRE

    Safer, D; Golla, R; Nachmias, V T

    1990-01-01

    Resting human platelets contain approximately 0.3 mM unpolymerized actin. When freshly drawn and washed platelets are treated with saponin, 85-90% of the unpolymerized actin diffuses out. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions shows that the bulk of this unpolymerized actin migrates with a higher mobility than does pure G-actin, profilactin, or actin-gelsolin complex. When muscle G-actin is added to fresh or boiled saponin extract, the added muscle actin...

  13. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation and subcellular localization of trypanosomatid cytoskeletal giant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, M M; Milder, R; Mortara, R A; Pudles, J

    2000-09-01

    Promastigote forms of Phytomonas serpens, Leptomonas samueli, and Leishmania tarentolae express cytoskeletal giant proteins with apparent molecular masses of 3,500 kDa (Ps 3500), 2,500 kDa (Ls 2500), and 1,200 kDa (Lt 1200), respectively. Polyclonal antibodies to Lt 1200 and to Ps 3500 specifically recognize similar polypeptides of the same genera of parasite. In addition to reacting with giant polypeptides of the Leptomonas species, anti-Ls 2500 also cross reacts with Ps 3500, and with a 500-kDa polypeptide of Leishmania. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy showed major differences in topological distribution of these three proteins, though they partially share a common localization at the anterior end of the cell body skeleton. Furthermore, Ps 3500, Ls 2500, and Lt 1200 are in vivo phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, whereas, in vitro phosphorylation of cytoskeletal fractions reveal that only Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 are phosphorylated. Heat treatment (100 degrees C) of high salt cytoskeletal extracts demonstrates that Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 remain stable in solution, whereas Lt 1200 is denatured. Kinase assays with immunocomplexes of heat-treated giant proteins show that only Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 are phosphorylated. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel class of megadalton phosphoproteins in promastigote forms of trypanosomatids that appear to be genera specific with distinct cytoskeletal functions. In addition, there is also evidence that Ps 3500 and Ls 2500, in contrast to Lt 1200, seem to be autophosphorylating serine and threonine protein kinases, suggesting that they might play regulatory roles in the cytoskeletal organization. PMID:11002308

  14. Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells’ osteogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai IC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I-Chun Tai,1–3 Yao-Hsien Wang,3 Chung-Hwan Chen,3,4 Shu-Chun Chuang,3 Je-Ken Chang,3–5 Mei-Ling Ho1–3,6 1Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 6Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen UniVersity, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Recent studies have indicated that statins induce osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of statin-stimulated osteogenesis is unknown. Activation of RhoA signaling increases cytoskeletal tension, which plays a crucial role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We thus hypothesized that RhoA signaling is involved in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We found that although treatment with simvastatin shifts localization of RhoA protein from the membrane to the cytosol, the treatment still activates RhoA dose-dependently because it reduces the association with RhoGDIα. Simvastatin also increased the expression of osteogenic proteins, density of actin filament, the number of focal adhesions, and cellular tension. Furthermore, disrupting actin cytoskeleton or decreasing cell rigidity by using chemical agents reduced simvastatin-induced osteogenic differentiation. In vivo study also confirms that density of actin filament is increased in simvastatin-induced ectopic bone formation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that maintaining intact actin cytoskeletons and enhancing cell rigidity are crucial in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis. The results suggested that simvastatin, which is an

  15. Steric effects induce geometric remodeling of actin bundles in filopodia

    CERN Document Server

    Dobramysl, Ulrich; Erban, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Filopodia are ubiquitous fingerlike protrusions, spawned by many eukaryotic cells, to probe and interact with their environments. Polymerization dynamics of actin filaments, comprising the structural core of filopodia, largely determine their instantaneous lengths and overall lifetimes. The polymerization reactions at the filopodial tip require transport of G-actin, which enter the filopodial tube from the filopodial base and diffuse toward the filament barbed ends near the tip. Actin filaments are mechanically coupled into a tight bundle by cross-linker proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins are relatively short, restricting the free diffusion of cytosolic G-actin throughout the bundle and, in particular, its penetration into the bundle core. To investigate the effect of steric restrictions on G-actin diffusion by the porous structure of filopodial actin filament bundle, we used a particle-based stochastic simulation approach. We discovered that excluded volume interactions result in partial and the...

  16. Capping complex formation at the slow-growing end of the actin filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukova, A S

    2008-12-01

    Actin filaments are polar; their barbed (fast-growing) and pointed (slow-growing) ends differ in structure and dynamic properties. The slow-growing end is regulated by tropomodulins, a family of capping proteins that require tropomyosins for optimal function. There are four tropomodulin isoforms; their distributions vary depending on tissue type and change during development. The C-terminal half of tropomodulin contains one compact domain represented by alternating alpha-helices and beta-structures. The tropomyosin-independent actin-capping site is located at the C-terminus. The N-terminal half has no regular structure; however, it contains a tropomyosin-dependent actin-capping site and two tropomyosin-binding sites. One tropomodulin molecule can bind two tropomyosin molecules. Effectiveness of tropomodulin binding to tropomyosin depends on the tropomyosin isoform. Regulation of tropomodulin binding at the pointed end as well as capping effectiveness in the presence of specific tropomyosins may affect formation of local cytoskeleton and dynamics of actin filaments in cells. PMID:19216712

  17. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    OpenAIRE

    Bekyarova, T. I.; Reedy, M C; Baumann, B. A. J.; Tregear, R T; Ward, A; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R. J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T C; Reedy, M K

    2008-01-01

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the “steric blocking” mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca2+ with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence...

  18. Actin gene expression in developing sea urchin embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Crain, W R; Durica, D S; Van Doren, K

    1981-01-01

    We show that the synthesis of actin is regulated developmentally during early sea urchin embryogenesis and that the level of synthesis of this protein parallels the steady-state amounts of the actin messenger ribonucleic acids (RNA). An in vitro translation and RNA blotting analysis of embryo RNA from several stages of early development indicated that during the first 8 h after fertilization there was a low and relatively constant level of actin messenger RNA in the embryo. Between 8 and 13 h...

  19. Myosin phosphorylation triggers actin polymerization in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuesong; Pavlish, Kristin; Benoit, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of contractile stimuli increases actin polymerization, which is essential for smooth muscle contraction. However, the mechanism(s) of actin polymerization associated with smooth muscle contraction is not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that phosphorylated myosin triggers actin polymerization. The present study was conducted in isolated intact or β-escin-permeabilized rat small mesenteric arteries. Reductions in the 20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) phosphorylat...

  20. Calcium-Actin Waves and Oscillations of Cellular Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Veksler, Alex; Gov, Nir S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for the formation of membrane oscillations and traveling waves, which arise due to the coupling between the actin cytoskeleton and the calcium flux through the membrane. In our model, the fluid cell membrane has a mobile but constant population of proteins with a convex spontaneous curvature, which act as nucleators of actin polymerization and adhesion. Such a continuum model couples the forces of cell-substrate adhesion, actin polymerization, membrane curvature, and th...

  1. An ADP-Ribosylation Factor GTPase-activating Protein Git2-short/KIAA0148 Is Involved in Subcellular Localization of Paxillin and Actin Cytoskeletal Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mazaki, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Okawa, Katsuya; Tsubouchi, Asako; Nakamura, Kuniaki; Yagi, Ryohei; Yano, Hajime; Kondo, Akiko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Mizoguchi, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka

    2001-01-01

    Paxillin acts as an adaptor protein in integrin signaling. We have shown that paxillin exists in a relatively large cytoplasmic pool, including perinuclear areas, in addition to focal complexes formed at the cell periphery and focal adhesions formed underneath the cell. Several ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs; ARFGAPs) have been shown to associate with paxillin. We report here that Git2-short/KIAA0148 exhibits properties of a paxillin...

  2. Gene Related to Anergy in Lymphocytes (GRAIL) Expression in CD4+ T Cells Impairs Actin Cytoskeletal Organization during T Cell/Antigen-presenting Cell Interactions*

    OpenAIRE

    Schartner, Jill M.; Simonson, William T; Wernimont, Sarah A.; Nettenstrom, Lauren M.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Seroogy, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with increased expression in anergic CD4+ T cells. The expression of GRAIL has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for the induction of T cell (T) anergy. To date, several subsets of anergic T cells have demonstrated altered interactions with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and perturbed TCR-mediated signaling. The role of GRAIL in mediating these aspects of T cell anergy remains unclear. We used flow cytometry...

  3. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts grown in

  4. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts

  5. Immunocytochemical identification of actin in mitochondria of Physarum polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from the plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum Schw. are reacted with rabbit anti-actin antibody, and detected with FITC-conjugated sheep anti-rabbit IgG antibody. The results of indirect immunofluorescence show that actin exists in the mitochondria. Western blot analysis confirms the existence of actin in the protein preparation of the mitochondria. The indirect immunoelectron microscopic observation using the same antibodies verifies further that actin is the constituents of mitochondria, and it is dispersively distributed in the mitochondria of P. polycephalum.

  6. Actin polymerisation at the cytoplasmic face of eukaryotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Watine Brigitte

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised in living interphase cells. Results Using a fluorescent conjugate of the actin binding drug cytochalasin D (CD-BODIPY we provide evidence that polymerising actin accumulates in vicinity to the NE. In addition, both transiently expressed fluorescent actin and cytoplasmic micro-injection of fluorescent actin resulted in accumulation of actin at the NE-membrane. Consistent with the idea that the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes can support this novel pool of perinuclear actin polymerisation we show that isolated, intact, differentiated primary hepatocyte nuclei support actin polymerisation in vitro. Further this phenomenon was inhibited by treatments hindering steric access to outer-nuclear-membrane proteins (e.g. wheat germ agglutinin, anti-nesprin and anti-nucleoporin antibodies. Conclusion We conclude that actin polymerisation occurs around interphase nuclei of living cells at the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes.

  7. Shape Changes of Self-Assembled Actin Bilayer Composite Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, W; Sackmann, E

    1997-01-01

    We report the self-assembly of thin actin shells beneath the membranes of giant vesicles. Ion-carrier mediated influx of Mg2+ induces actin polymerization in the initially spherical vesicles. Buckling of the vesicles and the formation of blisters after thermally induced bilayer expansion is demonstrated. Bilayer flickering is dominated by tension generated by its coupling to the actin cortex. Quantitative flicker analysis suggests the bilayer and the actin cortex are separated by 0.4 \\mum to 0.5 \\mum due to undulation forces.

  8. An unconventional form of actin in protozoan hemoflagellate, Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Prabodh; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mitra, Kalyan; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2008-08-15

    Leishmania actin was cloned, overexpressed in baculovirus-insect cell system, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein polymerized optimally in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP, but differed from conventional actins in its following properties: (i) it did not polymerize in the presence of Mg2+ alone, (ii) it polymerized in a restricted range of pH 7.0-8.5, (iii) its critical concentration for polymerization was found to be 3-4-fold lower than of muscle actin, (iv) it predominantly formed bundles rather than single filaments at pH 8.0, (v) it displayed considerably higher ATPase activity during polymerization, (vi) it did not inhibit DNase-I activity, and (vii) it did not bind the F-actin-binding toxin phalloidin or the actin polymerization disrupting agent Latrunculin B. Computational and molecular modeling studies revealed that the observed unconventional behavior of Leishmania actin is related to the diverged amino acid stretches in its sequence, which may lead to changes in the overall charge distribution on its solvent-exposed surface, ATP binding cleft, Mg2+ binding sites, and the hydrophobic loop that is involved in monomer-monomer interactions. Phylogenetically, it is related to ciliate actins, but to the best of our knowledge, no other actin with such unconventional properties has been reported to date. It is therefore suggested that actin in Leishmania may serve as a novel target for design of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:18539603

  9. Dynamic buckling of actin within filopodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, Natascha; Oddershede, Lene B; Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Filopodia are active tubular structures protruding from the cell surface which allow the cell to sense and interact with the surrounding environment through repetitive elongation-retraction cycles. The mechanical behavior of filopodia has been studied by measuring the traction forces exerted on...... external substrates.(1) These studies have revealed that internal actin flow can transduce a force across the cell surface through transmembrane linkers like integrins. In addition to the elongation-retraction behavior filopodia also exhibit a buckling and rotational behavior. Filopodial buckling in...

  10. Actin re-organization induced by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D--evidence for a critical role of the effector protein CT166 targeting Rac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Thalmann

    Full Text Available The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed in elementary bodies of C. trachomatis D and is detected in the host-cell shortly after infection. Infection with high MOI of C. trachomatis serovar D containing the CT166 ORF induces actin re-organization resulting in cell rounding and a decreased cell diameter. A comparable phenotype was observed in HeLa cells treated with the Rho-GTPase-glucosylating Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB or HeLa cells ectopically expressing CT166. CT166 with a mutated DXD-motif (CT166-mut exhibited almost unchanged actin dynamics, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosyltransferase motif of CT166. The cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 from E. coli deamidates and thereby activates Rho-GTPases and transiently protects them against TcdB-induced glucosylation. CNF1-treated cells were found to be protected from TcdB- and CT166-induced actin re-organization. CNF1 treatment as well as ectopic expression of non-glucosylable Rac1-G12V, but not RhoA-G14A, reverted CT166-induced actin re-organization, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosylation of Rac1. In accordance, over-expression of CT166-mut diminished TcdB induced cell rounding, suggesting shared substrates. Cell rounding induced by high MOI infection with C. trachomatis D was reduced in cells expressing CT166-mut or Rac1-G12V, and in CNF1 treated cells. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of C. trachomatis D is mediated by CT166 induced Rac1 glucosylation

  11. A novel method to study the electrodynamic behavior of actin filaments. Evidence for cable-like properties of actin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, E C; Cantiello, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Actin, one of the most abundant intracellular proteins, forms long linear polyelectrolytic polymers in solution. A novel technique to handle single actin filaments in solution was developed that allows the study of ionic currents elicited along the surface of electrically stimulated actin filaments. Electrical currents were observed about the polymer's surface under both high (100 mM KCl) and low (1 mM KCl) ionic strength conditions. The data are consistent with a dynamic behavior of the coun...

  12. Interactions between the Yeast SM22 Homologue Scp1 and Actin Demonstrate the Importance of Actin Bundling in Endocytosis* S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe, Dana M.; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Rooij, Iwona I. Smaczynska-de; Allwood, Ellen G.; Winder, Steve J.; Ayscough, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast SM22 homologue Scp1 has previously been shown to act as an actin-bundling protein in vitro. In cells, Scp1 localizes to the cortical actin patches that form as part of the invagination process during endocytosis, and its function overlaps with that of the well characterized yeast fimbrin homologue Sac6p. In this work we have used live cell imaging to demonstrate the importance of key residues in the Scp1 actin interface. We have defined two actin binding domains within Scp1 that all...

  13. Plasmin enzymatic activity in the presence of actin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusova E. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the changes in the plasmin activity towards substrates with high and low molecular mass in the presence of actin. Methods. The proteins used for this investigation were obtained by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration. The plasmin enzymatic activity was determined by a turbidimetric assay and a chromogenic substrate-based assay. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and biotin-avidin-phosphatase system were used to study the interaction of plasminogen and its fragments with actin. Results. It was shown that G-actin causes 1.5-fold decrease in the rate of polymeric fibrin hydrolysis by plasmin and Glu-plasminogen activated by the tissue plasminogen activator. However, actin did not impede plasmin autolysis and had no influence on its amidase activity. We have studied an interaction of biotinylated Glu-plasminogen and its fragments (kringle 1-3, kringle 4 and mini-plasminogen with immobilized G-actin. Glu-plasminogen and kringle 4 had a high affinity towards actin (C50 is 113 and 117 nM correspondingly. Mini-plasminogen and kringe 4 did not bind to actin. A similar affinity of Glu-plasminogen and kringle 1-3 towards actin proves the involvement of the kringle 1-3 lysine-binding sites of the native plasminogen form in the actin interaction. Conclusions. Actin can modulate plasmin specificity towards high molecular mass substrates through its interaction with lysine-binding sites of the enzyme kringle domains. Actin inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin is due to its competition with fibrin for thelysine binding sites of plasminogen/plasmin.

  14. Computational analysis of viscoelastic properties of crosslinked actin networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyoon Kim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical force plays an important role in the physiology of eukaryotic cells whose dominant structural constituent is the actin cytoskeleton composed mainly of actin and actin crosslinking proteins (ACPs. Thus, knowledge of rheological properties of actin networks is crucial for understanding the mechanics and processes of cells. We used Brownian dynamics simulations to study the viscoelasticity of crosslinked actin networks. Two methods were employed, bulk rheology and segment-tracking rheology, where the former measures the stress in response to an applied shear strain, and the latter analyzes thermal fluctuations of individual actin segments of the network. It was demonstrated that the storage shear modulus (G' increases more by the addition of ACPs that form orthogonal crosslinks than by those that form parallel bundles. In networks with orthogonal crosslinks, as crosslink density increases, the power law exponent of G' as a function of the oscillation frequency decreases from 0.75, which reflects the transverse thermal motion of actin filaments, to near zero at low frequency. Under increasing prestrain, the network becomes more elastic, and three regimes of behavior are observed, each dominated by different mechanisms: bending of actin filaments, bending of ACPs, and at the highest prestrain tested (55%, stretching of actin filaments and ACPs. In the last case, only a small portion of actin filaments connected via highly stressed ACPs support the strain. We thus introduce the concept of a 'supportive framework,' as a subset of the full network, which is responsible for high elasticity. Notably, entropic effects due to thermal fluctuations appear to be important only at relatively low prestrains and when the average crosslinking distance is comparable to or greater than the persistence length of the filament. Taken together, our results suggest that viscoelasticity of the actin network is attributable to different mechanisms depending on

  15. Actin cytoskeleton regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition in metastatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is associated with loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions as well as with acquisition of migratory properties including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of the RhoA GTPase. Here we show that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton of various metastatic cancer cell lines with Cytochalasin D (Cyt D reduces cell size and F-actin levels and induces E-cadherin expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Induction of E-cadherin was dose dependent and paralleled loss of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. E-cadherin levels increased 2 hours after addition of Cyt D in cells showing an E-cadherin mRNA response but only after 10-12 hours in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 cells in which E-cadherin mRNA level were only minimally affected by Cyt D. Cyt D treatment induced the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of EMT-associated SNAI 1 and SMAD1/2/3 transcription factors. In non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, that express E-cadherin and represent a cancer cell model for EMT, actin depolymerization with Cyt D induced elevated E-cadherin while actin stabilization with Jasplakinolide reduced E-cadherin levels. Elevated E-cadherin levels due to Cyt D were associated with reduced activation of Rho A. Expression of dominant-negative Rho A mutant increased and dominant-active Rho A mutant decreased E-cadherin levels and also prevented Cyt D induction of E-cadherin. Reduced Rho A activation downstream of actin remodelling therefore induces E-cadherin and reverses EMT in cancer cells. Cyt D treatment inhibited migration and, at higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity of both HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and normal Hs27 fibroblasts, but only induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HT-1080 cancer cells. Our studies suggest that actin remodelling is an upstream regulator of EMT in metastatic cancer cells.

  16. ICAM-2 expression mediates a membrane-actin link, confers a nonmetastatic phenotype and reflects favorable tumor stage or histology in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Jin Yoon

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a primary determinant of tumor cell motility and metastatic potential. Motility and metastasis are thought to be regulated, in large part, by the interaction of membrane proteins with cytoplasmic linker proteins and of these linker proteins, in turn, with actin. However, complete membrane-to-actin linkages have been difficult to identify. We used co-immunoprecipitation and competitive peptide assays to show that intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2/alpha-actinin/actin may comprise such a linkage in neuroblastoma cells. ICAM-2 expression limited the motility of these cells and redistributed actin fibers in vitro, and suppressed development of disseminated tumors in an in vivo model of metastatic neuroblastoma. Consistent with these observations, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated ICAM-2 expression in primary neuroblastoma tumors exhibiting features that are associated with limited metastatic disease and more favorable clinical outcome. In neuroblastoma cell lines, ICAM-2 expression did not affect AKT activation, tumorigenic potential or chemosensitivity, as has been reported for some types of transfected cells. The observed ICAM-2-mediated suppression of metastatic phenotype is a novel function for this protein, and the interaction of ICAM-2/alpha-actinin/actin represents the first complete membrane-linker protein-actin linkage to impact tumor cell motility in vitro and metastatic potential in an in vivo model. Current work focuses on identifying specific protein domains critical to the regulation of neuroblastoma cell motility and metastasis and on determining if these domains represent exploitable therapeutic targets.

  17. The cortical actin determines different susceptibility of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanyer, Marc; Pauls, Eduardo; Badia, Roger; Esté, José A; Ballana, Ester

    2013-01-01

    Memory CD4+ T cells are preferentially infected by HIV-1 compared to naïve cells. HIV-1 fusion and entry is a dynamic process in which the cytoskeleton plays an important role by allowing virion internalization and uncoating. Here, we evaluate the role of the cortical actin in cell-to-cell transfer of virus antigens and infection of target CD4+ T cells. Using different actin remodeling compounds we demonstrate that efficiency of HIV-internalization was proportional to the actin polymerization of the target cell. Naïve (CD45RA+) and memory (CD45RA-) CD4+ T cells could be phenotypically differentiated by the degree of cortical actin density and their capacity to capture virus. Thus, the higher cortical actin density of memory CD4+ T cells was associated to increased efficiency of HIV-antigen internalization and the establishment of a productive infection. Conversely, the lower cortical actin density in naïve CD4+ T cells restricted viral antigen transfer and consequently HIV-1 infection. In conclusion, the cortical actin density differentially affects the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in naïve and memory CD4+ T cells by modulating the efficiency of HIV antigen internalization. PMID:24244453

  18. γ-Diketone Axonopathy: Analyses of Cytoskeletal Motors and Highways in CNS Myelinated Axons

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P; LoPachin, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in ...

  19. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter. Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively, such as elemental carbon (EC90, commercial carbon (Printex 90, diesel particulate matter (DEP and urban dust (UD, were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Bočina, Ivana; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2006-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to mi...

  1. Deafness and espin-actin self-organization in stereocilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2009-03-01

    Espins are F-actin-bundling proteins associated with large parallel actin bundles found in hair cell stereocilia in the ear, as well as brush border microvilli and Sertoli cell junctions. We examine actin bundle structures formed by different wild-type espin isoforms, fragments, and naturally-occurring human espin mutants linked to deafness and/or vestibular dysfunction. The espin-actin bundle structure consisted of a hexagonal arrangement of parallel actin filaments in a non-native twist state. We delineate the structural consequences caused by mutations in espin's actin-bundling module. For espin mutation with a severely damaged actin-bundling module, which are implicated in deafness in mice and humans, oriented nematic-like actin filament structures, which strongly impinges on bundle mechanical stiffness. Finally, we examine what makes espin different, via a comparative study of bundles formed by espin and those formed by fascin, a prototypical bundling protein found in functionally different regions of the cell, such as filopodia.

  2. G-actin guides p53 nuclear transport: potential contribution of monomeric actin in altered localization of mutant p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Taniya; Guha, Deblina; Manna, Argha; Panda, Abir Kumar; Bhat, Jyotsna; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2016-01-01

    p53 preserves genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. Till date, limited information is available for cytosol to nuclear shuttling of p53; except microtubule-based trafficking route, which utilizes minus-end directed motor dynein. The present study suggests that monomeric actin (G-actin) guides p53 traffic towards the nucleus. Histidine-tag pull-down assay using purified p53(1–393)-His and G-actin confirms direct physical association between p53 and monomeric G-actin. Co-immunoprecipitation data supports the same. Confocal imaging explores intense perinuclear colocalization between p53 and G-actin. To address atomistic details of the complex, constraint-based docked model of p53:G-actin complex was generated based on crystal structures. MD simulation reveals that p53 DNA-binding domain arrests very well the G-actin protein. Docking benchmark studies have been carried out for a known crystal structure, 1YCS (complex between p53DBD and BP2), which validates the docking protocol we adopted. Co-immunoprecipitation study using “hot-spot” p53 mutants suggested reduced G-actin association with cancer-associated p53 conformational mutants (R175H and R249S). Considering these findings, we hypothesized that point mutation in p53 structure, which diminishes p53:G-actin complexation results in mutant p53 altered subcellular localization. Our model suggests p53Arg249 form polar-contact with Arg357 of G-actin, which upon mutation, destabilizes p53:G-actin interaction and results in cytoplasmic retention of p53R249S. PMID:27601274

  3. G-actin guides p53 nuclear transport: potential contribution of monomeric actin in altered localization of mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Taniya; Guha, Deblina; Manna, Argha; Panda, Abir Kumar; Bhat, Jyotsna; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2016-01-01

    p53 preserves genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. Till date, limited information is available for cytosol to nuclear shuttling of p53; except microtubule-based trafficking route, which utilizes minus-end directed motor dynein. The present study suggests that monomeric actin (G-actin) guides p53 traffic towards the nucleus. Histidine-tag pull-down assay using purified p53(1-393)-His and G-actin confirms direct physical association between p53 and monomeric G-actin. Co-immunoprecipitation data supports the same. Confocal imaging explores intense perinuclear colocalization between p53 and G-actin. To address atomistic details of the complex, constraint-based docked model of p53:G-actin complex was generated based on crystal structures. MD simulation reveals that p53 DNA-binding domain arrests very well the G-actin protein. Docking benchmark studies have been carried out for a known crystal structure, 1YCS (complex between p53DBD and BP2), which validates the docking protocol we adopted. Co-immunoprecipitation study using "hot-spot" p53 mutants suggested reduced G-actin association with cancer-associated p53 conformational mutants (R175H and R249S). Considering these findings, we hypothesized that point mutation in p53 structure, which diminishes p53:G-actin complexation results in mutant p53 altered subcellular localization. Our model suggests p53Arg249 form polar-contact with Arg357 of G-actin, which upon mutation, destabilizes p53:G-actin interaction and results in cytoplasmic retention of p53R249S. PMID:27601274

  4. Identification of paralogous life-cycle stage specific cytoskeletal proteins in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Portman

    Full Text Available The life cycle of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, is characterised by a transition between insect and mammalian hosts representing very different environments that present the parasite with very different challenges. These challenges are met by the expression of life-cycle stage-specific cohorts of proteins, which function in systems such as metabolism and immune evasion. These life-cycle transitions are also accompanied by morphological rearrangements orchestrated by microtubule dynamics and associated proteins of the subpellicular microtubule array. Here we employed a gel-based comparative proteomic technique, Difference Gel Electrophoresis, to identify cytoskeletal proteins that are expressed differentially in mammalian infective and insect form trypanosomes. From this analysis we identified a pair of novel, paralogous proteins, one of which is expressed in the procyclic form and the other in the bloodstream form. We show that these proteins, CAP51 and CAP51V, localise to the subpellicular corset of microtubules and are essential for correct organisation of the cytoskeleton and successful cytokinesis in their respective life cycle stages. We demonstrate for the first time redundancy of function between life-cycle stage specific paralogous sets in the cytoskeleton and reveal modification of cytoskeletal components in situ prior to their removal during differentiation from the bloodstream form to the insect form. These specific results emphasise a more generic concept that the trypanosome genome encodes a cohort of cytoskeletal components that are present in at least two forms with life-cycle stage-specific expression.

  5. Ultrastructural appearance and cytoskeletal architecture of the clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerharz, C D; Moll, R.; Störkel, S.; Ramp, U; Thoenes, W.; Gabbert, H E

    1993-01-01

    The clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma have been defined as distinct morphological entities and can be clearly separated by differences of ultrastructural appearance, cytoskeletal architecture, enzyme synthesis, and cytogenetic aberrations. In this report, the cytomorphological aspects of these tumor types are compared in vitro, showing that essential ultrastructural and cytoskeletal characteristics of each tumor type are expressed even after prolonged in...

  6. Membrane waves driven by forces from actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane waves propagating along the cell circumference in a top down view have been observed with several eukaryotic cells (Döbereiner et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 10; Machacek and Danuser 2006 Biophys. J. 90 1439–52). We present a mathematical model reproducing these traveling membrane undulations during lamellipodial motility of cells on flat substrates. The model describes the interplay of pushing forces exerted by actin polymerization on the membrane, pulling forces of attached actin filaments on the cell edge, contractile forces powered by molecular motors across the actin gel and resisting membrane tension. The actin filament network in the bulk of lamellipodia obeys gel flow equations. We investigated in particular the dependence of wave properties on gel parameters and found that inhibition of myosin motors abolishes waves in some cells but not in others in agreement with experimental observations. The model provides a unifying mechanism explaining the dynamics of actin-based motility in a variety of systems. (paper)

  7. Protein Kinases Possibly Mediate Hypergravity-Induced Changes in F-Actin Expression by Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Felisha D.; Melhado, Caroline D.; Bosah, Francis N.; Harris-Hooker, Sandra A.; Sanford, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    Basic cellular functions such as electrolyte concentration, cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation, and exocytosis are modified in microgravity. These studies indicate that microgravity affects a number of physiological systems and included in this are cell signaling mechanisms. Rijken and coworkers performed growth factor studies that showed PKC signaling and actin microfilament organization appears to be sensitive to microgravity, suggesting that the inhibition of signal transduction by microgravity may be related to alterations in actin microfilament organization. However, similar studies have not been done for vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in providing nutrients to organ and tissues and in wound repair. The major deterrent to ground-based microgravity studies is that it is impossible to achieved true microgravity for longer than a few minutes on earth. Hence, it has not been possible to conduct prolonged microgravity studies except for two models that simulate certain aspects of microgravity. However, hypergravity is quite easily achieved. Several researchers have shown that hypergravity will increase the proliferation of several different cell lines while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy, These studies indicate the hypergravity also alters the behavior of most cells. Several investigators have shown that hypergravity affects the activation of several protein kinases (PKs) in cells. In this study, we investigated whether hypergravity alters the expression of f-actin by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the role of PK's (calmodulin 11 dependent, PKA and PKC) as mediators of these effects.

  8. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  9. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismondi A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Gismondi,1 Valentina Nanni,1 Giacomo Reina,2 Silvia Orlanducci,2 Maria Letizia Terranova,2 Antonella Canini1 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Abstract: For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. Keywords: citropten, cytoskeletal structure, plant secondary metabolite, melanoma, internalization kinetics

  10. Human Muscle LIM Protein Dimerizes along the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cross-Links Actin Filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Céline; Moreau, Flora; Moes, Michèle; Luthold, Carole; Dieterle, Monika; Goretti, Emeline; Neumann, Katrin; Steinmetz, André; Thomas, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein playing important roles in the regulation of myocyte remodeling and adaptation to hypertrophic stimuli. Missense mutations in human MLP or its ablation in transgenic mice promotes cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The exact function(s) of MLP in the cytoplasmic compartment and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that MLP autonomously binds to, stabilizes, and bundles actin f...

  11. Titin-Actin Interaction: PEVK-Actin-Based Viscosity in a Large Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin exhibits an interaction between its PEVK segment and the actin filament resulting in viscosity, a speed dependent resistive force, which significantly influences diastolic filling in mice. While diastolic disease is clinically pervasive, humans express a more compliant titin (N2BA:N2B ratio ~0.5–1.0 than mice (N2BA:N2B ratio ~0.2. To examine PEVK-actin based viscosity in compliant titin-tissues, we used pig cardiac tissue that expresses titin isoforms similar to that in humans. Stretch-hold experiments were performed at speeds from 0.1 to 10 lengths/s from slack sarcomere lengths (SL to SL of 2.15 μm. Viscosity was calculated from the slope of stress-relaxation vs stretch speed. Recombinant PEVK was added to compete off native interactions and this found to reduce the slope by 35%, suggesting that PEVK-actin interactions are a strong contributor of viscosity. Frequency sweeps were performed at frequencies of 0.1–400 Hz and recombinant protein reduced viscous moduli by 40% at 2.15 μm and by 50% at 2.25 μm, suggesting a SL-dependent nature of viscosity that might prevent SL ``overshoot’’ at long diastolic SLs. This study is the first to show that viscosity is present at physiologic speeds in the pig and supports the physiologic relevance of PEVK-actin interactions in humans in both health and disease.

  12. Cloning and characterization of an actin gene of Chlamys farreri and the phylogenetic analysis of mollusk actins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An actin gene (CfACT1) was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3' and 5'RACE from hemocytes of the sea scallop Chlamys farreri. The full length of the transcript is 1535 bp, which contains a long 3' un-translated region of 436bp and 59bp of a 5' un-translated sequence. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 376 amino acids. Sequence comparisons indicated that CfACT1 is more closely related to vertebrate cytoplasmic actins than muscle types. Phylogenetic analysis showed that molluscan actins could be generally divided into two categories: muscle and cytoplasmic, although both are similar to vertebrate cytoplasmic actins. It was also inferred that different isotypes existed in muscle or cytoplasma in mollusks. The genomic sequence of CfACT1 was cloned and sequenced. Only one intron was detected:it was located between codons 42 and 43 and different from vertebrate actin genes.

  13. Concentration profiles of actin-binding molecules in lamellipodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Motile cells form lamellipodia in the direction of motion, which are flat membrane protrusions containing an actin filament network. The network flows rearward relative to the leading edge of the lamellipodium due to actin polymerization at the front. Thus, actin binding molecules are subject to transport towards the rear of the cell in the bound state and diffuse freely in the unbound state. We analyze this reaction-diffusion-advection process with respect to the concentration profiles of these species and provide an analytic approximation for them. Network flow may cause a depletion zone of actin binding molecules close to the leading edge. The existence of such zone depends on the free molecule concentration in the cell body, on the ratio of the diffusion length to the distance bound molecules travel rearward with the flow before dissociating, and the ratio of the diffusion length to the width of the region with network flow and actin binding. Our calculations suggest the existence of depletion zones for the F-actin cross-linkers filamin and α-actinin in fish keratocytes (and other cell types), which is in line with the small elastic moduli of the F-actin network close to the leading edge found in measurements of the force motile cells are able to exert.

  14. Staining Fission Yeast Filamentous Actin with Fluorescent Phalloidin Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe filamentous (F)-actin cytoskeleton drives cell growth, morphogenesis, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. The protocol described here reveals the distribution of F-actin in fixed cells through the use of fluorescently conjugated phalloidin. Simultaneous staining of cell wall landmarks (with calcofluor) and chromatin (with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, or DAPI) makes this rapid staining procedure highly effective for staging cell cycle progression, monitoring morphogenetic abnormalities, and assessing the impact of environmental and genetic changes on the integrity of the F-actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27250943

  15. Pharmacotherapeutic management of actinic keratosis: focus on newer topical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrao, Aman; Cockerell, Clay J

    2013-08-01

    Actinic (solar) keratoses (AK) have the potential for malignant transformation and are the second most common diagnosis in dermatologic practices. No well-established clinical criteria are available to determine which AK are more likely to undergo malignant transformation; therefore, many dermatologists utilize field-directed approaches to treat all visible and subclinical AK on an affected skin surface. Current topical therapeutic agents require lengthy treatment regimens and are less well tolerated than many newer and investigational agents. We review and compare the efficacy and tolerability of well-established topical agents for the management of AK in the United States including 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod 5% cream as well as the newer 2.5 and 3.75% formulations, diclofenac 3% gel, photodynamic therapy, and the recently approved ingenol mebutate gel and discuss the therapeutic potential of investigational agents. Cryotherapy and 5-fluorouracil are efficacious at treating AK but less tolerable than imiquimod cream, particularly at its lower concentrations. The newer agents, diclofenac gel and ingenol mebutate, appear to be more tolerable than cryotherapy and 5- fluorouracil; however, comparative studies regarding efficacy are not available. PMID:23640424

  16. Live cell imaging of the assembly, disassembly, and actin cable–dependent movement of endosomes and actin patches in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Huckaba, Thomas M.; Gay, Anna Card; Pantalena, Luiz Fernando; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Liza A Pon

    2004-01-01

    Using FM4-64 to label endosomes and Abp1p-GFP or Sac6p-GFP to label actin patches, we find that (1) endosomes colocalize with actin patches as they assemble at the bud cortex; (2) endosomes colocalize with actin patches as they undergo linear, retrograde movement from buds toward mother cells; and (3) actin patches interact with and disassemble at FM4-64–labeled internal compartments. We also show that retrograde flow of actin cables mediates retrograde actin patch movement. An Arp2/3 complex...

  17. The Stereociliary Paracrystal Is a Dynamic Cytoskeletal Scaffold In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philsang Hwang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Permanency of mechanosensory stereocilia may be the consequence of low protein turnover or rapid protein renewal. Here, we devise a system, using optical techniques in live zebrafish, to distinguish between these mechanisms. We demonstrate that the stereocilium’s abundant actin cross-linker fascin 2b exchanges, without bias or a phosphointermediate, orders of magnitude faster (t1/2 of 76.3 s than any other known hair bundle protein. To establish the logic of fascin 2b’s exchange, we examine whether filamentous actin is dynamic and detect substantial β-actin exchange within the stereocilium’s paracrystal (t1/2 of 4.08 hr. We propose that fascin 2b’s behavior may enable cross-linking at fast timescales of stereocilia vibration while noninstructively facilitating the slower process of actin exchange. Furthermore, tip protein myosin XVa fully exchanges in hours (t1/2 of 11.6 hr, indicating that delivery of myosin-associated cargo occurs in mature stereocilia. These findings suggest that stereocilia permanency is underpinned by vibrant protein exchange.

  18. The Expression of p53 and Cox-2 in Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Actinic Keratosis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülker KARAGECE YALÇIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate p53 and COX-2 expressions in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses, and to determine a possible relationship.Material and Method: 50 basal cell carcinoma, 45 squamous cell carcinoma and 45 actinic keratosis cases were evaluated. The type of tumor in basal cell carcinoma and tumor differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma were noted and the paraffin block that best represented the tumor was chosen. Immunostaining by p53 and COX-2 was performed on sections of the paraffin blocks.Results: p53 expression was observed in 98% of basal cell carcinoma, 88.9% of squamous cell carcinoma and all actinic keratosis cases. p53 expression was also noted in non-dysplastic appearing epithelium in actinic keratosis cases. COX-2 expression was seen in 90, 100 and 88.9% of the basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis groups, respectively. Skin appendages, inflammatory cells and vascular structures were also stained by COX-2 besides tumor tissue. COX-2 expression increased by the p53 expression increase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. p53 and COX-2 expressions were not related in terms of tumor type in the BCC and were not related in terms of differentiation in SCC.Conclusion: The existence of p53 expression in actinic keratosis cases has supported the idea that p53 plays a role in the early steps of carcinogenesis in skin cancers. The fact that the expression of COX-2 increases in line with the increase of p53 expression in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cases indicates that COX-2 expression may be affected by p53

  19. AAA+ Chaperone ClpX Regulates Dynamics of Prokaryotic Cytoskeletal Protein FtsZ*

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Nishikori, Shingo; Miyagi, Atsushi; Ando, Toshio; Ogura, Teru

    2009-01-01

    AAA+ chaperone ClpX has been suggested to be a modulator of prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein FtsZ, but the details of recognition and remodeling of FtsZ by ClpX are largely unknown. In this study, we have extensively investigated the nature of FtsZ polymers and mechanisms of ClpX-regulated FtsZ polymer dynamics. We found that FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by ClpX in an ATP-independent manner and that the N-terminal domain of ClpX plays a crucial role for the inhibition of FtsZ polymerizati...

  20. Differential requirements for actin during yeast and mammalian endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2009-08-01

    Key features of clathrin-mediated endocytosis have been conserved across evolution. However, endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is completely dependent on a functional actin cytoskeleton, whereas actin appears to be less critical in mammalian cell endocytosis. We reveal that the fundamental requirement for actin in the early stages of yeast endocytosis is to provide a strong framework to support the force generation needed to direct the invaginating plasma membrane into the cell against turgor pressure. By providing osmotic support, pressure differences across the plasma membrane were removed and this reduced the requirement for actin-bundling proteins in normal endocytosis. Conversely, increased turgor pressure in specific yeast mutants correlated with a decreased rate of endocytic patch invagination. PMID:19597484

  1. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  2. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hohenberger, Petra [Botanical Institute I, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstr. 2, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wegner, Lars H. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Botanical Institute I, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstr. 2, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Frey, Wolfgang [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Nick, Peter, E-mail: peter.nick@bio.uni-karlsruhe.de [Botanical Institute I, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstr. 2, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-09-25

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  3. Morphological change and crystal structure of skeletal muscle actin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actin from skeletal muscle was crystallized in fluorescent dye/acetone solutions. Three different polymorphic forms of the crystals were observed by polarization microscope and video systems. Ultrastructural observation and electron diffraction analysis of the crystals have been made using a 1 MeV electron microscope. The specimens were unstained or negatively stained with uranyl acetate. The diffraction spots of the crystals faded within twenty seconds. Minimum dose system and low temperature techniques were effective in taking highly resolved images and diffraction patterns of the crystals. Actin crystals diffracted well to 2 A resolution. The rod form of actin crystals is orthorhombic and the cell dimensions are 61 Ax41 Ax33 A. The unit cell contains one actin monomer. (orig.)

  4. A model actin comet tail disassembling by severing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a numerical simulation to model an actin comet tail as it grows from the surface of a small object (a bead) and disassembles by severing. We explore the dependence of macroscopic properties such as the local tail radius and tail length on several controllable properties, namely the bead diameter, the bead velocity, the severing rate per unit length, and the actin gel mesh size. The model predicts an F-actin density with an initial exponential decay followed by an abrupt decay at the edge of the tail, and predicts that the comet tail diameter is constant along the length of the tail. The simulation results are used to fit a formula relating the comet tail length to the control parameters, and it is proposed that this formula offers a means to extract quantitative information on the actin gel mesh size and severing kinetics from simple macroscopic measurements

  5. Mechanical models of the cellular cytoskeletal network for the analysis of intracellular mechanical properties and force distributions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Jung; Wu, Chia-Ching; Su, Fong-Chin

    2012-12-01

    The cytoskeleton, which is the major mechanical component of cells, supports the cell body and regulates the cellular motility to assist the cell in performing its biological functions. Several cytoskeletal network models have been proposed to investigate the mechanical properties of cells. This review paper summarizes these models with a focus on the prestressed cable network, the semi-flexible chain network, the open-cell foam, the tensegrity, and the granular models. The components, material parameters, types of connection joints, tension conditions, and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are evaluated from a structural and biological point of view. The underlying mechanisms that are associated with the morphological changes of spreading cells are expected to be simulated using a cytoskeletal model; however, it is still paid less attention most likely due to the lack of a suitable cytoskeletal model that can accurately model the spreading process. In this review article, the established cytoskeletal models are hoped to provide useful information for the development of future cytoskeletal models with different degrees of cell attachment for the study of the mechanical mechanisms underlying the cellular behaviors in response to external stimulations. PMID:23062682

  6. Cortactin involvement in the keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 promotion of migration and cortical actin assembly in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF7) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10/KGF2) regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by binding to the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR). KGF induces keratinocyte motility and cytoskeletal rearrangement, whereas a direct role of FGF10 on keratinocyte migration is not clearly established. Here we analyzed the motogenic activity of FGF10 and KGF on human keratinocytes. Migration assays and immunofluorescence of actin cytoskeleton revealed that FGF10 is less efficient than KGF in promoting migration and exerts a delayed effect in inducing lamellipodia and ruffles formation. Both growth factors promoted phosphorylation and subsequent membrane translocation of cortactin, an F-actin binding protein involved in cell migration; however, FGF10-induced cortactin phosphorylation was reduced, more transient and delayed with respect to that promoted by KGF. Cortactin phosphorylation induced by both growth factors was Src-dependent, while its membrane translocation and cell migration were blocked by either Src and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that both pathways are involved in KGF- and FGF10-dependent motility. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of cortactin inhibited KGF- and FGF10-induced migration. These results indicate that cortactin is involved in keratinocyte migration promoted by both KGF and FGF10

  7. CLIC5 stabilizes membrane-actin filament linkages at the base of hair cell stereocilia in a molecular complex with radixin, taperin, and myosin VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Felipe T; Andrade, Leonardo R; Tanda, Soichi; Grati, M'hamed; Plona, Kathleen L; Gagnon, Leona H; Johnson, Kenneth R; Kachar, Bechara; Berryman, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Chloride intracellular channel 5 protein (CLIC5) was originally isolated from microvilli in complex with actin binding proteins including ezrin, a member of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) family of membrane-cytoskeletal linkers. CLIC5 concentrates at the base of hair cell stereocilia and is required for normal hearing and balance in mice, but its functional significance is poorly understood. This study investigated the role of CLIC5 in postnatal development and maintenance of hair bundles. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy of CLIC5-deficient jitterbug (jbg) mice revealed progressive fusion of stereocilia as early as postnatal day 10. Radixin (RDX), protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Q (PTPRQ), and taperin (TPRN), deafness-associated proteins that also concentrate at the base of stereocilia, were mislocalized in fused stereocilia of jbg mice. TPRQ and RDX were dispersed even prior to stereocilia fusion. Biochemical assays showed interaction of CLIC5 with ERM proteins, TPRN, and possibly myosin VI (MYO6). In addition, CLIC5 and RDX failed to localize normally in fused stereocilia of MYO6 mutant mice. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which these proteins work together as a complex to stabilize linkages between the plasma membrane and subjacent actin cytoskeleton at the base of stereocilia. PMID:24285636

  8. ELMO recruits actin cross-linking family 7 (ACF7) at the cell membrane for microtubule capture and stabilization of cellular protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaron, Yoran; Fradet, Nadine; Côté, Jean-François

    2013-01-11

    ELMO and DOCK180 proteins form an evolutionarily conserved module controlling Rac GTPase signaling during cell migration, phagocytosis, and myoblast fusion. Here, we identified the microtubule and actin-binding spectraplakin ACF7 as a novel ELMO-interacting partner. A C-terminal polyproline segment in ELMO and the last spectrin repeat of ACF7 mediate a direct interaction between these proteins. Co-expression of ELMO1 with ACF7 promoted the formation of long membrane protrusions during integrin-mediated cell spreading. Quantification of membrane dynamics established that coupling of ELMO and ACF7 increases the persistence of the protruding activity. Mechanistically, we uncovered a role for ELMO in the recruitment of ACF7 to the membrane to promote microtubule capture and stability. Functionally, these effects of ELMO and ACF7 on cytoskeletal dynamics required the Rac GEF DOCK180. In conclusion, our findings support a role for ELMO in protrusion stability by acting at the interface between the actin cytoskeleton and the microtubule network. PMID:23184944

  9. Polymerization of fluorescent analogue of plant actin in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Maize pollen actin has been labeled with Oregon Green 488 iodoacetamide. A yield of 3 mg fluorescent actin analogue has been obtained from 10 mg of maize pollen actin, which is 99% in purity and the dye/protein ratio is 72%. In the presence of Mg2+ and K+, the fluorescent actin analogue polymerized into filaments in vitro. Green fluorescent filaments were observed when the fluorescent actin was introduced into living plant cells by microinjection, indicating that the fluorescent actin analogue functions similarly to the native actin.

  10. Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Avasthi, Prachee; Onishi, Masayuki; Karpiak, Joel; YAMAMOTO, Ryosuke; Mackinder, Luke; Jonikas, Martin C.; Sale, Winfield S.; Shoichet, Brian; Pringle, John R.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of cilia and flagella requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly regulated kinesin-based transport system that moves cargo from the basal body to the tip of flagella [1]. The recruitment of IFT components to basal bodies is a function of flagellar length, with increased recruitment in rapidly growing short flagella [2]. The molecular pathways regulating IFT are largely a mystery. Since actin network disruption leads to changes in ciliary length and number, actin has been propo...

  11. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomibuchi, Yuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan); Uyeda, Taro Q.P. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Takeyuki, E-mail: tw007@nasu.bio.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan); Department of Judo Therapy, Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  12. Course 6: Physics of Composite Cell Membrane and Actin Based Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, E.; Bausch, A. R.; Vonna, L.

    1 Architecture of composite cell membranes 1.1 The lipid/protein bilayer is a multicomponent smectic phase with mosaic like architecture 1.2 The spectrin/actin cytoskeleton as hyperelastic cell stabilizer 1.3 The actin cortex: Architecture and function 2 Physics of the actin based cytoskeleton 2.1 Actin is a living semiflexible polymer 2.2 Actin network as viscoelastic body 2.3 Correlation between macroscopic viscoelasticity and molecular 3 Heterogeneous actin gels in cells and biological function 3.1 Manipulation of actin gels 3.2 Control of organization and function of actin cortex by cell signalling 4 Micromechanics and microrheometry of cells 5 Activation of endothelial cells: On the possibility of formation of stress fibers as phase transition of actin-network triggered by cell signalling pathways 6 On cells as adaptive viscoplastic bodies 7 Controll of cellular protrusions controlled by actin/myosin cortex

  13. The Role of Actin Cytoskeleton in Memory Formation in Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    The central, lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA) nuclei are essential for the formation of long-term memories including emotional and drug-related memories. Studying cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory in amygdala may lead to better understanding of how memory is formed and of fear and addiction-related disorders. A challenge is to identify molecules activated by learning that subserve cellular changes needed for memory formation and maintenance in amygdala. Recent studies show that activation of synaptic receptors during fear and drug-related learning leads to alteration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and structure in amygdala. Such changes in actin cytoskeleton in amygdala are essential for fear and drug-related memories formation. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton subserves, after learning, changes in neuronal morphogenesis and glutamate receptors trafficking in amygdala. These cellular events are involved in fear and drug-related memories formation. Actin polymerization is also needed for the maintenance of drug-associated memories in amygdala. Thus, the actin cytoskeleton is a key mediator between receptor activation during learning and cellular changes subserving long-term memory (LTM) in amygdala. The actin cytoskeleton may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear memory associated with fear and anxiety disorders and drug addiction to prevent the debilitating consequences of these diseases. PMID:27065800

  14. To be or not to be assembled: progressing into nuclear actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Robert; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2013-11-01

    The paradigm states that cytoplasmic actin operates as filaments and nuclear actin is mainly monomeric, acting as a scaffold in transcription complexes. However, why should a powerful function of actin, namely polymerization, not be used in the nucleus? Recent progress in the field forces us to rethink this issue, as many actin filament assembly proteins have been linked to nuclear functions and new experimental approaches have provided the first direct visualizations of polymerized nuclear actin. PMID:24088744

  15. In Vivo Imaging of the Actin Polymerization State with Two-Photon Fluorescence Anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Trifilieff, Pierre; Kandel, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    Using two-photon fluorescence anisotropy imaging of actin-GFP, we have developed a method for imaging the actin polymerization state that is applicable to a broad range of experimental systems extending from fixed cells to live animals. The incorporation of expressed actin-GFP monomers into endogenous actin polymers enables energy migration FRET (emFRET, or homoFRET) between neighboring actin-GFPs. This energy migration reduces the normally high polarization of the GFP fluorescence. We derive...

  16. Human endothelial actin-binding protein (ABP-280, nonmuscle filamin): a molecular leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280, nonmuscle filamin) is a ubiquitous dimeric actin cross-linking phosphoprotein of peripheral cytoplasm, where it promotes orthogonal branching of actin filaments and links actin filaments to membrane glycoproteins. The complete nucleotide sequence of human endothelial cell ABP cDNA predicts a polypeptide subunit chain of 2,647 amino acids, corresponding to 280 kD, also the mass derived from physical measurements of the native protein. The actin-binding domain is...

  17. Probing bilayer-cytoskeletal interactions in erythrocytes using a two-component dissipative particle dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Li, Xuejin; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2013-11-01

    We develop a two-component dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane by modeling the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton separately. By applying this model to simulate four different experiments on RBCs, including micropipette aspiration, membrane fluctuations, tank-treading motions in shear flow and bilayer tethering in a flow channel, we validated our model and studied the mechanical properties of the bilayer-cytoskeletal interaction in a systematic and controlled manner, such as its elastic stiffness, viscous friction and strength. In the same time, we also resolved several controversies in RBC mechanics, e.g., the dependence of tank-treading frequency on shear rates and the possibility of bilayer-cytoskeletal slip. Furthermore, to investigate RBC dynamics in the microcirculation, we simulated the passages of RBCs through narrow channels of the flow cytometer in vitro and their passages through the splenic inter-endothelial slits in vivo. The effects of RBC geometry and membrane stiffness on the critical pressure gradient of passage were studied, and the simulation results agree well with experimental measurements. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R01HL094270 and the new Department of Energy Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4).

  18. Cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Farace, Cristiano; Tolu, Paola; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Prados, Jose Carlos; Sotgiu, Stefano; Montella, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The axonal cytoskeleton is a finely organized system, essential for maintaining the integrity of the axon. Axonal degeneration is implicated in the pathogenesis of unremitting disability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose of this study is to evaluate levels of cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament light protein (NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and β-tubulin (β-Tub) isoforms II and III in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and their correlation with MS clinical indices. CSF levels of cytoskeletal proteins were determined in 51 patients: 33 with MS and 18 with other neurological diseases (OND). NFL, GFAP and β-Tub II proteins were significantly higher (p 0.05) was found between MS and OND with regard to β-Tub III. Interestingly, levels of β-Tub III and NFL were higher in progressive than in remitting MS forms; on the contrary, higher levels of β-Tub II and GFAP were found in remitting MS forms. However, with the exception of β-Tub III, all proteins tend to decrease their CSF levels concomitantly with the increasing disability (EDSS) score. Overall, our results might indicate β-Tub II as a potential candidate for diagnostic and β-Tub III as a possible prognostic biomarker of MS. Therefore, further analyses are legitimated and desirable. PMID:22362332

  19. Nuclear actin filaments recruit cofilin and actin-related protein 3, and their formation is connected with a mitotic block

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, Alžběta; Kalasová, Ilona; Yamazaki, S.; Uličná, Lívia; Harata, M.; Hozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 2 (2014), s. 139-152. ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA MŠk LD12063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : nuclear actin * transcription * mitosis * actin-related protein 3 * cofilin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.927, year: 2013

  20. Filamentous fungal-specific septin AspE is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with actin, tubulin and other septins in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Belina, Detti [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Soderblom, Erik J.; Moseley, M. Arthur [Duke Proteomics Core Facility, Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Steinbach, William J., E-mail: bill.steinbach@duke.edu [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► In vivo interactions of the novel septin AspE were identified by GFP-Trap® affinity purification. ► Septins AspA, AspB, AspC and AspD interacted with AspE in vivo. ► Actin and tubulin interacted with AspE in vivo. ► AspE is phosphorylated at six serine residues in vivo. -- Abstract: We previously analyzed the differential localization patterns of five septins (AspA–E), including a filamentous fungal-specific septin, AspE, in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we utilized the A. fumigatus strain expressing an AspE–EGFP fusion protein and show that this novel septin with a tubular localization pattern in hyphae is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with the other septins, AspA, AspB, AspC and AspD. The other major proteins interacting with AspE included the cytoskeletal proteins, actin and tubulin, which may be involved in the organization and transport of the septins. This is the first report analyzing the phosphorylation of AspE and localizing the sites of phosphorylation, and opens opportunities for further analysis on the role of post-translational modifications in the assembly and organization of A. fumigatus septins. This study also describes the previously unknown interaction of AspE with the actin-microtubule network. Furthermore, the novel GFP-Trap® affinity purification method used here complements widely-used GFP localization studies in fungal systems.

  1. Filamentous fungal-specific septin AspE is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with actin, tubulin and other septins in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In vivo interactions of the novel septin AspE were identified by GFP-Trap® affinity purification. ► Septins AspA, AspB, AspC and AspD interacted with AspE in vivo. ► Actin and tubulin interacted with AspE in vivo. ► AspE is phosphorylated at six serine residues in vivo. -- Abstract: We previously analyzed the differential localization patterns of five septins (AspA–E), including a filamentous fungal-specific septin, AspE, in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we utilized the A. fumigatus strain expressing an AspE–EGFP fusion protein and show that this novel septin with a tubular localization pattern in hyphae is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with the other septins, AspA, AspB, AspC and AspD. The other major proteins interacting with AspE included the cytoskeletal proteins, actin and tubulin, which may be involved in the organization and transport of the septins. This is the first report analyzing the phosphorylation of AspE and localizing the sites of phosphorylation, and opens opportunities for further analysis on the role of post-translational modifications in the assembly and organization of A. fumigatus septins. This study also describes the previously unknown interaction of AspE with the actin-microtubule network. Furthermore, the novel GFP-Trap® affinity purification method used here complements widely-used GFP localization studies in fungal systems

  2. Confined diffusion of transmembrane proteins and lipids induced by the same actin meshwork lining the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahiro K; Iwasawa, Kokoro; Kalay, Ziya; Tsunoyama, Taka A; Watanabe, Yusuke; Umemura, Yasuhiro M; Murakoshi, Hideji; Suzuki, Kenichi G N; Nemoto, Yuri L; Morone, Nobuhiro; Kusumi, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms by which the diffusion rate in the plasma membrane (PM) is regulated remain unresolved, despite their importance in spatially regulating the reaction rates in the PM. Proposed models include entrapment in nanoscale noncontiguous domains found in PtK2 cells, slow diffusion due to crowding, and actin-induced compartmentalization. Here, by applying single-particle tracking at high time resolutions, mainly to the PtK2-cell PM, we found confined diffusion plus hop movements (termed "hop diffusion") for both a nonraft phospholipid and a transmembrane protein, transferrin receptor, and equal compartment sizes for these two molecules in all five of the cell lines used here (actual sizes were cell dependent), even after treatment with actin-modulating drugs. The cross-section size and the cytoplasmic domain size both affected the hop frequency. Electron tomography identified the actin-based membrane skeleton (MSK) located within 8.8 nm from the PM cytoplasmic surface of PtK2 cells and demonstrated that the MSK mesh size was the same as the compartment size for PM molecular diffusion. The extracellular matrix and extracellular domains of membrane proteins were not involved in hop diffusion. These results support a model of anchored TM-protein pickets lining actin-based MSK as a major mechanism for regulating diffusion. PMID:26864625

  3. NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, L. S.; Dagdas, Y.F; Mentlak, T. A.; Kershaw, M. J.; Thornton, C. R.; Schuster, M.; Chen, J; Wang, Z.; Talbot, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a ...

  4. Electric field-directed cell shape changes, displacement, and cytoskeletal reorganization are calcium dependent

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts were stimulated by a steady electric field ranging up to 10 V/cm. Some cells elongated and aligned perpendicular to the field direction. A preferential positional shift toward the cathode was observed which was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker D-600 and the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. Rhodaminephalloidin labeling of actin filaments revealed a field- induced disorganization of the stress fiber pattern, which was reduced when stimulation wa...

  5. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization and junctional remodeling by the atypical cadherin Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkevicius, Emily; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The atypical cadherin Fat is a conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, but the mechanisms by which Fat controls cell shape and tissue structure are not well understood. Here, we show that Fat is required for the planar polarized organization of actin denticle precursors, adherens junction proteins and microtubules in the epidermis of the late Drosophila embryo. In wild-type embryos, spatially regulated cell-shape changes and rearrangements organize cells into highly aligned columns. Junc...

  6. Interactions between the yeast SM22 homologue Scp1 and actin demonstrate the importance of actin bundling in endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Dana M; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I; Allwood, Ellen G; Winder, Steve J; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2008-05-30

    The yeast SM22 homologue Scp1 has previously been shown to act as an actin-bundling protein in vitro. In cells, Scp1 localizes to the cortical actin patches that form as part of the invagination process during endocytosis, and its function overlaps with that of the well characterized yeast fimbrin homologue Sac6p. In this work we have used live cell imaging to demonstrate the importance of key residues in the Scp1 actin interface. We have defined two actin binding domains within Scp1 that allow the protein to both bind and bundle actin without the need for dimerization. Green fluorescent protein-tagged mutants of Scp1 also indicate that actin localization does not require the putative phosphorylation site Ser-185 to be functional. Deletion of SCP1 has few discernable effects on cell growth and morphology. However, we reveal that scp1 deletion is compensated for by up-regulation of Sac6. Furthermore, Scp1 levels are increased in the absence of sac6. The presence of compensatory pathways to up-regulate Sac6 or Scp1 levels in the absence of the other suggest that maintenance of sufficient bundling activity is critical within the cell. Analysis of cortical patch assembly and movement during endocytosis reveals a previously undetected role for Scp1 in movement of patches away from the plasma membrane. Additionally, we observe a dramatic increase in patch lifetime in a strain lacking both sac6 and scp1, demonstrating the central role played by actin-bundling proteins in the endocytic process. PMID:18400761

  7. State transitions of actin cortices in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tzer Han; Keren, Kinneret; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christoph; Fakhri, Nikta

    Most animal cells are enveloped by a thin layer of actin cortex which governs the cell mechanics. A functional cortex must be rigid to provide mechanical support while being flexible to allow for rapid restructuring events such as cell division. To satisfy these requirements, the actin cortex is highly dynamic with fast actin turnover and myosin-driven contractility. The regulatory mechanism responsible for the transition between a mechanically stable state and a restructuring state is not well understood. Here, we develop a technique to map the dynamics of reconstituted actin cortices in emulsion droplets using IR fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). By increasing crosslinker concentration, we find that a homogeneous cortex transitions to an intermediate state with broken rotational symmetry and a globally contractile state which further breaks translational symmetry. We apply this new dynamic mapping technique to cortices of live starfish oocytes in various developmental stages. To identify the regulatory mechanism for steady state transitions, we subject the oocytes to actin and myosin disrupting drugs.

  8. Addition of electrophilic lipids to actin alters filament structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress lead to the generation of reactive lipid species. Among them, lipids bearing unsaturated aldehyde or ketone moieties can form covalent adducts with cysteine residues and modulate protein function. Through proteomic techniques we have identified actin as a target for the addition of biotinylated analogs of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) and PGA1 in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. This modification could take place in vitro and mapped to the protein C-terminal end. Other electrophilic lipids, like the isoprostane 8-iso-PGA1 and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, also bound to actin. The C-terminal region of actin is important for monomer-monomer interactions and polymerization. Electron microscopy showed that actin treated with 15d-PGJ2 or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed filaments which were less abundant and displayed shorter length and altered structure. Streptavidin-gold staining allowed mapping of biotinylated 15d-PGJ2 at sites of filament disruption. These results shed light on the structural implications of actin modification by lipid electrophiles

  9. Novel actin-like filament structure from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Lee, Lin Jie; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Xue, Bo; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Robinson, Robert C

    2012-06-15

    Eukaryotic F-actin is constructed from two protofilaments that gently wind around each other to form a helical polymer. Several bacterial actin-like proteins (Alps) are also known to form F-actin-like helical arrangements from two protofilaments, yet with varied helical geometries. Here, we report a unique filament architecture of Alp12 from Clostridium tetani that is constructed from four protofilaments. Through fitting of an Alp12 monomer homology model into the electron microscopy data, the filament was determined to be constructed from two antiparallel strands, each composed of two parallel protofilaments. These four protofilaments form an open helical cylinder separated by a wide cleft. The molecular interactions within single protofilaments are similar to F-actin, yet interactions between protofilaments differ from those in F-actin. The filament structure and assembly and disassembly kinetics suggest Alp12 to be a dynamically unstable force-generating motor involved in segregating the pE88 plasmid, which encodes the lethal tetanus toxin, and thus a potential target for drug design. Alp12 can be repeatedly cycled between states of polymerization and dissociation, making it a novel candidate for incorporation into fuel-propelled nanobiopolymer machines. PMID:22514279

  10. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine. PMID:26881098

  11. Cortactin Adopts a Globular Conformation and Bundles Actin into Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowieson, Nathan P.; King, Gordon; Cookson, David; Ross, Ian; Huber, Thomas; Hume, David A.; Kobe, Bostjan; Martin, Jennifer L. (Queensland); (Aust. Synch.)

    2008-08-21

    Cortactin is a filamentous actin-binding protein that plays a pivotal role in translating environmental signals into coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. The dynamic reorganization of actin in the cytoskeleton drives processes including changes in cell morphology, cell migration, and phagocytosis. In general, structural proteins of the cytoskeleton bind in the N-terminal region of cortactin and regulatory proteins in the C-terminal region. Previous structural studies have reported an extended conformation for cortactin. It is therefore unclear how cortactin facilitates cross-talk between structural proteins and their regulators. In the study presented here, circular dichroism, chemical cross-linking, and small angle x-ray scattering are used to demonstrate that cortactin adopts a globular conformation, thereby bringing distant parts of the molecule into close proximity. In addition, the actin bundling activity of cortactin is characterized, showing that fully polymerized actin filaments are bundled into sheet-like structures. We present a low resolution structure that suggests how the various domains of cortactin interact to coordinate its array of binding partners at sites of actin branching.

  12. Oral acetylsalicylic acid and prevalence of actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Schmitt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the influence of a regular oral use of acetylsalicylic acid in the prevalence of actinic keratosis. Methods: A case-control study with dermatologic outpatients above 50 years of age assessed between 2009 and 2011. Cases were defined as those who had been under regular use of oral acetylsalicylic acid for more than six consecutive months. The assessment focused on: age, sex, skin-type, tobacco smoking, use of medication, occurrence of individual or family skin cancer, and sunscreen and sun exposure habits. Actinic keratoses were counted in the medial region of the face and upper limbs. Counts were adjusted by co-variables based on a generalized linear model. Results: A total of 74 cases and 216 controls were assessed. The median time of acetylsalicylic acid use was 36 months. Cases differed from controls as to the highest age, highest prevalence of use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and fewer keratosis on the face and on the upper limbs (p<0.05. The multivariate model showed that the use of acetylsalicylic acid was associated to lower counts of face actinic keratosis and upper-limb erythematous actinic keratosis (p<0.05, regardless of other risk factors. Conclusion: The regular use of oral acetylsalicylic acid for more than six months was associated to a lower prevalence of actinic keratosis, especially facial and erythematous ones.

  13. Actinic Prurigo Cheilitis: A Clinicopathologic Review of 75 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Jose A; Toussaint, Sonia; Prieto, Victor G; Mercadillo, Patricia; Diez de Medina, Juan C; Lourenco, Silvia; Batdorf, Bjorn; Sangueza, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Actinic prurigo (AP) is a chronic idiopathic photodermatosis that primarily affects American Indians in the United States and Mestizos in Latin American countries. Clinically, the onset of the disease is usually in the first decade of life but may appear initially in adult life, and it is characterized by symmetric involvement of sun-exposed areas of the skin, particularly areas of the face, resulting in polymorphic erythematous papules, macules, and plaques in different stages of evolution. Lower lip involvement includes swelling, scaling, fissures, hyperpigmentation, and ulcerations of the vermilion border. and in some cases could represent the only manifestation of the disease. The histopathologic features of AP have been studied; however, there is a controversy regarding whether AP cheilitis has distinct histopathologic features that could allow accurate separation from other specific and nonspecific forms of cheilitis. The diagnosis can be challenging, mainly when lip lesions are the only manifestation of the disease. In this study, the authors investigate the clinicopathologic features of 75 cases of AP cheilitis to provide further criteria for its diagnosis and classification. All 75 patients presented with lip lesions. Thirty-three cases were diagnosed as AP cheilitis with cutaneous lesions and 42 cases were diagnosed as AP cheilitis without cutaneous lesions (only lip lesions). Histologically, of the 33 cases with AP cheilitis with cutaneous lesions, 17 (52%) cases showed follicular cheilitis, and of the 42 cases that had only lip lesions, 18 (43%) cases showed follicular cheilitis. Histologically, AP cheilitis can present as follicular cheilitis; thus, supporting the diagnosis. Also, our findings confirm that lip lesions can present as the only manifestation of the disease, showing typical histological and clinical features. This form of cheilitis has not being well described in the dermatologic and dermatopathologic literature. PMID:26981737

  14. Cooperation between actin-binding proteins of invasive Salmonella: SipA potentiates SipC nucleation and bundling of actin

    OpenAIRE

    Emma J McGhie; Hayward, Richard D.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2001-01-01

    Pathogen-induced remodelling of the host cell actin cytoskeleton drives internalization of invasive Salmon ella by non-phagocytic intestinal epithelial cells. Two Salmonella actin-binding proteins are involved in internalization: SipC is essential for the process, while SipA enhances its efficiency. Using purified SipC and SipA proteins in in vitro assays of actin dynamics and F-actin bundling, we demonstrate that SipA stimulates substantially SipC-mediated nucleation of actin polymerization....

  15. Coronin Promotes the Rapid Assembly and Cross-linking of Actin Filaments and May Link the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Goode, Bruce L.; Wong, Jonathan J.; Butty, Anne-Christine; Peter, Matthias; McCormack, Ashley L.; Yates, John R.; Drubin, David G.; Barnes, Georjana

    1999-01-01

    Coronin is a highly conserved actin-associated protein that until now has had unknown biochemical activities. Using microtubule affinity chromatography, we coisolated actin and a homologue of coronin, Crn1p, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell extracts. Crn1p is an abundant component of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and binds to F-actin with high affinity (K d 6 × 10−9 M). Crn1p promotes the rapid barbed-end assembly of actin filaments and cross-links filaments into bundles and more complex ...

  16. Characterization of the myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle as an actin-binding protein that assembles actin filaments in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, K; Okagaki, T; Ye, L H; Samizo, K; Higashi-Fujime, S; Takagi, T; Kohama, K

    1999-05-01

    In addition to its kinase activity, myosin light chain kinase has an actin-binding activity, which results in bundling of actin filaments [Hayakawa et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199, 786-791, 1994]. There are two actin-binding sites on the kinase: calcium- and calmodulin-sensitive and insensitive sites [Ye et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32182-32189, 1997]. The calcium/calmodulin-sensitive, actin-binding site is located at Asp2-Pro41 and the insensitive site is at Ser138-Met213. The cyanogen bromide fragment, consisting of Asp2-Met213, is furnished with both sites and is the actin-binding core of myosin light chain kinase. Cross-linking between the two sites assembles actin filaments into bundles. Breaking of actin-binding at the calcium/calmodulin-sensitive site by calcium/calmodulin disassembles the bundles. PMID:10231551

  17. Why is cytoskeletal contraction required for cardiac fusion before but not after looping begins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Varner, Victor D.; Taber, Larry A.

    2015-02-01

    Cytoskeletal contraction is crucial to numerous morphogenetic processes, but its role in early heart development is poorly understood. Studies in chick embryos have shown that inhibiting myosin-II-based contraction prior to Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 10 (33 h incubation) impedes fusion of the mesodermal heart fields that create the primitive heart tube (HT), as well as the ensuing process of cardiac looping. If contraction is inhibited at or after looping begins at HH10, however, fusion and looping proceed relatively normally. To explore the mechanisms behind this seemingly fundamental change in behavior, we measured spatiotemporal distributions of tissue stiffness, stress, and strain around the anterior intestinal portal (AIP), the opening to the foregut where contraction and cardiac fusion occur. The results indicate that stiffness and tangential tension decreased bilaterally along the AIP with distance from the embryonic midline. The gradients in stiffness and tension, as well as strain rate, increased to peaks at HH9 (30 h) and decreased afterward. Exposure to the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin reduced these effects, suggesting that they are mainly generated by active cytoskeletal contraction, and finite-element modeling indicates that the measured mechanical gradients are consistent with a relatively uniform contraction of the endodermal layer in conjunction with constraints imposed by the attached mesoderm. Taken together, our results suggest that, before HH10, endodermal contraction pulls the bilateral heart fields toward the midline where they fuse to create the HT. By HH10, however, the fusion process is far enough along to enable apposing cardiac progenitor cells to keep ‘zipping’ together during looping without the need for continued high contractile forces. These findings should shed new light on a perplexing question in early heart development.

  18. Calcium-actin waves and oscillations of cellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Alex; Gov, Nir S

    2009-09-16

    We propose a mechanism for the formation of membrane oscillations and traveling waves, which arise due to the coupling between the actin cytoskeleton and the calcium flux through the membrane. In our model, the fluid cell membrane has a mobile but constant population of proteins with a convex spontaneous curvature, which act as nucleators of actin polymerization and adhesion. Such a continuum model couples the forces of cell-substrate adhesion, actin polymerization, membrane curvature, and the flux of calcium through the membrane. Linear stability analysis shows that sufficiently strong coupling among the calcium, membrane, and protein dynamics may induce robust traveling waves on the membrane. This result was checked for a reduced feedback scheme and is compared to the results without the effects of calcium, where permanent phase separation without waves or oscillations is obtained. The model results are compared to the published observations of calcium waves in cell membranes, and a number of testable predictions are proposed. PMID:19751660

  19. Actin nucleation at the centrosome controls lymphocyte polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obino, Dorian; Farina, Francesca; Malbec, Odile; Sáez, Pablo J; Maurin, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jérémie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Gautreau, Alexis; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is required for the functional specialization of many cell types including lymphocytes. A hallmark of cell polarity is the reorientation of the centrosome that allows repositioning of organelles and vesicles in an asymmetric fashion. The mechanisms underlying centrosome polarization are not fully understood. Here we found that in resting lymphocytes, centrosome-associated Arp2/3 locally nucleates F-actin, which is needed for centrosome tethering to the nucleus via the LINC complex. Upon lymphocyte activation, Arp2/3 is partially depleted from the centrosome as a result of its recruitment to the immune synapse. This leads to a reduction in F-actin nucleation at the centrosome and thereby allows its detachment from the nucleus and polarization to the synapse. Therefore, F-actin nucleation at the centrosome-regulated by the availability of the Arp2/3 complex-determines its capacity to polarize in response to external stimuli. PMID:26987298

  20. Identification of Actin-Binding Proteins from Maize Pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, C.J.

    2004-01-13

    Specific Aims--The goal of this project was to gain an understanding of how actin filament organization and dynamics are controlled in flowering plants. Specifically, we proposed to identify unique proteins with novel functions by investigating biochemical strategies for the isolation and characterization of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). In particular, our hunt was designed to identify capping proteins and nucleation factors. The specific aims included: (1) to use F-actin affinity chromatography (FAAC) as a general strategy to isolate pollen ABPs (2) to produce polyclonal antisera and perform subcellular localization in pollen tubes (3) to isolate cDNA clones for the most promising ABPs (4) to further purify and characterize ABP interactions with actin in vitro. Summary of Progress By employing affinity chromatography on F-actin or DNase I columns, we have identified at least two novel ABPs from pollen, PrABP80 (gelsolin-like) and ZmABP30, We have also cloned and expressed recombinant protein, as well as generated polyclonal antisera, for 6 interesting ABPs from Arabidopsis (fimbrin AtFIM1, capping protein a/b (AtCP), adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (AtCAP), AtCapG & AtVLN1). We performed quantitative analyses of the biochemical properties for two of these previously uncharacterized ABPs (fimbrin and capping protein). Our studies provide the first evidence for fimbrin activity in plants, demonstrate the existence of barbed-end capping factors and a gelsolin-like severing activity, and provide the quantitative data necessary to establish and test models of F-actin organization and dynamics in plant cells.

  1. Health related quality of life in patients with actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson; Norlin, J M; Malmberg, I;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common skin condition that may progress to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The disease may influence Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), but studies of HRQoL in patients with AK are limited. The purpose of the study was to analyze HRQoL in patients with......-center setting. Dermatologists assessed AK severity and patients completed: Actinic Keratosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (AKQoL), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and EQ-5D-5 L including EQ-VAS. Differences between categorical subgroups were tested with Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between...

  2. Oral nicotinamide and actinic keratosis: a supplement success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Burcu; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide has shown potential as a safe and effective intervention for the prevention of malignant and premalignant skin lesions. Recent studies have shown that nicotinamide, in both oral and topical forms, is able to prevent ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression in humans [1,2,3] and mice [4,5]. Immunosuppression is a known factor for the progression of premalignant lesions, such as actinic keratosis [6]. Murine studies have shown that nicotinamide is also able to protect against photocarcinogenesis [4,5]. Preliminary human studies suggest that nicotinamide may help prevent skin cancers and enhance the regression of actinic keratoses. PMID:25561219

  3. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan, E-mail: jan.gettemans@vib-ugent.be

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  4. The Actin-Binding Protein α-Adducin Is Required for Maintaining Axon Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sérgio Carvalho; Sampaio, Paula; Sousa, Vera Filipe; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Joana; Pinto-Costa, Rita; Peters, Luanne Laurel; Brites, Pedro; Sousa, Mónica Mendes

    2016-04-19

    The actin-binding protein adducin was recently identified as a component of the neuronal subcortical cytoskeleton. Here, we analyzed mice lacking adducin to uncover the function of this protein in actin rings. α-adducin knockout mice presented progressive axon enlargement in the spinal cord and optic and sciatic nerves, followed by axon degeneration and loss. Using stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy, we show that a periodic subcortical actin cytoskeleton is assembled in every neuron type inspected including retinal ganglion cells and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In neurons devoid of adducin, the actin ring diameter increased, although the inter-ring periodicity was maintained. In vitro, the actin ring diameter adjusted as axons grew, suggesting the lattice is dynamic. Our data support a model in which adducin activity is not essential for actin ring assembly and periodicity but is necessary to control the diameter of both actin rings and axons and actin filament growth within rings. PMID:27068466

  5. Pattern formation in polymerising actin flocks: spirals, spots and waves without nonlinear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goff, Thomas Le; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model solely based on actin treadmilling and polymerisation which describes many characteristic states of actin wave formation: spots, spirals and travelling waves. In our model, as in experiments on cell recovering motility following actin depolymerisation, we choose an isotropic low density initial condition; polymerisation of actin filaments then raises the density towards the Onsager threshold where they align. We show that this alignment, in turn, destabilizes the isotropic phase and generically induces transient actin spots or spirals as part of the dynamical pathway towards a polarized phase which can either be uniform or consist of a series of actin-wave trains (flocks). Our results uncover a universal route to actin wave formation in the absence of any system specific nonlinear biochemistry, and it may help understand the mechanism underlying the observation of actin spots and waves in vivo. They also suggest a minimal setup to design similar patterns in vitro.

  6. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the human smooth muscle (enteric type). gamma. -actin gene: Evolution of six human actin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Takeshi; Manabe, Yoshihisa; Kamada, Shinji; Kakunaga, Takeo (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Ueyama, Hisao (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Seta (Japan)); Kanda, Naotoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)); Bruns, G. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Recombinant phages that carry the human smooth muscle (enteric type) {gamma}-actin gene were isolated from human genomic DNA libraries. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence matches those of cDNAs but differs from the protein sequence previously reported at one amino acid position, codon 359. The gene containing one 5{prime} untranslated exon and eight coding exons extends for 27 kb on human chromosome 2. The intron between codons 84 and 85 (site 3) is unique to the two smooth muscle actin genes. From characterized molecular structures of the six human actin isoform genes, the authors propose a hypothesis of evolutionary pathway of the actin gene family. A presumed ancestral actin isoform gene had introns at least sites, 1, 2, and 4 through 8. Cytoplasmic actin genes may have directly evolved from it through loss of introns at sites 5 and 6. However, through duplication of the ancestral actin gene with substitutions of many amino acids, a prototype of muscle actin genes had been created. Subsequently, striated muscle actin and smooth muscle actin genes may have evolved from this prototype by loss of an intron at site 4 and acquisition of a new intron at site 3, respectively.

  7. Acute response of airway muscle to extreme temperature includes disruption of actin-myosin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrda, Peter; Tazzeo, Tracy; DoHarris, Lindsay; Nilius, Berndt; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Aziz, Tariq; Lukic, Dusan; Janssen, Luke J

    2011-02-01

    Despite the emerging use of bronchial thermoplasty in asthma therapy, the response of airway smooth muscle (ASM) to extreme temperatures is unknown. We investigated the immediate effects of exposing ASM to supraphysiologic temperatures. Isometric contractions were studied in bovine ASM before and after exposure to various thermal loads and/or pharmacologic interventions. Actin-myosin interactions were investigated using a standard in vitro motility assay. We found steep thermal sensitivity for isometric contractions evoked by acetylcholine, with threshold and complete inhibition at less than 50°C and greater than 55°C, respectively. Contractile responses to serotonin or KCl were similarly affected, whereas isometric relaxations evoked by the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosyl-N-acetylpenicillamine or the β-agonist isoproterenol were unaffected. This thermal sensitivity developed within 15 minutes, but did not evolve further over the course of several days (such a rapid time-course rules out heat shock proteins, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). Although heat-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRPV2) channels and the calmodulin-dependent (Cam) kinase-II-induced inactivation of myosin light chain kinase are both acutely thermally sensitive, with a temperature producing half-maximal effect (T(1/2)) of 52.5°C, the phenomenon we describe was not prevented by blockers of TRPV2 channels (e.g., ruthenium red, gadolinium, zero-Ca(2+) or zero-Na(+)/zero-Ca(2+) media, and cromakalim) or of Cam kinase-II (e.g., W7, trifluoperazine, and KN-93). However, direct measurements of actin-myosin interactions showed the same steep thermal profile. The functional changes preceded any histologic evidence of necrosis or apoptosis. We conclude that extreme temperatures (such as those used in bronchial thermoplasty) directly disrupt actin-myosin interactions, likely through a denaturation of the motor protein, leading to an immediate loss of ASM cell function. PMID:20395634

  8. Orientational Order of the Lamellipodial Actin Network as Demonstrated in Living Motile CellsV⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander B. Verkhovsky; Chaga, Oleg Y.; Schaub, Sébastien; Svitkina, Tatyana M.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Borisy, Gary G.

    2003-01-01

    Lamellipodia of crawling cells represent both the motor for cell advance and the primary building site for the actin cytoskeleton. The organization of actin in the lamellipodium reflects actin dynamics and is of critical importance for the mechanism of cell motility. In previous structural studies, the lamellipodial actin network was analyzed primarily by electron microscopy (EM). An understanding of lamellipodial organization would benefit significantly if the EM data were complemented and p...

  9. Cell Elasticity Is Regulated by the Tropomyosin Isoform Composition of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Jalilian, Iman; Heu, Celine; Cheng, Hong; Freittag, Hannah; Desouza, Melissa; Justine R. Stehn; Bryce, Nicole S.; Whan, Renee M.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Fath, Thomas; Schevzov, Galina; Gunning, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have addressed the significance of the actin associated protein, tropomyosin (Tpm), in influencing the mechanical properties of cells. Tpms belong to...

  10. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-06-11

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher resolution cell whole mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under non-perturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and is visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As the nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, a discrete actin network formed throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical.

  11. Actin based processes that could determine the cytoplasmic architecture of plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Honing; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Actin polymerisation can generate forces that are necessary for cell movement, such as the propulsion of a class of bacteria, including Listeria, and the protrusion of migrating animal cells. Force generation by the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells has not been studied. One process in plant cells that is likely to depend on actin-based force generation is the organisation of the cytoplasm. We compare the function of actin binding proteins of three well-studied mammalian models that depend on...

  12. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  13. The actin Cytoskeleton in Root Hairs: a cell elongation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in root hair development. It is involved in both the delivery of growth materials to the expanding tip of root hairs and the regulation of the area of tip growth. This review starts with a discussion of the techniques that are available to visualize the

  14. Fragmentation of Human Erythrocyte Actin following Exposure to Hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Risso, A.; Santamaria, B.; Pistarino, E.; Cosulich, M. E.; Pompach, Petr; Bezouška, Karel; Antonutto, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2009), s. 6-13. ISSN 0001-5792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : beta-Actin * erythrocytes * hypoxia Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.069, year: 2009

  15. Fragmentation of Human Erythrocyte Actin following Exposure to Hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Risso, A.; Santamaria, B.; Pistarino, E.; Cosulich, M. E.; Pompach, Petr; Bezouška, Karel; Antonutto, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2010), s. 6-13. ISSN 0001-5792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : beta-Actin * Erythrocytes * Hypoxia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2010

  16. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, J.; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014). ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1654 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Actin * Cytoskeleton * Pathogen Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25482795

  17. Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sanches Cabral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50 of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287 and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280. Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251 were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180 and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280. The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic

  18. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be conside

  19. Purification of actin from Candida albicans and comparison with the Candida 48,000-Mr protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiss, E.; Buckley, H R

    1987-01-01

    Actin was purified from Candida albicans cells by affinity chromatography by DNase-Sepharose and was recognized by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody directed against chick muscle actin. The C. albicans 48-kilodalton protein recognized by sera from patients with invasive candidiasis was shown by DEAE chromatography and immunoblotting not to be identical with the purified C. albicans actin.

  20. Internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various biological functions related to cell motility are driven by the interaction between the partner proteins, actin and myosin. To obtain insights into how this interaction occurs, the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were characterized by the quasielastic neutron scattering measurements on the solution samples of F-actin and S1. Contributions of the internal motions of the proteins to the scattering spectra were separated from those of the global macromolecular diffusion. Analysis of the spectra arising from the internal dynamics showed that the correlation times of the atomic motions were about two times shorter for F-actin than for S1, suggesting that F-actin fluctuates more rapidly than S1. It was also shown that the fraction of the immobile atoms is larger for S1 than for F-actin. These results suggest that F-actin actively facilitates the binding of myosin by utilizing the more frequent conformational fluctuations than those of S1. - Highlights: • We studied the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin S1 by neutron scattering. • The correlation times of the atomic motions were smaller for F-actin than for S1. • The fraction of the immobile atoms was also smaller for F-actin than for S1. • Our results suggest that mobility of atoms in F-actin is higher than that in S1. • We propose that high flexibility of F-actin facilitates the binding of myosin

  1. Dynamic organization of actin cytoskeleton during the polarity formation and germination of pollen protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xia; Zl Huijun; SUN Yina; REN Haiyun

    2004-01-01

    The formation of the polarity of pollen protoplast and the dynamics of actin cytoskeleton were observed by non-fixation, Alexa-Phalloidin probing and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results showed that the protoplast obtained from stored pollen contained numerous crystalline fusiform bodies to constitute a storage form of actin. When dormant pollen was hydrated, the actin cytoskeleton forms a fine network spreading uniformly in the protoplast. In the process of polarity formation and germination of pollen protoplast, actin filaments marshaled slowly to the brim, and then formed multilayer continuous actin filament bundles surrounding the cortical of the protoplast. When the protoplast was exposed to actin filament-disrupting drugs, such as Latrunculin A and Cytochalasin D, continuously arranged actin bundles were disturbed and in this condition, the protoplast could not germinate. But when exposed to actin filament stabiling drug-phalliodin, the dynamics of actin filaments in the protoplasts behaved normally and the protoplasts could germinate normally. These results were also confirmed by the pharmacology experiments on pollen grains. And when Latrunculin A or Cytochalasin D was washed off, the ratio of pollen germination was resumed partly. All the results above show that the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton are critical in the cell polarity formation and germination of pollen protoplast, and that the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton is mainly due to the rearrangement of actin filament arrays.

  2. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.; Tregear, R.T.; Ward, A.; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R.J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T.C.; Reedy, M.K. (IIT); (EMBL); (Scripps); (Duke); (Prince); (FSU); (MRC); (U. Florence)

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.

  3. Statistics of actin-propelled trajectories in noisy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Leung, Kwan-Tai

    2016-06-01

    Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories. Specifically, the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the trajectories is computed and found to show a super-ballistic scaling with an exponent 3 in the early stage, followed by a crossover to a normal, diffusive scaling of exponent 1 in the late stage. For open-end trajectories such as straights and S-shaped curves, the time of crossover matches the decay time of orientational order of the velocities along trajectories, suggesting that it is the spreading of velocities that leads to the crossover. We show that the super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from the initial, linearly increasing correlation of velocities, before time translational symmetry is established. When the spreading of velocities reaches a steady state in the long-time limit, short-range correlation then yields a diffusive scaling in MSD. In contrast, close-loop trajectories like circles exhibit localized periodic motion, which inhibits spreading. The initial super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from velocity correlation that both linearly increases and oscillates in time. Finally, we find that the above statistical features of the trajectories transcend the nature of noises, be it additive or multiplicative, and generalize to other self-propelled systems that are not necessarily actin based. PMID:27415296

  4. Statistics of actin-propelled trajectories in noisy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Leung, Kwan-tai

    2016-06-01

    Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories. Specifically, the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the trajectories is computed and found to show a super-ballistic scaling with an exponent 3 in the early stage, followed by a crossover to a normal, diffusive scaling of exponent 1 in the late stage. For open-end trajectories such as straights and S-shaped curves, the time of crossover matches the decay time of orientational order of the velocities along trajectories, suggesting that it is the spreading of velocities that leads to the crossover. We show that the super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from the initial, linearly increasing correlation of velocities, before time translational symmetry is established. When the spreading of velocities reaches a steady state in the long-time limit, short-range correlation then yields a diffusive scaling in MSD. In contrast, close-loop trajectories like circles exhibit localized periodic motion, which inhibits spreading. The initial super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from velocity correlation that both linearly increases and oscillates in time. Finally, we find that the above statistical features of the trajectories transcend the nature of noises, be it additive or multiplicative, and generalize to other self-propelled systems that are not necessarily actin based.

  5. Podocyte Purinergic P2X4 Channels Are Mechanotransducers That Mediate Cytoskeletal Disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Anna-Lena; Olteanu, Vlad Sorin; Mollet, Géraldine; Wlodkowski, Tanja; Schaefer, Franz; Dietrich, Alexander; Reiser, Jochen; Gudermann, Thomas; Mederos Y Schnitzler, Michael; Storch, Ursula

    2016-03-01

    Podocytes are specialized, highly differentiated epithelial cells in the kidney glomerulus that are exposed to glomerular capillary pressure and possible increases in mechanical load. The proteins sensing mechanical forces in podocytes are unconfirmed, but the classic transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) interacting with the MEC-2 homolog podocin may form a mechanosensitive ion channel complex in podocytes. Here, we observed that podocytes respond to mechanical stimulation with increased intracellular calcium concentrations and increased inward cation currents. However, TRPC6-deficient podocytes responded in a manner similar to that of control podocytes, and mechanically induced currents were unaffected by genetic inactivation of TRPC1/3/6 or administration of the broad-range TRPC blocker SKF-96365. Instead, mechanically induced currents were significantly decreased by the specific P2X purinoceptor 4 (P2X4) blocker 5-BDBD. Moreover, mechanical P2X4 channel activation depended on cholesterol and podocin and was inhibited by stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton. Because P2X4 channels are not intrinsically mechanosensitive, we investigated whether podocytes release ATP upon mechanical stimulation using a fluorometric approach. Indeed, mechanically induced ATP release from podocytes was observed. Furthermore, 5-BDBD attenuated mechanically induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Altogether, our findings reveal a TRPC channel-independent role of P2X4 channels as mechanotransducers in podocytes. PMID:26160898

  6. The membrane cytoskeletal crosslinker ezrin is required for metastasis of breast carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The membrane cytoskeletal crosslinker ezrin participates in several functions including cell adhesion, motility and cell survival, and there is increasing evidence that it regulates tumour progression. However, the role played by ezrin in breast cancer metastasis has not been clearly delineated. We examined the role of ezrin in metastasis using a highly metastatic murine mammary carcinoma cell line, namely AC2M2. Stable cell clones that overexpress wild-type ezrin or a dominant-negative amino-terminal domain of ezrin were selected. They were then tested for cell motility and invasion in vitro, and metastasis in a mouse in vivo tumour transplantation model. Parental AC2M2 cells and cells overexpressing wild-type ezrin were transplanted into the mammary fat pad of syngeneic recipient mice; these animals subsequently developed lung metastases. In contrast, expression of the dominant-negative amino-terminal ezrin domain markedly inhibited lung metastasis. Consistent with this effect, we observed that the expression of amino-terminal ezrin caused strong membrane localization of cadherin, with increased cell–cell contact and a decrease in cell motility and invasion, whereas cells expressing wild-type ezrin exhibited strong cytoplasmic expression of cadherins and pseudopodia extensions. In addition, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and c-Src significantly blocked cell motility and invasion of AC2M2 cells expressing wild-type ezrin. We further found that overexpression of amino-terminal ezrin reduced levels of Akt pS473 and cytoskeletal-associated c-Src pY418 in AC2M2 cells, which contrasts with the high levels of phosphorylation of these proteins in cells expressing wild-type ezrin. Phosphorylated Erk1/2 was also reduced in amino-terminal ezrin expressing cells, although a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor had no detectable effect on cell motility or invasion in this system. Our findings indicate that ezrin is required for breast cancer

  7. Regulation of actin cytoskeleton architecture by Eps8 and Abi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Jeffrey R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The actin cytoskeleton participates in many fundamental processes including the regulation of cell shape, motility, and adhesion. The remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on actin binding proteins, which organize actin filaments into specific structures that allow them to perform various specialized functions. The Eps8 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling during cell migration, yet the precise mechanism by which Eps8 regulates actin organization and remodeling remains elusive. Results Here, we show that Eps8 promotes the assembly of actin rich filopodia-like structures and actin cables in cultured mammalian cells and Xenopus embryos, respectively. The morphology of actin structures induced by Eps8 was modulated by interactions with Abi1, which stimulated formation of actin cables in cultured cells and star-like structures in Xenopus. The actin stars observed in Xenopus animal cap cells assembled at the apical surface of epithelial cells in a Rac-independent manner and their formation was accompanied by recruitment of N-WASP, suggesting that the Eps8/Abi1 complex is capable of regulating the localization and/or activity of actin nucleators. We also found that Eps8 recruits Dishevelled to the plasma membrane and actin filaments suggesting that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt/Polarity signaling. Consistent with this idea, mis-expression of Eps8 in dorsal regions of Xenopus embryos resulted in gastrulation defects. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that Eps8 plays multiple roles in modulating actin filament organization, possibly through its interaction with distinct sets of actin regulatory complexes. Furthermore, the finding that Eps8 interacts with Dsh and induced gastrulation defects provides evidence that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt signaling to control cell movements during vertebrate development.

  8. The CPEB3 Protein Is a Functional Prion that Interacts with the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouse cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3 is a translational regulator implicated in long-term memory maintenance. Invertebrate orthologs of CPEB3 in Aplysia and Drosophila are functional prions that are physiologically active in the aggregated state. To determine if this principle applies to the mammalian CPEB3, we expressed it in yeast and found that it forms heritable aggregates that are the hallmark of known prions. In addition, we confirm in the mouse the importance of CPEB3’s prion formation for CPEB3 function. Interestingly, deletion analysis of the CPEB3 prion domain uncovered a tripartite organization: two aggregation-promoting domains surround a regulatory module that affects interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. In all, our data provide direct evidence that CPEB3 is a functional prion in the mammalian brain and underline the potential importance of an actin/CPEB3 feedback loop for the synaptic plasticity underlying the persistence of long-term memory.

  9. Actin-binding proteins from Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis can functionally compensate for the actin-based motility defect of a Burkholderia pseudomallei bimA mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, J. M.; Ulrich, R L; Taylor, L A; Wood, M W; DeShazer, D; M.P. Stevens; Galyov, E. E.

    2005-01-01

    Recently we identified a bacterial factor (BimA) required for actin-based motility of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here we report that Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis are capable of actin-based motility in J774.2 cells and that BimA homologs of these bacteria can restore the actin-based motility defect of a B. pseudomallei bimA mutant. While the BimA homologs differ in their amino-terminal sequence, they interact directly with actin in vitro and vary in their ability to bind ...

  10. Actin-Binding Proteins from Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis Can Functionally Compensate for the Actin-Based Motility Defect of a Burkholderia pseudomallei bimA Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Joanne M; Ulrich, Ricky L.; Taylor, Lowrie A.; Wood, Michael W.; DeShazer, David; Stevens, Mark P.; Galyov, Edouard E.

    2005-01-01

    Recently we identified a bacterial factor (BimA) required for actin-based motility of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here we report that Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis are capable of actin-based motility in J774.2 cells and that BimA homologs of these bacteria can restore the actin-based motility defect of a B. pseudomallei bimA mutant. While the BimA homologs differ in their amino-terminal sequence, they interact directly with actin in vitro and vary in their ability to bind ...

  11. Analysis of cytoskeletal features in dried and living cells and slow dynamic experiments using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to interact with live cells in vitro in combination with either sequential image acquisition or continuous force sensing provide the means for tracking the dynamics of intra- or inter-cell processes. The former operational mode is relatively slow and is most suitable for events where the temporal evolution takes place on a time scale of several minutes to hours. For instance, aspects of cytoskeletal dynamics, cell motility or conformational response to external stimuli fall into this category. In this study we demonstrate cell responses from exposure to cytochalasin, glutaraldehyde and a tetrazolium salt. Significant changes in mechanical properties and structural features are observed on time scales up to 3 hrs. In addition, comparative studies of cytoskeletal components of dried and living cells are undertaken

  12. Structure of a Filament-Like Actin Trimer Bound to the Bacterial Effector VopL

    OpenAIRE

    Zahm, Jacob A.; Padrick, Shae B.; Chen, Zhucheng; Pak, Chi W.; Yunus, Ali A.; Henry, Lisa; Tomchick, Diana R.; Chen, Zhe; Rosen, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens use secreted effector proteins to subvert host-cell defenses. VopL is an effector protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus that nucleates actin filaments. VopL consists of a VopL C-terminal Domain (VCD) and a tandem array of three WASP homology 2 (WH2) motifs. Here we report the crystal structure of the VCD dimer bound to actin. The VCD binds three actin monomers in a spatial arrangement close to that in the canonical actin filament. In this configuration each actin can readil...

  13. Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle V. F. Coumans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$ loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Joëlle V. F.; Palanisamy, Suresh K. A.; McFarlane, Jim; Moens, Pierre D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$) loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27104521

  15. Directional memory arises from long-lived cytoskeletal asymmetries in polarized chemotactic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice-Mott, Harrison V; Meroz, Yasmine; Carlson, Andreas; Levine, Michael A; Davidson, Michael W; Irimia, Daniel; Charras, Guillaume T; Mahadevan, L; Shah, Jagesh V

    2016-02-01

    Chemotaxis, the directional migration of cells in a chemical gradient, is robust to fluctuations associated with low chemical concentrations and dynamically changing gradients as well as high saturating chemical concentrations. Although a number of reports have identified cellular behavior consistent with a directional memory that could account for behavior in these complex environments, the quantitative and molecular details of such a memory process remain unknown. Using microfluidics to confine cellular motion to a 1D channel and control chemoattractant exposure, we observed directional memory in chemotactic neutrophil-like cells. We modeled this directional memory as a long-lived intracellular asymmetry that decays slower than observed membrane phospholipid signaling. Measurements of intracellular dynamics revealed that moesin at the cell rear is a long-lived element that when inhibited, results in a reduction of memory. Inhibition of ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase), downstream of RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A), stabilized moesin and directional memory while depolymerization of microtubules (MTs) disoriented moesin deposition and also reduced directional memory. Our study reveals that long-lived polarized cytoskeletal structures, specifically moesin, actomyosin, and MTs, provide a directional memory in neutrophil-like cells even as they respond on short time scales to external chemical cues. PMID:26764383

  16. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for cytoskeletal assembly: Towards understanding tensegrity in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-10-01

    The cytoskeleton is not an equilibrium structure. To develop theoretical tools to investigate such nonequilibrium assemblies, we study a statistical physical model of motorized spherical particles. Though simple, it captures some of the key nonequilibrium features of the cytoskeletal networks. Variational solutions of the many-body master equation for a set of motorized particles accounts for their thermally induced Brownian motion as well as for the motorized kicking of the structural elements. These approximations yield stability limits for crystalline phases and for frozen amorphous structures. The methods allow one to compute the effects of nonequilibrium behavior and adhesion (effective cross-linking) on the mechanical stability of localized phases as a function of density, adhesion strength, and temperature. We find that nonequilibrium noise does not necessarily destabilize mechanically organized structures. The nonequilibrium forces strongly modulate the phase behavior and have comparable effect as the adhesion due to cross-linking. Modeling transitions such as these allows the mechanical properties of cytoskeleton to rapidly and adaptively change. The present model provides a statistical mechanical underpinning for a tensegrity picture of the cytoskeleton.

  17. [Contractile properties of fibers and cytoskeletal proteins of gerbil's hindlimb muscles after space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipets, E N; Ponomareva, E V; Ogneva, I V; Vikhliantsev, I M; Karaduleva, E V; Kratashkina, N L; Kuznetsov, S L; Podlubnaia, Z A; Shenkman, B S

    2009-01-01

    The work had the goal to compare the microgravity effects on gerbil's muscles-antagonists, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The animals were exposed in 12-d space microgravity aboard Earth's artificial satellite "Foton-M3". Findings of the analysis of single skinned fibers contractility are 19.7% diminution of the diameter and 21.8% loss of the total contractive force of m. soleus fibers post flight. However, there was no significant difference in calcium sensitivity which agrees with the absence of changes in the relative content of several major cytoskeletal proteins (titin and nebulin ratios to heavy chains of myosin were identical in the flight and control groups) and a slight shifting of the myosin phenotype toward the "fast type" (9%, p < 0.05). These parameters were mostly unaffected by the space flight in m. tibialis anterior. To sum up, the decline of contractility and diminution of gerbil's myofibers after the space flight were less significant as compared with rats and did not impact the sytoskeletal protein ratios. PMID:19711860

  18. Form, Fabric, and Function of a Flagellum-Associated Cytoskeletal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Morriswood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei is a uniflagellated protist and the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease. The single flagellum of T. brucei is essential to a number of cellular processes such as motility, and has been a longstanding focus of scientific enquiry. A number of cytoskeletal structures are associated with the flagellum in T. brucei, and one such structure—a multiprotein complex containing the repeat motif protein TbMORN1—is the focus of this review. The TbMORN1-containing complex, which was discovered less than ten years ago, is essential for the viability of the mammalian-infective form of T. brucei. The complex has an unusual asymmetric morphology, and is coiled around the flagellum to form a hook shape. Proteomic analysis using the proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID technique has elucidated a number of its components. Recent work has uncovered a role for TbMORN1 in facilitating protein entry into the cell, thus providing a link between the cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system. This review summarises the extant data on the complex, highlights the outstanding questions for future enquiry, and provides speculation as to its possible role in a size-exclusion mechanism for regulating protein entry. The review additionally clarifies the nomenclature associated with this topic, and proposes the adoption of the term “hook complex” to replace the former name “bilobe” to describe the complex.

  19. Form, Fabric, and Function of a Flagellum-Associated Cytoskeletal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriswood, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a uniflagellated protist and the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease. The single flagellum of T. brucei is essential to a number of cellular processes such as motility, and has been a longstanding focus of scientific enquiry. A number of cytoskeletal structures are associated with the flagellum in T. brucei, and one such structure-a multiprotein complex containing the repeat motif protein TbMORN1-is the focus of this review. The TbMORN1-containing complex, which was discovered less than ten years ago, is essential for the viability of the mammalian-infective form of T. brucei. The complex has an unusual asymmetric morphology, and is coiled around the flagellum to form a hook shape. Proteomic analysis using the proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) technique has elucidated a number of its components. Recent work has uncovered a role for TbMORN1 in facilitating protein entry into the cell, thus providing a link between the cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system. This review summarises the extant data on the complex, highlights the outstanding questions for future enquiry, and provides speculation as to its possible role in a size-exclusion mechanism for regulating protein entry. The review additionally clarifies the nomenclature associated with this topic, and proposes the adoption of the term "hook complex" to replace the former name "bilobe" to describe the complex. PMID:26540076

  20. Determination of Phosphorylation Sites in the DivIVA Cytoskeletal Protein of Streptomyces coelicolor by Targeted LC–MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Saalbach, Gerhard; Hempel, Antje M.; Vigouroux, Marielle; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark J.; Naldrett, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor modulates polar growth and branching by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein DivIVA. Previous MALDI-TOF analysis of DivIVA showed that a large 7.2 kDa tryptic peptide was multiply phosphorylated. To aid localization of the phosphorylation sites, we introduced additional tryptic cleavage sites into DivIVA, and the resulting phosphopeptides were analyzed by LC–MS/MS. Phosphopeptide isomers could be separated chromatographically, but because ...

  1. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Rapid expression of cytoskeletal components in microvilli of pig small intestinal mucosal explants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Danielsen, E M

    1984-01-01

    Using alkaline extraction to separate cytoskeletal and membrane proteins of intestinal microvilli, the kinetics of assembly of these two microvillar protein compartments was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small intestinal mucosal explants, kept in organ culture. Following a 10 min pulse of...... pulse. These different kinetics of appearance indicate that the two microvillar protein compartments have separate mechanisms of biosynthesis and microvillar expression....

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Signaling and Osteogenesis Is Regulated by Cell Shape, RhoA/ROCK, and Cytoskeletal Tension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang-Kao; Yu, Xiang; Cohen, Daniel M.; Wozniak, Michele A.; Yang, Michael T.; Gao, Lin; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is classically thought to be mediated by different cytokines such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here, we report that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and its effects on cell shape and cytoskeletal mechanics, regulates BMP-induced signaling and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Using micropatterned substrates to progressively restrict cell spreading and flattening against ECM, we demonstrated that BM...

  3. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  4. Dynamics of Actin Cables in Polarized Growth of the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergs, Anna; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Evangelinos, Minoas; Nienhaus, G. U.; Takeshita, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here, we observed actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA) and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in living Aspergillus nidulans hyphae and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  5. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Jewett

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  6. Reconstitution of actin-based motility of Listeria and Shigella using pure proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Thomas P.; Boujemaa, Rajaa; Pantaloni, Dominique; Carlier, Marie-France

    1999-10-01

    Actin polymerization is essential for cell locomotion and is thought to generate the force responsible for cellular protrusions. The Arp2/3 complex is required to stimulate actin assembly at the leading edge in response to signalling. The bacteria Listeria and Shigella bypass the signalling pathway and harness the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin assembly and to propel themselves in living cells. However, the Arp2/3 complex alone is insufficient to promote movement. Here we have used pure components of the actin cytoskeleton to reconstitute sustained movement in Listeria and Shigella in vitro. Actin-based propulsion is driven by the free energy released by ATP hydrolysis linked to actin polymerization, and does not require myosin. In addition to actin and activated Arp2/3 complex, actin depolymerizing factor (ADF, or cofilin) and capping protein are also required for motility as they maintain a high steady-state level of G-actin, which controls the rate of unidirectional growth of actin filaments at the surface of the bacterium. The movement is more effective when profilin, α-actinin and VASP (for Listeria) are also included. These results have implications for our understanding of the mechanism of actin-based motility in cells.

  7. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in M. longissimus of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Ren, Lulu; Zhu, He; Li, Ke; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC) on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC) were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM). The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness. PMID:25049681

  8. F-actin distribution and function during sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J; Nielsen, O; Egel, R;

    1998-01-01

    accumulated towards the projection tip at one end of the cell. Following cell fusion, F-actin dots were randomly scattered during the horsetail movement that precedes meiosis I and remained scattered until prometaphase or metaphase of meiosis II, when they concentrated around the nucleus. F-actin was seen on...... the lagging face of the nuclei which faced the partner nucleus during anaphase B of meiosis II. Early on in this anaphase F-actin was also seen on the opposite side of the nucleus, near the spindle pole body. F-actin accumulated within the spores in the mature ascus. Treatment with the actin...... depolymerising drug Latrunculin A showed that F-actin is required for cell fusion and spore formation. Latrunculin A treatment extended all stages from karyogamy to meiosis I. The S. pombe homologue of the actin binding protein profilin, Cdc3, was shown to be required for conjugation. Cdc3 co-localized with the...

  9. Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensohn, Andres M; Ma, Le; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Kirschner, Marc W

    2006-01-01

    Xenopus egg cytoplasmic extracts have been used to study a variety of complex cellular processes. Given their amenability to biochemical manipulation and physiological balance of regulatory proteins, these extracts are an ideal system to dissect signal transduction pathways leading to actin assembly. We have developed methods to study Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. In this chapter, we describe detailed procedures to prepare Xenopus egg extracts, Cdc42, and PI(4,5)P2 for use in actin assembly experiments. We also describe a fluorometric pyrene actin assay for quantitative kinetic analysis of actin polymerization and a microscopic rhodamine actin assay for quick measurement of actin rearrangements in extracts. Finally we provide a protocol for immunodepletion of proteins and discuss the use of immunodepletion and rescue experiments for functional analysis of components in the extracts. PMID:16472657

  10. Isolation and identification of actin-binding proteins in Plasmodium falciparum by affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Forero

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of the erythrocyte by Plasmodium falciparum depends on the ability of the merozoite to move through the membrane invagination. This ability is probably mediated by actin dependent motors. Using affinity columns with G-actin and F-actin we isolated actin binding proteins from the parasite. By immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies we identified the presence of tropomyosin, myosin, a-actinin, and two different actins in the eluate corresponding to F-actin binding proteins. In addition to these, a 240-260 kDa doublet, different in size from the erythrocyte spectrin, reacted with an antibody against human spectrin. All the above mentioned proteins were metabolically radiolabeled when the parasite was cultured with 35S-methionine. The presence of these proteins in P. falciparum is indicative of a complex cytoskeleton and supports the proposed role for an actin-myosin motor during invasion.

  11. Cytoskeletárni proteiny v jádrech a v průběhu mitózy a meiozy u rostlin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cenklová, Věra; Binarová, Pavla

    Praha : Československá biologická společnost, 2001, s. 1-1. [9. cytoskeletární klub.. Vranovská Ves (CZ), 25.04.2001-27.04.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/99/D092; GA AV ČR IAA5020803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cytoskeletal proteins * mitosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Interplay of cytoskeletal activity and lipid phase stability in dynamic protein recruitment and clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi; Buceta, Javier; Reigada, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that some membrane proteins aggregate to form clusters. This type of process has been proven to be dynamic and to be actively maintained by external kinetics. Additionally, this dynamic recruiting is cholesterol- and actin-dependent, suggesting that raft organization and cytoskeleton rearrangement play a crucial role. In the present study, we propose a simple model that provides a general framework to describe the dynamical behavior of lipid-protein assemblies. Our results suggest that lipid-mediated interactions and cytoskeleton-anchored proteins contribute to the modulation of such behavior. In particular, we find a resonant condition between the membrane protein and cytoskeleton dynamics that results in the invariance of the ratio of clustered proteins that is found in in vivo experimental observations. PMID:24018870

  13. The connection of cytoskeletal network with plasma membrane and the cell wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengyu Liu; Staffan Persson; Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall provides external support of the plant cells, while the cytoskeletons including the microtubules and the actin filaments constitute an internal framework. The cytoskeletons contribute to the cell wall biosynthesis by spatially and temporarily regulating the transportation and deposition of cell wall components. This tight control is achieved by the dynamic behavior of the cytoskeletons, but also through the tethering of these structures to the plasma membrane. This tethering may also extend beyond the plasma membrane and impact on the cell wall, possibly in the form of a feedback loop. In this review, we discuss the linking components between the cytoskeletons and the plasma membrane, and/or the cell wall. We also discuss the prospective roles of these components in cell wall biosyn-thesis and modifications, and aim to provide a platform for further studies in this field.

  14. Feedback Interactions of Polymerized Actin with the Cell Membrane: Waves, Pulses, and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders

    Polymerized filaments of the protein actin have crucial functions in cell migration, and in bending the cell membrane to drive endocytosis or the formation of protrusions. The nucleation and polymerization of actin filaments are controlled by upstream agents in the cell membrane, including nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex to form new branches on pre-existing filaments. But polymerized actin (F-actin) also feeds back on the assembly of NPFs. We explore the effects of the resulting feedback loop of F-actin and NPFs on two phenomena: actin pulses that drive endocytosis in yeast, and actin waves traveling along the membrane of several cell types. In our model of endocytosis in yeast, the actin network is grown explicitly in three dimensions, exerts a negative feedback interaction on localized patch of NPFs in the membrane, and bends the membrane by exerting a distribution of forces. This model explains observed actin and NPF pulse dynamics, and the effects of several interventions including i) NPF mutations, ii) inhibition of actin polymerization, and iii) deletion of a protein that allows F-actin to bend the cell membrane. The model predicts that mutation of the active region of an NPF will enhance the accumulation of that NPF, and we confirm this prediction by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. For actin waves, we treat a similar model, with NPFs distributed over a larger region of the cell membrane. This model naturally generates actin waves, and predicts a transition from wave behavior to spatially localized oscillations when NPFs are confined to a small region. We also predict a transition from waves to static polarization as the negative-feedback coupling between F-actin and the NPFs is reduced. Supported by NIGMS Grant R01 GM107667.

  15. Actin Remodeling and Polymerization Forces Control Dendritic Spine Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Miermans, Karsten; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. This striking progression is coincident with the (re)configuration of the neuronal network during early development, learning and memory formation, and has been conjectured to be part of the machinery that encodes these processes at the scale of individual neuronal connections. It is well established that the structural plasticity of spines is strongly dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton inside the spine. A general framework that details the precise role of actin in directing the transitions between the various spine shapes is lacking. We address this issue, and present...

  16. Actin-based propulsion of spatially extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a mathematical model of the actin-based propulsion of spatially extended obstacles. It starts from the properties of individual actin filaments and includes transient attachment to the obstacle, polymerization as well as cross-linking. Two particular geometries are discussed, which apply to the motion of protein-coated beads in a cell-like medium and the leading edge of a cell protrusion, respectively. The model gives rise to both steady and saltatory movement of beads and can explain the experimentally observed transitions of the dynamic regime with changing bead radius and protein surface density. Several spatiotemporal patterns are obtained with a soft obstacle under tension, including the experimentally observed spontaneous emergence of lateral traveling waves in crawling cells. Thus, we suggest a unifying mechanism for systems that are currently described by differential concepts.

  17. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  18. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  19. Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Löwe, Jan;

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments with...... point for ParM polymerization. Hence, we provide evidence for a simple prokaryotic analogue of the eukaryotic mitotic spindle apparatus....

  20. IFT88 influences chondrocyte actin organization and biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Wann, A.K.T.; Thompson, C L; Hassen, A.; Wang, W; Knight, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives Primary cilia are microtubule based organelles which control a variety of signalling pathways important in cartilage development, health and disease. This study examines the role of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein, IFT88, in regulating fundamental actin organisation and mechanics in articular chondrocytes. Methods The study used an established chondrocyte cell line with and without hypomorphic mutation of IFT88 (IFT88orpk). Confocal microscopy was used to quantif...