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Sample records for afex-treated wheat straw

  1. Comparison of mechanistic models in the initial rate enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbogbo Frank K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of these mechanistic models fit into two- and three-parameter mechanistic models. The purpose of this study is to compare the models and determine the activation energy and the enthalpy of adsorption of Trichoderma reesei enzymes on ammonia fibre explosion (AFEX-treated wheat straw. Experimental enzymatic hydrolysis data from AFEX-treated wheat straw were modelled with two- and three-parameter mechanistic models from the literature. In order to discriminate between the models, initial rate data at 49°C were subjected to statistical analysis (analysis of variance and scatter plots. Results For three-parameter models, the HCH-1 model best fitted the experimental data; for two-parameter models Michaelis-Menten (M-M best fitted the experimental data. All the three-parameter models fitted the data better than the two-parameter models. The best three models at 49°C (HCH-1, Huang and M-M were compared using initial rate data at three temperatures (35°, 42° and 49°C. The HCH-1 model provided the best fit based on the F values, the scatter plot and the residual sum of squares. Also, its kinetic parameters were linear in Arrhenius/van't Hoff's plots, unlike the other models. The activation energy (Ea is 47.6 kJ/mol and the enthalpy change of adsorption (ΔH is -118 kJ/mol for T. reesei enzymes on AFEX-treated wheat straw. Conclusion Among the two-parameter models, Michaelis-Menten model provided the best fit compared to models proposed by Humphrey and Wald. For the three-parameter models, HCH-1 provided the best fit because the model includes a fractional coverage parameter (ϕ which accounts for the number of reactive sites covered by the enzymes.

  2. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  3. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  4. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

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    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  5. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the...... wheat straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  6. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined with a...... CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... and milled particle size (the extent to which the wheat straw was milled) were investigated and optimized. The developed methodology offered the advantage of a simple and relatively fast (0.5–2 h) pretreatment allowing a dry matter concentration of 45–60%. FTIR measurements did not suggest any...

  7. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  8. Steam gasification of wheat straw, barley straw, willow and giganteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.K. [FLS Miljoe A/S, Valby (Denmark); Rathmann, O.; Olsen, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Poulsen, K. [ReaTech, CAT Science Centre Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    A thorough experimental study of the H{sub 2}O gasification char-reactivity of wheat straw, barley straw, willow and giganteus at 1-10 bar total pressure, 0.15-1.5 bar H{sub 2}O and O-1.0 bar H{sub 2} and 750-925 C, was performed in a Pressurized Thermogravimetric Analyzer. There were a total of 58 experiments. Kinetic experiments with char of wheat straw at 10 bar total pressure showed that the reactivity increases with rising temperature and increasing partial pressure of H{sub 2}O,, while it decreases with increasing partial pressure of H{sub 2}. At constant partial H{sub 2}O pressure in the absence of H-2, an indication of a negative influence by the total pressure was observed. Except for the effect of total pressure, the experimental data were analyzed by means of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation, including both inhibition by H{sub 2} and reactivity limitation at high H{sub 2}O concentration. Also, the reactivity profile was assumed to be independent of temperature and reactant concentration. The value found for the main activation energy E{sub 1}, 149 kJ/mole, describing the temperature dependence at low H{sub 2}O concentration, is close to experimental values for biomass reported by other workers. At conditions relevant to both fluid-bed and entrained-flow gasifier types the present results indicate an inhibiting effect of the product gas H{sub 2}, reducing the reactivity by a factor of up to 10. A screening study of steam gasification of barley straw, willow and giganteus in addition to the wheat straw showed reaction rates with rather equal temperature dependence. However, at equal temperatures, there was a spread in reactivity of about 10 times from the lowest (wheat and giganteus) to the highest (barley), probably due to different contents of catalytic elements. (au) 5 tabs., 15 ills., 10 refs.

  9. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

    OpenAIRE

    James Barsness; Ulrike Tschirner; Tamara Keeler

    2007-01-01

    Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo...

  10. Alkali pretreated of wheat straw and its enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Han; Juntao Feng; Shuangxi Zhang; Zhiqing Ma; Yonghong Wang; Xing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be improved by various pretreatments of the substrate. In order to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of the wheat straw, we determined the effect of different pretreatments on the physical structure, chemical components and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Our results showed that combination of grinding and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment had high effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straws. The opt...

  11. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.;

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion...... process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was...

  12. Reprint of: Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the...

  13. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under these...... conditions two transitions arising from the glass transition of lignin and hemicelluloses have been identified. Key transitions attributed to softening of lignin were found at 53, 63 and 91 °C for moist samples of wheat straw, extracted straw and spruce, respectively. Transitions for hemicelluloses were...... determined at 2, −1 and 5 °C, respectively. Differences are likely due to different compositions of lignin and hemicelluloses from straw and spruce and structural differences between the raw materials. The high wax content in wheat straw resulted in a transition at about 40 °C which was absent in solvent...

  14. Wettability changes of wheat straw treated with chemicals and enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jiang-hua; LIU Zhi-ming; LI Jing; NIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test wettability changes of the wheat straw treated with different methods for the preparation of wheat straw particle board. The wheat straws were separately sprayed with two chemicals (0.6% NaOH, 0.3% H2O2) and three enzymes (lipase, xylanase,cellulase). The contact angle between water and the surface of wheat straw was measured and the spreading-penetration parameters (K-values) were also calculated with wetting model. The surfaces of treated wheat straw and control sample were scanned by means of Micro-FTIR, and their peaks arrangements were analyzed. The surface morphologies of treated wheat straw and control sample were also observed by SEM.Chemical etching was found on the exterior surfaces of the straws treated separately with 0.6% NaOH and 0.3% H2O2; furthermore, the spreading-penetration parameters (K-values) of the distilled water on the exterior surfaces of the treated wheat straw along the grain were higher than that of control. The wettability of exterior surfaces of the wheat straws treated separately with lipase, xylanase and cellulose were improved after treating for seven days, and among the three enzymes treatments, the tipase treatment showed best result. The lipase treatment and NaOH treatment were determined as better methods for improving the wettability of wheat straw surfaces. However, in the economic aspect, NaOHtreatment was more practical and easier in the pretreatment for the manufacture of straw particle board.

  15. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

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    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  16. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw. PMID:26980627

  17. METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW PULP CELL TYPES

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    Mikko Karjalainen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues are receiving increasing interest when studying renewable raw materials for industrial use. Residues, generally referred to as nonwood materials, are usually complex materials. Wheat straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world and is therefore available for extensive industrial use. However, more information of its cell types is needed to utilize wheat straw efficiently in pulp and papermaking. The pulp cell types and particle dimensions of wheat straw were studied, using an optical microscope and an automatic optical fibre analyzer. The role of various cell types in wheat straw pulp and papermaking is discussed. Wheat straw pulp components were categorized according to particle morphology and categorization with an automatic optical analyzer was used to determine wheat straw pulp cell types. The results from automatic optical analysis were compared to those with microscopic analysis and a good correlation was found. Automatic optical analysis was found to be a promising tool for the in-depth analysis of wheat straw pulp cell types.

  18. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barsness

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo-sition, but that the crystallinity index increased considerably. To be able to understand the behavior of wheat straw fiber as part of a commercial papermaking furnish, a paper containing 20% wheat straw fiber was produced on a 24 inch pilot paper machine and was recycled using a handsheet mold with white water return. Chemical analysis of the control (no wheat fiber and the wheat-containing paper demonstrated slightly higher xylan content for the wheat-containing material. Recyclability increased slightly with addition of wheat fibers to a commercial furnish.

  19. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  20. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanxiao Liu; Huaiyu Zhan; Beihai He; Shuhui Yang; Jianhua Liu; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin,polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4′-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  1. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanxiaoLiu; HuaiyuZhan; BeihaiHe; ShuhuiYang; JianhuaLiu; JianluLiu(1); ZhenxingPang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin, polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  2. MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD (MDF) MANUFACTURING FROM WHEAT STRAW (Triticum aestivum L.) AND STRAW WOOD MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    EROĞLU, Hüdaverdi; İSTEK, Abdullah; Usta, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    In this study wheat straw was taken from Ankara province. In order to produce dry process MDF, urea formaldehyde resin was used at the ratio of 8 %, 10 % and 12 %, 1 % ammonium chloride was used as hardening agent on the basis of dry fiber weight. On the other hand, 5, 6 and 7 min. pressing times were applied. Alcohol benzene, cold water, hot water and 1 % NaOH solubility of wheat straw were 5.15 %, 7.31 %, 9.84 % and 40.79 % respectively. In addition, holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and ...

  3. The Effect of Wheat Straw, Corn Straw and Tobacco Residues on Denitrification Losses in a Field Planted with Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    COŞKAN, Ali; Gök, Mustafa; ONAÇ, Işık

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different organic residues (OR) (e.g., wheat straw corn straw and tobacco residues) on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification loss (N2O-N) using application rates recommended to local farmers. Nitrate and ammonium analyses were carried out on periodically collected soil samples. In-situ denitrification loss was determined using the acetylene inhibition technique (AIT). The results revealed that OR application increased N minera...

  4. Investigation of wheat straw biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from biomass requires an efficient pretreatment technology, which further depends on better understanding of biodegradation process of such lignocellulosic biomass. The biodegradation of wheat straw by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated in this study. The fungal secretomes and compositional, functional groups and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. The result showed ∼ 30% loss of total lignin within three weeks of biopretreatment by P. chrysosporium. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnatic resonance (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundance of substructures D (dibenzodioxacin) and E (cinnamyl alcohol). Further, analysis of lignin by Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) and Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl (G) units. The results support the previous findings in the biodegradation of wheat straw analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insights for understanding the biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

  5. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai;

    2012-01-01

    200 °C there was no obvious structural change of the wheat straw. At 200–250 °C hemicelluloses started to decompose and were totally degraded when torrefied at 300 °C for 2 h, while cellulose and lignin began to decompose at about 270–300 °C. Tensile failure strength and strain energy of oven dried...

  6. Fuel ethanol production from microwave pretreated wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars were evaluated. The yield of monomeric sugars from microwave (200 deg C, 10 min) pretreated w...

  7. Optimization of wet oxidation pretreatment of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Thomsen, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    The wet oxidation process (water; oxygen and elevated temperature) was investigated under alkaline conditions for fractionation of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin from wheat straw. At higher temperature and longer reaction time, a purified cellulose fraction (69% w/w) was produced with high...

  8. ALKALINE PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HOT WATER TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Mustajoki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities for chemical consumption reduction in P-P-Paa-P bleaching (P alkaline peroxide stage, Paa peracetic stage of hot water treated straw and the effect of the wheat straw variability on the process. Papermaking fibre production from wheat straw using such a process could be implemented on a small scale if chemical consumption was low enough to eliminate the need for chemical recovery. The pulp properties obtained with this process are equal to or even superior to the properties of wheat straw soda pulp. The possibility of enhancing the first peroxide stage with oxygen and pressure was studied. The possibility for substitution of sodium hydroxide partially with sodium carbonate was also investigated. The objective was to achieve International Standardization Organization (ISO brightness of 75%, with minimal sodium hydroxide consumption, whilst maintaining the pulp properties. The optimization of the peroxide bleaching is challenging if the final brightness target cannot be reduced. Results indicate that up to 25% of the sodium hydroxide could be substituted with sodium carbonate without losing brightness or affecting pulp properties. Another possibility is a mild alkali treatment between the hot water treatment and the bleaching sequence.

  9. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries. PMID:22410399

  10. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 on physically treated wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acebal, C.; Castillon, M.P.; Estrada, P.; Mata, I.; Costa, E.; Aguado, J.; Romero, D.; Jimenez, F.

    1986-06-01

    Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was grown on wheat straw as the sole carbon source. The straw was pretreated by physical and chemical methods. The particle size of straw was less than 0.177 mm. Growth of T. reesei QM 9414 was maximal with alkali-pretreated straw whereas cellulase production was optimal when physically pretreated straw was used as substrate. Cellulase yields expressed as IU enzyme activity/g cellulose present in the cultures were considerably higher when alkali pretreatment of wheat straw was omitted. Cellulase yields of 666 IU/g cellulose for filter paper activity (FPA) are the highest described for cultures of T. reesei QM 9414 carried out in analogous conditions. Crystallinity index of the cellulose contained in wheat straw increased slightly after alkali pretreatment. This increase did not decrease cellulose accessibility to the fungus. Delignification of wheat straw was not necessary to achieve the best cellulase production.

  11. Wheat straw burning and its associated impacts on Beijing air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LingJun; WANG Ying; ZHANG Qiang; LI JinXiang; YANG XiaoGuang; JIN Jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on MODIS images, large-scale flow field charts and environmental monitoring data, we thoroughly analyzed the spatial distribution of wheat straw burning in North China, with focus on its environmental impacts on the air quality of Beijing and pollution transport paths. And we anatomized changes of air quality in Beijing under the impacts of pollution generated by wheat straw burning around. The results indicate that: (1) The North China Plain, a winter-wheat growing area, is the main source of pollutants induced by wheat straw burning in Beijing. The direction of south-west is the dominant heavy pollution transport path. (2) Impacts of wheat straw burning on air quality are mainly manifested by significantly increasing CO concentration. (3) Precursors of O3 generated by wheat straw burning, combining with favorable meteorological conditions, can induce increasing O3 concentration greatly. NO concentration will be greatly increased due to decreasing O3 concentration at night.(4) Atmospheric particles, especially the fine ones, from wheat straw burning exert considerable influence on Beijing air quality. (5) Different contributions of wheat straw burning to pollutants are identified.Ratios of PM10/SO2, CO/SO2, etc., can be applied to indicate pollution extent of wheat straw burning.High ratios of PM10/SO2 and CO/SO2 show that the air quality was heavily impacted by wheat straw burning and these ratios can be employed as indicators of contribution of wheat straw burning to the degradation of Beijing air quality. (6) Randomness of wheat straw burning activities renders random outbreak of air pollution of this type. Regional and extensive wheat straw burning activities can cause serious air pollution event.

  12. Wheat straw burning and its associated impacts on Beijing air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on MODIS images, large-scale flow field charts and environmental monitoring data, we thor- oughly analyzed the spatial distribution of wheat straw burning in North China, with focus on its envi- ronmental impacts on the air quality of Beijing and pollution transport paths. And we anatomized changes of air quality in Beijing under the impacts of pollution generated by wheat straw burning around. The results indicate that: (1) The North China Plain, a winter-wheat growing area, is the main source of pollutants induced by wheat straw burning in Beijing. The direction of south-west is the dominant heavy pollution transport path. (2) Impacts of wheat straw burning on air quality are mainly manifested by significantly increasing CO concentration. (3) Precursors of O3 generated by wheat straw burning, combining with favorable meteorological conditions, can induce increasing O3 concentration greatly. NO concentration will be greatly increased due to decreasing O3 concentration at night. (4) Atmospheric particles, especially the fine ones, from wheat straw burning exert considerable influ- ence on Beijing air quality. (5) Different contributions of wheat straw burning to pollutants are identified. Ratios of PM10/SO2, CO/SO2, etc., can be applied to indicate pollution extent of wheat straw burning. High ratios of PM10/SO2 and CO/SO2 show that the air quality was heavily impacted by wheat straw burning and these ratios can be employed as indicators of contribution of wheat straw burning to the degradation of Beijing air quality. (6) Randomness of wheat straw burning activities renders random outbreak of air pollution of this type. Regional and extensive wheat straw burning activities can cause serious air pollution event.

  13. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1, the...... NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  14. MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD (MDF MANUFACTURING FROM WHEAT STRAW (Triticum aestivum L. AND STRAW WOOD MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi EROĞLU

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study wheat straw was taken from Ankara province. In order to produce dry process MDF, urea formaldehyde resin was used at the ratio of 8 %, 10 % and 12 %, 1 % ammonium chloride was used as hardening agent on the basis of dry fiber weight. On the other hand, 5, 6 and 7 min. pressing times were applied. Alcohol benzene, cold water, hot water and 1 % NaOH solubility of wheat straw were 5.15 %, 7.31 %, 9.84 % and 40.79 % respectively. In addition, holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and ash contents were found as 74.79 %, 52.67 %, 20.17% and 4.21 % respectively. Optimum fiber morphology values were as follow; fiber length 1.2-1.5 mm, fiber width 12-16 µm, lumen diameter 4-6 µm and double wall thickness 7.5 -11.5 µm Optimum fiber production conditions for MDF manufacturing were as follows; Vapor pressure : 10.5 atm, steaming time : 4 minutes, defibration time : 2 minutes. 0.700 g/cm 3 , 0.800 g/cm 3 density straw MDF boards and 0.800 g/cm 3 density wood fiber MDF boards were manufactured. On the other hand, 0.800 g/cm 3 straw-wood fiber mixture MDF boards were produced at the rates of 70% -30%, 50%-50% and 30%-70%. Modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding (IB, thickness swelling and water absorption of the boards were measured. After the evaluations of the results obtained, optimum straw MDF boards manufacturing conditions were as follows; Adhesive ratio : 12 %, pressing time : 6 minutes, press temperature : 150 °C, pressure : 200-220 kp/cm 2 , hardening agent : 1 % and straw - wood ratio 50 %- 50 %.

  15. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo; Silva-Espino Eliseo; Márquez-Benavides Liliana; Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI) has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Lignin...

  16. WHEAT STRAW ALKALINE LIGNIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES AS RETENTION AID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanxiaoLiu; BeihaiHe; HuaiyuZhan; ShuhuiYang; JianluLiu; ZhenxingPan; JianhuaLiu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of retention system of PEO/cofactor retention system is introduced, the cofactors used are phenol-formaldehyde resin, wheat straw alkaline lignin and its derivatives such as hydroxymethylated lignin, sulfited lignin and lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde resin. The first pass retention of newsprint slurry and the properties of handsheet are improved by using the system. The results indicate that a new application field for lignin has been exploited.

  17. A thermomechanical pretreatment to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Maache-Rezzoug, Zoulikha; Maugard, Thierry; Nouviaire, Armelle; Goude, Romain; Geoffroy, Stanley; Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    International audience Wheat straw was pretreated with a thermomechanical process developed in our laboratory to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis extent of potentially fermentable sugars. This process involves subjecting the lignocellulosic biomass for a short time to saturated steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to vacuum at 50 mbar. Increasing of the heat induced by the saturated steam result in intensive vapour formation in the capillary porous structure of the p...

  18. BLEACHING OF SULFONATED CMP FROM BIO-TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw chemi-mechanical pulp was pretreated with a crude xylanase which was secreted by white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium prior to hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The process of xylanase pretreatment and hydrogen peroxide bleaching was optimized. The xylanase treated pulp achieved a brightness gain of 5.8% ISO over the untreated pulp. The xylanase treatment was found to liberate reducing sugars and facilitating lignin removal. Fiber morphology of pulp treated with xylanase was also studied by SEM.

  19. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M.; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  20. Synthesis of magnetic wheat straw for arsenic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → This work provides a way for fabricating low-cost arsenic adsorbents using agro- or plant-residues. → The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhances the arsenic adsorption of Fe3O4. → This magnetic adsorbent can be separated and collected by magnetic control easily and rapidly. → This adsorbent can be regenerated. → - Abstract: Magnetic wheat straw (MWS) with different Fe3O4 content was synthesized by using in-situ co-precipitation method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This material can be used for arsenic adsorption from water, and can be easily separated by applied magnetic field. The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhanced the arsenic adsorption of Fe3O4. Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, the data fitted Langmuir model better. Fe3O4 content and initial pH value influenced its adsorption behavior. Higher Fe3O4 content corresponded to a higher adsorption capacity. In the pH range of 3-11, As(V) adsorption was decreased with increasing of pH; As(III) adsorption had the highest capacity at pH 7-9. Moreover, by using 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH aqueous solution, it could be regenerated. This work provided an efficient way for making use of agricultural waste.

  1. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  2. DETERMINATION OF THE EXERGY OF FOUR WHEAT STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exergy is a measurement of how far a certain material deviates from a state of equilibrium with the environment. It is a useful tool for improving the efficiency of energy-resource use. The exergy values of four wheat straws (Absolvant, Max, Monopol and Vuka were determined in this study. The effects of physical and chemical properties (moisture content, ash content, LHV and S, C, O, H and N contents were evaluated. The moisture related exergy varied from 281.834 kJ kg-1 (Monopol to 366.766 kJ kg-1 (Absolvant, accounting for 1.311-1.734% of the total exergy of wheat straws. A negative linear relationship between the exergy value and moisture content was observed. The ash related exergy varied from 53.468 kJ kg-1 (Absolvant to 117.675 kJ kg-1 (Vuka, accounting for 0.253-0.556% of the total exergy of wheat straws. A negative linear relationship between the exergy value and ash content was observed. The S related exergy ranged from 6.817 kJ kg-1 (Max to 11.077 kJ kg-1 (Vuka, accounting for 0.032-0.052% of the total exergy of wheat straws. A positive linear relationship between the exergy value and S content was observed. The O/C, H/C and N/C atomic ratios and the correlation factors varied in ranges of 0.7133-0.7537, 1.3475-1.5457, 0.0063-0.0225 and 1.133-1.138, respectively. The exergy values of the four wheat straws were between 21.156 MJ kg-1 (Absolvant and 21.503 MJ kg-1 (Monopol. They were mainly determined by the correlation factors and the LHVs. A positive linear relationship between the exergy value and LHV was observed. The combined contribution of ash, moisture and S related exergy to the total exergy was very small (1.694-2.212% and can be neglected.

  3. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea Incorporation with wheat and Maize Straw on a Loamy Soil in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wenxu; Hu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Yuming; Junfang, Cui

    2009-01-01

    Effects of incorporating urea with wheat or corn straw at different soil moisture levels on ammonia volatilization were measured in a field experiment using a sponge-tripping method with KCl extraction. Over a 10-day period following incubation NH3 volatilization peaked on day 3 for urea alone, while highest emission rates were observed on day 2 for urea plus wheat or corn straw. Total NH3 losses decreased in the order: urea > urea + maize straw > urea + wheat straw. Emissions of NH3 were mor...

  4. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja;

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To...

  5. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF LIME PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW TO ETHANOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 +/- 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 +/- 0.11% hemicellulose. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from ...

  6. Use of ground wheat straw in container nursery substrates to overwinter daylily divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) straw is being evaluated as a potential component in soilless container mixes either alone or combined with compost to replace a significant portion of the substrate currently supplied by pine bark and peat moss. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat straw and horse...

  7. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  8. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    The potential of wheat straw for ethanol production after pretreatment with O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature followed by fermentation was investigated. We found that cellulose and hemicellulose remained unaltered after ozonisation and a subsequent washing step...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  9. Intrinsic kinetics and devolatilization of wheat straw during torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai;

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a mild thermal treatment (200–300 °C) in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the degradation kinetics and devolatilization of wheat straw was studied in a thermogravimetric...... analyzer by coupling with a mass spectrometer. The kinetic parameters obtained by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking initial dynamic heating period into account can accurately describe the experimental results with different heating programs. Activation energies and pre...

  10. Selective liquefaction of wheat straw in phenol and its fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xie, Shuangping

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, a method of phenol-selective liquefaction is proposed for the fractionation and multilevel conversion of lignocellulose. Through phenol-selective liquefaction, lignin and hemicellulose are liquefied, with large amounts of cellulose retained in the unliquefied residues. Using a phenol/straw ratio of 3 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 3%, large amounts of hemicellulose (≥85%) and lignin (≥70%) can be liquefied at 100 °C in 30 min, with a high quantity of cellulose (≥80%) retained. Unliquefied residues from selective liquefaction have higher susceptibility for enzymatic attack. Enzymatic hydrolyzation of residues can be as high as 65% in 48 h with 40.7 FPU/g of dry materials, which can then be used to prepare sugar platform intermediates. The liquefied products of wheat straw are then resinified with formaldehyde in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst and synthesized into phenol formaldehyde-type resins reaching up to GB/T 14732-2006 standards. Phenol selective liquefaction, a new technology for the fractionation of lignocellulose, achieves effective fractionation and multilevel conversion of straw components. Hence, it is an important tool to achieve full utilization of biomass and high value-added conversion of lignocellulose. PMID:22544687

  11. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  12. Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was als...

  13. A multi-scale biomechanical model based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longjian; Li, Aiwei; He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia

    2015-11-20

    Biomechanical behavior is a fundamental property for the efficient utilization of wheat straw in such applications as fuel and renewable materials. Tensile experiments and lignocellulose analyses were performed on three types of wheat straw. A multi-scale finite element model composed of the microscopic model of the microfibril equivalent volume element and the macroscopic model of straw tissue was proposed based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw. The tensile properties of wheat straw were simulated by ANSYS software. The predicted stress-strain data were compared with the observed data, and good correspondence was achieved for all three types of wheat straw. The validated multi-scale finite-element (FE) model was then used to investigate the effect of the lignocellulose components on the biomechanical properties of wheat straw. More than 80% of stress is carried by the cellulose fiber, whereas the strain is mainly carried by the amorphous cellulose. PMID:26344265

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    work involved evaluation of 1) possible ways to increase the glucose release from the commercial cellulase product Celluclast by boosting with other enzyme activities to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis, 2) comparing differently pretreated feedstock substrates and 3) evaluating a fed-batch substrate...... feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed that there was...... different pretreatment conditions; hot water extraction and acid- or water impregnation followed by steam explosion showed there were slight differences between the effect of pretreatment conditions in relation to the overall yield from enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose concentration was found for...

  15. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. PMID:26231127

  16. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... a glucose yield of similar to 39% (g g(-1)). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L (R)+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on......In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment...

  17. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.;

    1998-01-01

    The interest in utilizing biomass as a CO2 neutral fuel by combustion, gasification or pyrolysis processes is increasing due to concern about the emission of green house gases from fossil fuel combustion. In thermal fuel conversion, pyrolysis is an important step which determines the split of...... biomass. Combustion of the char remaining after pyrolysis showed that char combustion is catalyzed by the minerals present in wheat straw. Char from the washed straw with KCl added burned with two peaks in the derivative weight loss curve corresponding to a catalyzed and non-catalyzed part, indicating...... products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated with...

  18. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the...... produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.......5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly...

  19. Production of ethanol from wet oxidised wheat straw by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, B.K.; Licht, D.; Schmidt, A.S.;

    1999-01-01

    The wet oxidation process (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, sodium carbonate) was investigated as a means of solubilising hemicellulose from wheat straw. Sixteen different combinations of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration were applied. The hemicellulose hydrolysates were...

  20. Comparison of dilute mineral and organic acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiencies of fumaric, maleic, and sulfuric acid in wheat straw pretreatment were compared. As a measure for pretreatment efficiency, enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulose was determined. Monomeric glucose and xylose concentrations were measured after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, a

  1. Earthworms promote the reduction of Fusarium biomass and deoxynivalenol content in wheat straw under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfarth, F.; Schrader, S.; Oldenburg, E.; Weinert, J.; BRUNOTTE, J.

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms provide numerous ecosystem services within the context of Conservation Agriculture. Two species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa, were field-tested to determine their impacts on decomposing Fusarium culmorum-infected and deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated wheat straw on the soil surface. Earthworms were inoculated into systems containing infected straw with high contamination levels of DON on non-infected straw for an 8 week period in Northern Germany....

  2. Microwave Pretreatment, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Fermentation of Wheat Straw to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 38.8±0.5% cellulose and 31.0±0.3% hemicellulose. The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars wer...

  3. Search for optimum conditions of wheat straw hemicelluloses cold alkaline extraction process

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús; García Domínguez, M. T.; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; Gómez Lozano, D. M.; López Baldovín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A method for the selective extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw involving cold alkaline extraction and subsequent separation by precipitation with ethanol is proposed. Wheat straw affords selective separation of the hemicellulose fraction from the cellulose and lignin fractions with the proposed method. The hemicellulose yield was optimized by using a 2n factor design to examine the influence of temperatures (temperature was designed between 20 and 40 ◦C), operation times ...

  4. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune; Kádár, Zsófia; Anne S. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35%...

  5. Enhancing Biogas Production from Anaerobically Digested Wheat Straw Through Ammonia Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨懂艳; 庞云芝; 袁海荣; 陈树林; 马晶伟; 郁亮; 李秀金

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous ammonia was used to pretreat wheat straw to improve biodegradability and provide nitrogen source for enhancing biogas production. Three doses of ammonia (2%, 4%, and 6%, dry matter) and three moisture contents (30%, 60%, and 80%, dry matter) were applied to pretreat wheat straw for 7 days. The pretreated wheat straws were anaerobically digested at three loading rates (50, 65, and 80 g·L-1) to produce biogas. The results indi-cated that the wheat straw pretreated with 80%moisture content and 4%ammonia achieved the highest methane yield of 199.7 ml·g-1 (based on per unit volatile solids loaded), with shorter digestion time (T80) of 25 days at the loading rate of 65 g·L-1 compared to untreated one. The main chemical compositions of wheat straw were also ana-lyzed. The cellulose and hemicellulose contents were decomposed by 2%-20%and 26%-42%, respectively, while the lignin content was hardly removed, cold-water and hot-water extracts were increased by 4%-44%, and 12%-52%, respectively, for the ammonia-pretreated wheat straws at different moisture contents. The appropriate C/N ratio and decomposition of original chemical compositions into relatively readily biodegradable substances will improve the biodegradability and biogas yield.

  6. Wheat straw pretreatment with KOH for enhancing biomethane production and fertilizer value in anaerobic digestion☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Jaffar; Yunzhi Pang; Hairong Yuan; Dexun Zou; Yanping Liu; Baoning Zhu; Rashid Mustafa Korai; Xiujin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw biodegradability during anaerobic digestion was improved by treatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH) to decrease digestion time and enhance biomethane production and fertility value. KOH concentrations of 1%(K1), 3%(K2), 6%(K3) and 9%(K4) were tested for wheat straw pretreatment at ambient temperature with a C:N ratio of 25:1. 86%of total solids (TS), 89%of volatile solids (VS) and 22%of lignocel ulose, cellulose and hemi-cellulose (LCH) (22%) were decomposed effectively with the wheat straw pretreated by 6%KOH. Enhanced bio-gas production and cumulative biomethane yield of 258 ml·(g VS)−1 were obtained increased by 45%and 41%respectively, compared with untreated wheat straw. Pretreated wheat straw digestion also yielded a digestate with higher fertilizer values potassium (138%), calcium (22%) and magnesium (16%). These results show that TS, VS and LCH can be effectively removed from wheat straw pretreated with KOH, improving biodegradability biomethane production and fertilizer value.

  7. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  8. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  9. INFLUENCE OF STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT ON THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw can solubilize a significant portion of the hemicellulosic component and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of the remaining cellulose for fermentation into ethanol. In this work, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different steam temperatures and retention times, and the chemical compositions of the raw and steam-exploded wheat straw were analyzed. Results showed that the content of hemicellulose decreased sharply at higher steam temperatures and longer retention times; however, the content of lignin changed inconspicuously. After pretreatment, the characteristics of the straw fiber were investigated by studying their proportion of microfibrils, SEM, and FTIR. To assess the differences among various pretreatment parameters, the concentration of the reducing sugar and glucose conversion were determined. The highest reducing sugar concentration and glucose conversion were achieved at the explosion conditions of a pretreatment temperature of 220 ºC and a residence time of 3 min.

  10. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An economic evaluation of bioconversion of wheat straw to butanol was performed. ► Wheat straw and utilities impact butanol economics significantly. ► Sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide affect butanol production cost adversely. ► Annexation of butanol plant to an existing distillery improves butanol economics. ► Butanol production cost from wheat straw was estimated to be $1.31–1.00/kg. - Abstract: A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 × 106 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw (WS) was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 × 106 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 × 106 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital cost for this plant was $193.07 × 106. This exercise was based in part on data generated in our laboratory and in part on data obtained from literature. The design, mass balance, and energy balance simulations were performed using SuperPro Designer (Version 8.5003, 2012). For butanol production wheat straw would be pretreated with dilute (1% v/v) sulfuric acid at 121 °C for 1 h followed by separate hydrolysis (using enzymes), fermentation and recovery. Enzyme cost for wheat straw hydrolysis was adapted from literature ($0.16/kg butanol). Utilities which included steam/high pressure steam, cooling/chilling water, and electricity represented the major cost of the operation (49.18%) followed by raw materials (26.81%). Based on batch fermentation of wheat straw hydrolysate and distillative recovery of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE), butanol production cost was estimated to be $1.30/kg for a grass-rooted/green-field plant. Application of a membrane recovery process could reduce this price to $1.00/kg for a plant annexed to an existing distillery.

  11. Bioconversion of wheat straw and wheat straw components into single-cell protein. [Spicaria fusispora, Cochliobolus specifer, Myrothecium verrucaria, Rhizoctonia solani, and Gliocladium sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahal, D.S.; Moo-Young, M.; Dhillon, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Several fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. terreus, Cochliobolus specifer, Myrothecium verrucaria, Rhizoctonia solani, Spicaria fusispora, Penicillium sp., and Gliocladium sp.) were isolated from decomposing wheat straw and tested for their ability to utilize whole straw and its components, holocellulose (hemicellulose and cellulose) and cellulose, for the production of single-cell protein (SCP). C. specifer was the most efficient fungus for protein synthesis with the 3 substrates. Using KNO/sub 3/ as N source in mixtures of .04 g N/g substrate (0.04% wt./vol.) at pH 4.5, it was found that incubation periods of 3, 4, and 5 days were optimal for protein production on cellulose and holocellulose fractions, and whole straw, respectively. Whole native straw was the most recalcitrant to bioconversion into SCP; however, protein production was almost doubled when the lignin component was removed using a mixture of NaClO/sub 2/ and HOAc.

  12. Pyrolysis Kinetic Modelling of Wheat Straw from the Pannonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pešenjanski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis/devolatilization is a basic step of thermochemical processes and requires fundamental characterization. In this paper, the kinetic model of pyrolysis is specified as a one-step global reaction. This type of reaction is used to describe the thermal degradation of wheat straw samples by measuring rates of mass loss of solid matter at a linear increase in temperature. The mentioned experiments were carried out using a derivatograph in an open-air environment. The influence of different factors was investigated, such as particle size, humidity levels, and the heating rate in the kinetics of devolatilization. As the measured values of mass loss and temperature functions transform in Arrhenius coordinates, the results are shown in the form of saddle curves. Such characteristics cannot be approximated with one equation in the form of Arrhenius law. For use in numerical applications, transformed functions can be approximated by linear regression for three separate intervals. Analysis of measurement resulting in granulation and moisture content variations shows that these factors have no significant influence. Tests of heating rate variations confirm the significance of this impact, especially in warmer regions. The influence of this factor should be more precisely investigated as a general variable, which should be the topic of further experiments.

  13. WHEAT STRAW CONVERSION BY ENZYMATIC SYSTEM OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stajic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to resolve the question of whether various nitrogen sources and concentrations affect characteristics of selected G. lucidum ligninolytic enzymes participating in wheat straw fermentation. This is the first study reporting the presence of versatile peroxidase activity in crude extract of G. lucidum culture, as well as isoforms profile of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. NH4NO3 was the optimum nitrogen source for laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activity, while peptone was the optimum one for versatile peroxidase activity. Four bands with laccase activity were obtained by native PAGE and IEF separations from medium enriched with inorganic nitrogen source, and only two bands from medium containing organic source. Medium composition was not shown to affect isoenzyme patterns of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. Four isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and three of versatile peroxidase were obtained on native PAGE. By IEF separation, five isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and only two of versatile peroxidase were observed. The results demonstrated that G. lucidum has potential for mineralization and transformation of various agricultural residues and should take more significant participation in large-scale biotechnological processes.

  14. Enhanced saccharification of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, M; Lu-Chau, T A; Lema, J M

    2013-02-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi for the production of bioethanol is an alternative to the most used physico-chemical processes. After biological treatment, a solid composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-this latter is with a composition lower than that found in the initial substrate-is obtained. On the contrary, after applying physico-chemical methods, most of the hemicellulose fraction is solubilized, while cellulose and lignin fractions remain in the solid. The optimization of the combination of cellulases and hemicellulases required to saccharify wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was carried out in this work. The application of the optimal dosage made possible the increase of the sugar yield from 33 to 54 %, and at the same time the reduction of the quantity of enzymatic mixture in 40 %, with respect to the initial dosage. The application of a pre-hydrolysis step with xylanases was also studied. PMID:23306886

  15. Purification, structural characterization, and modification of organosolv wheat straw lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbotchak, Laurie; Le Morvan, Clara; Duong, Khanh Linh; Rousseau, Brigitte; Tessier, Martine; Fradet, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Biolignin, a wheat straw lignin produced by acetic acid/formic acid/water hydrolysis, was characterized by (31)P and (13)C-(1)H 2D NMR spectroscopy and by size-exclusion chromatography. Biolignin is a mixture of low molar mass compounds (Mn = 1660 g/mol) made up of S, G, and H units and of coumaric and ferulic acid units. β-5 and β-O-4 interunit linkages are partially acylated in the γ-position by acetate and p-coumarate groups. Deacylated samples with a low content of contaminants were obtained by combining alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction. The high phenolic OH content found by (31)P NMR reflects the presence of condensed aromatic units, such as 5-5 units. Reaction of purified lignin with ethanol and ethane-1,2-diol yielded esterified lignins much more soluble than Biolignin in common organic solvents. During this reaction, the secondary OH of β-O-4 linkages was simultaneously etherified. Phenol hydroxyethylation by 2-chloroethanol yielded samples containing only aliphatic hydroxyl groups. PMID:25961961

  16. Xylanase and β-xylosidase production by Aspergillus ochraceus : new perspectives for the application of wheat straw autohydrolysis liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Michelin, Michele; Maria de Lourdes T. M Polizeli; Ruzene, Denise S.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Jorge, João A.; Terenzi, Héctor F.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The xylanase biosynthesis is induced by its substrate—xylan. The high xylan content in some wastes such as wheat residues (wheat bran and wheat straw) makes them accessible and cheap sources of inducers to be mainly applied in great volumes of fermentation, such as those of industrial bioreactors. Thus, in this work, the main proposal was incorporated in the nutrient medium wheat straw particles decomposed to soluble compounds (liquor) through treatment of lignocellulosic materials in autohyd...

  17. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Estrine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals.

  18. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    at six different levels of nitrogen supply ranging from 48 to 288kg nitrogen ha-1 was analyzed for major cell wall components and mineral elements. Enzymatic digestion of the straw was carried out to evaluate the saccharification efficiency. The nitrogen concentration in the straw dry matter...... supplies. The enzymatic saccharification efficiency was negatively correlated with the rate of nitrogen supply. We conclude that the level of nitrogen supply to wheat plants alters the composition of cell wall components in the straw and that this may result in reduced saccharification efficiency. © 2014......Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...

  19. Effect of pretreatment severity on xylan solubility and enzymatic breakdown of the remaining cellulose from wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Bos, G.; Zeevalking, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of process conditions used for wheat straw pretreatments on the liquor- and residue-composition was studied. Hereto, the pretreatment conditions were expressed in a `combined severity -factor¿. The higher the combined severity factor () the more xylan was released from the wheat straw, bu

  20. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.;

    1998-01-01

    The interest in utilizing biomass as a CO2 neutral fuel by combustion, gasification or pyrolysis processes is increasing due to concern about the emission of green house gases from fossil fuel combustion. In thermal fuel conversion, pyrolysis is an important step which determines the split of...... products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated with...... KCl has been investigated. To facilitate interpretation of the results, pyrolysis of biopolymers (cellulose, xylan, lignin) in the presence and absence of KCl was investigated as well. The raw straw decomposed in a single broad featureless peak. By washing, two peaks appeared in the derivative weight...

  1. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  2. Preliminary investigation of fungal bioprocessing of wheat straw for production of straw-thermoplastic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N; Houghton, Tracy P; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Shaw, Peter G; Hess, J Richard

    2003-01-01

    Straw utilization for composites is limited by poor resin and polymer penetration, and excessive resin consumption owing to the straw cuticle, fines, and lignin-hemicellulose matrix. White-rot fungi degrade these components of straw and could, therefore, potentially be used to improve resin penetration and resin binding without the use of physical or chemical pretreatments. Although long treatment times and large footprints the limit use of fungal treatments on a large scale, distributed fungal pretreatments could alleviate land requirements. In this article, we present progress toward the development of a passive fungal straw upgrading system utilizing whiterot fungi. PMID:12721465

  3. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  4. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into...... ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the...

  5. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2009-01-01

    fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H-2/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)added, respectively....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus...

  6. Assessment of pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw as a sugar source for bioprocess industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Volynets, Yaser Dahman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and rising oil prices have led to development of biofuels from crop residue lignocelluloses, among which wheat straw is an important feedstock used in leading commercial bioethanol processes. Lignocellulose is structured in a way that makes direct bioconversion of biomass into sugars by hydrolytic enzymes difficult and unfeasible, requiring a pretreatment step. Common biomass pretreatment technologies are assessed for potential application in obtaining fermentable sugars of wheat straw. Current outlook, challenges and opportunities on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose are also presented.

  7. Bubbling fluidised bed gasification of wheat straw-gasifier performance using mullite as bed material

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Bhaird, Seán T.; Hemmingway, Phil; Walsh, Eilín; McDonnell, Kevin; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of wheat straw as a fuel for gasification processes has been hindered due to a lack of experience and its propensity to cause bed agglomeration in fluidised bed gasifiers. In this study wheat straw was gasified in a small scale, air blown bubbling fluidised bed using mullite as bed material. The gasifier was successfully operated and isothermal bed conditions maintained at temperatures up to 750 ◦C. Below this temperature, the gasifier was operated at equivalence ratios from 0.1 ...

  8. Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on particle board properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard. Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110 degree C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 and 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80 degree C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour. (author)

  9. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of wheat straw as a renewable energy resource is limited due to its low bulk density. Pelletizing wheat straw into fuel pellets of high density increases its handling properties but is more challenging compared to pelletizing woody biomass. Straw has a lower lignin content and a...... high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength are...... effect is observed at elevated temperatures. Fuel pellets made from extracted wheat straw have a slightly higher compression strength which might be explained by a better interparticle adhesion in the absence of hydrophobic surface waxes....

  10. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 1. Voluntary intake, chewing behaviour, rumen pool size and turnover and partition of digestion along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruchem, van, G.; Oosting, S.J.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Leffering, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    Intake and digestion and rate of passage kinetics were studied in 6 wether sheep fed on ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) plus pelleted sugarbeet pulp, untreated wheat straw plus sugarbeet pulp, and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea. Ammonia treatment increased intake and whole tract digestion (rumen small intestine large intestine) without significantly affecting rumen pool size and rate of passage. 91% of the increased intake of cell wall material in ammonia-treated straw was due to a...

  11. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds. PMID:24031226

  12. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating a Wheat Straw PRB for Nitrate Removal at an Agricultural Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a wheat straw permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with nitrate from a now-closed swine concentrat...

  13. Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Mortensen, Kell; Kádár, Zsófia; Lindedam, Jane; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    . Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions: Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the...

  14. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic enzymes

  15. Experimental Investigation on Use of Wheat Straw Ash and Bentonite in Self-Compacting Cementitious System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Arsalan Khushnood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we evaluated the feasibility of wheat straw ash and bentonite (raw and heated at 150°C for 8 hrs as secondary raw materials in self-compacting paste (SCP. The fresh and hardened properties of SCP formulations including water and superplasticizer demand, flow behavior, compressive and flexural strength development, water absorption, and acid attack resistance were evaluated. Moreover, porosity, microstructural, and mineralogical investigations were also carried out on SCP formulations. Test results showed that the properties of SCP formulations in fresh state depend on the morphology of secondary raw materials. For heated bentonite and wheat straw ash formulations, the 28 days of compressive and flexural strength were higher or almost similar to reference SCP formulation. Among SCP formulations, wheat straw ash formulation was found to be more effective in consuming free lime and showed significant decrease in porosity with time, which in turn improved the resistance of this SCP formulation against water absorption and acid attack. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that the successful utilization of wheat straw ash and bentonite SCP formulations will offer durable and environmental friendly option to construction industry.

  16. Effect of bio-treatment on the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M H; Xu, Q H; Shao, Z Y; Gao, Y; Fu, Y J; Lu, X M; Gao, P J; Holmbom, B

    2009-06-01

    Wheat straw, an important papermaking raw material in China, was treated with a white-rot fungus of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446, and the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives from the control and bio-treated samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Bio-treatment of wheat straw could alter the chemical composition of both the lipophylic and hydrophilic extractives. Sugars and phenolic substances such as coniferyl alcohol, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 1-guaiacylglycerol and ferulic acid were substantially degraded or consumed by the fungus. More lipophilic substances such as wax, glycerides and steryl esters were degraded into the corresponding components, resulting in much higher concentrations of fatty acids and sterols in the bio-treated samples. Obviously, the bio-treatment of wheat straw was of benefit to pitch control in pulping and papermaking processes, in the view of degradation of the more lipophilic substances. In addition, the bio-treatment could increase the lignin concentration in hot-water extractives of wheat straw. PMID:19268580

  17. Degradation of Biomacromolecules during High-rate Composting of Wheat Straw-Amended Pig Feces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Adani, F.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Jager, de P.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) feces, separately collected and amended with wheat straw, was composted in a tunnel reactor connected with a cooler. The composting process was monitored for 4 wk and the degradation of organic matter was studied by two chemical extraction methods, 13C cross polarization magic angle

  18. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds.

  19. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, J.; Dornez, E.; Benjelloun-Mlayah, B.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Gerritsma, J.; Courtin, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized

  20. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Wheat Straw in a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Gjernes, Erik; Hansen, Lars Kresten

    1996-01-01

    at relevant conditions. The pressurized entrained now reactor designed at Rise is introduced. Pyrolysis and combustion at 10 and 20 bar pressure have been studied using pulverized wheat straw. Samples of partly reacted particles are collected, and the conversion is calculated using the ash tracer...

  1. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

  2. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay in...... fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  3. Effects of Straw Processing Methods and Irrigation Sources on Enzymatic Activity of Soils under Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei LU; Guofeng WAN; Zijun YANG; Lei HOU; Wenhui ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study on effects of "straw returning and ir-re- turning" and "irrigation with ground water and water in the Yellow River" on changes of enzyme activity in soils under wheat at different developmental stages. [Method] Jimai 22, a kind of winter wheat, was made use of in fields to study on effects of " straw returning and Jr-returning" and "irrigation with ground water and water in the Yellow River" on changes of enzyme activity in soils under wheat in different devel- opmental stages. [Result] With advancement of developmental stage, urease activity of wheat in the four groups all showed the trend of "increasing-decreasing-increas- ing" and activities of invertase and phosphatase both changed from increasing to de- creasing. In addition, urease activities of soils in wheat roots were improved by straw returning in four developmental stages. Meanwhile, activity of soil enzyme was better promoted by irrigation with ground water than with water in the Yellow River, except in grain-filling stage. Before developmental stage, different processing meth- ods had a significant effect on phosphatase activity, for example, straw returning and ground water significantly enhanced activities of two kinds of phosphatase and pro- moted P absorption and transferring by plants and microorganisms in jointing stage; activity of acid phosphatase was higher in the group where irrigation with ground water and straw returning were adopted than those in the rest three groups in boot- ing stage. [Conclusion] The research laid a foundation for dynamic relationship among activity of soil enzyme, crop growth and microorganisms.

  4. Isotherm and Kinetics of Arsenic (V Adsorption fromAqueous Solution Using Modified Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Water contamination with arsenic has been recognized as a serious problem and its epidemiological problems to human health have been reported. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility modified wheat straw using sodium bicarbonate for removing arsenic from aqueous solution."nMaterials and Methods: Adsorption process was accomplished in a laboratory-scale batch with emphasis on the effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time, arsenic concentration and adsorbent dosage on adsorption efficiency. In order to understand the adsorption process, sorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were also determined."nResults: It was found that adsorption of the arsenic was influenced by several parameters such as arsenic initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and solution pH. Maximum absorption efficiency was achieved at pH 7. As expected the amount of arsenic adsorbed on wheat straw incresed as its concentration went up. Among the models tested, namely the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherms, the adsorption equilibrium for arsenic was best described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. It was also found that adsorption of arsenic by wheat straw followed pseudo second-order kinetics. Mean free energy of adsorption (15.8 kJ mol-1 indicates that adsorption of arsenic by wheat straw might follow a chemisorption mechanism. Desorption studies show that arsenic ions are strongly bounded with the adsorbent and exhibit low desorption."nConclusion: It is concluded that that adsorption by modified wheat straw is an efficient and reliable method for arsenic removal from liquid solutions.

  5. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well-plate techni......Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  6. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A b...

  7. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  8. Evaluation of a hydrothermal process for pretreatment of wheat straw : effect of particle size and process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Ruzene, Denise S.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Quintas, Mafalda A. C.; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are an eco-friendly processes that provide an interesting alternative for chemical utilization of lignocellulosic materials, in which water and crop residues are the only reagents. In this work the effect of process conditions (size distribution of the wheat straw, temperature and time) was evaluated against production of fermentable products. RESULTS: The use of milled wheat straw fractions as a raw material containing blends of different particle size distribution ...

  9. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Chumangalah Thirmal, Yaser Dahman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment repr...

  10. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  11. Assessment of leaf/stem ratio in wheat straw feedstock and impact on enzymatic conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho;

    2014-01-01

    preparing samples of various leaf-to-stem (L/S) ratios, we found shifting conversion behavior as processing parameters were modified. Increasing the enzyme dosage, pretreatment temperature and pretreatment time all significantly improved conversion rates in samples with more than 50% leaf content, whereas...... less impact was observed on samples with less than 50% leaf content. Enzyme affinity, desorption and readsorption with leaf and stem fractions may affect the sugar yield in wheat straw saccharification. The data suggest that the L/S ratio is an important parameter when adjusting or optimizing...... conversion processes and additionally in feedstock breeding. Furthermore, this highlights the need for rapid techniques for determining L/S ratio in wheat straw harvests. The CoMPP data on specific carbohydrates and leaf pectin highlight carbohydrate epitopes that may be useful as markers in the development...

  12. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNIN REACTIONS IN SODA COOKING OF WHEAT STRAW-- PART 1 REACTION OF UNCONDENSED LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huamin Zhai; Yuanzong Lai

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics of uncondensed lignin reactions in soda cooking of wheat straw were studied. Mild and intense cooking conditions were used to get the pulp sample in which lignin was dissolved physically and the pulp sample in which lignin was dissolved chemically respectively. The pulp samples were analyzed by phenolic group determination, alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation method. The results indicated that around 90% of lignin in wheat straw is alkali-soluble at the mild conditions, is basically dissolved physically without chemical change. The phenolic group content was not changed greatly, the nitrobenzene oxidation yield only changed slightly during the mild cooking. The phenolic group content was increased obviously and uncondensed lignin content was decreased very much when the intense cooking conditions were applied and the delignification was over 90%. The lignin structure was changed greatly during this period.

  14. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  15. Improving Anaerobic Digestion of Wheat Straw by Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Heiske, Stefan; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2013-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreatment (PAP) of lignocellulosic biomass has been shown to be an efficient method to decompose lignin and consequently facilitate microbial access to cellulose and hemicellulose. In the present study, PAP was tested for its suitability to enhance bioconversion of wheat straw to methane. In thermophilic batch experiments, methane yields of up to 366 mL/g volatile solids (VSs) were achieved, accounting for a yield increase of 45%. Common lignin-derived inhibitors like 5-hyd...

  16. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids: Wheat straw fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa Lopes, André M.; João, Karen G.; Rubik, Djonatam F.; Bogel-Łukasik, Ewa; Duarte, Luís C.; Andreaus, Jürgen; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to study pre-treatment methodologies of wheat straw with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][CH3COO]) and subsequent fractionation to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The method developed and described here allows the separation into high purity carbohydrate and lignin fractions and permits an efficient IL recovery. A versatility of the established method was confirmed by the IL reuse. The fractionation of completely dissolved biomass led to cellulose-rich and...

  17. Twin screw extrusion pre-treatment of wheat straw for biofuel and lignin biorefinery applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Thian Hong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Pre-treatment of wheat straw(lignocellulosic) biomass is a crucial step as it has direct impact on the subsequent yield of enzymatic saccharification and alcohol fermentation processes in the production of biofuel. Twin screw extrusion is a highly feasible pretreatment method and has been received great interest in the recent year pre-treatment studies. Twin screw extrusion is a continuous pr...

  18. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Henning; Felby Claus; Thygesen Lisbeth G; Kristensen Jan B; Elder Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of t...

  19. Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Jensen, K.; Nielsen, P.;

    1996-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet oxidation (oxygen pressure, alkaline conditions, elevated temperature) or hydrothermal processing (without oxygen) in order to solubilize the hemicellulose, facilitating bio-conversion. The effect of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate addition on hemicellulose...... solubilization was investigated. The two process parameters had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose. However alkaline conditions affected the furfural formation whereas oxygen had no effect. After pretreatment, the filtrate was used as a fermentation medium for thermophilic anaerobic bacterin...

  20. Biorefinery valorization of autohydrolysis wheat straw hemicellulose to be applied in a polymer-blend film

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa María; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were the extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw (WS) and its utilization in the reinforcement of a κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum (κ-car/LBG) polymeric blend films (PBFs). WS hemicellulose extraction was performed under autohydrolysis process and hemicellulose extracted (HE) under optimum condition was used in PBFs. PBFs were prepared varying different proportions of HE into the κ-car/LBG film-forming solutions. Barrier properties (water vapor permeability, WVP), m...

  1. Synergistic effects of mixing hybrid poplar and wheat straw biomass for bioconversion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Rodrigo Morales; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Background Low cost of raw materials and good process yields are necessary for future lignocellulosic biomass biorefineries to be sustainable and profitable. A low cost feedstock will be diverse, changing as a function of seasonality and price and will most likely be available from multiple sources to the biorefinery. The efficacy of the bioconversion process using mixed biomass, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. Considering the seasonal availability of wheat straw and the year r...

  2. PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR AN INTEGRATED BIOMATERIALS AND ETHANOL BIOREFINERY USING WHEAT STRAW FEEDSTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Senechal, Donald M.; Stowers, Mark D.; McDonald, William F.; Saffron, Chris M.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2006-01-01

    Biobased products and fuels appear to have a very bright future. A consortium led by NDSU is currently engaged in a project that would use cellulose nanofibers derived from wheat straw to make a product that could substitute for fiberglass and plastics in many applications, including automotive parts. The work described here analyzes the economic value of producing cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) as a co-product in an ethanol biorefinery. An ASPEN Plus-based process model was developed to evalua...

  3. Kinetics of cadmium, chromium, and lead sorption onto chemically modified sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M; Suthar, V; Rafique, E; Ahmad, R; Yasin, M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) adsorption potential of unmodified and modified sugarcane bagasse and ground wheat straw was explored from aqueous solution through batch equilibrium technique. Both the materials were chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) alone and in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Two kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to follow the adsorption process and reaction fallowed the later model. The Pb removal by both the materials was highest and followed by Cr and Cd. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity and NaOH treatment proved more effective than others. Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was utmost (12.8-23.3 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 14.5-22.4 mg/g of wheat straw) and of Cd was least (1.5-2.2 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 2.5-3.8 mg/g of wheat straw). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. Results demonstrate that agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate the heavy metal-polluted water. PMID:26116198

  4. Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here "Biotech Feed" was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

  5. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost. PMID:27337959

  6. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  7. Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  8. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumangalah Thirmal, Yaser Dahman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment represented by 1 mm size reduction of the straws was applied prior to each pretreatment. Results showed that 13.91 g/L glucose concentration was produced from saccharification with just the physical pretreatment (i.e., no chemical pretreatment. This represented ~5-20 % lower sugar release in saccharification compared to the other three pretreatment processes. Saccharification with acid pretreatment obtained the highest sugar concentrations, which were 18.77 g/L glucose and 12.19 g/L xylose. Second this study produced butanol from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using wheat straw hydrolysate and Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. Water pretreatment was applied to separate lignin and polysaccharides from the wheat straw. Physical pretreatment was applied prior to water pretreatment where, wheat straw was grounded into fine particles less than 1 mm size. Another experiment was conducted where physical pretreatment was applied alone prior to SSF (i.e. no chemical pretreatment was applied. Both processes converted more than 10% of wheat straw into butanol product. This was 2% higher than previous studies. The results illustrated that SSF with physical pretreatment alone obtained 2.61 g/L butanol.

  9. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  10. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jan B; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Elder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall. PMID:18471316

  11. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  12. The effect of fungal decay (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw lignin using pyrolysis-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Department of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry (Postgraduate Institute), NRG, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), was used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in wheat straw during its fungal degradation by Agaricus bisporus. The decayed wheat straw had a lower proportion of syringyl to guaiacyl derived moieties than its native counterpart. The ratio of methyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 6.4 following fungal degradation. Similarly the ratio of methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.6 in native wheat straw to 3.1 upon decay. The increase in both guaiacyl and syringyl acid to aldehyde ratios indicated that A. bisporus induces oxidative cleavage of lignin at the C{alpha}-C{beta} bonds. Both the threo- and erythro- isomers of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane decreased in intensity relative to other thermochemolysis products in degraded wheat straw. The increase in the ratio of methyl 3,4,-dimethoxybenzoate to the sum of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane (threo- and erythro- isomers) from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 10.9 in A. bisporus decayed wheat straw confirmed that the fungus had cleaved alkyl side chains. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of TMAH provides a sensitive method for tracking the oxidative degradation of lignin during the fungal decay of wheat straw.

  13. Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw for production of fuel ethanol and value-added co-products in a biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment condi...

  14. Removal of Fermentation Inhibitors from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated and Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Wheat Straw: Production of Butanol from Hydrolysate Using Clostridium beijerinckii in Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using celluloytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 gL**-1 acetone...

  15. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  16. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... reacted differently in the two processes. The chemical composition changed little following enzyme treatment. After alkaline wet oxidation, fibers enriched in cellulose were obtained. With both materials, almost all hemicellulose (80%) together with a large portion of the lignin were solubilised by...... alkaline wet oxidation, but essentially all cellulose remained in the solid fraction. Following enzyme treatment most material remained as a solid. For wheat straw, reaction with acetic anhydride indicated that both treatments resulted in more hydroxyl groups being accessible for reaction. The enzyme...

  17. Persistence of Pendimethalin in/on Wheat, Straw, Soil and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Indu; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena

    2015-11-01

    Pendimethalin, a dinitroaniline group of organic herbicide compounds used as pre emergence weed control in wheat, onion and soyabean crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of pendimethalin in wheat grain and straw its dissipation behaviour in soil and water. At harvest time, the residues of pendimethalin in wheat grain and straw were found to be below determination limit of 0.001 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at the rate of 1 (T1/single dose) and 2 (T2/double dose) kg a.i. ha(-1). Soil samples from the field were collected periodically and analysed by GC-ECD system. In soil, initial deposits of 4.069 and 10.473 mg kg(-1) of pendimethalin persisted up to 90 days and dissipation followed first order kinetics with half life period of 12.03 days in T1 and 13.00 days in T2. Residues of pendimethalin studied in water under laboratory conditions at 0.5 (T1) and 1.0 (T2) mg L(-1) levels persisted up to 90 days. Dissipation kinetics followed first order kinetics with half-life values of 12.70 and 13.78 days at single and double dose, respectively. Limit of determination in grain, straw and soil were 0.001 mg kg(-1) and in water was 0.001 mg L(-1). Application of the herbicide is considered quite safe from consumer and environmental point of view. PMID:26193835

  18. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Ligninolytic mitosporic fungus represent an alternative where very little research has been done, even though they are capable of depol-ymerize REWSLI in simple nutritional conditions in relatively short periods, when compared to basidio-mycetes. The aim of this research was to study the depolymerization activity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp on semipurified REWSLI as the sole carbon source to produce aromatics. The depoly-merization capacity was determined by the activity of the laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase enzymes. The generated aromatics derived from the REWSLI depolymerization were identi-fied by gas chromatography. Obtained results revealed that Penicillium chrysogenum depolymerized the lignin material by 34.8% during the 28-day experimentation period. Laccase activity showed the largest activity with 111 U L-1 in a seven-day period, this enzyme induction was detected in a smaller period than that required by basidiomycetes to induce it. Moreover, the enzymatic activity was produced with-out the addition of an extra carbon source as metabolic inductor. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp generated guaiacol, vanillin, and hydroxybenzoic, vanillinic, syringic and ferulic acid with a maximum weekly production of 3.5, 3.3, 3.2, 3.3, 10.1 and 21.9 mg mL-1, respectively.

  19. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces and wheat straw: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a novel psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces (feces) and wheat straw (WS). Three feeding strategies (WS, feces, and feces plus WS) were assessed in pseudo sequential batch reactors (PSBR) during three successive cycles of around 21 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Average specific methane yields on VS fed (L kg−1) of 129 ± 17 (WS only), 164 ± 23 (feces only (10–11% TS)) and 152 ± 6 (a mixture of feces plus WS (16% TS)) were obtained during the last three successive cycles. The average methane production rates on VS fed were 3.5 ± 1.5 and 3.6 ± 1.3 and 4.1 ± 0.4 L kg−1 d−1 for the three feeding strategies, respectively. The successive cycles revealed that the psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of high-solid content of cow feces and wheat straw is a reproducible process, practically feasible, and as efficient as mesophilic dry anaerobic digestion given that a well-adapted inoculum is developed and maintained. - Highlights: • Cow feces and wheat straw (CFWS) psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD). • PDAD of CFWS (TS 16% mass fraction) is feasible and as efficient as mesophilic DAD. • VS OLR 1.5 g kg−1 d−1 produced VS-based SMY of 152 ± 6 L kg−1 • Inoculum adaptation is a prerequisite to a stable PDAD

  20. Particle size and hydration medium effects on hydration properties and sugar release of wheat straw fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat straw is gaining importance as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and high value-added bioproducts. Several pretreatments recover the fermentable fraction involving the use of water or aqueous solutions. Therefore, hydration properties of wheat straw fibers play an important role in improving pretreatment performance. In this study, the water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied using water, propylene glycol (PPG) and an effluent from a H2-producing reactor as the hydration media with three particle sizes (3.35, 2.00 and 0.212 mm). The effects of swelling were analyzed by optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest WRC was reached with the effluent medium (9.84 ± 0.87 g g−1 in 4 h), followed by PPG (8.52 ± 0.18 g g−1 in 1 h) and water (8.74 ± 0.76 g g−1 in 10 h). The effluent hydration treatment had a synergic effect between the enzymes present and the water. The particle size had a significant effect on the WRC (P < 0.01), the highest values were reached with 3.35 mm fibers. The CLSM images showed that finer fibers were subjected to a shaving effect due to the grinding affecting its capacity to absorb the hydration medium. The microscopic analysis showed the increase in the width of the epidermal cells after the hydration and a more undulating cell wall likely due to the hydration of the amorphous regions in the cellulose microfibrils. The sugar release was determined, achieving the highest glucose content with the effluent hydration treatment. - Highlights: • Water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied. • The highest WRC was achieved with a biological effluent. • The enzymatic activity in the biological effluent yielded the highest sugar release. • Finer fibers showed a shaving effect that affected its capacity to absorb water. • A more undulating cell wall was visualized after the hydration

  1. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Wheat Straw in a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Gjernes, Erik; Hansen, Lars Kresten

    1996-01-01

    at relevant conditions. The pressurized entrained now reactor designed at Rise is introduced. Pyrolysis and combustion at 10 and 20 bar pressure have been studied using pulverized wheat straw. Samples of partly reacted particles are collected, and the conversion is calculated using the ash tracer...... technique. The pyrolysis experiments show a yield larger than the yield from the proximate analysis. The pyrolysis is completed in about Is, and the yield is the same for 10 and 20 bar pressure. The combustion experiments show a high reactivity with oxygen, and the effects of pressure on combustion are...

  2. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van, H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas production profiles of ensiled mixtures containing 85 (M85), 70 (M70), and 50% (M50) of apple pulp were studied at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days. Fermentation quality was assessed by pH, lactic acid, ethanol...

  3. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China's papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery, in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20%-40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  4. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China′s papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery,in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20% ~40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  5. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun;

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to...... was successfully realized. The separation of LA from broth by membrane in batch fermentation also decreased feedback inhibition. MIRB was carried out using wheat straw hydrolysates (29.72g/L glucose, 24.69g/L xylose and 5.14g/L arabinose) as carbon source, LA productivity was increased significantly...

  6. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.;

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension suppleme......The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension...

  7. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan;

    2014-01-01

    features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid–liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using...... this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose...

  8. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. PMID:24702940

  9. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass with Emphasis of Wheat Straw Utilization. Analysis of Strategies for Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Green and Blue Technologies Strategies in HORIZON 2020" has increased the attention of scientific society on global utilization of renewable energy sources. Agricultural residues can be a valuable source of energy because of drastically growing human needs for food. The goal of this review is to show the current state of art on utilization of wheat straw as a substrate for ethanol production. The specifics of wheat straw composition and the chemical and thermodynamic properties of its components pre-determined the application of unit operations and engineering strategies for hydrolysis of the substrate and further its fermentation. Modeling of this two processes is crucially important for optimal overall process development and scale up. The authors gave much attention on main hydrolisis products as a glucose and xylose (C6 and C5 sugars, respectivelly and on the specifics of their metabolization by ethanol producing microorganisms. The microbial physiology reacting on C6 and C5 sugars and mathematical aproaches describing these phenomena are discussing, as well.

  10. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

  11. Wheat straw biochar amendments on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanan; Yang, Baoshan; Song, Ziheng; Wang, Hui; He, Fei; Han, Xuemei

    2016-08-01

    Soil amendments of wheat straw biochar (BC), lignocellulosic substrate (LS), BC+LS, and BC+LS+BR (surfactant Brij30) were investigated for the first time in order to remedy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-polluted soil using pilot scale microcosm incubation. We hypothesized that the removal of PAHs could be inhibited due to the adsorption and immobilization of biochar and the inhibition depends on the molecular-weight of PAHs. The removal rates of phenanthrene (PHE) and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranked as C=BC>LS=LS+BC=LS+BC+BR and C=BC=LS+BC+BR>LS=LS+BC. Wheat straw biochar inhibited the removal of PHE and accelerated BaP removal. The activity of Dehydrogenase (DH) was depressed by the addition of the biochar while the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was stimulated. Lignocellulose and surfactant are favourable to sustain soil microbiological activity and the removal of PAHs although the diversity of bacterial community was not significantly changed. The findings implied that the components of PAHs are necessary to consider when the amendments are implemented by associated biochar in PAH-polluted soil. PMID:27151675

  12. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  13. Unpolluted fractionation of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhang, Chen; Liying, Liu

    2007-02-01

    An unpolluted process of wheat straw fractionation by steam explosion coupled with ethanol extraction was studied. The wheat straw was steam exploded for 4.5 min with moisture of 34.01%, a pressure of 1.5 MPa without acid or alkali. Hemicellulose sugars were recovered by water countercurrent extraction and decolored with chelating ion exchange resin D412. The gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis results indicated that there were organic acids in the hemicellulose sugars and the ratio of monosaccharides to oligosaccharides was 1:9 and the main component, xylose, was 85.9% in content. The total recovery rate of hemicellulose was 80%. Water washed materials were subsequently extracted with ethanol. The optimum extraction conditions in this work were 40% ethanol, fiber/liquor ratio 1:50 (w/v), severity log(R)=3.657 (180 degrees C for 20 min), 0.1% NaOH. The lignin yield was 75% by acid precipitation and 85% ethanol solvent was recovered. The lignin was purified using Björkman method. Infrared spectrometry (IR) results indicated that the lignin belonged to GSH (guaiacyl (G) syringyl (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H)) lignin and its purity rate reached 85.3%. The cellulose recovery rate was 94% and the results of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and infrared spectrometry (IR) showed that hemicellulose and lignin content decreased after steam explosion and ethanol extraction. PMID:16574408

  14. Improvement Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw for Bioethanol Production by Combined Treatment of Radiation and Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The cost of ethanol production from starch and sucrose for use as a vehicle fuel is ultimately high. Consequently, it has been suggested that the large-scale use of ethanol as a fuel will require the utilization of cellulosic feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost and renewable feedstock for bioconversion into fermentable sugars, which can be further utilized for biofuel production. It is estimated that there is over one billion tons of biomass available for conversion into biofuels on a renewable basis to displace a substantial portion of the fossil fuels currently consumed within the transportation sector. Among different pretreatment methods such as biological, physical, chemical, and physic-chemical pretreatments, chemical pretreatment using dilute acid as catalyst, which has been extensively evaluated for treating a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, is reported as one of the leading pretreatment technologies. Ionizing radiation can easily penetrate lignocellulosic structure and undoubtedly produce free radicals useful in modification of lignin structure as well as breakdown cellulose crystal regions. Phenoxy radicals appeared to be important radical intermediates that ultimately transformed into o-quinonoid structures in lignin. Therefore, ionizing radiation such as gamma ray and electron beam can be a great alternative. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation of wheat straw prior to dilute sulfuric acid treatment is investigated. The combined pretreatment for wheat straw was performed to evaluate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and compared with that of the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis by individual pretreatment

  15. The Effects of Three Mineral Nitrogen Sources and Zinc on Maize and Wheat Straw Decomposition and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ogunniyi Jumoke Esther; GUO Chun-hui; TIAN Xiao-hong; LI Hong-yun; ZHOU Yang-xue

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of straw in cultivated ifelds can potentially improve soil quality and crop yield. However, the presence of recalcitrant carbon compounds in straw slow its decomposition rate. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different nitrogen sources, with and without the application of zinc, on straw decomposition and soil quality. Soils were treated with three different nitrogen sources, with and without zinc: urea (CO(NH2)2), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). The combined treatments were as follows:maize (M) and wheat (W) straw incorporated into urea-, ammonium sulfate-, or ammonium chloride-treated soil (U, S, and C, respectively) with and without zinc (Z) (MU, MUZ, WU, WUZ;MS, MSZ, WS, WSZ;MC, MCZ, WC, WCZ, respectively);straw with zinc only (MZ, WZ);straw with untreated soil (MS, WS);and soil-only or control conditions (NT). The experiment consisted of 17 treatments with four replications. Each pot contained 150 g soil and 1.125 g straw, had a moisture content of 80%of the ifeld capacity, and was incubated for 53 days at 25°C. The rates of CO2-C emission, cumulative CO2-C evolution, total CO2 production in the soils of different treatments were measured to infer decomposition rates. The total organic carbon (TOC), labile organic carbon (LOC), and soil microbial biomass in the soils of different treatments were measured to infer soil quality. All results were signiifcantly different (P<0.05) with the exception of the labile organic carbon (LOC). The maize and wheat straw showed different patterns in CO2 evolution rates. For both straw types, Zn had a synergic effect with U, but an antagonistic effect with the other N sources as determined by the total CO2 produced. The MUZ treatment showed the highest decomposition rate and cumulative CO2 concentration (1 120.29 mg/pot), whereas the WACZ treatment had the lowest cumulative CO2 concentration (1 040.57 mg/pot). The addition of NH4Cl resulted in the

  16. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether 137Cs and 90Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with 137Cs and 90Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. - Highlights: ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► Microbial community was altered slightly. ► Mineralization of wheat straw was not affected. ► Microbes growing on applied straw compete for nutrients with soil microbes.

  17. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.;

    2015-01-01

    The removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by PAP (plasma assisted pretreatment) was investigated. Wax removal was observed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) as chemical change on the surface of most intensively pretreated samples as well as wit...... rate of the raw material carbohydrate content up to 67%, compared to untreated raw material....

  18. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of spent mushroom substrate with yard trimmings and wheat straw for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunqin; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a biomass waste generated from mushroom production. About 5 kg of SMS is generated for every kg of mushroom produced. In this study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of SMS, wheat straw, yard trimmings, and their mixtures was investigated at different feedstock to effluent ratios. SMS was found to be highly degradable, which resulted in inhibition of SS-AD due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and a decrease in pH. This issue was addressed by co-digestion of SMS with either yard trimmings or wheat straw. SS-AD of SMS/yard trimmings achieved a cumulative methane yield of 194 L/kg VS, which was 16 and 2 times higher than that from SMS and yard trimmings, respectively. SS-AD of SMS/wheat straw obtained a cumulative methane yield of 269 L/kg VS, which was 23 times as high as that from SMS and comparable to that from wheat straw. PMID:25084045

  19. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

  20. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g/l), ali...

  1. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.;

    2004-01-01

    Organic municipal solid waste enriched with wheat straw was subjected to wet-oxidation as a pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation into bio-ethanol. The effect of tempera (185-195degrees C), oxygen pressure (3-12) and sodium carbonate (0-2 g l(-1)) addition on enzymati...

  2. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Bjerring Olesen, A.; Fernqvist, T.;

    1996-01-01

    The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain our main goal: To break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addit...

  3. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. PMID:26264398

  4. Sulfur Distribution during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignite, Wheat Straw and Plastic Waste in Sub-Critical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Huang Yaru; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of sulfur in products during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water were investigated in an autoclave. The inlfuence of blending ratio, temperature, initial nitrogen pressure, residence time and additives on sulfur distribution was studied systematically. The results showed that most of sulfur existed as organic sulfur and transferred into the residue, and only a small part of sulfur transferred into oil and gas during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water. The results also showed that lower temperature (less than 300℃) was favorable for obtaining oil with low sulfur content. It can be also seen from the results that the best condition to obtain the oil with low sulfur content should be implemented at a lignite/wheat straw/plastic waste blending ratio of 5:4:1, an initial nitrogen pressure of 3 MPa and a residence time of 30 minutes. Fur-thermore, the results indicated that adding tourmaline during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste was beneifcial to production of oil with low sulfur content.

  5. Comparison of high temperature chars of wheat straw and rice husk with respect to chemistry, morphology and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid-statenucle...

  6. Influence of Substrate Particle Size and Wet Oxidation on Physical Surface Structures and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    microscopy images of the straw particles revealed edged, nonspherical, porous particles with variable surface structures as a result of the grinding. Wet oxidation pretreatment tore up the surface structures of the particles to retain vascular bundles of xylem and phloem. The enzymatic hydrolysis left behind......In the worldwide quest for producing biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the importance of the substrate pretreatment is becoming increasingly apparent. This work examined the effects of reducing the substrate particle sizes of wheat straw by grinding prior to wet oxidation and enzymatic...... hydrolysis. The yields of glucose and xylose were assessed after treatments with a benchmark cellulase system consisting of Celluclast 1.5 L (Trichoderma reesei) and Novozym 188 -glucosidase (Aspergillus niger). Both wet oxidized and not wet oxidized wheat straw particles gave increased glucose release with...

  7. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, O M; Montano, M F; Calderon, J F; Valdez, J A; Chirino, J O; Gonzalez, V M; Salinas-Chavira, J; Mendoza, G D; Soto, S; Zinn, R A

    2016-06-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (pwheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (pwheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (pwheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH. PMID:26954187

  8. Release and transformation of alkali metals during co-combustion of coal and sulfur-rich wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Wheat straw rich in sulfur compared to coal was chosen as biomass material. • The behavior of alkali metal species during co-combustion was investigated. • The amount of KCl(g) and NaCl(g) was decreased by adding coal to wheat straw. • Most of fuel K was retained in the bottom ash as K2SO4, KAlSiO4 and KAlSiO6. • The amount of K2SO4 in the bottom ash decreased with temperature increase. - Abstract: Co-combustion of coal and biomass is a low-cost, large-scale, and efficient way to utilize biomass energy, which has a wide range of potential applications. However, biomass, especially herbaceous fuels, contains high levels of volatile K, Na, and Cl, the use of which may result in ash-related operational problems, such as corrosion, fouling, and slagging during thermal utilization. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of wheat straw and temperature on the release and transformation of alkali metal species during co-combustion of coal and S-rich wheat straw. Results indicate that the amounts of K and Na released during co-combustion could be reduced by the effects of Fe, Ti, S, Si, and Al from blended fuels. At lower wheat straw shares, the release of K decreased due to reactions of KCl with Fe species, and Ti species, forming K2Fe2O4 and K2TiO3. At high wheat straw shares, the release of K could be mainly captured in the form of K2SO4; small amounts of KAlSiO4 were also observed in the bottom ash. When the wheat straw share was 80 wt.%, increasing temperatures enhanced the release of KCl(g) and NaCl(g) at 600–800 °C. By contrast, in the range of 800–1000 °C, the amounts of these gases released exhibited no apparent association with temperature. Compared with the release of K, fuel K was mainly retained in the bottom ash. The K2SO4 content in the bottom ash decreased with increasing temperature in the range of 600–1000 °C, whereas the fraction of K in the form of KAlSiO4 and KAlSiO6 increased with increasing temperature

  9. Toxic action of aqueous wheat straw extract on horse e purslane Ação tóxica do extrato aquoso da palha de trigo sobre beldroega cavalo

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khaliq; A Matloob; F Aslam; M.N. Mushtaq; Khan, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    The toxic action of aqueous wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw extracts was investigated on germination, early seedling growth, some biochemical attributes and the antioxidant enzymes of horse purslane (Trianthemaportulacastrum). Aqueous extracts of wheat straw were prepared by soaking the wheat straw in distilled water in 1:10 w/v ratio and diluted to obtain the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. These were used as pre and post emergence in laboratory and screen house trials. Wheat aqueo...

  10. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  11. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  12. Abiotic and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw cell wall: a biochemical and ultrastructural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequart, C; Ruel, K; Lapierre, C; Pollet, B; Kurek, B

    2000-07-14

    The action of an abiotic lignin oxidant and a diffusible xylanase on wheat straw was studied and characterized at the levels of the molecular structures by chemical analysis and of the cell wall ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. While distinct chemical changes in the target polymers were observed when each system was used separately, a combination of the two types of catalysts did not significantly increase either lignin oxidation or hemicellulose hydrolysis. Microscopic observations however revealed that the supramolecular organization of the cell wall polymers was significantly altered. This suggests that the abiotic Mn-oxalate complex and the xylanase cooperate in modifying the cell wall architecture, without noticeably enhancing the degradation of the constitutive polymers. PMID:10949315

  13. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids: wheat straw fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Lopes, André M; João, Karen G; Rubik, Djonatam F; Bogel-Łukasik, Ewa; Duarte, Luís C; Andreaus, Jürgen; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał

    2013-08-01

    This work is devoted to study pre-treatment methodologies of wheat straw with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][CH3COO]) and subsequent fractionation to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The method developed and described here allows the separation into high purity carbohydrate and lignin fractions and permits an efficient IL recovery. A versatility of the established method was confirmed by the IL reuse. The fractionation of completely dissolved biomass led to cellulose-rich and hemicellulose-rich fractions. A high purity lignin was also achieved. To verify the potential further applicability of the obtained carbohydrate-rich fractions, and to evaluate the pre-treatment efficiency, the cellulose fraction resulting from the treatment with [emim][CH3COO] was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed a very high digestibility of the cellulose samples and confirmed a high glucose yield for the optimized pre-treatment methodology. PMID:23735803

  14. Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

    2013-04-10

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH₄⁺ indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH₄⁺, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g⁻¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

  15. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-01

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained. PMID:27312612

  16. HYDROLYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW HEMICELLULOSE AND DETOXIFICATION OF THE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Zhuang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol can be obtained from wheat straw hemicellulose containing a high content of xylan. This study describes a new system of hydrolysis, utilizing a mixed solution of formic acid and hydrochloric acid in which xylan can be hydrolyzed effectively. The hydrolysate contains a high content of formic acid, which markedly inhibits the fermentation. One of the most efficient methods for removing inhibiting compounds is treatment of the hydrolysate with ion-exchange resins. Formate can be removed by a factor of 77.78%, and furfural, acetic acid, phenolic compounds can be removed by 90.36%, 96.29%, and 77.44%, respectively after the hydrolysate has been treated with excess Ca(OH2 and D311 ion-exchange resin. The xylose from the hydrolysis process can be fermented by Candida tropicalis strain (AS2.1776 to produce xylitol with a yield of 41.88 % (xylitol/xylose.

  17. EFFECT OF PRIOR MECHANICAL REFINING ON BIOBLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW PULP WITH LACCASE /XYLANASE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lan Lian,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw pulp was mechanochemically processed in a PFI mill in order to improve the effect of laccase/xylanase system (LXS treatment before bleaching. The delignification and bleachability of the prepared pulp were investigated. The delignification of the prepared pulp could be enhanced with the mechanochemical processing (refining and LXS treatment. The delignification was increased by 29.8% with refining 7000 revolutions and 5 IU/g enzyme dosage. The LXS treatment after the mechanochemical process could save 28.6% effective usage of chlorine in the subsequent hypochlorite bleaching process, compared with the traditional bio-bleaching. The crystallinity of cellulose was increased by the co-treatment with mechanochemistry and LXS treatment. This result was further supported by the observations from SEM. This co-treatment with mechanochemistry and bio-treatment enhanced the delignification and bleachability of pulp.

  18. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation and...... substrate utilization from the hydrolysate was compared with the ones obtained by defined synthetic substrates. The power density increased from 47 mW m−2 to 148 mW m−2 with the hydrolysate:wastewater ratio (RHW in m3 m−3) increasing from 0 to 0.06 (corresponding to 0–0.7 g dm−3 of carbohydrates). The power...... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted in...

  19. Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Arvid; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Schmidt, A. S.;

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. The potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the HH through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. Fermentation of added...... xylose in untreated HH after wet-oxidation, showed no inhibition on the lactic acid production by either Lb. pentosus or Lb. brevis. Lb. pentosus produced lactate corresponding to 88% of the theoretical maximum yield regardless of the hydrolysis method, whereas Lb. brevis produced 51% and 61% of the...... theoretical maximum yield after enzymatic, or acid treatment of HH, respectively. Individually, neither of the two strains were able to fully utilize the relatively broad spectra of sugars released by the acid and enzyme treatments; however, lactic acid production increased to 95% of the theoretical maximum...

  20. Dissecting the effect of chemical additives on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monschein, Mareike; Reisinger, Christoph; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    Chemical additives were examined for ability to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis of thermo-acidically pretreated wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulase at 50 °C. Semi-empirical descriptors derived from the hydrolysis time courses were applied to compare influence of these additives on lignocellulose bioconversion on a kinetic level, presenting a novel view on their mechanism of action. Focus was on rate retardation during hydrolysis, substrate conversion and enzyme adsorption. PEG 8000 enabled a reduction of enzyme loading by 50% while retaining the same conversion of 67% after 24h. For the first time, a beneficial effect of urea is reported, increasing the final substrate conversion after 48 h by 16%. The cationic surfactant cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) enhanced the hydrolysis rate at extended reaction time (rlim) by 34% and reduced reaction time by 28%. A combination of PEG 8000 and urea increased sugar release more than additives used individually. PMID:25108473

  1. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Borbála

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS, resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and

  2. Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Methane potential of stillage was determined in batch experiments at two different substrate concentrations. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324 ml/g-(volatile solids) VSadded were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8 g-VS/L than at 25.6 g-VS/l. Continuous anaerobic digestion of stillage was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at 55 oC with 2 days hydraulic retention time. Results showed that both substrate concentration and organic loading rate (OLR) influenced process performance and methane yields. Maximum methane yield of 155 ml CH4/g-COD was obtained at stillage mixtures with water of 25% (v/v) in the feed and at an OLR of 17.1 g-COD/(l.d). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removal at this OLR was 76% (w/w). Increase in OLR to 41.2 g-COD/(l.d) and/or stillage concentration in the feed to 33-50% (v/v) resulted in low methane yields or complete process failure. The results showed that thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage alone for methane production is feasible in UASB reactor at an OLR of 17.1 g-COD/(l.d) and at substrate concentration of 25% in the feed. The produced methane could improve the process energy and economics of a bioethanol plant and also enable to utilize the stillage in a sustainable manner.

  3. Demethylation of Wheat Straw Alkali Lignin for Application in Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a natural biopolymer with a complex three-dimensional network. It is the second most abundant natural polymer on earth. Commercially, lignin is largely obtained from the waste liquors of pulping and bioethanol productions. In this study, wheat straw alkali lignin (WSAL was demethylated by using an in-situ generated Lewis acid under an optimized demethylation process. The demethylation process was monitored by a semi-quantitative Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR method. The demethylated wheat straw alkali lignin (D-WSAL was further characterized by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, and titration methods. After the demethylation process, it was found that the relative value of the methoxy group decreased significantly from 0.82 to 0.17 and the phenolic hydroxyl group increased from 5.2% to 16.0%. Meanwhile, the hydroxyl content increased from 6.6% to 10.3%. GPC results suggested that the weighted averaged molecular weight of D-WSAL was lower than that of WSAL with a smaller polydispersity index. The D-WSAL was then used to replace 60 wt % of phenol to prepare lignin-based phenol formaldehyde adhesives (D-LPF. It was found that both the free formaldehyde content and the free phenol content in D-LPF were less than those of the lignin-based phenol formaldehyde adhesives without lignin demethylation (LPF. Gel time of D-LPF was shortened. Furthermore, the wet and dry bonding strengths of lap shear wood samples bonded using D-LPF were higher than those of the samples bonded using LPF. Therefore, D-WSAL has shown good potential for application in phenol formaldehyde adhesives.

  4. Preliminary results on optimization of pilot scale pretreatment of wheat straw used in coproduction of bioethanol and electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thygesen, A.; Christensen, B.H.; Larsen, J.; Jørgensen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.

    degrees C. Lowest toxicity of hydrolysates was observed at 190 degrees C; however, addition of H2O2 improved the fermentability and sugar recoveries at the higher temperatures. The estimated total ethanol production was 223 kg/t straw assuming utilisation of both C6 and C5 during fermentation, and 0.5 g......, and steam pretreatment) with a capacity of 100 kg/h was constructed and tested for pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Highest hemicellulose (C5 sugar) recovery and extraction of hemicellulose sugars was obtained at 190 degrees C whereas highest C6 sugar yield was obtained at 200...... ethanol/g sugar....

  5. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements(except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and Al; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants; The organic ingredients amout to about 20% of the foulant;Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 @llH2O is the main composition in foulants.The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor,because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2+, K+, Na+, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done.The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  6. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements (except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and AI; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants, The organic ingredients about to about 20% of the foulant; Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 ·11H2O is the main composition in foulants. The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor, because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2-, K-, Na-, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done. The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  7. Improved Anaerobic Fermentation of Wheat Straw by Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Addition of Alkali-Tolerant Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Sträuber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two alkali-tolerant, lignocellulolytic environmental enrichment cultures to improve the anaerobic fermentation of Ca(OH2-pre-treated wheat straw was studied. The biomethane potential of pre-treated straw was 36% higher than that of untreated straw. The bioaugmentation of pre-treated straw with the enrichment cultures did not enhance the methane yield, but accelerated the methane production during the first week. In acidogenic leach-bed fermenters, a 61% higher volatile fatty acid (VFA production and a 112% higher gas production, mainly CO2, were observed when pre-treated instead of untreated straw was used. With one of the two enrichment cultures as the inoculum, instead of the standard inoculum, the VFA production increased by an additional 36% and the gas production by an additional 110%, again mainly CO2. Analysis of the microbial communities in the leach-bed processes revealed similar bacterial compositions in the fermenters with pre-treated straw, which developed independently of the used inoculum. It was suggested that the positive metabolic effects with the enrichment cultures observed in both systems were due to initial activities of the alkali-tolerant microorganisms tackling the alkaline conditions better than the standard inocula, whereas the latter dominated in the long term.

  8. Unconfined Compressive Strength Comparison between Saline Soils Reinforced with Rice Straw and with Wheat Straw%稻草加筋土和麦秸秆加筋土的无侧限抗压强度比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞敏; 王晓燕; 柴寿喜

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase the compressive characteristic of saline soil, saline soils reinforced with rice straw and with wheat straw were used to solve the problem of soil strength decrease due to salt expansion and dissolution. And then the unconfined compressive strengths of the saline soils reinforced with rice straw and with wheat straw were compared by selecting reinforced length, reinforced quality ratio, shapes, anticorrosive processing as influence factors. Test results show that: ①Unconfined compressive strength of the saline soil reinforced with natural rice straw and with antiseptic rice straw is higher than the saline soil reinforced with natural wheat straw and with antiseptic wheat straw; unconfined compressive strength of the two reinforced saline soils are higher than saline soil. ②The appropriate reinforcement condition office straw is as follows: reinforced length of 15 mm, reinforced quality ratio of 0.2%; the condition of wheat straw is as follows: reinforced length of 10 mm or 15 ram, reinforced quality ratio of 0.2% or 0.25%. ③As far as the shapes of rice straw and wheat straw are concerned, half tube shape is better than tubular shape, and the shape of a quarter is better than half. ④ Both rice straw and wheat straw need anti-corrosion treatment before reinforcing to improve the strength and durability of the rein- forced saline soil. Rice straw and wheat straw are suitable for reinforcement materials, rice straw reinforcement is better than that of wheat straw; both of them can be used for handling saline soil.%为解决因溶陷和盐胀引起土的强度降低问题,分别采用稻草和麦秸秆加筋滨海盐渍土,以提高其抗压性能.选择加筋长度、质量加筋率、筋材形状及防腐处理作为影响因素,比较稻草加筋土和麦秸秆加筋土的无侧限抗压强度.试验结果为:①天然稻草加筋土和防腐稻草加筋土的无侧限抗压强度相应地高于天然麦秸秆加筋土

  9. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their utilization in the compost. The wheat straw based compost was characterized as being composed mainly of cellulose and lowly substituted xylan. During the first phase of composting, ester-bound substituents were removed from...

  10. Comparison of the substrate enzymatic digestibility and lignin structure of wheat straw stems and leaves pretreated by green liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Wangxia; Gu, Feng; Cao, Tingyue; Jin, Yongcan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) and the lignin structure of green liquor (GL) pretreated wheat straw stems and leaves were investigated. Compared with wheat straw stems, leaves showed higher delignification selectivity in GL pretreatment and higher SED in enzymatic hydrolysis. Wet chemical analysis indicated that, characterized with lower content of syringyl units and less β-O-4 linkages, leaf lignin is structurally different from stem lignin. After GL pretreatment, the drops of both nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation products yield of leaves were obviously higher than those of stems, which means that more β-O-4 linkages of leaf lignin were broken than that of stem lignin. The SED of total sugar in GL-pretreated leaves was about 50% higher than that in GL-pretreated stems. The less content and lower S/G ratio of lignin are suggested to be the important factors for the better SED of GL-pretreated leaves. PMID:26342786

  11. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wheat Straw in Sub-critical Water/Ethanol with Ionic Liquid for Bio-oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Han Shaohua; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction of wheat straw in sub-critical water with ionic liquid was investigated in an autoclave. The product distribution at different temperatures and pressures was studied. The liquid oil and the residuals were tested by 1H NMR, FTIR and SEM techniques. The results indicated that under the same conditions, the oil yield from liquefaction of wheat straw in water/ethanol was higher than that in sub-critical water. The result also showed that under the investigated conditions, adding 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) could increase the total conversion and gas yield, while at the same time the yield ofn-hexane insoluble fraction and the tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction was reduced. More-over, the results also showed that upon adding [Bmim]Cl the contents of the aliphatic hydrogen and phenols in liquid oil also increased along with improved oil quality.

  12. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes. PMID:20640886

  13. Chemical and biological properties of wheat soil in response to paddy straw incorporation and its biodegradation by fungal inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata

    2007-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative contribution of organic fertilizers (paddy straw, microbial inoculants and vermicompost) and inorganic fertilizers (urea and superphosphate) in improving pH, C, N, humus, microbial biomass, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities of soil under wheat crop. Vermicompost fertilization resulted in highest microbial biomass, available phosphorus, and nitrogen content of wheat soil. It was also found effective in minimizing the alkalinity of soil compared to other treatments as indicated by pH change. However incorporation of paddy straw in conjunction with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation resulted in maximum dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and highest humus content of soil. Mixed inoculation of A. awamori and T. reesei did not prove effective in improving the soil biochemical properties in comparison to single inoculation of T. reesei. Results showed that in situ incorporation of paddy straw in combination with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation can be used as an effective measure for valuable disposal of paddy straw and to improve the soil health by reducing mineral fertilization. PMID:17106757

  14. Determination of lab-scale biomethane potential of wheat straw pellets and their influence on anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbl, Sabina; Stres, Blaž

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory scale degradation of wheat straw pellets as an additional substrate for methane production was monitored as an example of controlled usage of unconventional substrates. In the laboratory biomethane potential of input feedstock from biogas plant (BGP) Organica Nova to which pellets were added in different proportions was determined. Organic loading (volatile solids, VS) was 5 g VS/L in all cases. Measurements were carried out by AMPTS I (Bioprocess Control, Sweden). Amount of produc...

  15. Determination of lab-scale biomethane potential of wheat straw pellets and their influence on anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbl, Sabina; Stres, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory scale degradation of wheat straw pellets as an additional substrate for methane production was monitored as an example of controlled usage of unconventional substrates. In the laboratory biomethane potential of input feedstock from biogas plant (BGP) Organica Nova to which pellets were added in different proportions was determined. Organic loading (volatile solids, VS) was 5 g VS/L in all cases. Measurements were carried out by AMPTS I (Bioprocess Control, Sweden). Amou...

  16. Semi-continuous feeding and gasification of alfalfa and wheat straw pellets in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alfalfa and wheat straw pellets were gasified in a lab-scale fluid-bed reactor. • ER varied between 0.20 and 0.35 at which several parameters investigated. • ER = 0.35 was found optimum for alfalfa at which process performance improved. • ER = 0.30 revealed optimum for wheat straw at which gasification was effective. - Abstract: Small scale air-blown fluidized bed gasification of alfalfa and wheat straw pellets were conducted for semi-continuous solid feeding and range of operating conditions varied due to the modifications in equivalence ratio (ER) (0.20–0.35) achieved both by varying solid and air input. Alfalfa pellets displayed an improvement in several gasification variables such as gas lower heating value (∼4.1 MJ/Nm3), specific gas yield (1.66 Nm3/kg), cold gas efficiency (∼42%) and carbon conversion efficiency (∼72%) as ER maximized to 0.35 which was found optimum for this feedstock for the present course of experiments. Gasification parameters of wheat straw pellets on the other hand were characterized by a great degree of variation as the ER progressively increased. The optimum performance of this biomass was likely to achieve at ER = 0.30 when gas lower heating value and cold gas efficiency maximized to ∼4 MJ/Nm3 and ∼37% respectively. Moreover, a substantial drop in tar yield (58.7 g/Nm3) at this ER was also indicative to the optimal thermal conversion at this point of operation. Overall, both the feedstocks presented promising alternatives for utilization into the small-scale fluidized bed gasification which is increasingly emerging as a sustainable solution towards processing lignocellulosic biomass

  17. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Arjen M Punt; Wim Arts; Mirjam A Kabel; Harry Gruppen

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed a...

  18. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Runzhou Huang; Chunxia He; Qinglin Wu; Xueni Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing effect of hybrid filler including wheat straw (WS) and inorganic filler (heavy calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and fly ash) in recycled polypropylene (R-PP) has been investigated. The effects of individual filler (WS) and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler) on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated. The flexural modulus and flexural strength were both reduced when reinforced with three kind...

  19. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; De Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations ha...

  20. FIBRILLATION OF FLAX AND WHEAT STRAW CELLULOSE: EFFECTS ON THERMAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYLALCOHOL/FIBRE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hrabalova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-fibrillated cellulose was produced from flax and wheat straw cellulose pulps by high pressure disintegration. The reinforcing potential of both disintegrated nano-celluloses in a polyvinyl-alcohol matrix was evaluated. Disintegration of wheat straw was significantly more time and energy consuming. Disintegration did not lead to distinct changes in the degree of polymerization; however, the fibre diameter reduction was more than a hundredfold, creating a nano-fibrillated cellulose network, as shown through field-emission-scanning electron microscopy. Composite films were prepared from polyvinyl alcohol and filled with nano-fibrillated celluloses up to 40% mass fractions. Nano-fibrillated flax showed better dispersion in the polyvinyl alcohol matrix, compared to nano-fibrillated wheat straw. Dynamic mechanical analysis of composites revealed that the glass transition and rubbery region increased more strongly with included flax nano-fibrils. Intermolecular interactions between cellulose fibrils and polyvinyl alcohol matrix were shown through differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The selection of appropriate raw cellulose material for high pressure disintegration was an indispensable factor for the processing of nano-fibrillated cellulose, which is essential for the functional optimization of products.

  1. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Gaitán-Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256. Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C (millet seed, 100%, F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS0(4, 1.3% and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw. Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256 and 320.1% (F1-IE-124, with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%, significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%. The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40 to 2.1% (F2-IE-105 on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40 to 66.1% (F1-IE-256. The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40 to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256. The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains.

  2. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation.

  3. Sorption of nitrate onto amine-crosslinked wheat straw: Characteristics, column sorption and desorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrate removal process was evaluated using a fixed-bed column packed with amine-crosslinked wheat straw (AC-WS). Column sorption and desorption characteristics of nitrate were studied extensively. Solid-state 13C NMR and zeta potential analysis validated the existence of crosslinked amine groups in AC-WS. Raman shift of the nitrate peaks suggested the electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed ions and positively charged amine sites. The column sorption capacity (qed) of the AC-WS for nitrate was 87.27 mg g-1 in comparison with the raw WS of 0.57 mg g-1. Nitrate sorption in column was affected by bed height, influent nitrate concentration, flow rate and pH, and of all these, influent pH demonstrated an essential effect on the performance of the column. In addition, desorption and dynamic elution tests were repeated for several cycles, with high desorption rate and slight losses in its initial column sorption capacity.

  4. Identification and characterization of fermentation inhibitors formed during hydrothermal treatment and following SSF of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    A pilot plant for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was compared in reactor systems of two steps (first, 80A degrees C; second, 190-205A degrees C) and of three steps (first, 80A degrees C; second, 170-180A degrees C; third, 195A degrees C). Fermentation (SSF) with Sacharomyces cerevisiae of...... be fermented into ethanol with a high hemicellulose recovery (65%). The concentration of furfural obtained during the pretreatment process increased versus temperature from 50 mg/l at 190A degrees C to 1,200 mg/l at 205A degrees C as a result of xylose degradation. S. cerevisiae detoxified the...... hydrolysates by degradation of several toxic compounds such as 90-99% furfural and 80-100% phenolic aldehydes, which extended the lag phase to 5 h. Acetic acid concentration increased by 0.2-1 g/l during enzymatic hydrolysis and 0-3.4 g/l during fermentation due to hydrolysis of acetyl groups and minor xylose...

  5. Microbiota of Soil-Like Substrate Depending on Wheat Straw Processing Method in Experimental LSS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Sysoeva, Olga

    In previous experiments conducted in the closed environmental system BIOS-3 plant waste and test persons' exometabolites were carried away from the life-support system (LSS). It is possible to create a new-generation LSS with a higher degree of matter cycle closure by adding to the soil-like substrate inedible plant waste used for cultivation of plants in the experimental LSS model. Using single-factor analysis of variance, we estimated the effect of the introduced inedible plant waste on the microbiota of the soil-like substrate (SLS). The plant waste was used: to increase the degree of matter cycle closure in the system; to replace the volume of soil-like substrate in the system; as a fertilizer for growing higher plants in the experimental LSS model. A statistically significant effect of wheat straw processing method on the number of all microorganism groups was observed in different variants of the experiment. The obtained results can be used in planning and carrying out of subsequent experiments with higher plants cultivated on SLS with waste in a closed environmental system including humans.

  6. DRAINAGE AND RETENTION ENHANCEMENT OF A WHEAT STRAW PULP CONTAINING FURNISH USING MICROPARTICLE RETENTION AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hultholm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The usage of non-wood pulps in furnishes for the production of various paper grades is a real alternative for the substitution of wood pulp in papermaking. In terms of the papermaking process, the main limiting factor for non-wood pulp utilization is poor dewatering. This problem can be partially solved by means of retention aids, and the modern microparticle-based retention aids are very promising for this application. In this study the main aim was to characterize how the microparticle retention systems affect the retention, dewatering, and formation of a non-wood pulp furnish and how these effects and mechanisms differ when compared to normal wood pulp. The performance of several commercially available retention aids was studied by making dynamic sheet forming tests for reference and an organosolv wheat straw furnish. The emphasis in the experiments was on drainage enhancement. The maximum drainage gain obtained with the bentonite-CPAM retention aid system was about 5%. Despite the improved drainage, dewatering of the reference furnish was better than for the non-wood containing furnish.

  7. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Karakus

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF filled thermoplastic compositeswere measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanningcalorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanningelectron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF inthermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WFand one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphologicalstudy showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs andthermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improvedadhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seenon the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties ofWF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensileand flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties ofthermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPPcoupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with thecombination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with theuse of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties requiredby the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  8. Effects of tillage practices and straw returning methods on greenhouse gas emissions and net ecosystem economic budget in rice-wheat cropping systems in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Guo, L. J.; Liu, T. Q.; Li, C. F.; Cao, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases from rice production with simultaneous incorporation of wheat straw and nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Longlong; Xia, Yongqiu; Ma, Shutan; Wang, Jinyang; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Impacts of simultaneous inputs of crop straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and N losses from rice production are not well understood. A 2-year field experiment was established in a rice-wheat cropping system in the Taihu Lake region (TLR) of China to evaluate the GHG intensity (GHGI) as well as reactive N intensity (NrI) of rice production with inputs of wheat straw and N fertilizer. The field experiment included five treatments of different N fertilization rates for rice production: 0 (RN0), 120 (RN120), 180 (RN180), 240 (RN240), and 300 kg N ha-1 (RN300, traditional N application rate in the TLR). Wheat straws were fully incorporated into soil before rice transplantation. The meta-analytic technique was employed to evaluate various Nr losses. Results showed that the response of rice yield to N rate successfully fitted a quadratic model, while N fertilization promoted Nr discharges exponentially (nitrous oxide emission, N leaching, and runoff) or linearly (ammonia volatilization). The GHGI of rice production ranged from 1.20 (RN240) to 1.61 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) kg-1 (RN0), while NrI varied from 2.14 (RN0) to 10.92 g N kg-1 (RN300). Methane (CH4) emission dominated the GHGI with a proportion of 70.2-88.6 % due to direct straw incorporation, while ammonia (NH3) volatilization dominated the NrI with proportion of 53.5-57.4 %. Damage costs to environment incurred by GHG and Nr releases from current rice production (RN300) accounted for 8.8 and 4.9 % of farmers' incomes, respectively. Cutting N application rate from 300 (traditional N rate) to 240 kg N ha-1 could improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 2.14 and 10.30 %, respectively, while simultaneously reducing GHGI by 13 %, NrI by 23 %, and total environmental costs by 16 %. Moreover, the reduction of 60 kg N ha-1 improved farmers' income by CNY 639 ha-1, which would provide them with an incentive to change the current N application rate. Our study suggests that GHG

  10. Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

  11. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing. PMID:18954978

  12. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature, and...... treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...

  13. Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production. PMID:21796382

  14. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  15. Corn Stover and Wheat Straw Combustion in a 176-kW Boiler Adapted for Round Bales

    OpenAIRE

    Joey Villeneuve; Philippe Savoie; René Morissette

    2013-01-01

    Combustion trials were conducted with corn stover (CS) and wheat straw (WS) round bales in a 176-kW boiler (model Farm 2000). Hot water (80 °C) stored in a 30,000-L water tank was transferred to a turkey barn through a plate exchanger. Gross calorific value measured in the laboratory was 17.0 and 18.9 MJ/kg DM (dry matter) for CS and WS, respectively. Twelve bales of CS (1974 kg DM total, moisture content of 13.6%) were burned over a 52-h period and produced 9.2% ash. Average emissions of CO,...

  16. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some

  17. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw with the......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20-40% to...... removal during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose....

  18. Methane fermentation and kinetics of wheat straw pretreated substrates co-digested with cattle manure in batch assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignocellulosic biomass contains high percentages of lignin, which is hard to biodegrade and therefore, pretreatment is required to enhance energy recovery yield. In this study, five types of pretreatments, i.e., dilute acid, alkali, acid–alkali combination and calcium hydroxide–sodium carbonate combination, and grinding were applied on wheat straw to enhance the efficiency of methane fermentation. Methane fermentation of untreated and pretreated substrates was evaluated at 35 °C temperature in 5 L glass bottle reactors. Cumulative CH4 yields of these pretreated substrates were found as 0.125 ± 0.002, 0.370 ± 0.02, 0.003 ± 0.005, 0.380 ± 0.017 and 0.241 ± 0.005 m3/kg of VS (volatile solids), respectively for, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments compared to that of untreated treatment T0 as 0.191 ± 0.004 m3/kg of VS. Alkali (2% NaOH on weight/volume ratio basis) and calcium hydroxide–sodium carbonate combination (3% Ca(OH)2 + 3% Na2CO3 on weight/volume ratio basis) pretreatments have been found to improve biogas and CH4 production yields by 94.0% and 99.0%, respectively, in comparison to the untreated wheat straw substrate. Gompertz model used to analyze the kinetic behavior of anaerobic digestion process in present study. Kinetic study indicates that Gompertz equation best describe the cumulative gas production as a function of the digestion time. - Highlights: • H2SO4, NaOH, H2SO4 + NaOH, Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3, grinding pretreatments were studied on wheat straw. • Wheat straw co-digestion with cattle manure in 40:60 ratio provided maximum methane yield. • 2% NaOH pretreated substrate found to increase biogas and CH4 production yields by 94.0%. • 3% Ca(OH)2 + 3% Na2CO3 pretreatment found to improve biogas and CH4 production yields by 99.0%

  19. Cellulase stability, adsorption/desorption profiles and recycling during successive cycles of hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Felby, Claus; Gama, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The potential of enzymes recycling after hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw under a variety of conditions was investigated, monitoring the activity of the enzymes in the solid and liquid fractions, using low molecular weight substrates. A significant amount of active enzymes could be......) significantly undergo thermal deactivation. The hydrolysis yield and enzyme recycling efficiency in consecutive recycling rounds can be increased by using high enzyme loadings and moderate temperatures. Indeed, the amount of enzymes in the liquid phase increased with its thermostability and hydrolytic...... efficiency. This study contributes towards developing effective enzymes recycling strategies and helping to reduce the enzyme costs on bioethanol production....

  20. Enhancing saccharification of wheat straw by mixing enzymes from genetically-modified Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanping; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; van den Brink, Joost; Wiebenga, Ad; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; De Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Zhihua; Benoit, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for plant biomass conversion into renewable biofuel and chemicals. Results By overexpressing the point mutation A824 V transcriptional activator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiosidase and β-d-glucosidase activities of the best mutant were increased from 1.8 IU/ml, 0.1 IU/ml and 0.05 IU/ml to 4.8 IU/ml, 0.4 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml, respectively. The sugar yield of wheat straw saccharification by combining en...

  1. COMPLETE CHARACTERIZATION OF WHEAT STRAW (TRITICUM AESTIVUM PBW-343 L. EMEND. FIORI & PAOL. – A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF FIBRES FOR PULP AND PAPER MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Triticum aestivum PBW-343 is grown in most of the regions of India, and it is one of the renewable sources most suitable for papermaking. Anatomical studies illustrate that vascular bundles near the periphery contain a strong sheath of sclerenchyma cells, which constitutes about 80% of the fibers. The total fibers in wheat straw are about 39.20%, and parenchyma and epidermal cells account for 32.10, and 23.56%, respectively, of the total cells. The dimensions of wheat straw fibers are: average fiber length 1.18 mm, fiber width 13.60 µm, lumen diameter 5.68 µm, and cell wall thickness 3.96 µm. The dimensions of non-fibrous cells are: parenchyma 445x124 µm, vessels 96x57 µm, and epidermal cells 390x38 µm, which lie between the corresponding values for rice straw, and bagasse. Flexibility coefficients and Runkel ratio of wheat straw fires are quite comparable to bamboo. The low lignin contents of wheat straw reflect that it requires mild cooking conditions; however, hemicelluloses are on higher side. Addition of AQ under optimum soda cooking conditions improves pulp yield by 0.75%, and lowers kappa number by 26.1%. Optimum strength properties are obtained at 45±1 oSR except tear index, which declines with increased refining. The fine contents are much higher, and relatively comparable to Eucalyptus tereticornis in terms of curl index and kinks per mm.

  2. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ciornea; Tamara Barbaneagra; Alexandru Manoliu; Mihaela Cristica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The cat...

  3. Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2013-09-01

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. PMID:23786713

  4. Synthesis of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/PVA semi-IPNs superabsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Rui

    2013-04-15

    To better use wheat straw and minimize its negative impact on environment, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) composed of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) network and linear polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by polymerization in the presence of a redox initiating system. The structure and morphology of semi-IPNs SAR were characterized by means of FTIR, SEM and TGA, which confirmed that WSC and PVA participated in the graft polymerization reaction with acrylic acid (AA). The factors that can influence the water absorption of the semi-IPNs SAR were investigated and optimized, including the weight ratios of AA to WSC and PVA to WSC, the content of initiator and crosslinker, neutralization degree (ND) of AA, reaction temperature and time. The semi-IPNs SAR prepared under optimized synthesis condition gave the best water absorption of 266.82 g/g in distilled water and 34.32 g/g in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. PMID:23544572

  5. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from open burning of wheat straw and corn stover in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2009-10-01

    Field measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) emitted from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was used with sampling downwind from the agricultural fire. Fifty-two NMHC species were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine NMHC emission factors. The emission factors of the total speciated NMHCs from wheat straw and maize stover are 1690 ± 580 mg kg-1 and 1590 ± 430 mg kg-1, respectively. Propane, n-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, propene, benzene and toluene are the main species, together accounting for 55.3%-68.0% of the total NMHCs. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for NMHCs, we estimated the ozone forming potential (OFP) of speciated NMHCs. The results indicate that propene, 1-butene, isoprene, toluene and m,p-xylene have high OFP values and account for about 50% of the total OFP. Alkenes played the most important role in potential ozone formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes.

  6. Preparation1 and utilization of wheat straw anionic sorbent for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the impact of eutrophication caused by agricultural residues (i.e. excess nitrate) in aqueous solution, economic and effective anionic sorbents are required. In this article, we prepared anionic sorbent using wheat straw. Its structural characteristics and adsorption properties for nitrate removal from aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicate that the yield of the prepared anionic sorbent, the total exchange capacity, and the maximum adsorption capacity were 350%, 2.57 mEq/g, and 2.08 mmol/g, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm mode is more suitable than the Langmuir mode and the adsorption process accords with the first order reaction kinetic rate equation. When multiple anions (SO42-, H2PO4-, NO3-, and NO2-) were present, the isotherm mode of prepared anionic sorbent for nitrate was consistent with Freundlich mode; however, the capacity of nitrate adsorption was reduced by 50%. In alkaline solutions, about 90% of adsorbed nitrate ions could be desorbed from prepared anionic sorbent. The results of this study confirmed that the wheat straw anionic sorbent can be used as an excellent nitrate sorbent that removes nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  7. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  8. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from open burning of wheat straw and corn stover in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) emitted from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was used with sampling downwind from the agricultural fire. Fifty-two NMHC species were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine NMHC emission factors. The emission factors of the total speciated NMHCs from wheat straw and maize stover are 1690 ± 580 mg kg-1 and 1590 ± 430 mg kg-1, respectively. Propane, n-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, propene, benzene and toluene are the main species, together accounting for 55.3%-68.0% of the total NMHCs. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for NMHCs, we estimated the ozone forming potential (OFP) of speciated NMHCs. The results indicate that propene, 1-butene, isoprene, toluene and m,p-xylene have high OFP values and account for about 50% of the total OFP. Alkenes played the most important role in potential ozone formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes.

  9. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  10. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tardy

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland. Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health.

  11. [High titer ethanol production from an atmospheric glycerol autocatalytic organosolv pretreated wheat straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jianquan; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Feiyang; Ren, Junli; Sun, Fubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Cancan; Lin, Qiaowen

    2015-10-01

    The expensive production of bioethanol is because it has not yet reached the 'THREE-HIGH' (High-titer, high-conversion and high-productivity) technical levels of starchy ethanol production. To cope with it, it is necessary to implement a high-gravity mash bioethanol production (HMBP), in which sugar hydrolysates are thick and fermentation-inhibitive compounds are negligible. In this work, HMBP from an atmospheric glycerol autocatalytic organosolv pretreated wheat straw was carried out with different fermentation strategies. Under an optimized condition (15% substrate concentration, 10 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 30 FPU/g dry matter, 10% (V/V) inoculum ratio), HMBP was at 31.2 g/L with a shaking simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 37 degrees C for 72 h, and achieved with a conversion of 73% and a productivity of 0.43 g/(L x h). Further by a semi-SFF with pre-hydrolysis time of 24 h, HMBP reached 33.7 g/L, the conversion and productivity of which was 79% and 0.47 g/(L x h), respectively. During the SSF and semi-SSF, more than 90% of the cellulose in both substrates were hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. Finally, a fed-batch semi-SFF was developed with an initial substrate concentration of 15%, in which dried substrate (= the weight of the initial substrate) was divided into three portions and added into the conical flask once each 8 h during the first 24 h. HMBP achieved at 51.2 g/L for 72 h with a high productivity of 0.71 g/(L x h) while a low cellulose conversion of 62%. Interestingly, the fermentation inhibitive compound was mainly acetic acid, less than 3.0 g/L, and there were no other inhibitors detected, commonly furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural existing in the slurry. The data indicate that the lignocellulosic substrate subjected to the atmospheric glycerol autocatalytic organosolv pretreatment is very applicable for HMBP. The fed-batch semi-SFF is effective and desirable to realize an HMBP. PMID:26964336

  12. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.;

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  13. Removal of fermentation inhibitors from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw: Production of butanol from hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii in batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 g L-1 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from alkaline peroxide wheat straw hydrolysate (APWSH) that had not been treated to reduce salt concentration (a neutralization product). However, fermentation was successful after inhibitors (salts) were removed from the hydrolysate by electrodialysis. A control glucose fermentation resulted in the production of 21.37 g L-1 ABE, while salt removed APWSH resulted in the production of 22.17 g L-1 ABE. In the two fermentations, reactor productivities were 0.30 and 0.55 g L-1 h-1, respectively. A comparison of use of different substrates (corn fiber, wheat straw) and different pretreatment techniques (dilute sulfuric acid, alkaline peroxide) suggests that generation of inhibitors is substrate and pretreatment specific

  14. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    2013-01-01

    lignin residue from wheat straw were analysed and processing factors discussed. Roughly 70 and 15% of the solid mass fraction consisted of lignin and ash, respectively. Residual carbohydrates mostly originated from hemicellulose in the liquid fraction and from cellulose in the solid fraction. The solid...

  15. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by ¤Thermoanaerobacter mathranii¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g/l), ali...

  16. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  17. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a F

  18. Effect of the incorporation of date pits and orange pulp in rations composed of wheat straw and concentrate on the blood biochemical parameters of Ouled Djellal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lakhdara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four lambs of Ouled Djellal breeding from the region of Constantine, Algeria, were assigned randomly into 4 groups, the mean initial weights within the groups, ranged between 37.6±4.27 and 39.8±5.41 kg, to investigate the effect of the incorporation of two by-products of food industry, fresh orange pulp, ground date pits in rations composed of wheat straw as roughage, and concentrate as supplement. Four feeding groups were formed, the first group (T1 was fed with wheat straw and concentrate (60%/40%, the second group (T2 with wheat straw and orange pulp (60%/40%, for group 3 and 4 (T3-T4, the diet consisted on a mixture of 60% wheat straw and date pits at a ratio of (80 to 20% as a roughage in addition to 40% orange pulp for T3 and 40% concentrate for T4. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before morning feeding. Values of animal's plasma levels of Ca, glucose, proteins and urea were measured using a UV spectrophotometer. There was no significant difference in all the diets for Ca value, Ca values varied between 8.37 and 10.74 mg/Dl. T4 showed the highest value. Glucose blood content was similar for all the animals with no significant differences. While a very significant difference <0.001 was observed in blood proteins level in T3 and T4 comparing to the other groups. When date pits were incorporated in the diet containing wheat straw and concentrate, a very significant difference on urea blood content of lambs was observed (P<0.001.

  19. 秸秆/聚氯乙烯复合材料的初步研究%Studies on Wheat Straw/Poly (vinyl chloride) Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸣波; 李忠明; 冯建民; 张雁

    2000-01-01

    A novel disposal technique for wheat straw was developed by compounding the straw with poly(vinyl chloride) for the purpose of developing a new material which has the potential to substitute for natural wood. Effects of straw content and interfacial treatment agent on the mechanical properties, processability and the morphology of the composite were extensively studied. Results showed that tensile strength, flexural strength and notched impact strength decreased a little, increasing the straw content from 0 to 60wt`, and that the interfacial active agent caused effective compatibility between the straw and the plastic matrix. Through scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the straw in the composite with an appropriate concentration of interfacial treatment agent was well-distributed, while for the composite without interfacial treatment agent, a straw coalescence phenomenon appeared.%本文介绍了一种新型的秸秆处理方法,即将秸秆与聚氯乙烯复合制备替代木材使用的秸秆/塑料复合材料。主要从秸秆含量、处理剂含量对复合材料的力学性能和成型加工性能的影响,以及复合材料的形态等方面进行了研究。

  20. Genetic variation in degradability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Magid, Jakob; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    contemporary gene pool. The cultivars were grown at two different locations to assess the potential for breeding for improved degradability. The straws exhibited much variation in degradability ranging from 258 g kg1 to 407 g kg1 of dry matter. The heritability for degradability was estimated to 29% indicating...... a reasonable potential for response to selection. Inclusion of height as a regression-term, indicated that only a minor part of genetic differences are directly related to plant height and that improvements in degradability may be achieved without unacceptable changes in straw length. Finally, a...... lack of correlation between degradability and grain yield indicated that straw degradability may be improved through breeding without serious negative effect on grain yield....

  1. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

  2. Characterizing and modeling of an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw: Experience and lessons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Clausen, Sønnik; Hvid, Søren

    2012-01-01

    case studies, modeling effort on an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw is presented in this paper. Different modeling issues and their expected impacts on CFD analysis of the kind of grate boilers are discussed. The modeling results are compared with in-flame measurements in the 88 MW boiler...... and availability. To better understand grate-firing of biomass and to establish a reliable but relatively simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling methodology for industrial applications, biomass combustion in a number of different grate boilers has been measured and modeled. As one of the....... Some of the addressed measures will be tested in a modern 500 kW grate boiler rig...

  3. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS FOR GRAIN AND STRAW YIELD IN LATE SOWN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUVARNA T. KALE1 * AND ANANT R. MALI2

    2014-10-01

    Response of different fertilizer levels and varieties on grain and straw yield of wheat was studied under late sown condition. The experimental design consists of split plot design with three replications comprising four levels of fertilizer and three varieties, thereby involving twelve treatment combinations. The fertilizer level 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha was found beneficial in improving growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to 80:40:40kg NPK/ha, 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha under late sown condition. The net monetary returns considering prevailing market prices were maximum with application of 120:60:60 kg NPK/ ha.

  4. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Mai Oestergaard; Larsen, Jan [Inbicon A/S, Kraftvaerksvej 53, 7000 Fredericia (Denmark); Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard [Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - DTU, Building 330, P.O. Box 49, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-05-15

    In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h{sup -1}) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have been evaluated with regards to recovery of sugars after pretreatment (both C5 and C6) and convertibility of the cellulosic part of the fibers into ethanol. The experiments show that the optimum pretreatment parameters are 195 C for 6-12 min. At these conditions, a total of app. 70% of the hemicellulose is recovered, 93-94% of the cellulose is recovered in the fibers and app. 89% of the cellulose in the fibers can be converted into ethanol by commercial cellulase mixtures - increasing to 92% when adding a commercial xylanase. (author)

  5. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted pelleting of wheat straw: a predictive model for energy consumption using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Meng; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass can be used as a feedstock for biofuel manufacturing. Pelleting of cellulosic biomass can increase its bulk density and thus improve its storability and reduce the feedstock transportation costs. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting can produce biomass pellets whose density is comparable to that processed by traditional pelleting methods (e.g. extruding, briquetting, and rolling). This study applied response surface methodology to the development of a predictive model for the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting of wheat straw. Effects of pelleting pressure, ultrasonic power, sieve size, and pellet weight were investigated. This study also optimized the process parameters to minimize the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to minimize the energy consumption were the following: ultrasonic power at 20%, sieve size at 4 mm, and pellet weight at 1g, and the minimum energy consumption was 2.54 Wh. PMID:23859359

  6. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-12-01

    The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

  7. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  8. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jurak

    Full Text Available In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S to guaiacyl (G units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels;

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O-2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O-2 as oxidizing agent was...... viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  10. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h-1) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have been evaluated with regards to recovery of sugars after pretreatment (both C5 and C6) and convertibility of the cellulosic part of the fibers into ethanol. The experiments show that the optimum pretreatment parameters are 195 oC for 6-12 min. At these conditions, a total of app. 70% of the hemicellulose is recovered, 93-94% of the cellulose is recovered in the fibers and app. 89% of the cellulose in the fibers can be converted into ethanol by commercial cellulase mixtures - increasing to 92% when adding a commercial xylanase.

  11. SONOCHEMICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW FOR PULP AND PAPERMAKING IN ORDER TO INCREASE ITS ECONOMICAL RATES AND REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Csoka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw (an agricultural by-product was pulped by an alkaline anthraquinone (AQ process. Then the straw pulp was treated by high-power ultrasound under different noble-gas (argon, krypton, xenon combinations. The pulps’ degree of beating and acid-insoluble lignin content were measured. Handsheets were made from sonicated and control pulps and tested for paper tensile strength. In this study we explore which noble-gas combination with ultrasound may be more useable to reduce the lignin content and enhance fibrillation. We also describe the most effective ultrasound-assisted, modified alkaline pulping process. Overall, we found that in two steps ultrasonification decreased the residual lignin contents more then 75 %, the pulp fibrillation increased from 12 to 70 °SR within 20 min. of ultrasound irradiation, and the tensile index of the handsheets increased by 65%. For sustainable paper production, it is required to develop alternative paper resources. Paper made from alternate fiber resources with efficient technology will improve our living standards without sacrificing the environment, our habitat. High frequency ultrasound-based pulp processing offers significant improvements, and it reduces energy and chemical consump-tions for pulp and paper production.

  12. Effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on cell wall composition and digestion kinetics of sugarcane residues and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjed, M; Jung, H G; Donker, J D

    1992-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize changes in cell wall composition and digestibility of sugarcane bagasse, pith from bagasse, and wheat straw after treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP). The AHP treatment solution contained 1% H2O2 (wt/vol) maintained at pH 11.5 with NaOH. The H2O2 in solution amounted to 25% of the quantity of substrate treated. After treatment, residues were washed and dried. Detergent fiber composition, total fiber components (neutral sugars, uronic acids, Klason lignin, and noncore lignin phenolic acids), IVDMD, in vitro digestion kinetics of NDF, and monosaccharide digestibilities (24 and 120 h) were determined. Total fiber (TF) and NDF concentrations of all treatment residues were increased (P less than .05) over control substrates by AHP because of greater losses of cell solubles than of cell wall constituents. Hemicellulose:cellulose ratio in NDF of treatment residues was decreased (P less than .05) by AHP for all substrates, but the neutral sugar composition of TF did not agree with this preferential loss of hemicellulose components. Klason lignin, ADL, and esterified noncore lignin, especially ferulic acid, were reduced (P less than .05) by AHP, whereas etherified noncore lignin composition was unchanged. Treatment increased (P less than .05) IVDMD, extent of NDF digestion, and monosaccharide digestibilities of all crop residues. The rate of NDF digestion was increased (P less than .05) for the sugarcane residues but not for wheat straw. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide improved crop residue digestibility, probably as a result of the removal of core and noncore lignin fractions. PMID:1328129

  13. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billard Hélène

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a, CBH2 (Cel6a, EG1 (Cel7b, EG2 (Cel5a, as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25% which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw.

  14. The role of acetyl xylan esterase in the solubilization of xylan and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw and giant reed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junhua

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complexity of lignocellulosic materials, a complete enzymatic hydrolysis into fermentable sugars requires a variety of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Addition of xylanases has been shown to significantly improve the performance of cellulases and to increase cellulose hydrolysis by solubilizing xylans in lignocellulosic materials. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of acetyl xylan esterase (AXE originating from Trichoderma reesei on xylan solubilization and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Results The solubilization of xylan in pretreated wheat straw and giant reed (Arundo donax by xylanolytic enzymes and the impact of the sequential or simultaneous solubilization of xylan on the hydrolysis of cellulose by purified enzymes were investigated. The results showed that the removal of acetyl groups in xylan by AXE increased the accessibility of xylan to xylanase and improved the hydrolysis of xylan in pretreated wheat straw and giant reed. Solubilization of xylan led to an increased accessibility of cellulose to cellulases and thereby increased the hydrolysis extent of cellulose. A clear synergistic effect between cellulases and xylanolytic enzymes was observed. The highest hydrolysis yield of cellulose was obtained with a simultaneous use of cellulases, xylanase and AXE, indicating the presence of acetylated xylan within the cellulose matrix. Acetylated xylobiose and acetylated xylotriose were produced from xylan without AXE, as confirmed by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Conclusions The results in this paper demonstrate that supplementation of xylanase with AXE enhances the solubilization of xylan to some extent and, consequently, increases the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose. The highest hydrolysis yield was, however, obtained by simultaneous hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose, indicating a layered structure of cellulose and

  15. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Severino Segato; Gianluca Fregolent; Barbara Contiero; Franco Mutinelli; Flaviana Gottardo; Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m). The healt...

  16. Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Ahring, B.K.; Schmidt, A.S.;

    2002-01-01

    constituted the majority of degradation products (8.5 g). The main phenol monomers were 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone), vanillic acid and syringic acid, occurring in 0.04-0.12 g per 100 g straw concentrations. High lignin removal from the...

  17. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  18. NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-07-01

    NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

  19. Effect of pretreatment severity in continuous steam explosion on enzymatic conversion of wheat straw: Evidence from kinetic analysis of hydrolysis time courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monschein, Mareike; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on continuous steam explosion, the influence of pretreatment severity due to varied acid loading on hydrolysis of wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulases was investigated based on kinetic evaluation of the saccharification of each pretreated substrate. Using semi-empirical descriptors of the hydrolysis time course, key characteristics of saccharification efficiency were captured in a quantifiable fashion. Not only hydrolysis rates per se, but also the transition point of their bi-phasic decline was crucial for high saccharification degree. After 48h the highest saccharification was achieved for substrate pretreated at relatively low severity (1.2% acid). Higher severity increased enzyme binding to wheat straw, but reduced the specific hydrolysis rates. Higher affinity of the lignocellulosic material for cellulases does not necessarily result in increased saccharification, probably because of lignin modifications occurring at high pretreatment severities. At comparable severity, continuous pretreatment produced a substrate more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than the batch process. PMID:26496218

  20. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  1. Celluclast and Cellic® CTec2: Saccharification / fermentation of wheat straw, solid-liquid partition and potential of enzyme recycling by alkaline washing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Ana Cristina Costa; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Felby, Claus; Gama, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysis/fermentation of wheat straw and the adsorption/desorption/deactivation of cellulases were studied using Cellic® CTec2 (Cellic) and Celluclast mixed with Novozyme 188. The distribution of enzymes cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A), endoglucanase I (Cel7B) and -glucosidase of the two formulations between the residual substrate and supernatant during the course of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated. The potential of recyclability using alkaline wash was also studied...

  2. Methane enhancement through co-digestion of chicken manure and thermo-oxidative cleaved wheat straw with waste activated sludge: A C/N optimization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Shi, Zhendan; Zhao, Sanqin

    2016-07-01

    The present study emphasized the co-digestion of the thermal-H2O2 pretreated wheat straw (WS) and chicken manure (CM) with the waste activated sludge at four levels of C/N (35:1, 30:1, 25:1 and 20:1). All C/N compositions were found significant (Poptimize the most suitable C/N composition, the process stability of the co-digestion of WS and CM was deeply monitored. PMID:27038262

  3. Two-dimensional NMR evidence for cleavage of lignin and xylan substituents in wheat straw through hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelle, Daniel J.; Kaparaju, Laxmi-Narasimha Prasad; Hunt, Christopher G.;

    2013-01-01

    . g., further deacylation revealed by the depletion in ferulate and p-coumarate structures). Supplementary chemical analyses showed that the hydrothermal pretreatment increased the cellulose and lignin concentration with partial removal of extractives and hemicelluloses. The subsequent enzymatic...... hydrolysis incurred further deacetylation of the xylan, leaving approximately 10 % of acetate intact based on the weight of original wheat straw. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA)....

  4. [Effects of no-tillage plus inter-planting and remaining straw on the field on cropland eco-environment and wheat growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Hongcheng; Dai, Qigen; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Ruan, Huifang

    2005-02-01

    The studies showed that under no-tillage plus inter-planting rice and wheat, the height of rice stubble remained on the field significantly affected light transmission rate, with an optimal height of 20-30 cm. No-tillage and straw-remaining decreased soil temperature at noon in sunny days, but slightly increased it in the morning and evening, led to a less diurnal difference of soil temperature. The average diurnal soil temperature under no-tillage was higher in cloudy but lower in sunny days. Under no-tillage and straw-remaining, both the bulk density and the penetration resistance of topsoil increased, but no apparent adverse effect of them was observed on wheat growth. Under no-tillage, soil water content was higher under drought condition, and soil permeability after irrigation was better, which was propitious to the wheat growth. Straw-remaining significantly inhibited weeds, but led to the decrease of basic seedlings and enhanced the damage of freezing. Under no-tillage plus inter-planting, the individuals of effective ears decreased, while the kilo-grain weight increased. The grain yield was slightly but not significantly low under no-tillage plus inter-planting. PMID:15852946

  5. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  6. Investigating the Mechanical Properties and Degradability of Bioplastics Made from Wheat Straw Cellulose and Date Palm Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Omrani Fard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, the use of bioplastics as an alternative to regular plastics has received much attention in many different industries. The mechanical and degradable properties of bioplastic are important for their utilization. In this research cellulose of wheat straw and glycerol were mixed by different weight ratios and then reinforced by using date palm fibers. To prepare the bioplastic plates, the materials were poured in molds and pressed by means of a hydraulic press and simultaneously heating of the molds. The experiments were performed based on a 3×3 factorial design with three levels: 50%, 60% and 70% of wheat cellulose and three types of reinforcement methods, namely: no-reinforcement, network reinforcement and parallel string reinforcement. The effect of the two factors on tensile strength, tensile strain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of bending were investigated. The results indicated that the two factors and their interactions had significant effects on the mentioned properties of bioplastics (at α=0.05 level . The comparison of the means of the tests showed that the network reinforcement type with 50% cellulose had the highest tensile and bending strengths with 1992.02 and 28.71 MPa, respectively. The maximum modulus of elasticity and modulus bending were 40.4 and 2.3 MPa, respectively for parallel string arrangement and 70% of cellulose. The degradability tests of bioplastic using a fistulated sheep indicated that with increasing the percentage of cellulose, the degradability rate deceased. The maximum degradability rate, after 48 h holding in the sheep rumen, was 74% that belonged to bioplastics with 50% cellulose. The degradability data were well fitted to a mathematical model (R2=0.97.

  7. MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF WHEAT STRAW BY ROLLER-PLATE GRIND SYSTEM WITH SHARP-EDGED SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colloid mills and extruders are widely used for disintegrating wet fibrous biomass. However, their main disadvantages are a high energy requirement in the range of hundreds or thousands of kWh per ton of material, and the fact that they grind in process cycles. Efforts have therefore been made to design a new type of continuously operated grinder. Its disintegration principle uses a roller-plate grinding system with sharp-edged segments, where the compressive and shear forces combine to comminute the particles. Test experiments verified that the grinder disintegrates wet untreated straw to particles below 10mm in an effective manner in a single pass, with an energy requirement of 50 kWht−1 TS. A 23% increase in biogas yield was achieved, leading to a net gain in electric energy of310 kWht−1 TS.

  8. 堆肥预处理温度控制促进麦秸厌氧发酵产沼气%Promotion of biogas production of wheat straw by controling composting pretreatment temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 马慧娟; 常志州; 叶小梅; 杜静; 徐越定; 张建英

    2013-01-01

    wheat straw. In the first experiment, the wheat straw was directly used for composting and then composted straw was used in the biomethane potential (BMP) test. For the second one, wheat straw was sterilized by gamma ray radiation pretreatment and treated under different temperature with different time. Then the treated straw was used for the BMP test. The results of experiments indicated that large percentage of organic matter in wheat straw was degraded during composting process. The total solid (TS) loss rate of wheat straw was only 4.06%when composting pile temperature was less than 55℃. When composting pile temperature was set up at 55℃, the TS loss rate of wheat straw increased 22.45%after 10 days’ composting treatment. Gas data showed that biogas production rate of wheat straw was not improved obviously. The TS biogas yield of wheat straw increased with composting pile temperature and then decreased. The highest TS biogas yield of wheat straw of 349.92 mL/g was observed at 55℃of composting pile temperature, which is 7.56% higher than that of uncomposted wheat straw. There was no significantly improvement in biogas production between composted and uncomposted wheat straw during composting process for organic matter loss of wheat straw. However, longer composting time led to lower biogas yield of wheat straw. When composting pile temperature was kept at 55℃for 9 days, The TS biogas yield of composted wheat straw was only 66.58%. When the content of organic matter and material composition of wheat straw were changed, content of hemicellulose of wheat straw was decreased by 28.10%. Results of gas data of simulated composting experiment showed the same trend as the first experiment. The highest TS biogas yield of wheat straw of 342.36 mL/g was obtained at 55℃ with 8.35%, which is higher than that of control. Therefore the high temperature from composting process is an important factor of destruction of lignocellulose structure and improving

  9. High-throughput microarray profiling of cell wall polymers during hydrothermal pre-treatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Simón, Ana; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Obro, Jens; Felby, Claus; Willats, William G T; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-02-15

    Lignocellulosic plant material is potentially a sustainable source of fermentable sugars for bioethanol production. However, a barrier to this is the high resistance or recalcitrance of plant cell walls to be hydrolyzed. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of the structural features of plant cell walls that contribute to recalcitrance is important for improving the efficiency of bioethanol production. In this work we have used a technique known as Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) to analyze wheat straw before and after being subjected to hydrothermal pre-treatments at four different temperatures. The CoMPP technique combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the high-throughput capacity of microarrays. Changes in the relative abundance of cell wall polysaccharides could be tracked during processing, and a reduction in xylan, arabinoxylans, xyloglucan, and mixed-linked glucan epitopes was detected at the two highest temperatures of pre-treatment used. This work demonstrates the potential of CoMPP as a complementally technique to conventional methods for analyzing biomass composition. PMID:19777595

  10. EFFECT OF TARTARIC ACID ADDITION ON RUMEN FERMENTATION, METHANE PRODUCTION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN DIFFERENT DIETS CONTAINING WHEAT STRAW IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. SIROHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of tartaric acid addition in diets on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Different levels of tartaric acid (5, 10, and 15 ppm were tested for their effect on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and digestibility in three wheat straw containing diets i.e. Low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of tartaric acid was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results of different levels of tartaric acid on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (22.60% in term of mM/gDM was observed in LFD at the supplementation dosage of 15 mM and a similar trend was seen, when methane was expressed in ml/gDM. Non-significant (P≤0.05 effect of tartaric acid addition on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD was observed in almost cases. Protozoal population decreased with increasing concentration of tartaric acid and maximum reduction (54.64% was in the MFD. Acetate to propionate ratio was decreased in tartaric acid supplemented diets which reflects increase in propionic acid production in comparison to control diet. Microbial biomass yield also increased due to the addition of tartaric acid in most of the diets.

  11. Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

  12. Extractability and digestibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides during hydrothermal and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads A.T.; Ahl, Louise I.; Pedersen, Henriette L.;

    2014-01-01

    Fuels and chemicals derived through biochemical conversion of agricultural by-products such as wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an area currently under intense research. In this study, separate leaves and stems were hydrothermally pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed and analysed chemical...... solubilisation and digestion of the polysaccharides during pretreatment and hydrolysis correlate well with previous models of the polysaccharides' structural organisation in the cell wall. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....... and by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). This way, the effects of each degradation step to the intermolecular organisation of specific polysaccharides in the cell walls were elucidated. After pretreatment, the degree of polymerisation (DP) of released xylo-oligosaccharides in both...... pretreatment however, regardless their extractability in water or only alkali. Based on the results, AX and MLG appear to be loosely bound in the cell wall matrix while the other polysaccharides are bound more tightly and shielded from enzymatic attack by AX and MLG until pretreatment. The gradual...

  13. Corn Stover and Wheat Straw Combustion in a 176-kW Boiler Adapted for Round Bales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Villeneuve

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Combustion trials were conducted with corn stover (CS and wheat straw (WS round bales in a 176-kW boiler (model Farm 2000. Hot water (80 °C stored in a 30,000-L water tank was transferred to a turkey barn through a plate exchanger. Gross calorific value measured in the laboratory was 17.0 and 18.9 MJ/kg DM (dry matter for CS and WS, respectively. Twelve bales of CS (1974 kg DM total, moisture content of 13.6% were burned over a 52-h period and produced 9.2% ash. Average emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 were 2725, 9.8 and 2.1 mg/m3, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 40.8%. For WS, six bales (940 kg DM total, MC of 15% were burned over a 28-h period and produced 2.6% ash. Average emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 were 2210, 40.4 and 3.7 mg/m3, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 68.0%. A validation combustion trial performed a year later with 90 CS bales confirmed good heating performance and the potential to lower ash content (6.2% average.

  14. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

  15. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    concentration in both wheat and rice straw. In field grown wheat, the Si concentration decreased by more than 50 % in response to N application, while at the same time the concentration of lignin increased. Assuming that there was no limitation in Si availability under field conditions, the drastic reduction...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  16. Global warming and energy yield evaluation of Spanish wheat straw electricity generation – A LCA that takes into account parameter uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity generation from Spanish wheat straw. • Parameter uncertainty and variability are included in the life cycle assessment. • 58% of the simulations accomplish EU sustainability criteria of 60% GHG savings. • Loss of soil organic carbon is the most relevant phase for global warming potential. • A reduction of isohumic coefficient uncertainty is needed due to its importance. - Abstract: This paper aims to provide more accurate results in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation from wheat straw grown in Spain through the inclusion of parameter uncertainty and variability in the inventories. We fitted statistical distributions for the all the parameter that were relevant for the assessment to take into account their inherent uncertainty and variability. When we found enough data, goodness of fit tests were performed to choose the best distribution for each parameter and, when this was not possible, we adjusted triangular or uniform distributions according to data available and expert judge. To obtain a more complete and realistic LCA, we considered the consequences of straw exportation for the agricultural system, specially the loss of soil organic carbon and the decrease of future fertility. We also took into account all the inputs, transformations and transports needed to generate electricity in a 25 MWe power plant by straw burning. The inventory data for the agricultural, the transport and the transformation phases were collected considering their most common values and ranges of variability for the Spanish case. We used Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis to obtain global warming potential (GWP) and fossil energy (FOSE) consumption of the system. These results were compared with those of the electricity generated from natural gas in Spanish power plants, as fossil reference energy system. Our results showed that for the majority of the simulations electricity from wheat

  17. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  18. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  19. Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic

  20. Hydrolysis of solubilized hemicellulose derived from wet-oxidized wheat straw by a mixture of commercial fungal enzyme preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skammelsen Schmidt, Anette; Thomsen, Alle Belinda; Woidemann, Anders [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Tenkanen, Maija [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research (Finland)

    1998-04-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of the solubilized hemicellulose fraction from wet-oxidized wheat straw was investigated for quantification purposes. An optimal hydrolysis depends on factors such as composition of the applied enzyme mixture and the hydrolysis conditions (enzyme loading, hydrolysis time, pH-value, and temperature). A concentrated enzyme mixture was used in this study prepared at VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Finland, by mixing four commercial enzyme preparations. No distinctive pH-value and temperature optima were identified after a prolonged incubation of 24 hours. By reducing the hydrolysis time to 2 hours a temperature optimum was found at 50 deg. C, where a pH-value higher than 5.2 resulted in reduced activity. An enzyme-substrate-volume-ratio of 0.042, a pH-value of 5.0, and a temperature of 50 deg. C were chosen as the best hydrolysis conditions due to an improved monosaccharide yield. The hydrolysis time was chosen to be 24 hours to ensure equilibrium and total quantification. Even under the best hydrolysis conditions, the overall sugar yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis was only 85% of that of the optimal acid hydrolysis. The glucose yield were approximately the same for the two types of hydrolyses, probably due to the high cellulase activity in the VTT-enzyme mixture. For xylose and arabinose the enzymatic hydrolysis yielded only 80% of that of the acid hydrolysis. As the pentoses existed mainly as complex polymers their degradation required many different enzymes, some of which might be missing from the VTT-enzyme mixture. Furthermore, the removal of side-choins from the xylan backbone during the wet-oxidation pretreatment process might enable the hemicellulosic polymers to interact and precipitate, hence, reducing the enzymatic digestibility of the hemicellulose. (au) 8 tabs., 10 ills., 65 refs.

  1. Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zuo, Jiane; Chen, Xiaojie; Xing, Wei; Xing, Linan; Li, Peng; Lu, Xiangyang; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology. The 75L reactor was designed with a 25L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom, with a recirculation connected to the two units. The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw, which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials. The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales, Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor, with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit. The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina, Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta, accounting for 40.5%, 54.2%, 73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom, indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit. The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit. The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases, as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens, more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic associations among microorganisms, which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient. PMID:25499496

  2. Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Wang; Jiane Zuo; Xiaojie Chen; Wei Xing; Linan Xing; Peng Li; Xiangyang Lu

    2014-01-01

    The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology.The 75 L reactor was designed with a 25 L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50 L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom,with a recirculation connected to the two units.The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw,which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials.The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales,Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor,with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit.The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta,Methanosarcina,Methanoculleus,Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta,accounting for 40.5%,54.2%,73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom,indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit.The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit.The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases,as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR.Overall,the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens,more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic assodations among microorganisms,which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient.

  3. Kinetic Studies on Wheat Straw Hydrolysis to Levulinic Acid%小麦秸秆制备乙酰丙酸的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常春; 马晓建; 岑沛霖

    2009-01-01

    Levulinic acid is considered as a promising green platform chemical derived from biomass. The kinetics of levulinic acid accumulation in the hydrolysis process of wheat straw was investigated in the study. Using dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst, the kinetic experiments were performed in a temperature range of 190-230℃ and an acid concentration range of 1%-5% (by mass). A simple model of first-order series reactions was developed, which provided a satisfactory interpretation of the experimental results. The kinetics of main intermediates including sugar and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were also established. The kinetic parameters provided useful information for understanding the hydrolysis process.

  4. Effect of Straw Fiber Modification on Properties for Wheat Straw Fiber/PBS Composite%纤维改性对小麦秸秆纤维/PBS复合材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强琪; 张敏; 徐丹; 何文清; 宋吉青

    2013-01-01

    利用NaOH对小麦秸秆纤维进行处理,同时采用了不同的蒸煮助剂和改性剂,以改变纤维自身物理性能及其表面化学性质.将改性纤维与聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)共混,制备了秸秆纤维/PBS复合材料,并通过X射线能谱仪(EDS)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对改性前后的纤维进行了分析和观测,研究分析了助剂和改性剂对复合材料性能的影响.结果表明:秸秆纤维经NaOH/4%Na2SO3处理,以及碱处理纤维经钛酸酯偶联剂NDZ201、环氧树脂E44改性,所得纤维增强复合材料的性能较为优异.%Wheat straw fiber was treated with NaOH, meanwhile different additives and modifiers were used to alter the physical properties and surface chemical properties of wheat straw fiber, and the composites were prepared through the blending between the fibers and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS). Through analysis and observation of modified fibers by energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the effects of type and addition for additives and modifies on the properties of straw fiber and the straw fiber/PBS composites were studied. The results show that the property of the composite is better when the raw fiber is treated by NaOH/4%Na2SO3, and the NaOH treated fiber is modified by NOZ201 or E44.

  5. 小麦秸秆含水率测量仪的设计与试验%Design and experiment on wheat straw moisture content meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文川; 刘驰; 杨军

    2013-01-01

    Faced with the worldwide shortage of forest resources, industry is showing increasing interest in using straw. Moisture content is listed as a main criterion in wheat straw consuming market. Not only since the unit price is based on weight, but also because moisture content is an important factor which affect straw products’ quality. Wheat straw is a main kind of straws all over the world. In order to detect moisture content of wheat straw conveniently, rapidly and precisely, a moisture content meter was designed with AT89S52 single-chip microcomputer as controller, parallel plate, DS18B20 and FSR402 as capacitance sensor, digital temperature sensor and pressure sensor to detect capacitance, temperature and bulk density of wheat straw, respectively. Liquid crystal display was adopted to show the obtained data. The meter’s accuracy on measuring capacitance, temperature and bulk density was tested. “Xinong 979”winter wheat straw was used as sample to study the influence of moisture content on output capacitance. The tests were set at five levels (10.6%, 13.6%, 15.6%, 17.3% and 19.6% in wet basis), temperature range from 5℃ to 35℃ with 5℃ interval, and three bulk density levels (generally from 77.2 kg/m3 to 103.6 kg/m3). The model describing capacitance and main factors was regressed. Newton iteration method was applied to program for predicting moisture content from obtained data. The model’s feasibility in predicting moisture content from 10%-20% at 5-35℃ was verified. The results indicated that the output voltages of designed circuits for sensing capacitance and pressure had good linear relationship with real capacitance and pressure values, with coefficients of determination higher than 0.996. The absolute temperature error was ±0.2℃. Over the investigated ranges of moisture content, temperature and bulk density, the obtained capacitance value increased with increasing moisture content, temperature and bulk density. The relationship between

  6. Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery, high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-07-01

    A pilot plant (IBUS) consisting of three reactors was used for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw (120-150 kg/h) aiming at co-production of bioethanol (from sugars) and electricity (from lignin). The first reactor step was pre-soaking at 80 degrees C, the second extraction of hemicellulose at 170-180 degrees C and the third improvement of the enzymatic cellulose convertibility at 195 degrees C. Water added to the third reactor passed countercurrent to straw. The highest water addition (600 kg/h) gave the highest hemicellulose recovery (83%). With no water addition xylose degradation occurred resulting in low hemicellulose recovery (33%) but also in high glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis (72 g/100g glucose in straw). Under these conditions most of the lignin was retained in the fibre fraction, which resulted in a lignin rich residue with high combustion energy (up to 31 MJ/kg) after enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose. PMID:17936621

  7. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  8. Kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw including a novel strategy of estimation of endogenous decay and yield coefficients using numerical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw has not been widely reported in the literature. Since endogenous decay and yield coefficients are two basic parameters for the design of anaerobic digesters, they are currently estimated only by continues experiments. In this study, numerical integration was employed to develop a novel strategy to estimate endogenous decay and yield coefficients using initial and final liquid data combined with methane volumes produced over time in batch experiments. To verify this method, the kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different TS and VS levels was investigated, with the corresponding endogenous decay and (non-observed) yield coefficients in the exponential periods determined to be between 0.74 × 10(-3) and 6.1 × 10(-3) d(-1), and between 0.0259 and 0.108 g VSS (g VS)(-1), respectively. A general Gompertz model developed early for bio-product could be used to simulate the methane volume profile in the co-digestion. The same model parameters obtained from the methane model combined with the corresponding yield coefficients could also be used to describe the VSS generation and VS destruction. PMID:27234662

  9. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  10. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  11. Effect of microbial spraying on wheat and rice straw returning to ditch%微生物菌喷施对集沟还田稻麦秸秆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志超; 刘玉涛; 丁为民; 陈玉仑; 秦宽

    2015-01-01

    在稻麦轮作、秸秆集沟还田模式下,针对沟内秸秆因腐解过慢而妨碍下茬作物正常生长的问题,利用微生物复合菌对秸秆的催腐特性,采用已研制的稻麦联合收获开沟埋草多功能一体机的喷施功能,对沟内秸秆进行喷菌使其快速腐解还田。为考察菌剂对秸秆的腐解效果,设计了裂区对比试验。试验结果表明:观察期内,夏季麦秸秆在液体菌剂+覆土处理下腐解率达74.60%,远高于对照组(不施菌剂+覆土)的12.80%,也高于未覆土+液体菌剂处理的44.11%,表明适宜的菌剂对麦秸秆有较好的促腐效果;冬季稻秸秆在各菌剂处理下秸秆的腐解率均不超过30%,且与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05)。粉末状菌剂的各处理腐解率均在25%以下,促腐效果不明显,表明粉剂在该模式下适用性有限。该研究为集沟还田的秸秆进一步处理提供了参考。%China is an important agricultural country with an annual crop straw production of nearly 700 million tons, which represents a substantially large number of straw resources that can be utilized. The wheat-rice rotation cropping system in the Yangtze River delta area is always accompanied by high yield;however, the existing conventional method of straw returning would not completely solve the problems caused by the produced straw with large quantity and short processing time. Alternatively, the new method of returning straw into a ditch is also widely used under the practice of conservation farming with no tillage and direct seeding cultivation. This method not only achieves a fully returning of straw, but also is helpful to the multi-purpose ditch use and enhances soil carbon sequestration. However, long-term practice has shown that under the natural state, straws in the ditch will not decay rapidly, and therefore will not be able to be transferred into organic fertilizer in a timely manner for adsorption by the crops

  12. Study of structural characterization of sulfomethylated wheat straw lignin%麦草碱木质素磺甲基化反应及性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文学; 邱学青; 欧阳新平; 杨东杰

    2007-01-01

    针对麦草碱木质素水溶性差、分子质量低、难以工业利用的问题,采用Fenton试剂为氧化剂,以亚硫酸钠为磺化剂对麦草浆碱木质素进行氧化再进行磺甲基化反应,得到质量分数为33%(Wt)的氧化磺甲基化碱木质素的溶液.红外光谱(FTIR)测试表明产物中具有磺酸基的特征吸收峰.利用凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)测得其重均分子质量达到6653 g·mol-1.通过紫外吸收光谱(UV)测得其最大吸收波长在276 nm处.通过碱木质素磺化反应前后的核磁共振(13CNMR)测得磺甲基接入碱木质素中芳环的C-5位.当溶液质量浓度为30 g·L-1时,溶液表面张力为45.3 mN·m-1.%It is hard to utilize the wheat straw grass lignin as resource due to its in solubility in neutral aqueous and low molecular weight. In order to promote the utilization of it, sulfomethylation of wheat straw grass lignin is studied using Fenton reagent as oxidation reagent, sodium sulfite anhydrous and formaldehyde as sulfomethylation agent. The characterization of oxided and sulfometylated wheat straw grass lignin (OSWSL) is determined using FTIR, GPC,13C-NMR and UV. The results show that the average molecular weight of OSWSL (-Mw) is 6653 g·mol-1 which is greater than that of wheat strew lignin of 2828g·mol-1. 13C-NMR spectrum exhibits that the position of sulfomethylation reaction is C-5 in Guaiacyl suit, and the maximum absorption peak of UV is at 276 nm. When the solution concentration of OSWSL is 30 g·L-1, the surface tension is 45.3 mN·m-1.

  13. 不同表面处理麦秸秆对木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effects of different surface treatment for wheat straw on performances of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于旻; 何春霞; 刘军军; 侯人鸾; 薛娇

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of wheat straw fibers and polypropylene (PP), the wheat straw fibers were treated by combined treatment. The surfaces of fibers were pretreated by 5 methods, such as NaOH, acetic acid, hot water, steam explosion and microwave, and then compounded by coupling agent treatment. The wheat straw/PP wood-plastic composites were prepared by blending with PP and wheat straw through melt blending and molding. The mechanical properties, water absorption and moisture absorption performance of the PP wood-plastic composites filled with different surface treated wheat straw fibers were investigated. The tensile sections of the composites were observed by the stereo microscope. The results showed that the mechanical properties, water absorption and moisture absorption performance of PP composites filled with combined treated fibers were excellent that the composites filled with coupling agent treated fibers. It was found that the composites with wheat straw treated by NaOH and acetic acid had good mechanical properties and anti-water absorption and anti-moisture absorption performance, followed by the composites with wheat straw fibers treated by hydrothermal and steam explosion. After combined treatment, the surface of wheat straw became rough, so that the interfacial adhesion of straw fibers and PP matrix was improved. The results of this paper had great practical significance on improving the properties of wheat straw/waste PP wood-plastic composite by straw fiber surface treatment.%为提高麦秸秆纤维与聚丙烯(polypropylene,PP)基体的界面结合力,采用复合处理法对麦秸秆纤维进行表面处理:先分别用NaOH、乙酸溶液浸泡、水热处理、蒸汽爆破和微波等方法对麦秸秆纤维进行预处理,再复合偶联剂法处理麦秸秆纤维;用熔融共混、模压成型方法制备麦秸秆/废弃PP木塑复合材料,探讨了麦秸秆不同表面处理方法制备PP木塑复合材料

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw under pretreatment by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction%碱-离子液体预处理对麦草秸秆酶水解糖化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿秀娟; 夏新兴; 巩海永

    2015-01-01

    将离子液体[BMIM]Cl应用于麦草秸秆预处理,并结合碱(NaOH)处理工艺,探讨不同预处理方法对麦草酶水解糖化的影响。研究发现,130℃时,离子液体溶解3g未经碱处理的麦草秸秆所用时间为15h;而溶解4g碱处理后的麦草秸秆所需时间仅为10h,溶解时间大大缩短。麦草在不经过碱处理情况下,在离子液体中15h,其溶解度为4.50%;麦草在经过碱处理情况下,在离子液体中10h,其溶解度为6.01%。由酶水解实验可知,不同预处理方法对酶水解率影响很大,单独碱处理的麦草秸秆的酶水解率为70.7%,而经碱和离子液体联合处理的试样的酶水解率达到95.3%,后者的酶水解率远大于前者,而直接经离子液体处理的麦草后续的酶水解率最低,仅为26.9%。这说明碱处理过程具有脱除部分木质素、降低结晶度和提高纤维比表面积的作用,从而使麦草后续酶水解率提高。%Combining with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) and alkali on pretreatment of wheat straw, the effect of different pretreatment process on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was studied. The results show that when 3 gram of primary wheat straw without alkali treatment is dissolved at 130℃ in [BMIM]Cl, the processing time is 15h; when 4 gram of wheat straw pretreated with alkali is dissolved in [BMIM]Cl, the processing time is 10h only, with the dissolution time greatly reduced. Solubility of primary wheat straw without alkali treatment is 4.50% in ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl after 15 hours; solubility of wheat straw pretreated with alkali is 6.01% after 10h. The experiment for enzymatic hydrolysis shows that different pretreatment process has a great effect on enzymatic hydrolysis rate, the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of wheat straw pretreated with alkali alone being 70.7%, while the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of wheat straw pretreated by alkali extraction and ionic

  15. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  16. Studying the ability of Fusarium oxysporum and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently cooperate in decomposition and ethanolic fermentation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Topakas, Evangelos; Moukouli, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    by the addition of commercially available enzymes Celluclast® 1.5 L FG and Novozym® 188 in 3:1 ratio for the treatment of PWS, resulted in a 3-fold increase in the volumetric ethanol productivity without increasing the ethanol production significantly. By direct bioconversion of 110 kg m−3 dry matter......Fusarium oxysporum F3 alone or in mixed culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 were used to ferment carbohydrates of wet exploded pre-treated wheat straw (PWS) directly to ethanol. Both microorganisms were first grown aerobically to produce cell mass and thereafter fermented PWS to ethanol under...... of PWS, ethanol concentration (4.9 kg m−3) and yield (40 g kg−1 of PWS) were similarly obtained by F. oxysporum and the mixed culture, while productivity rates as high as 34 g m−3 h−1 and 108 g m−3 h−1 were obtained by F. oxysporum and the mixed culture, respectively....

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VSadd) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  18. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Ed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52% in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (inorganic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane, whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion, yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per

  19. Research on Preparation and Properties of PP/Wheat Straw/Kaolin Composites%聚丙烯/小麦秸秆/高岭土复合材料的制备及力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓慧; 侯桂香; 周立朋; 孙立婧; 林雅平; 曹阳

    2012-01-01

    采用熔融共混法,制备了聚丙烯/小麦秸秆/高岭十三元复合材料.并对复合材料的结构和力学性能进行了表征.结果表明:小麦秸秆和高岭土的加入使得复合材料的冲击性能提高,小麦秸秆质量分数为4%,高岭土质量分数为5%的复合材料的冲击强度,比聚丙烯/高岭土体系提高16.3%,比聚丙烯/麦秆体系提高28.5%;但复合材料的拉伸强度下降.微观分析表明:小麦秸秆和高岭土在复合材料中分散良好,增加了聚丙烯基体的界面效应;复合材料断面有微裂纹产生,高岭土的加入增加了小麦秸秆和聚丙烯的相容性.%In this paper, polypropylene/wheat straw/kaolin ternary composites were prepared through the melt blending method. The properties and the structure of the composites were studied. The results indicated that the impact performance of composites was improved. Compared with the PP/kaolin, the impact strength was improved by 16. 3% , and compared with the PP/wheat straw, improved by 28. 6% , when the weight percentage content of the wheat straw was 4% and kaolin was 5%. But tensile strength was decreased with the addition of the wheat straw and kaolin. Micro-analysis showed that wheat straw and kaolin dispersed homogeneously in the composites, and increased the interface effect of the composite materials system, the cross section displayed the distribution of microcrack structure. Compatibility between polypropylene and wheat straw was enhanced with the added of kaolin.

  20. Toxic action of aqueous wheat straw extract on horse e purslane Ação tóxica do extrato aquoso da palha de trigo sobre beldroega cavalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khaliq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic action of aqueous wheat (Triticum aestivum straw extracts was investigated on germination, early seedling growth, some biochemical attributes and the antioxidant enzymes of horse purslane (Trianthemaportulacastrum. Aqueous extracts of wheat straw were prepared by soaking the wheat straw in distilled water in 1:10 w/v ratio and diluted to obtain the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. These were used as pre and post emergence in laboratory and screen house trials. Wheat aqueous extracts exhibited phytotoxicity to horse purslane by inhibiting and delaying its germination and suppressing seedling growth. Wheat phytotoxins in its aqueous extracts suppressed the chlorophyll content and soluble protein, and enhanced soluble phenolics and the activity of antioxidant enzymes as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the seedlings of horse purslane compared with the control. Such inhibitory activity is believed to originate from exposure to wheat phytotoxins that are present in its aqueous straw extract. The suppressive effects of wheat straw need to be investigated further under field conditions.A ação tóxica de extratos aquosos da palha de trigo (Triticum aestivum foi investigada na germinação, no crescimento inicial da plántula, em alguns atributos bioquímicos e nas enzimas antioxidantes de beldroegas-cavalo (Thianthema portulacastrum. Extratos aquosos de palha de trigo foram preparados pela imersão deste em água destilada na proporção de 01:10 m/v e diluidos para obtenção de cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. Estes foram usados como pré e pós-emergência em ensaios de laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os extratos aquosos de trigo exibiram toxicidade às beldroegas-cavalo, inibindo e retardando a sua germinação e suprimindo o crescimento das plántulas. Toxinas no extrato aquoso de trigo suprimiram o teor de clorofila e proteína solúvel, aumentaram os fenóis solúveis e a atividade de enzimas

  1. Analysis of bed agglomeration during gasification of wheat straw in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using mullite as bed material

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Bhaird, Seán T.; Walsh, Eilín; Hemmingway, Phil; McDonnell, Kevin; et al.

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and composition of the ash content of straw poses technical challenges to its thermal conversion and have been widely reported to cause severe ash sintering and bed agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification. Literature indicates that a combination of reactor design and bed material measures is required to avoid defluidisation at temperatures above 800 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy this study investigated the initial agglomer...

  2. 碳酸钠预处理对麦草酶水解糖化的影响%Effect of Sodium Carbonate Cooking on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 张帅; 金永灿; 张厚民; Hasan Jameel; Richard Phillips; 李忠正

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an important renewable lignocellulosic biomass,which is of great potential for bioethanol production.In this paper,sodium carbonate(SC) was used as pretreatment to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.The effects of impregnation time,time at temperature,and Na2CO3 charge on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw were investigated.Extension of time at temperature has little effect on delignification,but lowers the pulp yield and total sugar recovery in enzymatic hydrolysis.An impregnation time of 30 min results relatively high sugar retention and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency.Sodium carbonate charge plays an important role on improving lignin removal of wheat straw,and most carbohydrate retains.After wheat straw pretreated by sodium carbonate with 8% Na2CO3(as Na2O) at 130℃,the sugar recovery is 60% at a cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g cellulose.The results show that sodium carbonate pretreatment is a promising way to improve the enzymatic saccharification of straw materials.%麦草是一种具有很大潜力的制取生物乙醇的可再生木质纤维素原料。文章探讨了碳酸钠预处理预浸时间、保温时间、碳酸钠用量对麦草化学成分及酶水解效率的影响。结果表明,延长碳酸钠预处理保温时间对木质素脱除无明显影响,但浆料得率和酶水解总糖转化率有所下降;合理的预浸时间为30 min,继续延长预浸时间对预处理浆料酶水解总糖转化率无促进作用;增加预处理Na2CO3用量有助于促进木质素的脱除,大部分碳水化合物保留在浆料中。在8% Na2CO3(Na2O计)用量下,麦草于80℃预浸30 min后升温至130℃,不保温所得到的浆料在纤维素酶用量为20 FPU/g(对纤维素)时,其总糖转化率为60%。

  3. Development of Sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia on soybean, corn, and wheat straw, under different soil temperatures and moisture contents Desenvolvimento de escleródios de Sclerotium rolfsii em palhas de soja, milho e trigo, sob diferentes temperaturas e umidades do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Victor dos Reis Pinheiro; Claudine Dinali Santos Seixas; Cláudia Vieira Godoy; Rafael Moreira Soares; Maria Cristina Neves Oliveira; Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of moisture and temperature on the development of Sclerotium rolfsii on soybean, corn, and wheat straw. Wheat straw produced the lowest number of sclerotia. Intermediate soil moisture level (70% of field capacity), and temperatures ranging between 25-30ºC favored sclerotia development. No sclerotia were formed at temperatures between 30-35ºC, on any type of straw.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da umidade e da temperatura do...

  4. Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Wheat Fields with Different Returning Methods of Maize Straws%玉米秸秆不同还田方式下麦田温室气体排放特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 朱振林; 董红云; 杨丽萍; 郭洪海

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different returning methods of maize straw on the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields, we explored the greenhouse gas CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from the wheat fields using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique from December 2013 to May 2014 . The experiments set four treatments including no maize straw returning(CK), direct maize straw returning directly(CS), maize straw-rumen-cattle dung returning(CGS)and maize straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS), and the four treatments were investigated under the same watering and fertilizing conditions. The results showed that the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields all had distinct seasonal variations and the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gas emissions were different. During the maize growing season, the cumulative emissions of both CO2 and N2O were emitted and in the order of CK>CGS>CS>CMS while the cumulative absorptions of CH4 were in the order of CS>CGS>CK>CMS with the significant difference between different treatments(PCGS>CK>CMS under the different returning methods of maize straw, which indicated that direct straw returning could significantly increase the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field, followed by CGS while the straw-mushroom residue returning (CMS)could decrease the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field. The method of straw-mushroom residue returning should be recommended from the viewpoint of reducing GWP of the greenhouse gas. In all, our study could provide the scientific foundation for the efficiency straw recycle and reducing greenhouse gas emission.%为了探讨玉米秸秆不同还田方式对麦田温室气体排放的影响,通过田间试验,设玉米秸秆不还田(CK)、玉米秸秆直接还田(CS)、玉米秸秆过腹还田(CGS)和玉米秸秆转化为食用菌基质,出菇后菌渣还田(CMS)4个处理,利用静态箱-气相色谱法测定了

  5. 玉米秸秆不同还田方式下麦田温室气体排放特征%Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Wheat Fields with Different Returning Methods of Maize Straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 朱振林; 董红云; 杨丽萍; 郭洪海

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨玉米秸秆不同还田方式对麦田温室气体排放的影响,通过田间试验,设玉米秸秆不还田(CK)、玉米秸秆直接还田(CS)、玉米秸秆过腹还田(CGS)和玉米秸秆转化为食用菌基质,出菇后菌渣还田(CMS)4个处理,利用静态箱-气相色谱法测定了玉米秸秆不同还田方式下,麦田温室气体(CO2、N2O和CH4)的排放特征。结果表明:玉米秸秆不同还田方式下,麦田温室气体通量均具有明显的季节变化,且排放量不同。在小麦生长季,CO2和N2O均表现为排放,其排放量为CK>CGS>CS>CMS;甲烷表现为吸收,其吸收量为CS>CGS>CK>CMS,且不同处理间差异显著(PCGS>CK>CMS,也就是说秸秆直接还田,显著增加麦田温室气体的全球增温潜势,其次是玉米秸秆过腹还田方式,而秸秆-菌渣还田则降低了麦田温室气体的全球增温潜势。从减少温室气体排放角度,推荐秸秆-菌渣还田方式。该研究结果可为秸秆合理利用和温室气体减排提供基础数据。%In order to investigate the effect of different returning methods of maize straw on the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields, we explored the greenhouse gas CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from the wheat fields using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique from December 2013 to May 2014 . The experiments set four treatments including no maize straw returning(CK), direct maize straw returning directly(CS), maize straw-rumen-cattle dung returning(CGS)and maize straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS), and the four treatments were investigated under the same watering and fertilizing conditions. The results showed that the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields all had distinct seasonal variations and the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gas emissions were different. During the maize growing season, the cumulative emissions of both CO2 and N2O were emitted and in the order of CK

  6. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw Pretreated by Green Liquor%绿液预处理麦秆纤维素酶水解的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士明; 陆青山; 储秋露; 余世袁

    2012-01-01

    研究了绿液预处理对麦秆酶水解的影响.比较了不同绿液预处理条件下麦秆的浆得率、成分组成与纤维素酶解率,结果表明,预处理条件越剧烈,原料损失越大,而木质素脱除率越高,且在相同酶水解条件下,纤维素酶解率却越高,其中适宜的条件是预处理温度150℃,总碱量8%(Na2O计,对绝干原料)和硫化度40%,浆得率62.0%,葡聚糖、木聚糖和木质素质量分数50.0%、18.9%和16.2%,葡萄糖和木糖得率分别为74.2%和73.5%.考察了质量浓度和酶用量对绿液预处理麦秆酶水解的影响,优化了商品纤维素酶酶系结构和Tween-80的添加量,表明绿液预处理麦秆纤维素酶水解的适宜条件为质量浓度100 g/L,纤维素酶用量15 FPU/g(以纤维素计,下同),β-葡萄糖苷酶9 IU/g,木聚糖酶30 IU/g,Tween-800.05 g/g.在以上条件下,酶水解72 h,葡萄糖得率和木糖得率分别达到了82.5%和77.8%,是优化前的2.6和1.6倍.%The wheat straw pretreated by green liquor was hydrolyzed under the exist of enzymes. The pulp yield,chemical com-position and enzymatic hydrolysis yield under different green liquor pretreatment conditions were studied. The results indicated that the pulp with higher weight loss and delignification were obtained as more severe condition was applied in pretreatment,and the enzymatic hydrolysis yield was higher in the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. The proper pretreatment was conducted at 150℃; as the total alkali charge and sulfidity were 8 % and 40 % while pulp yield was 62.0 % ,the content of glucan,xylan and lignin was 50.0 % ,18.9 % and 16.2%,glucose yield and xylose yield was 74.2 % and 73.5% ,repectively. The effects of mass concentration and enzyme dosage on wheat straw pretratment by green liquor were investigated. The enzyme system and addition amount of Tween-80 were optimized. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of wheat straw by green liquor were 100 g/L mass

  7. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Petersen, Mai; Larsen, Jan; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat s...

  8. 模压压力和温度对PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料的影响%Effects of Molding Pressure and Temperature of PE/Wheat Straw Foam Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常萧楠; 何春霞; 付菁菁; 熊静; 刘丁宁

    2015-01-01

    为探讨模压压力和温度对聚乙烯(PE)/麦秸秆发泡复合材料微观结构和性能的影响,以偶氮二甲酰胺(AC)为发泡剂模压制备PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料,对比研究模压压力和温度对PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料热导率、表观密度和吸水性能的影响,用体视显微镜观察材料的断面微观形貌,用傅立叶变换红外光谱分析探讨复合材料的化学结构.结果表明,当模压压力为10 MPa,模压温度为150℃时,PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料内部泡孔结构均匀,热导率、表观密度和吸水率较小,麦秸秆和PE的界面结合较好,材料较致密.%Azodicarbonamide(AC) was adopted as a foaming agent to prepare polyethylene(PE)/wheat straw foam composite by compression molding process to investigate the effects of molding pressure and temperature on the microstructure and properties of PE/wheat straw foam composite. In order to compare the effects of molding pressure and temperature on the thermal conductivity,apparent density and water absorption capabilityof the foam composites,stereomicroscope was used to observe the section microstructure of material,FTIR was used to characterize the chemical structure of materials. The results indicate that when the molding pressure and temperature are 10 MPa and 150℃respectively, the foam structure inside the PE/wheat straw foam com-posite is uniform, the thermal conductivity, apparent density and water absorption of PE/wheat straw foam composite are lower, wheat straw and PE have better interfacial adhesion so that the material has dense structure.

  9. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover. PMID:25818260

  10. Fertilization of Watermelon Grown with Wheat Straw Substrate in Passive Plastic Greenhouse%大棚西瓜秸秆基质栽培施肥量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁培祥

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization was studied using watermelon "Xiuli' grown in wheat straw substrate in passive plastic greenhouse. The tests included 5 levels of chicken manure + ammonium phosphate. The measurements included plant growth, yield and fruit quality. With the levels tested in this experiment yield was increased with the increase of fertilizer amount, the best treatment was 30 kg chicken manure + 1.5 kg ammonium phosphate per plot(19.87 m2).%以西瓜品种秀丽为试材,在大棚中采用秸秆基质栽培,腐熟鸡粪+磷酸二铵作为施肥配方,分析比较了5种施肥量对西瓜生长发育、产量及品质的影响,结果表明,在一定施肥量的范围内,产量随施肥量的增加而增加,综合所有因素,最佳施肥配方为每小区腐熟鸡粪30 kg+磷酸二铵1.5 kg.

  11. In vitro evaluation of salinomycin addition in wheat straw based total mixed diets on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and dry matter degradability in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Sirohi

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of salinomycin in vitro on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Materials and Methods: Different levels of (0,10, 15 and 20 ppm salinomycin were checked for their effect on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation on three wheat straw based diets i.e. low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of salinomycin was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results: Results of different levels of salinomycin on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (38.14% in term of mM/gDM was noticed in HFD at 20 ppm level. IVDMD showing increasing trend with an increasing concentration of salinomycin with HFD and LFD, while shown decreasing trend with MFD respectively. Protozoal population significantly decreased by addition of salinomycin in all diets. Conclusion: The results of salinomycin evaluation in the current study can be implicated to mitigate the methane production, thus saving the feed energy loss and the accumulation of green house gases in environment. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 609-613

  12. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

  13. A start-up of psychrophilic anaerobic sequence batch reactor digesting a 35 % total solids feed of dairy manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-12-01

    Zero liquid discharge is currently an objective in livestock manure management to minimize water pollution. This paper reports the start-up phase of a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure with bedding fed at 35 % total solids and an organic loading rate of 3.0 g total chemical oxygen demand kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) in anaerobic sequence batch reactors. The specific methane (CH4) yield ranged from 165.4 ± 9.8 to 213.9 ± 13.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) with an overall average of 188 ± 17 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS during 11 successive start-up cycles (231 days) and a maximum CH4 production rate of 10.2 ± 0.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS day(-1). The inoculum-to-substrate (VS-based) ratio ranged from 4.06 to 4.47. Although methanogenesis proceeded fairly well the hydrolysis seemed to be the rate limiting step. It is possible start up psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces and wheat straw at feed TS of 35 % within 7-10 successive cycles (147-210 days). PMID:26289773

  14. Allelopathy of decomposed maize straw products on three soil-born diseases of wheat and the analysis by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yong-zhi; ZHEN Wen-chao; LI Hai-yan

    2015-01-01

    In northern China, the soil-born diseases of wheat have been getting more and more serious under a new farming system that returns maize straw to the ifeld. In order to investigate the alelopathy of the decomposed maize straw products on three soil-born diseases of wheat, culture dish and pot experiments were conducted and the compounds in the products were identiifed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Culture dish experiments showed that the mycelial growth, sclerotia formation amount and total weight ofRhizoctonia cerealiswere promoted at concentrations of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g mL–1 and inhibited at concentration of 0.48 g mL–1 of the decomposed products. No signiifcant effects were found of the product concentrations on average weight of the sclerotia. Mycelial growth ofGaeumannomyces graminis was promoted at almost al concentrations except the highest one. Mycelial growth and spore germination ofBipolaris sorokiniana were signiifcantly inhibited by al concentrations of the decomposed products, with enhanced inhibition effects along with the increased concentrations. The length, number and dry weight of roots together with the root superoxide dismutase activity were promoted by the lowest concentration (0.03 g mL–1), with a synthetic effect index of 0.012, and inhibited by other concentrations. The ion leakage of roots was increased and the root peroxidase activity of roots was lowered by al the treatments. Pot experiments revealed that occurrence of the sharp eyespot was reduced by 0.03 and 0.06 g mL–1 of decomposed products after irrigation. However, the incidence rates and disease indexes were signiifcantly increased by 0.12, 0.24 and 0.48 g mL–1 of decomposed products. The results indicated that incidence rates and disease indexes of the take-al were signiifcantly promoted after being irrigated with the decomposed products, while occurrences of the common rot didn’t change, signiifcantly. GC-MS results showed that the compounds of

  15. One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Zhong, Ruibo; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Wanrong; Yun, Xiaoling; Liu, Jingran; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Guofen; Zhang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The use of biomass as renewable and sustainable energy source has attracted the attention of politics and research and development (R&D) facilities around the world. Agricultural straw acts as a typical biowaste, which still needs highly effective recycling to save the biomass urgently at present. Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) are novel biocompatible nanomaterials that have been proved to be produced from many carbon-abundant materials and hold great promise for the modern nanobiomedicine. In order to realize a "one-stone-two-birds" strategy, we report a green, economic, one-pot method in this article for synthesizing photoluminescent C-dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we show that the as-prepared C-dots are amorphous in structure and are mainly composed of carbon. Their tiny size (<2 nm), combined with the characteristic excitation-dependent relatively bright emission, and robust photostability made the C-dots a potential biocompatible nanomaterial for bio-applications. We have experimentally demonstrated their potential applications in biomedical labeling, imaging, and sensing/detecting. The high yield (∼20%) of C-dots from wheat straw may suggest a new economic strategy for recycling biowaste.

  16. Effect of wheat and rice straw biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption and persistence in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of wheat and rice biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption in a sandy loam soil. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was poorly sorbed in the soil (3.5-8.6%) but biochar amendment increased the herbicide adsorption, and the effect varied with the nature of the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Biochars prepared at 600°C were more effective in adsorbing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl than biochars prepared at 400°C. Rice biochars were better than wheat biochars, and higher herbicide adsorption was attributed to the biochar surface area/porosity. The Freundlich constant 1/n suggested nonlinear isotherms, and nonlinearlity increased with increase in the level of biochar amendment. Desorption results suggested sorption of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was partially irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with increase in the level of biochar. Both sorption and desorption of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl correlated well with the content of biochars. The free energy change (ΔG) indicated that the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption process was exothermic, spontaneous and physical in nature. Persistence studies indicated that biochar (0.5%) amendment did not have significant effect on herbicide degradation, and its half-life values in the control, 0.5% WBC600- and RBC600-amended rice planted soils were 7, 8.6, and 10.4 days, respectively. PMID:25996810

  17. Effect of Straw Returned on Wheat-corn Yield and Fluctuation of Water Use Efficiency%秸秆还田对小麦-玉米产量及上下茬水分利用效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯大山; 孙明清; 林献策; 李月华; 张建; 田红卫; 李娟茹; 冯立辉; 何建兴; 李建波; 丁月芬

    2015-01-01

    This study through three years of experiments, such as field yield, water balance method to study the effect of straw returned on the yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat and summer corn. The results showed that straw returned could reduce the number of spikes per unit area and the number of grains per spike of wheat and the number of spikes per unit area of corn,increase 1 000 grain weight of wheat and grain number per spike and 1 000 grain weight of corn. Wheat corn annual yield of straw returned increased by 1.1%,the field of wheat lost 3.3% and that of corn raised 4.8%. Soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer of straw returned at different periods was higher,the increasing of soil water stor-age from wheat harvest to maize seeding was obvious,the increasing rate was up to 4.6%.Straw returning treatment is beneficial to reduce crop water consumption in wheat and maize season, improve the annual water use efficiency,but is not conducive to the improvement of water use efficiency in wheat season.%通过3a定位试验,采用实地测产、水分平衡等方法,研究了秸秆还田对冬小麦和夏玉米产量与产量性状,以及土壤储水量、作物耗水量和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:秸秆还田可降低小麦单位面积穗数、穗粒数以及玉米单位面积穗数,增加小麦千粒重以及玉米穗粒数和千粒重;秸秆还田处理的小麦-玉米周年产量较秸秆不还田处理增加1.1%,其中,小麦季减产3.3%,玉米季增产4.8%;秸秆还田处理的小麦季和玉米季各时期0~200 cm土体储水量均跃秸秆不还田处理,其中,小麦收获期至玉米播种期土壤储水量增加明显,增幅为4.6%;秸秆还田处理有利于减少小麦季和玉米季的作物耗水量,提高周年水分利用效率,但不利于小麦季作物水分利用率的提高。

  18. Study of properties and the preparation of composite of wheat straw and HDPE/PP%麦秸粉与HDPE/PP基复合材料的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆哲; 许民

    2014-01-01

    本文采用麦秸粉为增强体,分别与高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)、聚丙烯(PP)热塑性塑料基体采用挤出方式混合制备木塑复合材料,研究麦秸粉与HDPE、PP的配比对复合材料性能的影响。利用高速混合机在一定条件下对麦秸粉、热塑性塑料和其他助剂进行混合,利用双螺杆挤出机熔融造粒,单螺杆挤出机挤出成型,对制备的麦秸粉/塑料复合材料进行物理力学性能测试。结果表明:加入少量麦秸粉使木塑复合材料力学性能降低,随着麦秸粉含量的增加,复合材料的力学性能呈提高的趋势;当麦秸粉含量超过一定比例时,木塑复合材料力学性能降低,且冲击性能降低明显;本次试验HDPE基木塑复合材料力学强度略高于PP基木塑复合材料。%The paper is mixing the raw materials of wheat straw as enhanceosome and high-density polyethylene/pohyprpylene (HDPE/PP) of thermoplastic to produced wood-plastic com-posite by adopting extrusion way and researching effect about the content of HDPE and PP on the properties of composite. Under a certain conditions,the high-speed mixer mixed the com-pound of wheat straw powder and thermoplastics and other auxiliaries,and then the compound were melting prilling by twin-screw extruder followed and molding by the single screw extrud-er. The mechanical properties of composite of wheat straw and thermoplastic were measured . The results indicated that adding a small amount of wheat straw powder caused the reduction of mechanical properties of wood plastic composite,the mechanical properties of wood plastic composite increased with increasing wheat straw powder content,mechanical properties de-creased when the content of wheat straw was more than a certain percentage,especially,the impact property decreased obviously;the test indicated that the mechanical properties of HDPE were higher than PP.

  19. Modification in the properties of paper by using cellulase-free xylanase produced from alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-09-01

    Alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 isolated from mushroom compost is an actinomycete that produces industrially important and environmentally safer thermostable cellulase-free xylanase, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as an alternative to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds. Strain CKMX1 was previously characterized by metabolic fingerprinting, whole-cell fatty acids methyl ester analysis, and 16S rDNA and was found to be C. cellulans CKMX1. Crude enzyme (1027.65 U/g DBP) produced by C. cellulans CKMX1, having pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively, in solid state fermentation of apple pomace, was used in the production of bleached wheat straw pulp. Pretreatment with xylanase at a dose of 5 U/g after pulping decreased pulp kappa points by 1.4 as compared with the control. Prebleaching with a xylanase dose of 5 U/g pulp reduced the chlorine charge by 12.5%, increased the final brightness points by approximately 1.42% ISO, and improved the pulp strength properties. Xylanase could be substituted for alkali extraction in C-Ep-D sequence and used for treating chemically bleached pulp, resulting in bleached pulp with higher strength properties. Modification of bleached pulp with 5 U of enzyme/g increased pulp whiteness and breaking length by 1.03% and 60 m, respectively; decreased tear factor of pulp by 7.29%; increased bulk weight by 3.99%, as compared with the original pulp. Reducing sugars and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compound values were considerably higher in xylanase-treated samples. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 has a potential application in the pulp and paper industries. PMID:26220821

  20. 麦秸秆加筋石灰土抗剪强度影响因素灰色关联度分析%Grey Correlation Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Shear Strength of Wheat Straw Reinforced Limestone Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 柴寿喜; 杜红普

    2011-01-01

    为增强石灰固化滨海盐渍土的强度、塑性和抗变形能力,进行了麦秸秆加筋辅助处理的试验。试验分析结果表明:①麦秸秆加筋作用主要提高土的粘聚力,对内摩擦角的影响很小。②适宜的麦秸秆加筋长度为20 mm,约为试样直径的1/3;适宜的加筋率为0.25%。③养护初期麦秸秆加筋作用较强,养护后期,土的强度提高主要依赖石灰的固化作用。④灰色关联度理论分析认为,对加筋土的粘聚力影响程度依次为固化作用、加筋率、加筋长度;对内摩擦角影响程度依次为固化作用、加筋长度、加筋率。固化作用是影响加筋土强度的主要指标。麦秸秆与石灰共同加筋%In order to increase the strength,plasticity and deformation resistance of lime-solidified costal saline soil,reinforcement test with wheat straw is carried out.The test results show that: ①wheat straw reinforcement is mainly to increase the cohesion of soil,with little influence on inner frictional angle.② The appropriate reinforcement length is 20 mm,about 1/3 of sample diameter and the appropriate reinforcement rate is 0.25%.③ In early stage of curing,wheat straw has stronger reinforcing effect;in the later period of curing,soil strength is mainly increased by solidification of lime.④ It is considered through grey correlation analysis that the effect degree on the cohesion of reinforced soil is as follows: solidification reinforcement rate reinforcement length,and that on the inner frictional angle is: solidification reinforcement length reinforcement rate.Solidification is the major influencing factor of reinforced soil strength.Wheat straw reinforcement and lime solidification broadened the treatment method of saline soil and enriched the categories of reinforcing material.

  1. 新型微波技术再生载甲苯活化秸秆炭%Regeneration of toluene using microwave heating method on wheat straw activated biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冒海燕; 周定国; Zaher Hashisho; 汪孙国; 陈恒; 王海燕

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw activated biochar prepared by the microwave heating was used as the ad- sorbent in this study, with generation rate above 99% a comparison of microwave and conductive heating methods on heating time, generation rate and energy consumption for the regeneration of toluene from wheat straw activated biochar was conducted. Experimental results show that the adsorption capacity is unchanged (33 %) compared with original wheat straw activated biochar for both microwave and conductive heating over 5 cycles. Microwave heating with constant power consumes the shortest heating time of 1 rain for toluene, while the time for microware heating with constant temperature and conductive heating is 10 min and 120 min respectively. The energy consumption of microwave heating with constant power of 600 W and constant temperature of 150 ℃ is only 4.5 kJ/g and 9.0 kJ/g respectively but 36 kJ/g for conductive heating method. The microwave heating method could be an energy-efficient, resourceful and efficient regeneration technique for wheat straw activated biochar. 4 tabs, 3 figs, 11 refs.%采用微波加热制备的活化秸秆炭作为吸附剂,通过微波法和电加热法对载甲苯活化秸秆炭进行再生。在确保再生率99%以上的前提下,测定了这两种方法的加热时间、再生效率和能耗等参数。结果表明:经过5次吸附-微波辐射再生之后,吸附量基本保持原有新鲜活化秸秆炭吸附量的为33%;恒功率微波加热法、恒温微波加热法和电加热法所需要的时间分别为1、10和120min;从能耗角度看,微波再生法恒功率(600W)和恒温(150℃)的能耗分别为4.5和9.0kJ/g,而电加热法的能耗则为36kJ/g。因此,微波再生法是一种节能、环保和高效的再生方法,为工业化应用奠定了基础数据。

  2. ENZYMATIC PRETREATMENT WITH XYLANASE FOR IMPROVING BLEACHABILITY AND BRIGHTNESS OF WHEAT STRAW CHEMOMECHANICAL PULP%木聚糖酶预处理对麦草化学机械浆可漂性及白度的改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪枫; 刘明山; 房桂干; 沈兆邦

    2001-01-01

    Xylanase from Trichoderma ressei Rut C-30 with corncob meal ascarbon source was prepared and improvement of bleachability and brightness of wheat straw CMP by xylanase pretreatment were investigated. The results indicated that the activity of xylanase was up to 38.34IU/mL with 18g/L(oven dry weight)corncob as the substrate. The xylanase treatment was beneficial to improving the bleachability of wheat straw CMP, enhancing hydrogen peroxide bleaching, increasing the brightness effectively and decreasing the consumption of bleaching agent. The research showed that 50% hydrogen peroxide was saved after enzymic pretreatment when wheat straw CMP was bleached to the same brightness with one-stage H2O2. Furthermore if wheat straw CMP was bleached with two-stage high consistence hydrogen peroxide after enzymatic pretreatment, namely XP3P3(total H2O2 6%)bleaching sequence, the brightness could be over 60%(ISO).%探讨了以玉米芯为碳源制备木聚糖酶及麦草化学机械浆经该木聚糖酶预处理后可漂性和白度的改善效果。结果表明,直接以玉米芯为底物、里氏木霉为菌种产酶效果较好,当底物浓度为18g/L时,木聚糖酶活力可达38.34IU/mL。木聚糖酶预处理有利于改善麦草化机浆的可漂性,促进其过氧化氢漂白,有效提高漂白浆白度,降低漂剂消耗。研究表明,当经单段H2O2漂至相同白度时,木聚糖酶预处理后可节约50%的H2O2用量。若麦草CMP酶处理后采用高浓两段过氧化氢漂白,即XP3P3漂序(H2O2总量为6%)时,白度可达60%(ISO)以上。

  3. Effects of maize straw with Bt gene return to field on growth of wheat seedlings%Bt玉米秸秆还田对小麦幼苗生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小文; 祁鑫; 王海永; 郭玉海; 董学会

    2012-01-01

    Fast popularization and widespread application of transgenic Bt corn have raised the issue of environmental safety. Despite considerable work in this field recently, no consensus on the effects of Bt corn on environmental safety has emerged, indicative of the complexity of this issue. Traditional study on environmental safety of transgenic crops often focused on the risks of weediness of genetic modified crop itself, gene flow, negative impact on useful insects or microbe in soil, while ignored the effect of transgenic crops on succeeding crops. Therefore, the major objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Bt corn straw incorporated into soil on growth of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum) seedlings. The chopped straw of transgenic Bt corn inbred (Bt-38) and non-Bt corn ( Zheng 58, the receptor of Bt-38) was mixed with nutrient soil and vermiculite (1:3:3) to be as the growth media for winter wheat ( cv. Duokang 1) , with the media without corn straw as the control. The results showed that the emergence rate, shoot height and root length of seedlings were decreased by com straw incorporated into media compared with the control. Similarly, com straw reduced biomass of wheat seedlings. For example, the fresh and dry weight of wheat seedlings grown in media added with com straw were only equal to 51%-65% and 62%-72% of those of control, respectively. The lower level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and higher level of abscisic acid ( ABA) in seedlings grown in media containing com straw compared with the control partly explained the differences related to morphology and biomass. The com straw added to media did not influence soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) , as well as malondialdehyde( MDA) , indicative of membrane damage, in wheat seedlings, however, increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD ), which was probably associated with more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in seedlings grown in media

  4. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  5. Degradation of /sup 14/C-labelled cyfluthrin in soil and incorporation of /sup 14/C in to humus fractions as affected by wheat straw amendment and moisture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An incubation experiment was conducted in the laboratory to study the effect of moisture and wheat straw amendment on the mineralization and transformation of phenyl-/sup 14/C cyfluthrin (active ingredient of Baythroid, an insecticide manufactured by Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) into different soil fractions. The treated soil was incubated at 40, 60 or 100% water holding capacity (WHC) moisture and with or without wheat straw amendment. After 18 weeks of incubation 44-58% of the cyfluthrin- /sup 14/C was lost from the soil as CO/sub 2/. Mineralization of cyflutrin was more rapid in unamended soil and lower moisture regime; the maximum being at 40% WHC. In unamended soil a higher proportion of the applied /sup 14/C was found in forms extractable with methanol (an efficient solvent of cyfluthrin). In amended soil, on the other hand, a greater proportion of the added /sup 14/C was found in bound forms i.e., fulvic acid, humic acid and humins. Transformation of cyfluthrin-/sup 14/C into stable humic compounds was more intense at lower moisture regimes. However, in all treatments, a higher proportion of bound residues extractable with alkali was present in fulvic acid fraction

  6. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  7. Nitrogen fixation associated with development and localization of mixed populations of Cellulomonas species and Azospirillium brasilense grown on cellulose or wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Goodchild, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas sp. and Azospirillum brasilense were grown with straw or cellulose as the carbon source under conditions favoring the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Rapid increases in cell numbers, up to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate, were evident after 4 and 5 days of incubation at 30 degrees C for cellulose and straw, respectively. Nitrogen fixation (detected by acetylene reduction measured on parallel cultures) commenced after 2 and 4 days of incubation for straw and cellulose, respectively, and continued for the duration of the experiment. Pure cultures of Cellulomonas sp. showed an increase in cell numbers, but CO/sub 2/ production was low, and acetylene reduction was not detected on either cellulose or straw. Pure cultures of A. brasilense on cellulose showed an inital increase in cell numbers (10/sup 7/ cells per g of substrate) over 4 days, followed by a decline presumably caused by the exhaustion of available carbon substrate. On straw, A. brasilense increased to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate over 5 days and then declined slowly; this growth was accompanied by acetylene reduction. Scanning electron micrographs of straw incubated with a mixture under the above conditions for 8 days showed cells of both species in close proximity to each other. Evidence was furnished that the close spatial relatioship of cells from the two species facilitated the mutally beneficial association between them and thus increased the efficiency with which the products of straw breakdown were used for nitrogen fixation. 17 references.

  8. Study on Optimal Conditions of Degradation of Wheat Straw by Cellulase and Analysis of Kinetics%纤维素酶降解小麦秸秆最适条件的研究及其动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田萍; 王浩菊; 马齐; 陈坤奇; 周婷

    2012-01-01

    以小麦秸秆为原料,通过正交实验对纤维素酶降解秸秆纤维的影响因素进行了研究.结果表明,影响小麦秸秆降解的因素依次为:酶量>酶解时间>料液比>反应温度,其最适条件是:加酶量为40 u/g,酶解时间为10h,反应温度为40℃,料液比为1∶3,总糖含量达到43.24%.以米氏方程为基础,建立起最适酶解条件下总纤维素降解的动力学模型.%The influence factors of degradation of straw fiber by cellulase were studied using wheat straw as the raw material through the orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the factors of influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw were successively: the amount of enzyme>the time of hydrolysis>the ratio of material and liquid> reaction temperature. The optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were that the amount of cellulase was 40 u/g, the time of hydrolysis was 10 h, the reaction temperature was 40 C and the ratio of material to liquid was 1:3. The total sugar contents could reach 43. 24%. Under the optimal conditions, the kinetics model of degradation of the total cellulose was established based on Michaelis-Menten equation.

  9. Evaluation on the Nutritive Value of Wheat Straw Silage Using Gas Production Technique in vitro%利用体外产气法评价微贮小麦秸秆营养价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宇哲; 吴克选; 张晓卫; 张艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to increase the utilization ratio of wheat straw in Qinghai Province. [ Method] Wheat straw was used as materials for silage. pH, the contents of crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) , ether extract (EE) and water in wheat straw at different silage time were determined. The effects of silage time on the quality of wheat straw were studied and its was evaluated by using gas production technique in vitro. [Result] pH in each test group gradually decreased with the silage time,which was all significantly lower than that in control group(P 0.05). Water content in test groups decreased with the silage time. With the silage time,net gas production gradually increased,dry matter degradability, organic matter degradability,digestible energy and metabolizable energy gradually increased. [Conclusion] Comprehensively considered,silaging wheat straw for 22 d could meet the production demands.%[目的]提高青海省小麦秸秆的利用率.[方法]采用小麦秸秆为原料进行微贮,测定不同微贮时间小麦秸秆的pH、粗蛋白(CP)、粗纤维(CF)、粗脂肪(EE)、水分(H2O)含量,研究微贮时间对小麦秸秆品质的影响,并利用体外产气技术对其进行评价.[结果]各试验组pH随微贮时间的增加逐渐减小,均极显著低于对照组(P<0.01).试验组CP随微贮时间的增加而升高,均高于对照组.试验组CF含量随微贮时间增加而降低,均极显著低于对照组(P<0.01).试验组EE含量随微贮时间呈逐渐递增的趋势,均高于对照组,但与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).试验组水分含量随微贮时间增加而降低.随微贮时间的增加,净产气量逐渐上升、干物质降解率(DM)和有机物质降解率(OMD)、消化能(DE)和代谢能(ME)逐渐升高.[结论]综合考虑,小麦秸秆微贮22 d即可满足生产需求.

  10. Greenhouse gas emission under the treatments of fertilization and wheat straw returning during the maize growing seasons%施肥及秸秆还田处理下玉米季温室气体的排放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴淑玮; 张圆圆; 刘俊锋; 牟玉静; 伦小秀

    2012-01-01

    以华北地区冬小麦-夏玉米轮作农田为研究对象,在玉米整个生长季,运用静态箱法针对正常施肥及正常施肥结合秸秆还田处理进行了为期3年N2O排放通量的连续观测,并开展了1季CO2和CH4交换通量的研究.在玉米整个生长过程中施肥阶段N2O的排放量占到了总排放量的83%—96%,表明现有化肥的使用明显导致了农田N2O排放增加.与控制地相比,施肥和耕种可导致玉米田CO2排放明显增加,且正常施肥及秸秆还田样地CO2排放主要集中在苗期至吐丝期.控制地、正常施肥样地及施肥结合秸秆还田样地CH4的累积排放量均为负值,说明旱地土壤是CH4的一个汇.秸秆还田在一定程度上增加了玉米季N2O和CO2的排放量,但对CH4的吸收有所抑制.正常施肥样地和秸秆还田样地全球净增温潜势分别为-1392.8 kg C.hm-2和-179.2 kg C.hm-2,表明华北农田在现有耕作方式下是大气温室气体的一种重要汇.%The exchange fluxes of greenhouse gases from a winter wheat-summer maize crop rotation farmland during maize growing seasons in the North China Plain were investigated by static chamber method in this study.N2O fluxes were measured from normal fertilization and wheat straw returning treatments during three consecutive maize growing seasons,and the fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were investigated during one maize growing season.The cumulative N2O emission during the fertilization period accounted for 83%—96% of the total emission from the normal fertilization and wheat straw returning plots during the three maize growing seasons,indicating that the current fertilization management greatly promoted N2O emission.Compared with the control plot,fertilizer application and cultivation evidently simulated CO2 emission,especially during the period from seeding stage to silking stage.The cumulative CH4 emission from the control,normal fertilization and wheat straw returning plots were all negative values

  11. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  12. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  13. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup;

    2016-01-01

    included five levels of initial soil C content (1–3% C), three levels of straw incorporation (0, 50 and 100%), +/− catch crop (oil radish) and two sowing dates (1 and 22 September). Exporting the entire straw production reduced soil C stocks by 1.2 to 14% after 100 years, depending on the initial C content...

  14. 小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵制取燃料乙醇%Optimization of Processing Conditions for Bioethanol Production from Wheat Straw Through Simultaneously Saccharification and Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李文; 赵继东; 林燕; 彭兆城; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    利用酿酒酵母Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742对小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵(simultaneously saccharification and fermentation,SSF)生产燃料乙醇的条件进行了研究,系统考察和研究了温度、固体含量、纤维素酶投加量、酵母菌浓度对SSF过程中乙醇浓度和产率的影响,并对以上参数做了初步优化,以提高最终乙醇浓度和产率.结果表明,小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵乙醇的最优条件为:温度38℃,固体含量16.0%(m/V),纤维素酶投加量35FPU/g底物,酵母菌浓度8 g/L.在此条件下,NaOH预处理后的小麦经过120 h同步糖化发酵,乙醇浓度达到最大值,为38.32 g/L,产率达理论产率的71.71%,木糖浓度为12.94 g/L.%Experiments were carried out on the conditions of bioethanol production from wheat straw through simultaneously saccharification and fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742. The effects of temperature, solid content, enzymeloading and yeast concentration on concentration and yield of ethanol in the SSF processes were systematically investigated. These parameters were further optimized to increase the final concentration and yield of ethanol. The results showed that the optimum conditions for SSF of wheat straw were as follows: temperature 38℃ , solid content 16. 0% (w/v) , enzyme loading 35 FPU/g and substrate and yeast concentration 8 g/L. The maximum ethanol concentration reached 38. 32 g/L, which was equivalent to 71. 71% of the theoretical ethanol yield, with xylose concentration of 12. 94 g/L obtained after 120 h SSF of NaOH pretreated wheat straw under the optimized conditions.

  15. Absorptive capability of Cr(Ⅵ) by using heat-treated biological carbon of wheat straw as adsorbent%小麦秸秆热处理生物碳质对Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继义; 梁丽萍; 蒲丽君; 王利平

    2011-01-01

    选用小麦秸秆为生物质代表,在200、400、500℃不同温度下,限氧碳化制备生物碳质吸附剂M200、M400、M500.分别考察其对Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附性能,通过观察等温吸附模型和吸附动力学方程,分析其可能的吸附机理.研究结果表明,三种生物碳质对Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附量随着初始浓度的增加而增加,6 h达到吸附平衡;吸附反应符合准二级动力学方程;吸附等温线结果表明,生物碳质对Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附可以用Langmuir模型很好描述;小麦秸秆生物碳质对Cr(Ⅵ)的最大吸附量随着碳化温度的升高而降低,分别为35.778、19.79、19.227 mg/g.小麦秸秆生物碳质是去除含铬废水中Cr(Ⅵ)的廉价与良好的吸附剂.%Selecting wheat straw for the biological substance, the biological carbon adsorbents M200,M400, and M500 were prepared with limited oxygen carbonization at different temperature 200, 400, and 500 ℃, respectively. Their Cr(Ⅵ) adsorptive capability was investigated respectively. By using isothermal adsorption model and adsorption dynamic equation, their possible adsorption mechanism was analyzed. The investigation result showed that the adsorptive amount of these three biological carbon substances increased with the initial concentration until the adsorption equilibrium was reached after 6 hours.The adsorptive reaction agreed with the quasi-second-order dynamic equation. It was shown by the adsorptive isotherm that the Cr(Ⅵ) adsorption with the biological carbon substance could well be characterized with Langmuir mode. The maximum Cr(Ⅵ) adsorptive amount with biological carbon substance of wheat straw was decreased with the carbonization temperature, being 35. 778, 19. 79, and 19. 227 mg/g respectively. The biological carbon substance of wheat straw would be a cheap and good adsorbent for removal of Cr(Ⅵ) from chrome-laden wastewater.

  16. 聚乳酸与麦草纤维共混物的研究%Blends of Poly(L-lactic Acid) and Wheat Straw Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高勤卫; 徐晨; 徐哲; 赵丽芳

    2012-01-01

    以N-甲基吗啉-N-氧化物为溶剂,制备聚L-乳酸(PLLA)与麦草纤维(WSF)的共混溶液,并制备PLLA与WSF的共混物.采用傅里叶变换红外光谱、差示扫描量热法和X射线衍射等方法对PLLA/WSF共混物进行表征,探讨PLLA/WSF共混物中两组分的相容性和结晶性.结果表明,聚乳酸和麦草纤维的N-甲基吗啉-N-氧化物溶液可以均匀混合形成共混溶液.在PLLA/WSF共混物中,PLLA与WSF两组分之间的相互作用较强,具有较好的相容性.PLLA/WSF共混物的组成对其形态与性能具有显著影响.随着PLLA用量的增加,共混物的玻璃化温度逐步降低.当PLLA与WSF的质量比小于6:4时,共混物为非晶态物质,而当PLLA与WSF的质量比大于6∶4时,共混物则具有结晶结构,且结晶熔点随着PLLA质量分数的增加而增加.因此,通过改变PLLA和WSF组分的配比,可以制备不同性能的可生物降解高分子材料.%The blend solutions of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and wheat straw fiber (WSF) were prepared in the solvent of N-methyl morpholine-N-oxide. Then the blends of PLLA and WSF were also prepared. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction were performed to determine PLLA/WSF blends. The compatibility and crystalline of PLLA and WSF in blends were investigated. The results show that PLLA and WSF can form a homogeneous mixture solution in N-methyl morpholine-N-oxide. Strong interaction between PLLA and WSF can be detected, which suggests good compatibility between the two components in PLLA/WSF blends. The morphology and properties of PLLA/WSF blends vary with the ratios of PLLA to WSF. With increasing PLLA contents, the glass transition temperatures of PLLA/WSF blends gradually reduce to that of PLLA. Both PLLA and WSF are crystalline, while PLLA/WSF blends are amorphous when the ratio of PLLA to WSF is less than 6:4. When the ratio of PLLA/WSF is more than 6:4, the blend is crystalline and

  17. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  18. Study on Impact of Modified Wheat Straw Fibers on PBS Composites Properties%改性小麦秸秆纤维对PBS复合材料性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强琪; 张敏; 徐丹; 邱建辉

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw fiber was treated by NaOH,on this basis,the Na 2 S 2 O 4 and coupling agents (KH550,KH560) were used to modify the fiber,then the wheat straw fiber/PBS composites were prepared through the blending with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS).The effects of addition of Na2S2O4,and modification of KH550 and KH560 after NaOH treatment on the properties of the straw fiber/PBS composites were studied.Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) ,X-ray diffraction and SEM were used to characterize and observe the modified fibers and composites before and after modification.The results indicated that the properties of the composite would be the best when the fiber was treated by NaOH-3% Na2S2O4,compared with KH550,the mechanical properties of composite modified by KH560 could been improved more effectively,and the properties would be the best when the addition of KH560 was 2%.%采用NaOH对小麦秸秆纤维进行处理,在此基础上使用蒸煮助剂Na2S2O4和偶联剂(KH550、KH560)改性秸秆纤维,并将其分别与聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)共混,制备了秸秆纤维/PBS复合材料.研究了NaOH处理中Na2S2O4的添加以及NaOH处理后KH550、KH560的改性对复合材料性能的影响.采用EDS、WXRD和SEM对改性前后的纤维及复合材料分别进行了分析和观测.研究结果表明:NaOH同3% Na2S2O4混合处理得到的复合材料的性能最好,KH560较KH550更能有效地改善复合材料的力学性能,当KH560质量分数为2%时,复合材料的力学性能最好.

  19. Effect of Different Proportion of Wheat Bran and Corn Straw on the Growth Performance in Yellow Powder Larva%不同比例麦麸和玉米秸秆对黄粉幼虫生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春清; 马铭龙; 丁秀文; 吕树臣

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of different proportion of wheat bran and corn straw on the Yellow powder larva growth performance trait, 1000 5 to 6-age Yellow powder larva were selected and randomly divided into five groups,the control group was fed wheat bran, test Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲand Ⅳ groups were fed 20% wheat bran and 80% corn straw,40% wheat bran and 60% corn straw,60% wheat bran and 40% corn straw and corn straw, respectively. The results indicated that body weight, body length,protein content of the test Ⅰ and Ⅳ groups were significant differences compared with the control group (P0. 05) ,and economic benefits of test Ⅱ group increased by 15. 15% per kilogram. Therefore,wheat bran and corn straw ratio in test Ⅱ group was the most suitable for breeding of Yellow powder larva.%为研究不同比例麦麸和玉米秸秆对黄粉幼虫生长性能的影响,试验选择1000只5~6龄黄粉虫,随机分成5组,对照组饲喂小麦麸,试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组分别饲喂20%麦麸和80%玉米秸秆、40%麦麸和60%玉米秸秆、60%麦麸和40%玉米秸秆、全玉米秸秆.结果表明,与对照组相比,试验Ⅰ、Ⅳ组的体重、体长和粗蛋白质含量显著降低(P<0.05),试验Ⅱ、Ⅲ组黄粉幼虫体重、体长和粗蛋白质含量差异不显著(P>0.05),且试验Ⅱ组的经济效益每千克提高了15.15%.因此,试验Ⅱ组麦麸和玉米秸秆的比例最适合养殖黄粉幼虫.

  20. Influence of Wheat Straws and Corn Stalks on Composting of Cow and Sheep Manure%小麦、玉米秸秆与不同比例牛、羊粪堆置腐熟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田曦; 王晓巍; 刘明军; 张玉鑫

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different ratios of wheat straws (corn stalks) and cow (sheep) manure on the temperature,the pH in the composts and seed germination index. The results indicated that the effect of composts mixed with corn stalks was better than composts mixed with wheat stalks. The time of maintaining high temperature of composts mixed with corn stalk was 15 - 24 days longer than the composts mixed with wheat straw, and the time of maturity was shortened by about 3 d. The effect of fermentation from composts mixed with sheep manure was better than composts mixed cow manure. The treatment with the same ratios of the corn stalk and sheep manure by weight rose to above 50 ℃ on the third day, high temperature remained 22 days, the pH value was 8. 35 at the end of reaction, and the seed germination index exceeded 80% on the 30th day of fermetation.%采用小麦、玉米秸秆分别与牛、羊粪按不同比例进行高温堆肥,通过测定堆体温度、pH值、发芽指数等理化指标,研究不同物料配比对高温堆肥的影响.结果表明,添加玉米秸秆进行堆肥发酵的效果好于添加小麦秸秆,其高温持续时间较小麦秸秆处理长15~24 d,腐熟时间短3d左右.添加羊粪处理腐熟效果优于牛粪处理.综合分析可知,以玉米秸秆和羊粪质量1∶1配比效果最佳,堆肥升温快,第3天即达50℃以上,高温持续时间为22 d,反应结束时pH值为8.35,发酵第30天种子发芽指数即可达80%以上,达到了快速腐熟的目的.

  1. 麦秸直接还田对作物产量及培肥土壤效应分析%Study on the Effects of Returning Wheat Straws to Fields Directly on Raising the Yield of Crops and Fertilizing Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常介田; 张翠翠; 孟祥远; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    为了进一步研究麦秸直接还田对作物产量的影响及培肥土壤效应,寻求适合本区特点的培肥增产模式,进行单施化肥、麦秸还田不施化肥和麦秸还田加施一定量化肥与对照(无麦秸还田、不施肥)进行对比试验.结果表明:麦秸直接还田对后茬作物产量增产效果显著(P<0.05),麦秸还田加施化肥比单一进行麦秸还田对后茬作物产量增产效果极显著(P<0.01),施化肥配施麦秸还田比单施化肥对后茬作物产量增产效果也显著(P<0.05);麦秸直接还田对土壤有机质、全氮、全磷及土壤碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾有不同程度地增加.同时,麦秸直接还田有利于降低土壤容重,增加土壤孔隙度和透水速率,提高土壤微生物和土壤酶活性.麦秸还田加施一定量化肥应大力推广.%To further study the effects of returning wheat straws to fields directly on raising the yield of crops and fertilizing soil, and to find out farming methods which are suitable to this area and that can raise the yield of crops and improve soil fertility, a comparative test was conducted by fertilizing only, returning wheat straws to fields without fertilizing, and returning wheat straws to fields plus applying a certain quantity of fertilizer. The results showed that returning wheat straws to fields directly could raise the yields of succession crops significantly; returning wheat straws to fields directly plus fertilizing could raise the yields of succession crops more significantly than just returning wheat straws to fields and than just fertilizing; moreover, returning wheat straws to fields directly could increase organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, soil nitrogen, and rapidly available phosphorus and potassium of soil in various degrees; meanwhile, it could help reduced soil bulk density, increased soil porosity and permeability rates, and improved soil microbial and soil enzyme activity. Returning wheat straw

  2. Studies on Feeding Animals with Straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice 201

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-gui; CHEN Jun-chen; HUANG Qin-lou; ZHENG Kai-bin; YE Xin-fu; TU Jie-feng; CHEN Bing-huan

    2002-01-01

    The straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice (GSDUR) variety 201 of which the grain quality and yield were equivalent to that of common rice variety (the grain yield approximately 7.5 t ha-1 ), but straw protein content was 9.31% (common rice straw i.e. CK was approximately 4.0%), and other eight fodder indexes were better than CK to some extent, was employed to feed animals. 15 N tracing result suggested that the protein in 201 straw could be effectively transformed into fish body protein and white mouse body protein. The digestibility of fodder, the 15N recovery rate of animal body and the absorption of fodder protein were 13.8,9.6, 24. 49 % and 16.5, 6.0, 47.2 % higher than those of common rice straw respectively when feeding grass carp and white mice with 201 rice straw, whereas the 1s N recovery rates of animal manure were 3.25, 6.5 %lower than those of common rice straw, respectively. The results of feeding animals with 201 straw were as carp, fish weight gain per kg fresh rice straw were increased by 60.0, 16.8 and 37.0% respectively when 201fresh straw was used to feed grass carp compared to feeding CK, and fish yield could be increased by 297.5 kg creased by 33.9 and 26.8% respectively when 201 rice straw was used as the main raw material of the compound fodder to feed white geese compared to feeding CK, and geese weight could be increased by 2 358.0 kg powder substituting for wheat bran which made up of 5 % compound fodder to feed cross bred pigs compared to CK, but 0. 11 kg fine fodder could be saved when 1 kg cross bred pig weight was increased.

  3. Device for continuous measurement of straw briquette expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molenda M.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A device was developed for the continuous monitoring of the expansion of straw or hay briquettes after removal from the die. The instrument was tested within a trial of briquetting of various straws submitted for mechanical and chemical pre-treatments. The deve-loped device proved to be easy to use, while allowing measurement sensitivity better than 0.5 mm over a long period of time. It was possible to record even slight briquette expansion and to determine different trends of expansion for wheat and rice straw and for straws that had undergone different treatment.

  4. 秸秆还田与施氮对冬小麦生长发育及水肥利用率的影响%Effect of corn straw returned to soil and N application on growth, water and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫翠萍; 裴雪霞; 王姣爱; 杨峰; 曹勇; 张晶; 党建友

    2011-01-01

    田间试验研究了小麦-玉米一年两熟耕作区玉米秸秆还田与氮肥配施和化肥单施对冬小麦生长发育、籽粒产量及氮肥表观利用率和水分利用效率的影响.结果表明,施氮量相同时,秸秆与氮肥配施越冬前和拔节期冬小麦总茎数和单株分蘖数低于化肥单施,施氮量在75~225kg·hm-2时,植株干重高于化肥单施;孕穗期到成熟期植株干重、成穗率和产量构成因素秸秆与氮肥配施处理高于化肥单施处理,籽粒产量增加58.9~339.6kg·hm-2,水分生产率提高0.026~0.083 kg·m-3.施氮量在75 kg·hm-2时,秸秆与氮肥配施的氮肥表观利用率低于化肥单施;在150~300kg·hm-2时高于化肥单施.因此,针对目前黄淮海麦区小麦-玉米一年两熟种植制度下,秸秆还田前期生物争氮、后期供肥能力增强的特点,秸秆连续还田后配施纯氮225 kg·hm-2,可有效提高灌水和氮肥利用率,实现冬小麦高产高效栽培.%Through field experiments, the effects of combined N and corn straw application on the growth, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NFUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat in wheat-maize cropping systems were analyzed. At pre-winter and jointing stages, total stems and tillers per plant of wheat under combined N and com straw application were lower than under application of the same rate of N only. At N application rate of 75~225 kg · hm-2, the plant dry weight was higher under combined application of N and corn straw. At booting and maturity stages, dry matter, ears and yield components of wheat under combined corn straw and N application were higher than under N only. Grain yield and WUE under combined corn straw and N application were respectively 58.9~339.6 kg · hm-2 and 0.026~0.083 kg · m-3 higher than under N only. With 75 kg · hm-2 N application, NFUE under combined N and com straw application was lower than under N only, but it became higher with 150~300 kg · hm-2

  5. Effects of Application of Controlled-release Fertilizer Combined with Wheat Straw on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency%秸秆与缓释肥配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会峰; 周胜; 付子轼; 陈桂发; 邹国燕; 宋祥甫

    2015-01-01

    The effects of application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency were studied in this paper ,with Huayou 14(Oryza sativa L.) as material. The results showed that application of controlled-release fer-tilizer combined with wheat straw clearly increased rice yield by 13.4%~17.8%, mainly due to the increases of effective panicles and 1000-grain weight compared to common chemical fertilizer application. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw could also enhance rice straw biomass, nitrogen content in grain and straw, which led to a significantly higher nitrogen use efficiency(71.6%~77.6%) compared to common chemical fertilizer application(28.7%~40.2%). Controlled-release fertilizer was ap-plied only once, and as base fertilizer, would effectively save labor costs. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw increased rice yield, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, saved labor costs, may have a promising future.%以花优14为材料,研究了秸秆与缓释尿素配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响。结果表明,秸秆与缓释肥配施处理较常规施肥处理有效穗数和千粒重明显增加,从而显著提高水稻产量,增幅达到13.4%~17.8%。秸秆与缓释肥配施能明显提高秸秆生物量、籽粒及秸秆含氮量,将氮素吸收利用率从28.7%~40.2%(常规施肥处理)提高到71.6%~77.6%。缓释肥作基肥一次性施入,可有效节省人力成本。秸秆与缓释肥配施能增加水稻产量,提高氮素吸收利用率,减少人力成本,具有很大的应用前景。

  6. 秸秆与缓释肥配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响%Effects of Application of Controlled-release Fertilizer Combined with Wheat Straw on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会峰; 周胜; 付子轼; 陈桂发; 邹国燕; 宋祥甫

    2015-01-01

    The effects of application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency were studied in this paper ,with Huayou 14(Oryza sativa L.) as material. The results showed that application of controlled-release fer-tilizer combined with wheat straw clearly increased rice yield by 13.4%~17.8%, mainly due to the increases of effective panicles and 1000-grain weight compared to common chemical fertilizer application. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw could also enhance rice straw biomass, nitrogen content in grain and straw, which led to a significantly higher nitrogen use efficiency(71.6%~77.6%) compared to common chemical fertilizer application(28.7%~40.2%). Controlled-release fertilizer was ap-plied only once, and as base fertilizer, would effectively save labor costs. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw increased rice yield, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, saved labor costs, may have a promising future.%以花优14为材料,研究了秸秆与缓释尿素配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响。结果表明,秸秆与缓释肥配施处理较常规施肥处理有效穗数和千粒重明显增加,从而显著提高水稻产量,增幅达到13.4%~17.8%。秸秆与缓释肥配施能明显提高秸秆生物量、籽粒及秸秆含氮量,将氮素吸收利用率从28.7%~40.2%(常规施肥处理)提高到71.6%~77.6%。缓释肥作基肥一次性施入,可有效节省人力成本。秸秆与缓释肥配施能增加水稻产量,提高氮素吸收利用率,减少人力成本,具有很大的应用前景。

  7. 氮肥与精量秸秆还田对冬小麦花后光合特性及产量的影响%Effects of Coupling of Precise Straw-return and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Photosynthetic Characteristics after Anthesis and Yield of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 刘义国; 张洪生; 李玲燕; 林琪

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the wheat straw residue amount and the nitrogen fertilizer amount in the dry land, different amounts of straws returned to field and nitrogen treatments were set up in Qingdao agriculture university Jiaozhou experiment stations. We researched the effects of precise straw returned quantity and nitrogen fertilizer treatments on winter wheat photosynthetic characteristics and yield. The results showed that compared with only nitrogen fertilizer treatment,right amounts of straws returned to field can improve winter wheat chlorophyll SPAD value obviously, delay senescence of flag leaf, improve the photosynthetic performance of flag leaf and increase the 1000-seed weight. In the same level of the straw returned to N2 level of the flag leaf senescence winter wheat slowly, and photosynthesis prolonged, the yield was increased significantly. Straw returned 9 000 kg/ha ( J3 ) under 225 kg/ha ( N2) nitrogen can delay senescence of flag leaf .improve the photosynthetic performance of flag leaf, reduce stoma-tal conductance and increase the 1000-seed weight obviously compared with other process, however, wheat straw reduced the wheat effective panicles. The experimental results showed that straw returned 9 000 kg/ha under 225 kg/ha nitrogen dosage had the most obvious effect on improving photosynthesis of flag leaves. So the N2J3 treatment is the optimal choice in the locality.%为了确定旱地小麦秸秆还田量与氮肥的施用量,在青岛农业大学胶州试验站设不同的秸秆还田量与氮肥处理.研究了精量秸秆还田与施氮量对冬小麦光合特性以及产量的影响.结果表明,与单施N肥处理相比较,适量的秸秆还田能明显提高冬小麦叶绿素SPAD值,延缓旗叶衰老,改善旗叶光合性能,提高小麦千粒质量,但明显降低有效穗数.在同一秸秆还田下高水平氮比低水平氮处理的冬小麦旗叶衰老速度要慢、光合时间更长、产量也明显增多.在施氮225 kg/hm2(N2)

  8. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Straw from wheat plants grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was placed in litterbags in a grass fallow field and a wheat field. The CO2 treatment induced an increase in straw concentration of ash-free dry mass from 84% to 93% and a decrease in nitrogen concentration from 0...... and 3.40 vs. 2.67% AFDM per litterbag when buried in the wheat field). The immobilization of nitrogen during decomposition was significantly higher in the ambient straw, and there was a significant negative correlation between the content of organic matter remaining per litterbag and the nitrogen...... concentration in the recovered straw samples. After five months of decomposition, hyphal biomass was significantly lower in straw from plants grown at elevated CO2 (-30% and -13% in the fallow and wheat field, respectively). Bacterial biomass was not significantly affected by the CO2 induced changes in the...

  9. Liquefaction of wheat straw catalyzed by acidic ionic liquid and analysis of liquefied products%酸性离子液体催化麦秸液化及其产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关倩; 蒋剑春; 徐俊明; 王奎; 冯君锋

    2016-01-01

    changed into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The report about producing levulinate from agriculture waste catalyzed by ionic liquids is rare. Therefore, we choose wheat straw as raw material and ionic liquids as catalyst in the liquefaction process. In this study, 1-methyl-3-(4-Sulfobutyl)-imidazolium hydrosulfate is synthesized and used as catalyst for the liquefaction of wheat straw in ethanol. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance carbon-13 spectrum (13C NMR), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TG) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterized the structure of ionic liquid and liquid products. The synthesized ionic liquid is confirmed to be 1-methyl-3-(4-Sulfobutyl)-imidazolium hydrosulfate. Results of the experiments show that the ionic liquid has the optimum catalytic properties for the liquefaction of wheat straw. Under the conditions that wheat the straw mass is 5 g, the mass fraction of catalyst is 26%, the reaction temperature is 200℃, and the reaction time is 60 min, a high conversion rate of 85.5% is obtained; under the conditions, the yield of ethyl levulinate is 9.97%, and the relative percentage content of ethyl levulinate is 29.9% in liquid products. The liquid products include aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, phenols and other oxygenated chemicals; among them, phenols are from the degradation of lignin mainly, and the other compounds are from the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose principally. The results can provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of low corrosive and environment-friendly catalysts, which will be used on liquefaction to prepare high grade chemicals.%为降低有机酸催化剂对设备的腐蚀,提高秸秆类生物质原料的利用率,该文以合成的1-甲基-3-(4-磺酸基丁基)咪唑硫酸氢盐离子液体为催化剂,乙醇为溶剂,考察小麦秸秆的液化过程,并对离子液体的结构进行傅里叶红外光谱和核磁共振表

  10. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9 in wheat bran-rice straw mixed substrate and use of cocktail enzymes for deinking of waste office paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Halder, Suman K; Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize mixed substrate solid state fermentation for the production of cellulases and xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9. Among 11 different parameters, fermentation time (86-88 h), medium pH (6.1-6.2), substrate amount (10.0-10.5 g) and substrate ratio (wheat bran:rice straw) (1.1) had significantly influences on enzyme production. Under these conditions endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, FPase (filter paper degrading activity) and xylanase activities of 826.2, 255.16, 102.5 and 1130.4 U/g, respectively were obtained. The enzyme cocktail extracted (solid to water ratio of 1:10) from the ferments increased brightness of waste office paper pulp by 82.8% ISO, Ink(D) value by 82.1%, removed chromophores (2.53 OD; A(237)nm) and hydrophobic compounds (1.15 OD; A(465)nm) and also decreased the kappa number to 13.5 from 16.8. PMID:23196251

  11. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-03-20

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials. PMID:26745738

  12. 高锰酸钾活化麦草浆过氧化氢漂白的研究%A study on hydrogen peroxide bleaching of wheat straw pulp activated by potassium permanganate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭星; 张安龙; 罗清; 赵登

    2014-01-01

    探讨了高锰酸钾对Soda-AQ法麦草浆过氧化氢漂白的活化作用。结果表明,高锰酸钾是一种强氧化剂,在酸性条件下可与纸浆中的木素反应,经高锰酸钾预处理后的纸浆具有很好的可漂性。通过分析比较MQDP和MDQP两种漂白流程,得出在高锰酸钾用量为1.0%时,采用MDQP漂白流程,纸浆得率损失较小,白度最高。%The activation of potassium permanganate was investigated in Soda-AQ hydrogenperoxide bleaching of wheat straw pulp. The results show that potassium permanganate serves very well as a strong oxidant. Under acidic conditions, potassium permanganate reacts with lignin in pulp and having a good bleachability after potassium permanganate pretreatment. By comparing bleaching sequence of MQDP and MDQP, when the dosage of potassium permanganate is 1.0%, using bleaching sequence of MDQP, pulp yield loss is smaller and getting the highest whiteness.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE UN MODELO PREDICTIVO SOBRE EL EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA Y HUMEDAD EN LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE rastrojo de trigo Evaluation of a predictive model of the effect of temperature and humidity on wheat straw decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor García de Cortázar G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar la descomposición de rastrojos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y humedad en dos localidades, y comparar las mediciones efectuadas con las predicciones realizadas con el modelo de simulación de crecimiento de cultivos CropSyst. Se evaluó la tasa de descomposición de rastrojos de trigo dejados sobre la superficie del suelo, bajo tres dosis de paja (3; 6; y 9 t ha-1 y seis tratamientos de temperatura (definidos por el mes en que se colocaron los rastrojos en terreno en dos experimentos de campo realizados en Santiago (Región Metropolitana y El Carmen (VIII Región, Chile. El diseño fue de bloques completamente al azar con estructura factorial y cuatro repeticiones. En Santiago se agregó un tercer factor, nivel hídrico, con cuatro niveles definidos por alturas de agua aplicadas mediante aspersión. La tasa de descomposición se estimó mediante el método de la bolsa. Los mismos tratamientos se simularon en el modelo CropSyst y se compararon sus resultados con las mediciones experimentales. La temperatura tuvo un efecto significativo en la tasa de descomposición con incrementos de más del 200% entre los extremos. Los tratamientos hídricos no produjeron diferencias tan claras, aunque hubo tendencia a mayor descomposición con tratamientos hídricos altos. La comparación de los resultados experimentales con las simulaciones hechas con CropSyst, mostró sobreestimaciones y subestimaciones por parte del modelo dependiendo de la fecha. Las diferencias entre modelo y mediciones oscilaron entre 0 y 37% con promedio de 10%. Sin embargo, los valores de r² fueron superiores a 0,92 y no hubo diferencias significativas con respecto a una pendiente ideal de 1.The objectives of this work were to evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum L. straw decomposition rates under different temperature and humidity levels in two locations, and to compare the actual measurements with

  14. Development of Sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia on soybean, corn, and wheat straw, under different soil temperatures and moisture contents Desenvolvimento de escleródios de Sclerotium rolfsii em palhas de soja, milho e trigo, sob diferentes temperaturas e umidades do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor dos Reis Pinheiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of moisture and temperature on the development of Sclerotium rolfsii on soybean, corn, and wheat straw. Wheat straw produced the lowest number of sclerotia. Intermediate soil moisture level (70% of field capacity, and temperatures ranging between 25-30ºC favored sclerotia development. No sclerotia were formed at temperatures between 30-35ºC, on any type of straw.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da umidade e da temperatura do solo no desenvolvimento de Sclerotium rolfsii sobre palhas de soja, milho e trigo. A palha de trigo proporcionou a formação de menor quantidade de escleródios. Umidade do solo intermediária (70% da capacidade de campo e temperaturas entre 25-30ºC favoreceram a formação de escleródios. Na faixa de 30-35ºC, nenhum escleródio foi produzido em qualquer tipo de palha.

  15. Straw-to-soil or straw-to-energy? An optimal trade off in a long term sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy balance and GHG savings of a straw-to-electricity value chain were determined. • An “expanded” LCA was performed, from farm field to electricity delivery. • Both direct and indirect factors of land use change have been considered in the analysis. • No-tillage and crop rotation significantly improved the system performance. • A win–win, sustainable solution for the energy use of straw has been identified. - Abstract: This study examined some management strategies of wheat cultivation system and its sustainability in using straw as an energy feedstock. According to the EU regulatory framework on biofuels, no GHG emissions should be assigned to straws when they are used for energy. Given this relevance in the current energy policy, it is advisable to include all possible marginal effects related to land use, resource utilization and management changes in the comparison of different biomass options. Coherently, an expanded life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to include the upstream cultivation phase and to make a comparison between “straw to soil” and “straw to energy”. Different crop management conditions in Southern Italy were simulated, by using the CropSyst model, to estimate the long-term soil organic carbon and annual N2O soil emissions. Three wheat cropping systems were considered: the conventional single wheat system without straw removal (W0) and with partial straw removal (W1), together with a no-tillage “wheat-wheat-herbage” rotation system with partial straw removal (W2). The results of the simulations were integrated in the LCA to compare fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of straw-to-electricity with respect to the fossil-based electricity system. The “improved” rotational wheat cropping system (W2) gave the best performance in terms both of GHG savings and fossil displacement, thus stressing that straw use for energy generation in parallel with the optimization of the

  16. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler breeding hens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15N-labelled wheat straw as well as 15N-labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15N excess (15N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p 15N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15N wheat, straw as a 15N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. (author)

  17. Effects of years of straw return to soil on greenhouse gas emission in rice/wheat rotation systems%不同秸秆还田年限对稻麦轮作系统温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翰林; 吕卫光; 郑宪清; 李双喜; 王金庆; 张娟琴; 何七勇; 袁大伟; 顾晓君

    2015-01-01

    为揭示稻麦轮作系统不同秸秆还田年限下温室气体排放特征及减排调控机制,本研究采用大田小区试验,考察了稻麦轮作不同秸秆还田年限[空白对照(CK)、常规处理秸秆不还田(NT)、1年秸秆还田(SR1)和5年秸秆还田(SR5)]对CH4、CO2和N2O 3种温室气体排放规律的影响,同时测定了土壤固碳量,估算了秸秆焚烧产生的温室气体排放量,综合计算了4种处理对全球变暖的贡献。试验结果表明, SR1和SR5均显著提升CH4和CO2的排放通量,分别高出NT、CK处理73.52%、309.49%和13.29%、13.06%;同时显著降低N2O排放通量,较NT降低29.68%和42.55%;但SR1和SR5之间温室气体排放通量差异不显著;与NT相比, SR1和SR5可以显著提高土壤固碳量517.9%和709.03%, SR5土壤固碳量高出SR1达30.93%; NT秸秆焚烧产生的全球气温变暖贡献为9698.49 kg(CO2-eqv)·hm−2,比CK高126.98%。综合分析温室气体排放、土壤固碳以及秸秆焚烧3个因素, SR1全球升温贡献最低,显著低于NT 4.72%。短期全量秸秆还田有助于降低总体温室气体排放,长期进行秸秆还田后降低幅度会逐步减小。%AbstractCrop straw is the largest renewable resource on earth but it is often burned after crop harvest, resulting in loss of nutrients and environmental pollution. With current advocate for ecological agriculture, straw return to soil is the most important mode of reutilization of agricultural by-products. This mode is vigorously applied and promoted in rice/wheat rotation system. Research has shown that straw return to soil as a key mode of ecological agriculture affects many aspects of agricultural systems, including soil physical and chemical properties, carbon sequestration in soils, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Despite this, less research has focused on the effects of different years of straw return to soil on the contributions of agricultural systems to global warming. In this study, field

  18. 不同秸秆还田年限对稻麦轮作系统温室气体排放的影响%Effects of years of straw return to soil on greenhouse gas emission in rice/wheat rotation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翰林; 吕卫光; 郑宪清; 李双喜; 王金庆; 张娟琴; 何七勇; 袁大伟; 顾晓君

    2015-01-01

    为揭示稻麦轮作系统不同秸秆还田年限下温室气体排放特征及减排调控机制,本研究采用大田小区试验,考察了稻麦轮作不同秸秆还田年限[空白对照(CK)、常规处理秸秆不还田(NT)、1年秸秆还田(SR1)和5年秸秆还田(SR5)]对CH4、CO2和N2O 3种温室气体排放规律的影响,同时测定了土壤固碳量,估算了秸秆焚烧产生的温室气体排放量,综合计算了4种处理对全球变暖的贡献。试验结果表明, SR1和SR5均显著提升CH4和CO2的排放通量,分别高出NT、CK处理73.52%、309.49%和13.29%、13.06%;同时显著降低N2O排放通量,较NT降低29.68%和42.55%;但SR1和SR5之间温室气体排放通量差异不显著;与NT相比, SR1和SR5可以显著提高土壤固碳量517.9%和709.03%, SR5土壤固碳量高出SR1达30.93%; NT秸秆焚烧产生的全球气温变暖贡献为9698.49 kg(CO2-eqv)·hm−2,比CK高126.98%。综合分析温室气体排放、土壤固碳以及秸秆焚烧3个因素, SR1全球升温贡献最低,显著低于NT 4.72%。短期全量秸秆还田有助于降低总体温室气体排放,长期进行秸秆还田后降低幅度会逐步减小。%AbstractCrop straw is the largest renewable resource on earth but it is often burned after crop harvest, resulting in loss of nutrients and environmental pollution. With current advocate for ecological agriculture, straw return to soil is the most important mode of reutilization of agricultural by-products. This mode is vigorously applied and promoted in rice/wheat rotation system. Research has shown that straw return to soil as a key mode of ecological agriculture affects many aspects of agricultural systems, including soil physical and chemical properties, carbon sequestration in soils, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Despite this, less research has focused on the effects of different years of straw return to soil on the contributions of agricultural systems to global warming. In this study, field

  19. Integration of Agricultural Waste in Local Building Materials for their Exploitation: Application with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Sow, D.; M. Ahmat Chafadine; S. Gaye; Adj, M.; I.K. Cisse

    2014-01-01

    Through experiments, we have determined the mechanical and thermal properties of samples. This allowed us to determine the most optimal formulations. Therefore, we have prepared samples constituted by two basic materials, clay and laterite, mixed with rice straw. Thus, agriculture is among the economic sectors that produce more waste. The latter are mainly the straw of the three most-produced cereals in the world: wheat, corn and rice. Concerning rice straw, its high content of cellulose make...

  20. Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

  1. Technology of straw burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the example of application of straw as fuel for a power plant with capacity of 1 MW, which is reconstructed from an old coal power plant. The article shows the advantages of straw as a source of energy, analyses the physical and chemical characteristics and temperature parameters, typical for straw. Moreover it indicates the specific circumstances of the straw burning processes. The paper focuses also on preparation and storing of straw for public use and in the energy sector. Comparing with fossil fuel, straw is a low-caloric natural source, whose energy value reached to 14-19 MJ/kg. This value depends partly on the kind of straw and its water or moisture content (MC). To the basic characteristics of energy aspects belong: - energy or heating value (HV) MJ/kg (in LPG it is MJ/ m3); - burning temperature; - melting point - temperature of ash; - weight kg/m3; - density; - Energy density MWh /m3; - Energy potential GJ/t; - Size-homogeneity of straw; - Water or Moisture Content (MC). The above mentioned characteristics have an influence on technical parameters of straw-burning boiler. These parameters define conditions process of straw preparation. (author)

  2. Neutralization and Fermentation of Spent Liquor from Preparation Process of Wheat Straw MCC%利用麦草MCC制备过程中产生的废液中和发酵制备乙醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金宝; 张美云; 孟远行; 刘书钗

    2012-01-01

    麦草原料制备微晶纤维素过程中产生的酸水解和碱处理废液中含有大量葡萄糖。本文研究了两种废液相互中和,并利用酿酒酵母发酵的方法转化其中的葡萄糖为生物质乙醇,既减少了环境污染,又大大提高了纤维素资源的利用率。研究结果表明:酸性废液和碱性废液混合至酵母菌适宜pH5.0时,所需酸、碱废液的体积比为2.83:1,此时,混合废液中还原糖含量约为20.60g·L^-1还原糖初始浓度越高,乙醇产量越高;混合废液发酵制备乙醇的最佳工艺条件为:酿酒酵母接种量10%,发酵温度34℃,发酵时间72h,pH为5.0。%A plenty of glucose existed in two types of spent liquor produced from acid hydrolysis and alkaline treatment which were major processes in preparation procedure of wheat straw microcrystaUine cellulose. It was investigated that mutual neutralization of two types of spent liquor, and converting glucose to bioethanol by way of saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. This helps not only reduce the environmental pollution but also greatly improve the utilization of cellulose resource. The result showed that volume ratio of 2.83:1 is required for pH 5.0 when mixing acid spent liquor and alkaline spent liquor, which is the most suitable pH for yeast reproduction. Meantime, the reducing sugar content in mixed liquor is about 20.60 g·L^-1. 3he higher reducing sugar concentration, the higher bioethanol yield. It is the optimum fermentation conditions for mixed liquor that saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum 10%, fermentation temperature 34℃, duration time 72 h and pH 5.0.

  3. Influence of wheat straw and rhizosphere on seed germination, early seedling growth and bio-chemical attributes of Trianthema portulacastrum Influência de palha de trigo e rizosfera sobre a germinação de sementes, crescimento precoce das mudas e atributos bioquímicos do Trianthema portulacastrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khaliq

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing wheat (Triticum aestivum straw and rhizosphere-infested soil were evaluated for their suppressive activity against horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum, a noxious summer weed in Pakistan. Two separate pot studies were carried out. Wheat straw was incorporated at 4, 6 and 8 g kg-1 soil five days before the sowing of horse purslane. Pots without straw incorporation were maintained as control. In a second study, soil was taken from 15 and 30 cm depths from a previously cropped wheat field immediately after its harvest and was used as growing medium. Soil from an intentionally uncropped area of the same field was used as control. Suppressive activity was measured in terms of germination dynamics, seedling growth, and biochemical attributes such as chlorophyll contents, total soluble phenolics, soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes. Germination, seedling growth, chlorophyll contents and soluble protein of horse purslane were all negatively influenced. Higher phenolics and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes were noticed in response to wheat residues incorporation and its rhizosphere soil. Both studies established that the phytotoxic influence of wheat straw and wheat-infested rhizosphere soil on horse purslane can further be exploited for horse purslane management as a sustainable approach.Restos culturais de trigo (Triticum aestivum em decomposição e o solo da rizosfera foram avaliados quanto à supressão da atividade contra Trianthema portulacastrum, uma planta daninha de verão comum no Paquistão. Dois estudos independentes foram realizados em vasos. Palha de trigo foi incorporada ao solo em taxas de 4, 6 e 8 g kg-1, cinco dias antes da semeadura de P. trianthema. Vasos sem incorporação de palha foram mantidas como testemunha. No segundo estudo, o solo foi coletado das profundidades de 15 e 30 cm de profundidade de um campo recentemente cultivado com trigo imediatamente após a sua colheita e foi usado como meio de

  4. Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Larsen, Ole Hede

    Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion for...

  5. 西北旱区碎麦秸垫式膜上灌对玉米出苗及产量的影响%Effects of irrigation on film by crushed wheat straw padding to the corn seedling and yield in Northwest Arid Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金霞; 贾生海; 成自勇

    2015-01-01

    针对西北旱区秸秆覆盖的生态适应性和地膜覆盖的残膜难回收问题,设置了覆盖方式和灌水定额两个主导因素,研究了碎麦秸垫式膜上灌对玉米出苗和产量的影响。覆盖方式设有四个水平:无覆盖(N),秸秆覆盖(S),地膜覆盖(F),碎麦秸垫膜覆盖(SF);灌水定额设有高(H,900 m3·hm -2)、中(M,750 m3·hm -2)、低(L,600 m3·hm -2)三个水平;结果表明:SF 明显提高了出苗率和产量,与 S 相比,出苗率提高了49.50%,子粒产量提高了4415.79 kg·hm -2,所以 SF 使解决秸秆覆盖在西北旱区的出苗低和产量低等问题有了可能。从产量方面来看,最佳组合为 FL、SFM,分别可将灌水定额降至 L(600 m3·hm -2)和 M(750 m3·hm -2)水平,这凸显了 SF 和 F 的节水增产效果。SF 中的碎麦秸有利于土膜剥离回收,解决了地膜覆盖中残膜难回收的环境问题。%Pointed at the practical problems about ecological adaptability by straw mulch and residual film difficult recovery by film mulch,set up two dominant factors as mulch mode and irrigation quota,researched the effects of irriga-tion on film by crushed wheat straw padding to corn seedling and yield.The mulch mode designed as four levels:Without mulch (N),straw mulch (S),plastic film mulch (F)and plastic film mulch by crushed wheat straw padding (SF).The irrigation quota designed as three levels:High (H,900 m3·hm -2),Middle (M,750 m3·hm -2),and Lower (L,600 m3·hm -2).The results showed that:The SF significantly increased the seedling emergence rate and yield,compared with S,the seedling emergence rate was increased 49.50% and the grain yield was increased 4 415 .79 kg·hm -2 .So the SF can be possible to solve the problem “Lower emergence rate and low yield”by straw mulch in Northwest Arid Re-gions,China.From the yield point of view,the best combinations were FL and SFM,which the

  6. Effects of Wheat Straw Bio -Charcoal Supplement to Fodder on Growth,Slaughter Performance and Lipid Metabolism of Broilers%饲料添加小麦秸秆生物质炭对肉鸡生长、屠宰性能和脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付潘潘; 王家芳; 俞欣妍; 董娟; 李恋卿; 张源淑; 潘根兴; 张旭辉; 郑聚锋; 郑金伟; 刘晓雨

    2015-01-01

    The effects of wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement to ration on growth,slaughter performance and lipid metabolism of broilers for the potential of bio -charcoal used as animal ration supplement were studied.Four random groups of 100 broilers each of Rose 308 (22 -day -old,body weight about 670 g each,in good health) were risen for 33 days respectively under treatments with 1%,5% and 10% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement to their basal ration.Compared to the control group without bio -charcoal supplement,a 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement significantly (P <0.05)increased the daily weight gain by 10.12% and the breast muscle rate by 23. 42%(P <0.05).However,broiler abdominal fat was reduced by 31.44% and 23.02%(P <0.05)under treatment of 5% and 10% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement respectively.Furthermore,the treatment of 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement significantly decreased the contents of serum total cholesterol (P <0.05)compared to the control group.Moreover,the contents of serum triacylglycerol of the tested broilers was all significantly (P <0.05) decreased,and the contents of serum glucose,high -density lipoprotein -cholesterol and low -density lipoprotein -cholesterol did not chang under the supplement treatments,over the control.Finally,the overall cost of feed per kilo-gram of broilers was significantly (P <0.05)decreased by 8% and 6% over the control,respectively under treat-ments of 1% and 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement,which slightly increased ration cost.Therefore,a sup-plement of 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal to basal ration could be a potential to improve health breeding,slaughter performance and growth performance of broiler.%旨在研究小麦秸秆生物质炭对肉鸡生产性能、屠宰性能和脂质代谢的影响。试验选用100只22日龄、健康状况良好、体重670 g 左右的罗斯308肉鸡,随机分成4组。对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组分别饲喂添加1%、5%和10%小麦秸秆

  7. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. - Highlights: • English arable farmer survey to determine potential supply for straw based biofuel. • Two-thirds of farmers would supply wheat straw for bioenergy. • Farmers willing to sell 1.65 Mt of cereal straw from the main cereal producing regions. • Farmer preference for a fixed area of straw supply for a contracted fixed price. • £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price farmers find acceptable

  8. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  9. Effects of rice or wheat residue retention on the quality of milled japonica rice in a rice–wheat rotation system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfu; Hou; Yanfeng; Ding; Guofa; Zhang; Quan; Li; Shaohua; Wang; She; Tang; Zhenghui; Liu; Chengqiang; Ding; Ganghua; Li

    2015-01-01

    In rice–wheat rotation systems, crop straw is usually retained in the field at land preparation in every, or every other, season. We conducted a 3-year-6-season experiment in the middle–lower Yangtze River Valley to compare the grain qualities of rice under straw retained after single or double seasons per year. Four treatments were designed as: both wheat and rice straw retained(WR), only rice straw retained(R), only wheat straw retained(W), and no straw retained(CK). The varieties were Yangmai 16 wheat and Wuyunjing 23 japonica rice. The results showed contrasting effects of W and R on rice quality. Amylopectin content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of rice grain were significantly increased in W compared to the CK, whereas gelatinization temperature,setback viscosity, and protein content significantly decreased. In addition, the effect of WR on rice grain quality was similar to that of W, although soil fertility was enhanced in WR due to straw being retained in two cycles. The differences in protein and starch contents among the treatments might result from soil nitrogen supply. These results indicate that wheat straw retained in the field is more important for high rice quality than rice straw return, and straw from both seasons is recommended for positive effects on soil fertility.

  10. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw by Using Response Surface Methodology%响应曲面法优化小麦秸秆纤维素酶水解条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张琦; 阮馨怡; 王欣泽; 孔海南; 林燕

    2015-01-01

    With an aim to optimize the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw,the parameters including solid content, enzyme loading,temperature,pH,and hydrolysis time were investigated by means of response surface methodology( RSM) with the reducing sugar(RS) yield as response value. The results showed that all the parameters had significant effects(p<0. 05) on the reducing sugar yield. A well fitted regression equation with R2 value of 0. 946 9,p<0. 05,coefficient variability(Cv) value of 4. 37%,and adequate precision value of 26. 396 indicated that the developed model was significant and could be used to navigate the designed space and predict the response. The predicted optimum conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were solid content of 8. 0%,enzyme loading of 35 FPU/g, temperature of 50 ℃, pH of 5. 4, and hydrolysis time of 96 h. The experimental results showed that under the optimum conditions the corresponding RS yield was 60. 73% with glucose and xylose concentrations of 31. 84 and 16. 74 g/L,respectively. Further,the results obtained in this research showed a high RS yield with high initial solid content,which would significantly improve the ethanol concentration,reduce the subsequently distillation costs,and improve the commercial potential of the lignocellulosic bioethanol production.%利用响应曲面试验设计方法( RSM),选择底物质量分数、酶投加量、温度、pH值及水解时间为试验因子,还原糖( RS)产率为响应值,考察小麦秸秆纤维素酶水解过程中各影响因子对还原糖产率的影响,对小麦秸秆纤维素酶水解条件进行优化。结果表明,所考察的5个影响因子对还原糖产率均具有显著影响(p <0.05)。所得回归方程 R2值为0.9469,p<0.05,变异系数(CV)值为4.37%,足够精度值为26.396,说明模型高度显著,可以在设计范围内对响应值进行预测。模型预测最佳水解条件为底物质量分数8.0%,酶投加量为35 FPU/g(以秸杆质量计),温度50

  11. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation Produção de xilitol em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de trigo: destoxificação do hidrolisado e fonte de carbono utilizada para o preparo do inóculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Canilha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds.Hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de trigo foi utilizado para a bioprodução de xilitol. O uso de meio contendo xilose para crescer o inóculo não favoreceu a produção de xilitol no hidrolisado, que foi submetido a um tratamento prévio de destoxificação com 2.5% de carvão ativo para remoção otimizada de compostos inibitórios.

  12. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED OPTIONS OF STRAW USE DEPENDING ON HARVESTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz KUTA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest straw deserves particular attention among agricultural raw materials. It can be intended for sale, applied as litter material in animal husbandry or used in field fertilization. To a lesser extent it can be used for fodder production, covering mounds of roots and tubers and the production of insulation materials in horticulture and building construction. Using surplus straw directly for energy generation, including production of pellets and briquettes, should also be considered rational. Several applications were analyzed. The main purpose of the research is to determine the profitability level of winter wheat cultivation and of energy use of the straw obtained. Among others, they included situations in which obtained straw was used in the production of pellets, in fertilization after prior grinding and mixing with manure or used for direct sale. For our calculations, the costs/ha of wheat cultivation and then straw collection were estimated. The comparative analysis of various options of wheat straw utilization shows the highest profitability in the option of selling the straw and mineral fertilization.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of effects of straw-based electricity generation: A Chinese case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greater use of renewable energy is being aggressively promoted to combat climate change by the Chinese government and by other governments. Agricultural straw is the kind of renewable energy source that would become a pollution source if it is not well utilized. We select the Shiliquan straw-based electricity generation project in Shandong Province, China as a case and assess environmental externalities of straw utilization in power plants by using life-cycle analysis. Results show that straw-based electricity generation has far fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than that of coal-based electricity generation. Improvement in the energy efficiency of equipment used for straw's pretreatment would lead to a decrease of GHG emissions and energy consumption in the life-cycle of straw-based electricity generation. In case 400 million tonnes of wasted straw in China could be used as a substitute for 200 million tonnes of coal, annually the straw 291 Terrawatt hours (TWh) of electricity could be generated, resulting in an annual total CO2 emissions savings of 193 million tonnes. Straw-based electricity generation could be a high-potential alternative for electricity generation as well as an incentive for utilizing wheat straw instead of burning it in the field.

  14. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  15. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  16. 秋季玉米秸秆覆盖对丘陵旱地小麦生理特性及水分利用效率的影响%Effects of Autumn Straw Mulching on Physiological Characteristics and Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat Grown in Hilly Drought Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓丽; 汤永禄; 李朝苏; 吴春; 黄钢

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal drought during winter and spring often occurs in southwest hilly area of China, which severely influences seedling standing and yield in winter wheat. In this study, we conducted a two-year field experiment in Jianyang, Sichuan prov-ince in the 2012–2013 (dry) and 2013–2014 (wet) growing seasons to explore the effects of straw mulching on physiological characteristics, water use efficiency (WUE), and grain yield of winter wheat. Four treatments were designed, namely non-mulching (CK), non-mulching plus two irrigations after sowing and at jointing stage (T1), straw mulching before sowing (T2), and straw mulching before sowing and during wheat growth (T3). In the dry year (2012–2013), the yields of T1, T2, and T3 were 4151, 3926, and 3603 kg ha–1, which were 42.0%, 34.3%, and 23.2% higher than those of CK, respectively, and the WUEs of T1, T2, and T3 increased by 27.2%, 29.6%, and 18.8%, respectively. However, in the wet year (2013–2014), the yield variation among treatments was slight. In the dry year, irrigation or straw mulching showed the effects on enhancing dry matter accumula-tion from sowing to anthesis and inhibiting SPAD attenuation of flag leaf and penultimate leaf after anthesis and straw mulching increased soil moisture content in pre-sowing and whole growing period. Compared with CK, T2 significantly increased root dry matter, root-to-shoot ratio, root length density, root dry matter density, and root surface area density in some critical growth stages, and highly enhanced root system in deep soil. According to correlation analysis, grain yield was positively correlated with dry matter accumulations in the periods of sowing–tillering, tillering–jointing, jointing–anthesis, and anthesis–maturity, SPAD values of flag and penultimate leaf after anthesis, and WUE. These results indicate that straw mulch before wheat sowing can maintain soil moisture, delay leaf senescence and increase grain yield in winter wheat.%西南丘陵冬

  17. ESTIMATION OF RESOURCE-HEALING ROLE LUPINE AND STRAW IN THE GRAIN-ROW CROP ROTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana ANISIMOVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In field experiences on soddy-podzolic sandy soil of Meshchersky lowland high agroeconomic efficiency of an adaptive link of a crop rotation with, grown up on grain, a potato and barley is established, at entering winter wheat straw under lupine . Straw in a combination with lupine has proved to be a perspective reserve of reproduction of fertility of soils without participation of nitrogen of mineral fertilizers.

  18. The effect of urea pretreatment on the formaldehyde emission and properties of straw particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hojat Hematabadi; Rabi Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    For manufacturing low-formaldehyde emission particleboard from wheat straw and urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins using urea treatment for indoor environments,we investigated the influence of urea treatment on the formaldehyde emission,physical and mechanical properties of the manufactured particleboard.Wheat straws were treated at three levels of urea concentration (5%,10%,15%) and 95℃ as holding temperature.Wheat straw particleboards were manufactured using hot press at 180℃ and 3 MPa with two types of UF adhesive (UF-45,UF-91).Then the formaldehyde emission values,physical properties and mechanical properties were considered.The results show that the formaldehyde emission value was decreased by increasing urea concentration.Furthermore,the results indicate that the specimens under urea treatment have better mechanical and physical properties compared with control specimens.Also specimens under urea treatment at 10% concentration and UF-91 type adhesive have the most optimum physical and mechanical strength.

  19. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  20. 秸秆覆盖对旱作冬小麦农田土壤呼吸、作物产量及经济-环境效益的影响%Effect of straw mulching on soil respiration, crop yield, economy-environment benefit in rainfed winter wheat fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂纯; 王俊; 官情; 刘文兆

    2013-01-01

    基于2009-2011年田间试验,研究了黄土旱塬区不同秸秆覆盖措施下冬小麦农田土壤呼吸和小麦产量变化,计算了生产每千克籽粒产量下土壤CO2的释放量,并以此比较了处理间的经济-环境效益值.试验包括4个处理:无覆盖对照(CK)、全年9000kg·hm-2秸秆覆盖(M9000)、全年4500 kg·hm-2秸秆覆盖(M4500)和夏闲期秸秆覆盖(SF).结果表明:冬小麦生育期内土壤CO2累积释放量在处理间无显著差异,但第1年生育期为14.92~17.43 t(CO2)·hm-2,显著高于第2年[12.95~13.69 t(CO2)·hm-2](P<0.05),处理和年份的交互作用不显著.与CK(产量5.03 t·hm-2)相比,秸秆覆盖降低了作物产量,其中M9000 (4.71 t·hm-2)与CK差异显著.经济-环境效益值计算结果显示,冬小麦生育期内生产每千克籽粒释放2.96~3.16 kg CO2,处理间无显著差异.从各处理平均值看,小麦产量以及经济-环境效益值均存在显著的年际差异,降水偏少的第1年度作物产量(4.60~4.98t·hm-2)显著低于降水相对丰富的第2年度(4.50~5.47 t·hm-2),但经济-环境效益值(3.03~3.69 kg·kg-1、2.45~2.88kg·kg-1)结果相反.处理和年份对作物产量和经济-环境效益值具有显著的交互影响,在缺水年份秸秆覆盖能够提高作物产量,M9000处理具有最优的经济-环境效益;而在丰水年份,秸秆覆盖导致产量显著下降,CK具有更好的经济-环境效益.%As a common cultivation pattern in the Loess Plateau,straw mulching has played a significant role in increasing grain yield,improving water use efficiency and regulating soil CO2 emission.A field experiment was conducted to measure the response of soil respiration and crop yield to different straw mulching treatments under winter wheat monoculture system in 2009-2011.Economy-environment benefit,calculated by soil CO2 emission per unit wheat yield,was also evaluated for each mulching treatment.The four treatments included the control (CK

  1. The effect of biochar and crop straws on heavy metal bioavailability and plant accumulation in a Cd and Pb polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Sun, Cai-Xia; Ye, Xue-Zhu; Xiao, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar derived from various materials has been investigated with regard to its ability to decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils, and thus reduce their potential to enter the food chain. However, little attention has been given to the adsorption capacity of untreated crop straws, which are commonly used as a biochar feedstock, especially in soils. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of crop straws on heavy metal immobilization and subsequent heavy metal uptake by maize and ryegrass in a soil artificially polluted by Cd and Pb. Bamboo biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw were mixed into soil four weeks before the experiment, enabling them to reach equilibrium at 2% (w/w), 1% (w/w), and 1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that soil pH for both species was significantly increased by all treatments, except when wheat straw was used for ryegrass cultivation. Soil organic carbon was only improved in the rice straw treatment and the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N content was significantly decreased with all of the amendments, which may have contributed to the lack of an effect on plant biomass. Soil available Cd was significantly lower in the rice straw treatment than in the control soil, while Pb levels clearly decreased in wheat straw treatment. The Cd concentration in shoots of maize was reduced by 50.9%, 69.5%, and 66.9% with biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw, respectively. In addition, shoot Cd accumulation was decreased by 47.3%, 67.1%, and 66.4%, respectively. Shoot Pb concentration and accumulation were only reduced with the rice straw treatment for both species. However, metal uptake in plant roots was more complex, with increased metal concentrations also detected. Overall, the direct application of crop straw could be considered a feasible way to immobilize selected metals in soil, once the long-term effects are confirmed. PMID:27285283

  2. Ash from cereal and rape straw used for heat production: liming effect and contents of plant nutrients and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, M.-L.; Andren, O. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1997-01-01

    The composition of 79 samples of straw ash from seven heating plants in Sweden was analysed with the aim of evaluating straw ash as a fertilizer and liming agent. The variation in ash composition was explained mainly by ash fraction (bottom ash vs. fly ash) and straw type (wheat, barley, rye, rape) but also by heating plant. Compared with concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in bottom ash; levels in fly ash were 10-90 times higher. Fly ash also contained more Cu and K compared with bottom ash. The Cd/P ratio was 0.03 in bottom ash and 0.6 g Cd/kg P in fly ash. Ash from rape straw had a higher Ca content and liming effect compared with ash from cereal straw; e.g. the liming effect of rape ash was more than three times higher than that of wheat ash. The liming effect varied between 3.5 and 44% CaO and depended mainly on the Ca content. The average P content was 1.7% (0.2-4.4%) with slightly higher concentration in rape ash than in wheat ash. The potential for using straw ash as a fertilizer and liming agent is discussed. Compared with commercial fertilizers the use of bottom ash as a P fertilizer results in a lower addition of Cd. However, the total heavy metal content of straw ash poses a potential problem. 24 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJe (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJe but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJe. However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJh. Based on its properties (Slagging index, Rs = 0.04; fouling index, Rf 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  4. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Straw Roughage by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zihao; Feng, Mengyuan; Zhu, Kechen; Han, Lijun; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2016-08-10

    A multiresidue analytical method using a modification of the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established and validated for the rapid determination of 69 pesticides at different levels (1-100 ng/g) in wheat and rice straws. In the quantitative analysis, the recoveries ranged from 70 to 120%, and consistent RSDs ≤ 20% were achieved for most of the target analytes (53 pesticides in wheat straw and 58 in rice straw). Almost all of the analytes achieved good linearity with R(2) > 0.98, and the limit of validation levels (LVLs) for diverse pesticides ranged from 1 to 10 ng/g. Different extraction and cleanup conditions were evaluated in both types of straw, leading to different options. The use of 0.1% formic acid or not in extraction with acetonitrile yielded similar final outcomes, but led to the use of a different sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Both options are efficient and useful for the multiresidue analysis of targeted pesticides in wheat and rice straw samples. PMID:26881844

  5. Structural differences in wheat (Triticum aestivum), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and Mischanthus (Mischanthus ogiformis) affect the quality and stability of compost as growing medium

    OpenAIRE

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Physical properties as well as process parameters were examined in three different composts based on plant residues. The wheat compost was a mixture of clover-grass and wheat straw in a ratio of 3:5, the Mischanthus compost was composed of the same materials and contained Mischanthus straw in addition in a ratio of 3:2.5:2, and the hemp compost was based on clover-grass, wheat and hemp straw also in a ratio of 3:2.5:2. The wheat and Mischanthus composts both had an initial C/N ratio of 26 and...

  6. Fertilizer-N uptake by Chickpea and Wheat Crops under Intercropping System using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. The lowest portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer was resulted from application of compost and chickpea straw treatments. It is worthy to mention that full recommend dos of fertilizer (20 kg N fed-1) was efficiently used by shoots of chickpea plants. Portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer by seeds of chickpea was lower than those recorded with shoots. Generally, there was no big significant difference between nitrogen gained by shoots and seeds from the organic materials. This holds true with all treatments. More declines in nitrogen derived from soil percentages were resulted from application of cow manure and compost treatments under different rate of mineral fertilizer, the application 100% MF treatment induced higher nitrogen derived from soil pool as compared to the other treatments. The best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general, nitrogen derived from air by shoots lower than those up taken by seeds of chickpea plant. Application of wheat straw and compost treatments were enhanced the nitrogen derived from fertilizer by straw of wheat plant as compared to caw manure, maize stalk, chickpea straw, but Ndff% in grains of wheat , cow manure and maize stalk increased as compared to the other treatment. Application of organic materials, chickpea straw and cow manure achieved the highest value of Ndfo% by straw of wheat plant as compared to maize stalk, compost and wheat straw. But values of nitrogen derived from organic in grains of wheat plants, the application of chickpea straw and wheat straw

  7. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Bouasker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  8. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Luncheons Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, ... texture you are trying to achieve. Differences between Wheat Allergy and Celiac Disease or Gluten Intolerance A ...

  9. Effects of Wheat Straw Returning Patterns on Characteristics of Dry Matter Accumulation, Distribution and Yield of Rotation Maize%小麦秸秆还田方式对轮作玉米干物质累积分配及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷文; 冯福学; 赵财; 于爱忠; 柴强; 胡发龙; 郭瑶

    2016-01-01

    Research on the response of dry matter accumulation, distribution and yield of crops to previous straw returning usually plays an important role for optimizing cropping systems. In this investigation, a field experiment was carried out in typical oasis irrigation region, to determine the characteristics of dry matter distribution and yield of rotated maize with four previous wheat straw treatments, including 25 cm no tillage with straw standing (NTSS); 25 cm no tillage with straw covering (NTS); 25 cm till-age with straw incorporation (TIS); and conventional tillage (CT). The results showed that, compraed with CT, NTSS, NTS, TIS significantly increased dry matter accumulation by an average of 4.8% to 12.7% after maize heading stage in two years; and im-proved contribution rate to grain yield (i.e. GCR) of maize by an average of 12.8% to 25.0% from leaf, 6.3% to 11.3% from stem, and 18.3% to 78.4% from sheath, respectively. Especially, NTS had more improvement than NTSS, TIS. The grain yield of maize was 11.3% to 17.5% higher in the three straw returning treatments than in CT check. NTS exhibited the most significant effect of improving yield, reaching 13470 and 13274 kg ha-1 in two study years, which was 5.6% to 9.0% higher than that of TIS due to the increase of kernel number per spike. Meanwhile, NTS had the best effect on increasing harvest index, which was increased by 6.4% to 8.4% during the two study years, and resulted in a high grain yield. Our results showed that NTS treatment is recom-mended as the best feasible cultural method to optimize dry matter accumulation, distribution and obtain high yield for rotated maize in the oasis irrigation region.%研究茬口对轮作作物的产量贡献及干物质积累与分配规律的影响,对于优化作物高产高效栽培理论和技术具有重要意义.本研究在甘肃河西绿洲灌区,通过田间试验,研究了前茬小麦不同秸秆还田方式(25 cm高茬收割免耕,NTSS;25 cm高

  10. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm) are ...... burnout of the two fuels is predicted: about 93% for coal char vs. 73% for straw char. As the conclusion, a reliable modelling methodology for pulverized biomass/coal co-firing and some useful co-firing design considerations are suggested....

  11. The use of image analysis to investigate C:N ratio in the mixture of chicken manure and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekała, W.; Dach, J.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Witaszek, K.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of analysis of C:N ratio in the chicken manure and wheat straw mixture. This paper presents preliminary assumptions and parameters of extraction characteristics process. It also presents an introduction of digital image analysis of chicken manure and wheat straw mixture. This work is an introduction to the study on develop computer system that could replace chemical analysis. Good understanding the value of dependence C:N on the basis of image analysis will help in selection of optimal conditions for biological waste treatment.

  12. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  14. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  15. 基于秸秆全量还田的不同耕作方法下稻麦生产的碳效率及收益评估%An Evaluation of Carbon Efficiency and Economic Income for Rcie and Wheat Production under Different Farming Methods with Full Straw Returning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚光; 刘建; 魏亚凤; 李波; 汪波

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate carbon sequestration potential of rice-wheat rotation system in Jiangsu Province, the rice-wheat cropping fields along Yangtze River in Jiangsu province were chosen to estimate the carbon input, carbon output, carbon efficiency and economic income in rice and wheat production. The research was based on data of grain yield, material and labor inputs under different farming methods which were wheat-rice wide-row alternative protective farming mode and annual mechanized farming for rice and wheat with full straw returning. The results showed that the amount of annual carbon input under protective farming (PF) and mechanized farming (MF) were 1836.3 kg/hm2 and 2290.5 kg/hm2, respectively. Compared with MF, carbon inputs of seeds, chemical fertilizer and machinery under PF were lower, but carbon input of labor was higher. The annual carbon output under PF and MF were 18.23 t/hm2 and 16.15 t/hm2, respectively, and PF had 12.9%more annual carbon output than MF. There was also significant difference between PF and MF in annual carbon efficiency. Compared with MF, PF increased production efficiency, ecological efficiency and economic efficiency of carbon by 40.4%, 40.8%and 40.3%, respectively. Besides, the annual net income of PF reached 20.25 × 103 yuan/hm2 and was 22.8% more than that of MF. The results indicated that the protective farming method with full straw returning could increase carbon efficiency and economic income and achieve a win-win situation of environment benefit and economic benefit.%为探明江苏稻麦轮作农业的固碳减排效应,以江苏沿江地区稻麦两熟田块为研究对象,利用基于秸秆全量还田的不同耕作方法下(麦稻宽行交互保护性耕作技术模式和稻麦周年机械化耕作方式)作物产量、系统物质投入以及人工投入等资料,估算稻麦生产的碳投入、碳产出、碳效率以及经济收益。结果表明:保护性耕作方式和机械化耕作方式

  16. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  17. Development of oil-spill sorbent from straw biomass waste: Experiments and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijani, Mansour M; Aqsha, Aqsha; Mahinpey, Nader

    2016-04-15

    The recovery of oil spilled on land or water has become an important issue due to environmental regulations. Canadian biomasses as fibrous materials are naturally renewable and have the potential to absorb oil-spills at different ranges. In this work, four Canadian biomasses were examined in order to evaluate their oil affinities and study parameters that could affect oil affinity when used as sorbent, such as average particle size, surface coating and reusability. Moreover, one oil sorption model was adopted and coupled with another developed model to approximate and verify the experimental findings of the oil sorbent biomasses. At an average particle size of 150-1000 μm, results showed that barley straw biomass had the highest absorbency value at 6.07 g/g, while flax straw had the lowest value at 3.69 g/g. Wheat and oat straws had oil absorbency values of 5.49 and 5.00 g/g, respectively. An average particle size of 425-600 μm indicated better absorbency values for oat and wheat straws. Furthermore, the thermal stability study revealed major weight recovery for two flame retardant coatings at hemicellulose and lignocellulose degradation temperature ranges. It was also found that oat straw biomass could be regenerated and used for many sorption/desorption cycles, as the reusability experiment showed only a 18.45% reduction in the oil absorbency value after six consecutive cycles. The developed penetration absorbency (PA) model showed oat straw adsorbed oil at the inter-particle level; and, the results of the sorption capacity model coupled with the PA model excellently predicted the oil sorption of raw and coated oat straws. PMID:26895719

  18. Impact of Fungicides Used for Wheat Treatment on Button Mushroom Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields of Agaricus bisporus. Potential chemical risks of eight fungicides (for wheat treatments for A. bisporus: mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl,carbendazim+cyproconazole, carbedazim+flusilasole, captan, chlorothalonil and trifloxystrobinare disscused. Only the value of maximum residue level of flusilasole and its formulation was evaluated as higher than medium effective concentration of the fungicide for A.bisporus. As a conclusion, flusilazole treatment could be a limiting factor for using straw for composting and mushroom cultivation.

  19. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  20. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  1. Optimising crop production and nitrate leaching in China: measured and simulated effects of straw incorporation and nitrogen fertilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Li, Xiaoxin;

    2016-01-01

    model Daisy for estimating crop production and nitrate leaching from silty loam fields in the NCP. The main objectives were to: i) calibrate and validate Daisy for the NCP pedo-climate and field management conditions, and ii) use the calibrated model and the field data in a multi-response analyses...... to optimise the N fertiliser rate for maize and winter wheat under different field managements including straw incorporation. The model sensitivity analysis indicated that a few measurable crop parameters impact the simulated yield, while most of the studied topsoil parameters affect the simulated nitrate...... for wheat) for the double crop rotation with straw incorporation is the most optimal in balancing crop production and nitrate leaching under the studied conditions, given the soil replenishment with N from straw mineralisation, atmospheric deposition and residual fertiliser. This work provides a sound...

  2. EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND IN CORPORATION OF STRAW ON NITRATE LEACHING IN FARMLAND UNDER WHEAT-MAIZE ROTATION SYSTEM%施氮和秸秆还田对小麦-玉米轮作农田硝态氮淋溶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宪龙; 路永莉; 同延安; 林文; 梁婷

    2013-01-01

    A four-year stationary field experiment,using the lysimeter method,was conducted to investigate effects of application of nitrogen fertilizer and incorporation of straws on nitrate leaching in the soil layer,90 cm in depth,in a field under wheat and maize rotation in Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province.Results show that nitrate leaching varied sharply in a year and occurred mainly in July,August and September,the rainy season of the year,and could be observed after flood irrigation,too.The nitrate concentration in the leachate and nitrate leaching loss in the whole monitored period was 0 ~ 103.5 mg L-1 and 0 ~ 21.8 kg hm-2,respectively,and both displayed an increasing trend along with nitrogen application rate.The crops gained relatively high yields (14.4 t hm-2 on average) in all the 4 years,when 330 kg hm-2 N (150 kg hm-2 N for wheat and 180 kg hm-2 N for corn) was applied for the wheat/maize rotation system.Any further increase in nitrogen application rate did not bring about increase in crop yield,but enhanced accordingly nitrate accumulation in the soil profile and nitrate leaching loss monitored at the depth of 90 cm of the profile.Straw incorporation showed some yield increasing effect only two years later.Compared with Treatment N330,Treatment N330 + S increased yield of the crops by 15.1% and 14.2% in 2010 and 2011,respectively.However,no significant effects were observed on nitrate accumulation and leaching.Regression analysis of the data exposed an positive exponential relationship of nitrate accumulation in the 0 ~ 100 cm soil layer and nitrate leaching loss with annual nitrogen application rate,which means that the higher the nitrogen application rate,the higher the nitrate accumulation,the higher the nitrate leaching loss,and the higher the proportions of the two to the total nitrate applied.%连续4 a采用渗漏计测定法研究了陕西关中小麦-玉米轮作区施氮和秸秆还田对土壤剖面90 em处NO3--N

  3. Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation was determined for sugarcane (SC) straw in terms of pulp composition (non-carbohydrate components, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and properties (kappa number, pulp intrinsic viscosity in CED and cellulose degree of polymerization). Effect of temperature (135-165°C) and time (18-118min) was studied at fixed liquor composition (SO2/ethanol/water=12:22.5:65.5, w/w) and a liquor-to-solid ratio (4Lkg(-1)). Interpretation is given in terms of major fractionation reactions, removal of non-carbohydrate components and xylan, as well as acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and is compared to other lignocellulosic substrates (beech, spruce and wheat straw). Overall, SO2-ethanol-water process efficiently fractionates SC straw by separating cellulose from both non-carbohydrate components and xylan while reducing cellulose DP. PMID:27089426

  4. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by ...

  5. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  6. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING SHENGJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  7. A trial burn of rape straw and whole crops harvested for energy use to assess efficiency implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    Increased biomass utilisation and alternatives to cereal straw such as oil seed rape (OSR) straw will be necessary to achieve the Government's renewable energy targets. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of burning OSR straw and whole crops in an existing biomass power plant operated by EPR Ely Ltd in comparison with conventional cereal straw. Suitable quantities of bales of each fuel were provided for the combustion trials by Anglian Straw Ltd. Three trials were conducted: one using wheat-based cereal straw; one using 92% OSR; and one using 65% whole crop fuel. The availability of OSR straw and whole crop in Eastern England for use as fuel was also determined. Plant performance and stack emissions were evaluated and samples of delivered crop samples, bottom ash and fly ash from each trial were analysed. The parameters against which performance was assessed included: ease of handling and conveying; ease of chopping; ease of entry into the combustion chamber; furnace temperature profile; steam and electricity production rate; plant chimney emissions; ash collection and removal; operating stability; sustainability; and fuel availability.

  8. Radiation balance of a soil-straw surface modified by straw color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straw color may alter the net radiative flux at the soil-straw surface and, consequently, the availability of energy for soil, biological, and atmospheric processes. This study ascertained the radiation balance of a soil-straw surface as modified by the color of the straw on the surface. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) stubble and loose straw on 36-m2 plots near Fairbanks, AK, was painted black, white, or remained unpainted (natural) in a randomized block experimental design. Reflected global radiation was measured in the spring of 1988–1990 and net radiation was monitored in the spring of 1990. Midday reflected global radiation and soil-straw surface temperatures were measured on clear days in 1989. The albedo of the black straw treatment was 0.05, of the natural straw treatment was 0.2, and of the white straw treatment was 0.3. The black straw treatment resulted in higher midday surface temperatures and consequently higher emission of longwave radiation compared with other straw color treatments. A soilstraw-atmosphere system model provided good estimates of the measured net radiative flux in 1990 (R2 = 0.91). The model predicted that a soil-black straw surface would absorb 10% more radiation than a soil-natural straw surface and 15% more radiation than a soil-white straw surface averaged over the three years. The results suggest that straw color management can be an option for altering the surface radiation balance in regions with extreme climates. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  10. IN VITRO UTILIZATION OF NPN SOURCES BY INCREASING LEVELS OF CORN STARCH IN STRAW BASED DIETS

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. ALI, T. KHALIQ1, M. SARWAR, A. JAVAID, M. A. SHAHZAD, M. NISA AND S. ZAKIR2

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacement of 50% cottonseed meal (CSM) nitrogen with various non protein nitrogen (NPN) sources i.e. urea (CU), biuret (CB) and diammonium phosphate (CD). The four energy sources were: wheat straw with no corn starch (WS), WS + 20% corn starch, WS + 30% corn starch and WS + 40% corn starch. These substrates were fermented with rumen liquor to measure in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD), bacterial count and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) co...

  11. Anaerobic Slurry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure and Straw: Effect of Organic Loading and Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Babaee; Jalal Shayegan; Anis Roshani

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volum...

  12. Reclamation Of Plant Wastes (Straw) And Obtaining (Nano) Chips With Bactericidal Properties Based On Them

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidovna Voropaeva Nadezda; Mukhin Viktor Mikhailovich; Anatolyevna Revina Alexandra; Alekseevich Busev Sergey; Vladimirovich Karpachev Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Rape, camelina, wheat and Jerusalem artichoke vegetable wastes (straw) as annually renewable raw materials were processed into activated carbons, which were modified with silver nanoparticles for carbonaceous sorbents to acquire specific properties, since carbonaceous sorbents are usually widely used in the food industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of human activity. The technology to obtain active carbons from agricultural crop residues has been developed, active carbon physico-c...

  13. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  14. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  15. Integration of Agricultural Waste in Local Building Materials for their Exploitation: Application with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through experiments, we have determined the mechanical and thermal properties of samples. This allowed us to determine the most optimal formulations. Therefore, we have prepared samples constituted by two basic materials, clay and laterite, mixed with rice straw. Thus, agriculture is among the economic sectors that produce more waste. The latter are mainly the straw of the three most-produced cereals in the world: wheat, corn and rice. Concerning rice straw, its high content of cellulose makes it difficult to digest. So, few animals are able to use it as food. Most of the straws are lost, buried, burned or used as litter. Moreover, clay and laterite formations represent the most abundant materials resources in Africa. So, this study has allowed us to show that the integration of rice straw in lateritic and clay soils for its use as building materials will allow, in addition to its recycling, to greatly reduce the social habitat cost and to improve the thermal comfort.

  16. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  17. Increased Yield Surplus of Vetch-Wheat Rotations under Drought in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Dalias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a plot-scale field experiment aiming at the comparative evaluation of agricultural practices and agricultural systems as far as their performance in very-low-rainfall conditions is concerned. Wheat was seeded after common vetch, treated in three different ways, after fallow or after the incorporation of dried sewage sludge or straw. Grain and straw yields and grain characteristics were always compared with conventional wheat monoculture without any additional organic inputs. Results showed a clear positive effect of vetch on next year's wheat yield and an increase in grain protein. Not only did the exceptionally dry season mask this effect, but also vetch-wheat systems were proved to be more effective in restraining wheat yield reductions, which are unavoidable under drought, marking these systems the most promising for improving sustainability and stability of rainfed agriculture.

  18. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  19. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Peyvast

    2008-01-01

    Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrat...

  20. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  1. Pre-study - Straw ash in a nutrient loop; Foerstudie - Halmaska i ett kretslopp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter; Bjurstroem, Henrik; Johansson, Christina; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Mattsson, Jan Erik

    2009-03-15

    A sustainable production of energy crops requires that the loss of mineral nutrients when removing biomass is compensated naturally or by an addition of plant nutrients. Recycling ash is a natural way to satisfy this need arising after combustion of energy crops. In this pre-study, the prerequisites for recycling straw ash have been investigated. The Danish experience with spreading ash to fields and information in literature on the composition of ash have been collected and presented. Analysis of straw samples taken from four different places in Scania yielded information on cadmium and nutrient concentration in straw and in ash. A balance between removal of nutrient and cadmium with wheat straw and restoring them by recycling straw ash has been computed. Straw ash is a potassium fertiliser with some phosphorus and some liming effect. It is technically difficult to spread the small quantities of ash in solid form, ca 250 kg per hectare and year in average, which a pure recycling would require. It is easier to spread larger quantities, e.g. ca 1 ton per hectare every fourth year, which corresponds to spreading once in a four year crop rotation, but then one provides too much potassium if one considers the actual needs of the coming crops at that occasion, which could lead to potassium being leached out on light soils. Alternatively, one could spread only bottom ash, but this would lead to half of the potassium content not being recycled to agricultural soil and lost with the fly ash that is disposed of. If one spreads about 500 kg bottom ash per hectare every other year, which could be a suitable strategy to avoid overloading soils with potassium, the dose brought to 1 ha may be computed as: 4 - 10 kg phosphorus, 50 - 100 kg potassium, 5 - 15 kg sulphur, 4 - 8 kg magnesium, 0.1 - 0.3 kg manganese and 20 - 40 kg CaO. These basis of these calculations is the results from the analyses performed in this study. The cadmium concentration was significantly higher in wheat

  2. Pyrolysis of wheat straw-derived organosolv lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, P.J. de; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Heeres, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a lignocellulose biorefinery may be improved by developing applications for lignin with a higher value than application as fuel. We have developed a pyrolysis based lignin biorefinery approach, called LIBRA, to transform lignin into phenolic bio-oil and biochar using bubbli

  3. Combustion Properties of Straw Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qing-ling; Chen Fu-jin; Wang Yang-yang; Zhang Bai-liang

    2013-01-01

    The low bulk density of straw is one of the major barriers, which blocks the collection, handling, transportation and storage. Densification of biomass into briquettes/pellets is a suitable method of increasing the bulk density of biomass. Yet in the process, a tremendous amount of air is ejected from biomass grind, which brings substantial specific variation including combustion property. Among them, combustion property is critical for proper design and operation of burning facilities. There...

  4. Combustion Properties of Straw Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing-ling

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The low bulk density of straw is one of the major barriers, which blocks the collection, handling, transportation and storage. Densification of biomass into briquettes/pellets is a suitable method of increasing the bulk density of biomass. Yet in the process, a tremendous amount of air is ejected from biomass grind, which brings substantial specific variation including combustion property. Among them, combustion property is critical for proper design and operation of burning facilities. Therefore, a series of tests about combustion properties of 75mm diameter corn briquettes were done. First, the combustion process (ignition, full flaming and glowing phases., precipitation of tar were investigated by a heating stove, then, Some ash sample from the muffle burner was subjected to an ash melting characteristic test. The results show the combustion of briquettes takes more time than that of raw straw from ignition to complete combustion; in order to meet complete combustion in a short time, the raw straw needs more supply air volume than briquettes under the same α value; the temperature of furnace chamber should been controlled under 900°C, which help to reduce the dark smoke, tar and slag.

  5. Dissipation and Residues of Dichlorprop-P and Bentazone in Wheat-Field Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jianlei; Pan, Lixiang; Song, Guochun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorprop-P and bentazone have been widely used in the prevention and control of weeds in wheat field ecosystems. There is a concern that pesticide residues and metabolites remain on or in the wheat. Thus, the study of the determination and monitoring of their residues in wheat has important significance. A rapid, simple and reliable QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was modified, developed and validated for the determination of dichlorprop-P, bentazone and its metabolites (6-hydroxy-bentazone and 8-hydroxy-bentazone) in wheat (wheat plants, wheat straw and grains of wheat) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of this method ranged from 72.9% to 108.7%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2.5-12 μg/kg. The dissipation and final residue of four compounds in three provinces (Shandong, Jiangsu and Heilongjiang) in China were studied. The trial results showed that the half-lives of dichlorprop-P and bentazone were 1.9-2.5 days and 0.5-2.4 days in wheat plants, respectively. The terminal residues in grains of wheat and wheat straw at harvest were all much below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg/kg for dichlorprop-P and 0.1 mg/kg for bentazone established by the European Union (EU, Regulation No. 396/2005). PMID:27240385

  6. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...... dealt with and thus perceived as a barrier to straw build, rather than simply a problem of a general character....

  7. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo;

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system and...... invetsigations were performed. The economy of both processes are favourable compared with seperate straw fired boilers, however, the removal efficiency of potassium of the pyrolysi based process is relatively low. At the present level of invetsigations the straw wash process looks promising and commercially...

  8. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  9. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  10. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  11. Wheat Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  12. The Effect of Three Common Grain Drills on Dryland Wheat Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heidari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field experiment (2004-2007 was conducted on a silty clay loam soil at Tajarak Research Station of Hamedan to determine proper grain drill for wheat in Hamedan dryland areas. In this study, three grain drills including: Hamedani Barzegar; Sahalan Kesht; and Kesht Gostar with wheat seed broadcasting and disking were used. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. In laboratory, the precision of metering device and the amount of seed damage by metering mechanism were measured. At the end of growth season (harvesting time, crop yield and the associated parameters (spike per m2, number of grain per spike, wheat kernel were determined. Results showed that planting methods did not affect wheat grain yield significantly. However, wheat grain yield was significantly higher for Kesht Gostar grain drill than the other two machines in two drier years. Mean wheat grain yield was 1224 kg ha–1. Mean wheat grain yield was the greatest (1275 kg ha-1 for Kesht Gostar and the least (1174 Kg ha-1 for Hamedani Barzegar grain drill. Mean straw yield was not affected by planting methods. Mean wheat straw yield was the greatest (2349 kg ha-1 for Hamedani Barzegar grain drill, and the least (2009 Kg ha-1 for the combination of seed broadcasting and disking. The amounts of rainfall during growing season strongly influenced wheat grain and straw yields. Mean wheat grain yield was 1572 Kg ha-1 and 1026 Kg ha-1 in wet year and dry years, respectively. This study showed that a wide range of grain drills is adaptable for dryland wheat cropping system for the semiarid Hamedan areas.

  13. 基于滑板压秆旋切式防堵装置的秸秆摩擦特性研究%Straw friction characteristic based on rotary cutting anti-blocking device with slide plate pressing straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢彩云; 赵春江; 孟志军; 王秀; 武广伟; 高娜娜

    2016-01-01

    plate pressing straw for no-till planter smoothly, which related to the coefficient of friction between slide plate and straw and the coefficient of friction between soil and straw. To solve the problem, taking wheat straw and maize straw of annual double cropping areas in Northern China as the research object, this study tested the coefficient of friction between 4 kinds of slide plate (Q235 steel, stainless steel, wood and plastic) and straw and the coefficient of friction between 3 kinds of different moisture of soil (10%, 12.5% and 15%) and straw. Considered the straw status during working of no-till anti-blockage device, straw part and contact angle were also as the factors to affect coefficient of friction, except slide plate material and soil moisture. The result showed that the coefficient of friction between slide plate and maize straw satisfied: Q235 steel>stainless steel= plastic>wood, and the coefficient of friction between slide plate and wheat straw satisfied: stainless steel>Q235 steel>wood >plastic. Single factor analysis indicated that the coefficient of friction between slide plate and maize straw was significantly impacted by slide plate material, straw part and contact angle, and the coefficient of friction between slide plate and wheat straw was significantly impacted by slide plate material and contact angle (P0.05), and straw part and contact angle were significantly affected the coefficient of friction between soil and both wheat and maize straw (P0.05). No interaction was found in three-factor analysis (P>0.05). In addition, the result showed that Q235 steel was suitable for maize straw, and stainless steel was suitable for wheat straw. The study supports reference for the design of no-till anti-blockage device.

  14. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne;

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of...

  15. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  16. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...

  17. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Moilanen, A.; Norby, P.; Papadakis, K.; Posselt, D.; Sørensen, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...

  18. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... calcium binds silicon primarily as calcium silicates and less as potassium calcium silicates....

  19. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  20. Allelopathic activity of pakistan wheat genotypes against wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat allelopathy can be manipulated for sustainable weed management in wheat based cropping systems. Bioassays were conducted to quantify the allelopathic potential of 35 indigenous wheat genotypes against germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Foliar application of aqueous extracts of wheat straw, surface mulching and incorporation of wheat straw of different genotypes were employed for bioassays study. Results revealed the suppressive allelopathic activity of different wheat genotypes manifested in the form of impaired germination and retarded seedling growth of wild oat. A highly significant genotypic variation in allelopathic potential was observed for different traits. Germination of wild oat was decreased by 10-84% over control by different wheat genotypes. Likewise, over 70% reductions in seedling root and shoot dry weight of wild oat was also observed in V6007. Wheat genotypes viz. V6007, AS 2000, V6111, V6034, V4611, V7189, Uqa b 2000, Chanab 2000, Bhakkar 2002, Pak 81 and Rohtas 90 showed strongly inhibitory allelopathic activity against seedling growth of wild oat. V6007 exhibited highest suppression of wild oat. These studies confirm the suppressive allelopathic potential of indigenous wheat genotypes against wild oat that needs further to be explored under natural conditions. (author)

  1. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa.; Edstroem, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  2. Field study on the uptake and translocation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in biosolids-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soils amended with biosolids at different rates. Nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were detected in the soils and wheat tissues. Total concentrations of PFAAs in the soils and wheat root, straw, husk and grain increased with increasing application of biosolids. PFCA concentrations in grain increased logarithmically with increasing PFCA concentrations in soils (P root/Csoil) and PFAA carbon chain length, the transfer factors from roots to straws (Cstraw/Croot) and from straws to grains (Cgrain/Cstraw) correlated negatively with PFAA carbon chain length (P < 0.01). Highlights: • The uptake and translocation of PFAAs by wheat was conducted under field study. • PFAAs in soils and wheat increased with increasing application of biosolids. • The transfer factors from roots to straws of PFCAs were higher than that of PFSAs. • The transfer factors from straws to grains of PFSAs were higher than that of PFCAs. • The transfer factors correlated negatively with PFAA carbon chain length. -- Land application of biosolids results in the accumulation of PFAAs in agricultural soils and wheat tissues

  3. Rice-wheat research - At the crossroads?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a direct experience with rice-wheat research derives from an ACIAR-funded project over the past four years. The project involves cropping systems experiments carried out with BARI and BRRI at three sites in Bangladesh, and crop modeling work in conjunction with an Australian partner, CSIRO Land and Water, at Griffith, NSW. In Bangladesh, the rice-wheat system has developed following the introduction of wheat into a still-dominant rice economy. Much land is only suited to rice during the monsoon period, pre-monsoon crops suffer waterlogging towards the end of the season, and wheat requires irrigation for high productivity during its winter-spring period of growth. The thermal environment is marginal for wheat such that its production is only feasible in the northern, cooler part of the country. The experiments we have established have sought to push the system to a high level of productivity. This has involved including a third crop, mungbean or maize, after wheat and before rice and comparing productivity of the system at two levels of fertilizer input, so called farmers' practice and and researchers' recommendations. The legume was included to study the potential for N fixation in the system. The inclusion of maize provides an extreme extractive system for comparison.Rice-wheat, with or without a third crop, is a highly extractive system at the levels of yield that are being sought from it. The design and management of the system presents a challenge increasingly facing modern agronomy, viz, the development and management of highly productive systems that are also sustainable. In current Rice - Wheat systems, the level of extraction is exacerbated by the frequent harvest of straw, as well as grain, and the limited supply of organic matter and nutrients that can be returned as farm-yard manure because of competing use as fuel for cooking

  4. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  5. EFFECT OF STRAW AND GREEN MANURE ON BIOLOGICAL CONDITION SODDY-PODZOLIC SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina RUSAKOVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of changes of a biological condition (status soddy-podzolic sandy soil under the influence of use of mineral fertilizers and biological resources (straw of a winter wheat and stubble green manure, separately and in a combination was an objective of this research. Among the investigated kinds of fertilizers the strongest influence on the mortmass and mortmass carbon, number, activity of soil microflora and the content of soil microbial biomass have rendered straw in a combination with , postharverst green manure (intermediate culture, at the expense of increase in an input of the easily accessible for soil microflora organic matter. In this research mineral fertilizers without additives of organic materials essentially have not affected microbiаl activity

  6. 麦秸预处理方式对黄绵土结构及低吸力段持水性的影响%Effect of Pretreated Wheat Straw on Soil Aggregate and Water-holding Capacity within Low Suctions in Loess Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增丽; 冯浩; 方圆

    2012-01-01

    通过土柱模拟培养试验,对比研究秸秆经过粉碎、氨化预处理及与无机土壤改良剂(硫酸钙)混合配施对黄绵土结构及低吸力段持水特性的影响.结果表明,秸秆经粉碎、氨化预处理及与土壤改良剂配施后能显著提高土壤结构稳定性,降低土壤结构分形维数.其中粉碎氨化秸秆对提高土壤稳定性具有一定的迟效性.秸秆经过不同预处理后施入土壤使土壤孔隙连通性降低,并随着秸秆的分解得到改善.其中长秸秆对土壤孔隙连通性改善作用较粉碎秸秆差.试验表明,土壤团聚体分形维数与土壤结构评价指标均呈极显著负相关关系(P<0.01),土壤团聚体分形维数FD与低吸力段土壤孔隙分形维数Dp之间呈极显著直线相关关系,相关系数为-0.80.FD与Dp两者结合分析可定量描述不同预处理秸秆对土壤结构、低吸力段持水特性的动态影响过程.%A contrast study on effect of powdered, aminated straw with or without inorganic soil conditioner ( calcium sulfate)on soil structure and water-holding capacity in low suction section was made through soil column incubation test. The results showed that the pretreated straw significantly improved soil structure stability, decreased soil structure fractal dimension. Therein the soil with comminuted and aminated straw had a slow acting to improve soil stability. Different pretreatment of straw mixed with soil could make soil porosity connectivity poor in the early stages, and then better with the straw decomposition later. Therein the soil with long straw always kept worse soil porosity than soils with the powdered straw. Furthermore there was a significantly linear correlation between soil aggregate fractal dimension and soil porosity fractal dimension in low suction section. That quantitively explained the effect of the pretreated straw on soil structure and water-holding capacity in low suction section of soil.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  8. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature are...... in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity......, straw packing condition, and heat capacity of the straw have considerable effects on the model predictions of straw combustion in the fixed bed....

  9. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  10. Short Response of Spring Wheat to Tillage, Residue Management and Split Nitrogen Application in a Rice-Wheat System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Fazal Yazdan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Saleem Ud Din

    2014-01-01

    A ifeld experiment was conducted to study the impact of tillage, crop residue management and nitrogen (N) splitting on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield over 2 yr (2010-2012) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system in northwestern Pakistan. The experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised six tillage and residue managements:zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), zero tillage straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), reduced tillage straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), and conventional tillage straw burnt (CTsb) as main plots and N (200 kg ha-1) was applied as split form viz., control (no nitrogen&no splitting, N0S0);2 splits of total N, half at sowing and half at the 1st irrigation (i.e., 20 d after sowing (DAS)) (NS1);3 splits of total N, 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at the 1st irrigation, and 1/3 at the 2nd irrigation (NS2);4 splits of total N, 1/4 at sowing, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation (45 DAS), and 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation (70 DAS) (NS3);and 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation, 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation, and 1/4 at the 4th irrigation (95DAS) (NS4) as sub plots. The results showed that the most pikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, and N use efifciency (NUE) were obtained at zero tillage, straw retained and 4 splits application of total N (i.e., at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing). The results indicated that ZTsr with application of 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 equal splits viz. at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing is an appropriate strategy that enhanced wheat yield (7 436-7 634 kg ha-1) and N efifciency (28.6-29.5 kg kg-1) in rice-wheat system.

  11. Analysis and simulation of straw fuel logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Straw is a renewable biomass that has a considerable potential to be used as fuel in rural districts. This bulky fuel is, however, produced over large areas and must be collected during a limited amount of days and taken to the storages before being ultimately transported to heating plants. Thus, a well thought-out and cost-effective harvesting and handling system is necessary to provide a satisfactory fuel at competitive costs. Moreover, high-quality non-renewable fuels are used in these operations. To be sustainable, the energy content of these fuels should not exceed the energy extracted from the straw. The objective of this study is to analyze straw as fuel in district heating plants with respect to environmental and energy aspects, and to improve the performance and reduce the costs of straw handling. Energy, exergy and emergy analyses were used to assess straw as fuel from an energy point of view. The energy analysis showed that the energy balance is 12:1 when direct and indirect energy requirements are considered. The exergy analysis demonstrated that the conversion step is ineffective, whereas the emergy analysis indicated that large amounts of energy have been used in the past to form the straw fuel (the net emergy yield ratio is 1.1). A dynamic simulation model, called SHAM (Straw HAndling Model), has also been developed to investigate handling of straw from the fields to the plant. The primary aim is to analyze the performance of various machinery chains and management strategies in order to reduce the handling costs and energy needs. The model, which is based on discrete event simulation, takes both weather and geographical conditions into account. The model has been applied to three regions in Sweden (Svaloev, Vara and Enkoeping) in order to investigate the prerequisites for straw harvest at these locations. The simulations showed that straw has the best chances to become a competitive fuel in south Sweden. It was also demonstrated that costs can be

  12. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH4 emission by 280-1370%, while decreasing N2O emission by 7-13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH4 emission by 7-13% and 6-12%, respectively, whereas reduced N2O emission by 10-27% and 9-24%, respectively. The higher CH4 emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH4 production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N2O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N2O emission was completely offset by increased CH4 emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5-12%) and NPKSJ (5-11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3-6% and 2-4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. PMID:25756676

  13. Evaluation of Some Organic Residues on the Availability of Nutrients to wheat Plants Using '15N Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions to evaluate chicken manure and rice straw either individually or combined with mineral fertilizer rates on wheat plant grown in sandy soils. Organic materials were mixed with 5 kg soil pot1. 15N-labeled ammonium sulfate was added after thinned wheat plants. Basal recommended dose of P and K were applied. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design At harvest, the dry weight of straw and grains were recorded. Also Ndff, Ndfs and FUE were calculated. The obtained results showed that the application of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was significantly improved the yield of wheat straw and grains and have the order of ammonium sulfate (AS) > chicken manure (CM) > rice straw (RS). The effect was more pronounced when both CM and RS were applied in combined with labelled ammonium sulfate at the rates of (25% + 75%) and (50% + 50%). Fertilizer use efficiency (%FUE) was in the range of 3.9% to 13% in straw and 7.9% to 35.3% in grains. N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) by either straw or grains was ranged from 25.32 - 48.90% dependent on N fertilization forms and rates. Results indicated the importance of organic-N as a supplemental source for nitrogen and other elements which may be useful for enhancement of plant growth as well as saving the environment from pollution

  14. Cereal straw management: a trade-off between energy and agronomic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation is the most important driving force for bioenergy development. Consequently, the environmental design of bioenergy value chains should address the actual savings of both primary energy demand and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC, no direct impacts and no GHG emissions should be attributed to crop residues (like cereal straws when they are removed from agricultural land for the purpose of bioenergy utilisation. The carbon neutral assumption applied to crop residues is, however, a rough simplification. Crop residues, indeed, should not be viewed simply as a waste to be disposed, because they play a critical role in sustaining soil organic matter and therefore have an inherent C-capturing value. Moreover, considering straws as an energy feedstock, its status of co-product is clearly recognised and its availability could be obtained according to different cropping systems, corresponding to different primary energy costs and GHG emissions. This paper highlights some hidden features in the assessment of agricultural energy and carbon balance, still very difficult to be detected and accounted for. Although they are frequently disregarded, these features (such as long term dynamic trend of soil organic carbon and annual nitrous oxide emissions from the soil should be carefully considered in assembling the energy and emission balance. By using a crop simulation model, the long-term soil organic matter and annual N2O soil emissions were estimated. Consequently, a comprehensive energy and GHG balance was determined in accordance with the life cycle assessment methodology. Contrasting methods of straw management and wheat cultivation were compared: straw retention vs removal from the soil; conventional vs conservation tillage; wheat cropping system as a single-crop or in rotation. The resulting carbon footprint of straws has different magnitudes with respect to the several

  15. γ-ray radiation effect on properties of straw powder/PBS composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In recent years, with decreasing global fossil resources and increasing 'white pollution', renewable and biodegradable materials attract more and more attentions. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) has good mechanical property, biodegradability and processing performance, which is the focus of hot topics in the study of biodegradable plastic materials, however, being soft and of high cost, it is still limited in application range. Purpose: In order to improve the mechanical and thermal properties, a series of wheat straw powder/PBS composites were prepared by melt extrusion, and then the 60Co-y ray was directly utilized to irradiate the straw powder/PBS composite. Methods: The influence of TAIC (triallyl isocyanurate) radiation absorbed dose and radiation sensitizer on the mechanical property and thermal performance of straw powder/PBS composite was investigated, and the impact fracture surface morphology of the composite was observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). Results: The tensile strength and flexural strength were enhanced with increasing radiation dosage, and then tend to be stable, the heat distortion temperature also increased but not significantly with increasing radiation dosage. The results show that when TAIC content is 2%, with straw powder/PBS composite irradiated by 30-kGy dose, the tensile strength and flexural strength are increased by 26% and 39.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The radiation modification of composite material has no effect on thermal stability, but do improve the tensile strength and flexural strength when up to 2% of TAIC is integrated and irradiated by certain dose. The interface cohesiveness between straw powder and PBS is strengthened after radiation. (authors)

  16. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Hua, E-mail: hxu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing [Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Science of Hilly Regions in Jiangsu, Jurong 212400 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N{sub 2}O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N{sub 2}O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH{sub 4} emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH{sub 4} production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N{sub 2}O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N{sub 2}O emission was completely offset by increased CH{sub 4} emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH

  17. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH4 emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N2O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH4 emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N2O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH4 emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH4 production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N2O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N2O emission was completely offset by increased CH4 emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH4 and N2O emissions from a rice system. • Applying straw along

  18. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    solution for these demands, while also offering the opportunity for very financially competitive solutions, it is of interest to determine their appropriateness in the design phase of a building. Through a study carried out by means of a review of the current state of the-art literature on straw...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...... dealt with and thus perceived as a barrier to straw build, rather than simply a problem of a general character....

  19. Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160112.html Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C Study highlights more fallout from opioid epidemic ... to snort opioids is a major cause of hepatitis C infection, a new study finds. The sharing ...

  20. Strategic use of straw at farrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Westin, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    According to EU-regulations, sows should be provided with suitable manipulable material, this in order to meet their behavioural needs. "Strategic use of straw at farrowing" means that loose housed sows are provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw once at 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. This gives them increased access to nesting material and creates a more suitable environment with an improved micro-climate and increased comfort during farrowing and early lactation, compared...

  1. Mean retention time of 51Cr-EDTA and 103Ru-phenanthroline in the digestive tract of sheep and bulls after feeding on straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lots of straw pellets (supplemented with 10% molasses), produced either with a 5 mm sieve in a hammer mill (lot A) or with a 12 mm sieve (lot B) from wheat straw, were tested with 4 sheep (wethers, average live weight 43 kg) and 4 bulls (average live weight 170 kg). After carrying out a digestibility experiment, the mean retention time, the 80% excretion of the markers and the transit time were ascertained with the help of 51Cr-EDTA and 103Ru-phenanthroline. The digestibility of carbohydrates (both crude fiber and N-free extractives) was significantly higher for the bulls than for the sheep. (author)

  2. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-07-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp{yields}d{pi}{sup +} data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  3. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp→dπ+ data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  4. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these...

  5. Rice and wheat yield improvement by the application of boron in salt affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent past studies on wheat, rice and fruit plant showed that fairly large percentage of soils and crops are deficient in boron. Several times a question rose to study the boron responses in a cropping system to see the residual effect of boron. With the objective in mind, a field experiment was conducted at two sites in saline sodic soils to see the rice and wheat crops response to boron. Boron was applied to rice at the rate of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Kg ha/sub -1/ as sodium tetra borate. The results showed that both paddy and straw yields increased with the increasing rates of boron and highest yield was obtained from 2 Kg ha/sub -l/. After harvesting of rice crop wheat was sown in the same layout. The treatments were divided into two equal portions. Boron was applied to one portion at the same rates as to rice while remaining half remained as such to study the residual effect of B on wheat. The results showed that grain anti straw yields increased with increasing rates of boron. In case of untreated plots to see the residual effect grain and straw yield increased with increasing rates of boron applied to rice. It was concluded that B applied to rice did show residual effect to the following wheat crop. Therefore, there is no need to apply B to following crop when B is applied to the previous crop. (author)

  6. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...

  7. 137Cs-uptake into wheat (Triticum vulgare) plants from five representative soils of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monira, B; Ullah, S M; Mollah, A S; Chowdhury, N

    2005-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the uptake of 137Cs by wheat grown in five representative soils of Bangladesh having different soil characteristics. Artificial application of 137Cs increased the activity in soils up to 45.9 Bq/kg soil, measured at the end of the harvest of wheat crop. Different plant parts had different ability to accumulate 137Cs. Grains had the least activity and transfer factor, while the highest activity and lowest transfer factor were measured in roots, which restricted translocation of 137Cs to wheat straw. The result showed that the transfer factors (mean value) varied from 0.05 to 0.114 in wheat straw, 0.066-0.133 in roots and 0.011-0.043 in wheat grains. The activity and transfer factor of radioactive cesium in wheat plants were found to be greatly influenced by soil properties, i.e. clay content, K, organic matter, CEC, pH, exchangeable ions, etc. Cation exchange capacity and calcium in soils influenced positively, while clay minerals, exchangeable K and organic matter, negatively affected the 137Cs activity concentrations in wheat plants. PMID:15931978

  8. GLYCINE BETAINE AND SALICYLIC ACID INDUCED MODIFICATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF TWO DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF WHEAT GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy; Mohamed A. Abbas; Samy. A. Abo- Hamed; Abeer H. Elhakem; Saeed S. Alsokari

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM), grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M) and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93). Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop...

  9. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  10. Fate of 15N-urea applied to wheat-soybean succession crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wheat crop in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is fertilized with N, P and K. The rate of applied N (0 to 120 kg.ha-1) depends on the previous grown crop and the irrigation possibility. The response of wheat to rates and time of N application and the fate of N applied to irrigated wheat were studied during two years. Residual N recovery by soybean grown after the wheat was also studied. The maximum grain productivity was obtained with 92 kg.ha-1 of N. The efficiency of 15N-urea utilization ranged from 52% to 85%. The main loss of applied 15 N, 5% to 12% occurred as ammonia volatilized from urea applied on soil surface. The N loss by leaching even at the N rate of 135 kg.ha-1, was less than 1% of applied 15N, due to the low amount of rainfall during the wheat grown season and a controlled amount of irrigated water, that were sufficient to moisten only the wheat root zone. The residual 15 N after wheat harvest represents around 40% of N applied as urea: 20% in soil, 3% in wheat root system and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the 15 N applied to wheat at sowing or at tillering stage. (author)

  11. Fate of {sup 15}N-urea applied to wheat-soybean succession crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aeboaret@cena.usp.br; pcotrive@cena.usp.br; muraoka@cena.usp.br; Spolidorio, Eduardo Scarpari [SN Centro de Pesquisa e Promocao de Sulfato de Amonio, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sncentro@merconet.com.br; Freitas, Jose Guilherme de; Cantarella, Heitor [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jfreitas@iac.sp.gov.br; hcantare@iac.sp.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The wheat crop in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is fertilized with N, P and K. The rate of applied N (0 to 120 kg.ha{sup -1}) depends on the previous grown crop and the irrigation possibility. The response of wheat to rates and time of N application and the fate of N applied to irrigated wheat were studied during two years. Residual N recovery by soybean grown after the wheat was also studied. The maximum grain productivity was obtained with 92 kg.ha{sup -1} of N. The efficiency of {sup 15}N-urea utilization ranged from 52% to 85%. The main loss of applied {sup 15} N, 5% to 12% occurred as ammonia volatilized from urea applied on soil surface. The N loss by leaching even at the N rate of 135 kg.ha{sup -1}, was less than 1% of applied {sup 15}N, due to the low amount of rainfall during the wheat grown season and a controlled amount of irrigated water, that were sufficient to moisten only the wheat root zone. The residual {sup 15} N after wheat harvest represents around 40% of N applied as urea: 20% in soil, 3% in wheat root system and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the {sup 15} N applied to wheat at sowing or at tillering stage. (author)

  12. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu,; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang,; Xing’e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP) met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified includin...

  13. Some characteristics of the long straw drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article represents the construction and testing of the long straw drift tubes of different types. The diameter and the length of each straw were equal to 15 mm and 3 m respectively. The cathode resistance of these straws has a small value, i.e. about 100 Ohm/m. Thus, they do not have a large attenuation length. Installation of the spacers reduces the effective straw length by 0.5 % per meter, at least

  14. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  15. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn. PMID

  16. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  17. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian;

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which is the...... summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year and the...

  18. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Basile, E; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Caponero, M A; Colonna, D; Falco, F D; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Felli, F; Giardoni, M; La Monaca, A; Mensitieri, G; Ortenzi, B; Pallotta, M; Paolozzi, A; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Pucci, C; Russo, A; Saviano, G; Tomassini, S

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  19. Dissipation and Residues of Dichlorprop-P and Bentazone in Wheat-Field Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jianlei; Pan, Lixiang; Song, Guochun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorprop-P and bentazone have been widely used in the prevention and control of weeds in wheat field ecosystems. There is a concern that pesticide residues and metabolites remain on or in the wheat. Thus, the study of the determination and monitoring of their residues in wheat has important significance. A rapid, simple and reliable QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was modified, developed and validated for the determination of dichlorprop-P, bentazone and its metabolites (6-hydroxy-bentazone and 8-hydroxy-bentazone) in wheat (wheat plants, wheat straw and grains of wheat) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of this method ranged from 72.9% to 108.7%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2.5–12 μg/kg. The dissipation and final residue of four compounds in three provinces (Shandong, Jiangsu and Heilongjiang) in China were studied. The trial results showed that the half-lives of dichlorprop-P and bentazone were 1.9–2.5 days and 0.5–2.4 days in wheat plants, respectively. The terminal residues in grains of wheat and wheat straw at harvest were all much below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg/kg for dichlorprop-P and 0.1 mg/kg for bentazone established by the European Union (EU, Regulation No. 396/2005). PMID:27240385

  20. Effects of Straw-Based Soil Conditioners on Available Phosphorus Contents in Sandy Yellow Soil%秸秆改良材料对冷沙黄泥中速效磷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 杨巍; 王定勇

    2011-01-01

    Crop straws (rice straw, wheat straw, maize straw and rape straw) were mixed with bentonite and polyacrylamide (PAM) to make straw-based soil conditioners, which were used in a pot experiment tc investigate their effects on available phosphorus (P) content in a sandy yellow soil widely distributed in Chongqing. The results indicated that all the 4 materials significantly increased the content of available P in the soil, the order of increment being rape straw (39. 4%~55. 7%) > maize straw (38. 9%~54. 8 2%) > wheat straw (34. 5%~46. 1%) > rice straw (28. 1% ~42. 5%). With the same straw, Treatment 3 (straw : bentonite : PAM = 900 : 100 : 30) showed the greatest soil amelioration effect by increasing available phosphorus (P) in the sandy yellow soil.%以重庆分布面积较大的沙质土壤--冷沙黄泥为研究对象,将秸秆进行生物顸处理后与膨润土、聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)按比例配制成土壤改良材料,采用盆栽土培试验方法,研究了水稻、小麦、玉米和油菜4种秸秆改良材料对冷沙黄泥速效磷含量的影响.结果表明:(1)4种秸秆改良材料均能明显提高冷沙黄泥的速效磷含量,其顺序由高到低为油菜、玉米、水稻和小麦,它们施入土壤后速效磷的平均含量分别增长了约39.4%~55.7%,38.9%~54.8%,34.5%~46.1%和28.1%~42.5%.(2)相同秸秆条件下不同分处理对土壤速效磷的增磷效果有所差异,其中秸秆:膨润土:PAM=900:100:30的T3处理对提高土壤有效磷含量的效果最好.

  1. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero-N control, optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. N0, Nopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon) with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  2. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double-cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero N (control), optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. SN0, SNopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon), with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  3. Integrated assessment of sustainable cereal straw potential and different straw-based energy applications in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sustainable straw potentials can be determined with the help of humus balance tools. • A sustainable straw potential of 8–13 Tg is estimated to be available in Germany. • Energetic use of this straw could lead to GHG emission reduction of 73.3–92.3% compared to fossil references. • Lowest GHG emissions occur for straw-based heat production. • Highest reduction potential can be achieved with combined heat and power production. - Abstract: The energetic use of residues from agriculture can foster the transition towards a more renewable energy supply. However, sustainability issues have to be considered along the entire provision chain as they affect the resource and energy potential as well as the achievable contribution to climate mitigation. Straw is one of the most important agricultural residues in Germany. It is not yet used for energy purposes extensively and compared to other agricultural feedstock it shows low competition with food, feed or fiber. This paper analyses on the one hand the sustainable potential of cereal straw for energy application in Germany considering the actual agricultural conditions, and on the other hand the global warming potential from different energy provision chains based on straw. Different humus-balance tools that are able to assess the organic matter (OM) demand to presume soil fertility. The analysis of straw potentials was applied at NUTS 3 level for Germany, based on statistical data. The results of this analysis were used as input data for the modeling of concepts for straw provision and use. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated for each concept in order to compare the global warming potential of various energy applications, to investigate the relative contribution of different production steps and to compare them with fossil energy applications. In total, 29.8 Tg of straw (fresh matter) are produced annually in Germany (1999–2007). Approximately 4.8 Tg of the total straw occurrence are

  4. Elemental sulfur improves growth and phytoremediative ability of wheat grown in lead-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Bibi, Sadia; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Dahlawi, Saad

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of elemental sulfur on lead uptake and its toxicity in wheat. A pot experiment was conducted with the purpose to examine the impact of sulfur on improving Pb solubility in soil, and uptake and accumulation in wheat plants. The effect of three levels of lead (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg soil) and sulfur (0, 150, and 300 mmol/kg soil) was tested in all possible combinations. Root dry matter, straw, and grain yields, and the photosynthetic and transpiration rates decreased significantly with increase in the concentration of Pb in the soil. However, sulfur fertilization in the presence of Pb improved the photosynthetic and transpiration rates and consequently increased the straw and grain yields of wheat. It also enhanced Pb accumulation in roots, its translocation from roots to shoot, and accumulation in grain. S and Zn contents of different plant parts were also enhanced. Thus, by mitigating the toxic effect of Pb and improving wheat growth, sulfur enhances Pb accumulation by the aboveground plant parts and hence the phytoextraction capacity of wheat. However, total accumulation of Pb shows that wheat plant cannot be considered as a suitable candidate for phytoremediation. PMID:26852881

  5. Health of leaves and ears of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated after different forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 2000-2002. The aim of the research was to determinate the health of leaves and ears of spring wheat cultivated after spring cruciferae plants such as: spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., chiiiese mustard (Brassica juncea L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., ole iferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst., as well as after oat (Avena sativa L. as con trol. Spring wheat cv. Torka was sown after: pIoughed stubble cultivated on this field, ploughed stubble and straw, ploughed stubble with straw and 30 kg nitrogen per hectare. During all the years of studies on leaves and ears of spring wheat septo ria of leaf blotch and glume blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola, Phaeosphaeria nodorum were found. Brown rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici was seen on leaves of wheat only during years 2001-2002. Besides on ears fusarium ear blight (Fusarimn sp. was present in 2002 and sooty mould (Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp. in 2001. According to health of overground parts of plants the good forecrops to spring wheat were oat, chinese mustard, oleiferous radish. The biggest impact on presence of diseases of leaves and ears had the weather during years of studies. The use of after harvest rests didn't have significant influence on health of leaves and ears of spring wheat.

  6. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  7. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  8. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking...

  9. Determination of Root Traits in Wild, Landrace and Modern Wheats and Dissection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Root Characters in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAS, HARUN

    2015-01-01

    Bread wheat is an allohexaploid crop with a large and complex genome structure. It was one of the first crops domesticated by human beings in the Near East and it had dramatic effects on human history. The amount of energy gained per hour of work from wheat was much higher than hunting and gathering. Ancient farmers continuously selected it to increase seed size, grain yield, and straw yield to feed a growing population; this scenario has not changed for thousands of years. Plant scientists, ...

  10. Économie d'un procédé d'hydrolyse enzymatique et fermentation de la paille de blé pour la production d'alcool carburant Economics of a Process for Producing Alcohol Fuels by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après définition des grandes lignes d'un procédé de base d'hydrolyse-fermentation de la paille de blé, l'analyse de sensibilité montre que le rendement de l'hydrolyse a une grande importance sur les bilans énergétique et économique. Des rendements de l'ordre de 85 % permettent d'obtenir des valeurs d'investissement par tonne de pétrole économisée tout à fait comparables à celles obtenues par d'autres techniques de valorisation de la biomasse en alcool, telle la synthèse du méthanol obtenu après gazéification du bois à l'oxygène. The basic features of a process for production from cereal straw of an acetone-butanol mixture for use as a gasoline substitute are described. They include pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate followed by fermentation of the sugars produced. A cost evaluation based on the performances of a reference process is presented. Then, an analysis of the sensitivity of the cost price of the process to the variation of the important parameters such as production capacity, enzyme productivity, hydrolysis yield is carried out. The energy balance of the process is presented.

  11. Yield and nutrient uptake of wheat on oil well sites: effects of topsoil depth and organic amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different depths of topsoil replacement and organic amendments on wheat yield on oil well sites was investigated, Three sites were utilized using a split-plot design with a depth of topsoil replacement at the main plot of 0, 50, 100, and 150 per cent. The subplots were treated with organic amendments of compost, fresh manure, alfalfa hay, wheat straw, and a control, as one-time applications in 1997. Results showed no effect on grain yield by topsoil depth. As far as the amendments were concerned, the straw-amended plots produced significantly lower yields than the other amendments. Nitrogen nutrition of the wheat was also unaffected by topsoil depths, but phosphorus uptake was lower, probably due to the sulfur being tied up by the subsoil. Alfalfa, compost and manure increased the nitrogen uptake of wheat while compost and manure increased the uptake of phosphorus. The wheat straw amendment reduced both the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, with corresponding reduction in grain yield. It was concluded that while topsoil application is beneficial, increased application does not result in increased benefits. Indeed, minimum topsoil replacement depth may be advisable to prevent the negative consequences of subsoil on phosphorus nutrition. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Methanogenic pathway and archaeal communities in three different anoxic soils amended with rice straw and maize straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RalfConrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of straw is common practice in rice agriculture, but its effect on the path of microbial CH4 production and the microbial community involved is not well known. Since straw from rice (C3 plant and maize plants (C4 plant exhibit different δ13C values, we compared the effect of these straw types using anoxic rice field soils from Italy and China, and also a soil from Thailand that had previously not been flooded. The temporal patterns of production of CH4 and its major substrates H2 and acetate, were slightly different between rice straw and maize straw. Addition of methyl fluoride, an inhibitor of aceticlastic methanogenesis, resulted in partial inhibition of acetate consumption and CH4 production. The δ13C of the accumulated CH4 and acetate reflected the different δ13C values of rice straw versus maize straw. However, the relative contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis to total CH4 production exhibited a similar temporal change when scaled to CH4 production irrespectively of whether rice straw or maize straw was applied. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal communities was characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis and was quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR targeting archaeal 16S rRNA genes or methanogenic mcrA genes.. The size of the methanogenic communities generally increased during incubation with straw, but the straw type had little effect. Instead, differences were found between the soils, with Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales dominating straw decomposition in Italian soil, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales, and Methanobacteriale in China soil, and Methanosarcinaceae and Methanocellales in Thailand soil. The experiments showed that methanogenic degradation in different soils involved different methanogenic population dynamics. However, the path of CH4 production was hardly different between degradation of rice straw versus maize straw and was also similar for

  13. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chungen; Kaer, Søren K; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hvid, Søren L

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451microm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4microm) are independently fed into the burner through two concentric injection tubes, i.e., the centre and annular tubes, respectively. Multiple simulations are performed, using three meshes, two global reaction mechanisms for homogeneous combustion, two turbulent combustion models, and two models for fuel particle conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion. The baseline CFD models show a good agreement with the measured maps of main species in the reactor. The straw particles, less affected by the swirling secondary air jet due to the large fuel/air jet momentum and large particle response time, travels in a nearly straight line and penetrate through the oxygen-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall burnout of the two fuels is predicted: about 93% for coal char vs. 73% for straw char. As the conclusion, a reliable modelling methodology for pulverized biomass/coal co-firing and some useful co-firing design considerations are suggested. PMID:20117929

  14. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn;

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor....

  15. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingyun; ZHOU; Weidong; GU; Qing; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development,it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency,and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process,this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network,analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network,and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally,it comes up with construction and operation strategies of the straw logistics network from infrastructure,organization network,and information platform.

  16. Allelopathy—A Tool to Improve the Weed Competitive Ability of Wheat with Herbicide-Resistant Black-Grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2012-01-01

    Controlling black-grass in winter wheat production in northern Europe is an increasing problem because of more frequent winter crops and development of herbicide resistance in weeds. Alternative weed management strategies are needed, e.g., use of more competitive cultivars. Factors that increase cultivar competitiveness include early vigor and straw length, but also allelopathy. Therefore, the allelopathic properties of wheat cultivars included in the Swedish national list or in the release p...

  17. Straw-based coordinate muon chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers a prototype module with sensitive dimensions of 2 x 0.5 m based on 2 m long straw tubes which preserves its geometrical dimensions up to the pressure of 4 bar independently of the ambient temperature and humidity. The suggested technique provides a possibility of constructing relatively low-cost planar modules by using straw tubes as long as needed for constructing large area detectors at colliders or other field experiments by assembling them in a common coordinate detector with a user-specified acceptance. The distinguishing feature of a detector is its good radiation hardness, low radiation thickness and a possibility of optimizing the detector operation mode in a large range of gas pressure

  18. Optimizing nitrogen-fertilizer application to wheat under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responses of wheat to urea, its time of application and the fate of the applied N under irrigation were studied over 2 years. Also studied was the recovery of residual N by soybean planted in the same plots. Maximum grain productivity was obtained with 90 kg N ha-1. Urea-N uptake ranged from 52% for application at sowing, to 85% when applied at tillering. The main loss of fertilizer N occurred as ammonia volatilized, which ranged from 5 to 12%. Loss of N by leaching was less than 1%, even with an application of 135 kg N ha-1, which is higher than the rate locally recommended for irrigated wheat. The small leaching loss was due to little rainfall during the growing season and irrigation sufficient only to moisten the root zone. The residual N after wheat harvest represented around 40% of that applied: 21% in soil (to a depth of 60 cm), 3% in roots and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the N applied to the wheat. (author)

  19. Increasing wheat production while decreasing nitrogen losses from ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of a 4-year field experiment were i) to investigate the effects of rate and timing of application of ammonium bicarbonate on N-uptake efficiency by irrigated winter wheat, ii) to determine the fate of fertilizer N in wheat followed by maize, and iii) to study nitrate dynamics in the soil after N-fertilizer application to evaluate groundwater pollution by leaching. Nitrogen-application rates significantly affected wheat grain yields and straw dry matter. Grain yields were higher with 150 than with 225 kg N ha-1, whereas the highest fractional recoveries of N from ammonium bicarbonate occurred with 75 kg N ha-1 (38.5% in 1994-95 and 33.5% in 1996-97). On the basis of grain yield, N recovery and soil-N balance, ammonium bicarbonate at 150 kg N ha-1, was the optimum rate, when applied basally and as a top dressing to wheat. Subsequent yields of maize stover and grain were affected by N applied to the wheat, suggesting that fertilizer recommendations, in terms of rate and timing, should be made on the basis of effects on the cropping rotation as a whole. Water-holding capacity of the soil was poor, therefore large applications of N are likely to cause nitrate pollution of ground water. (author)

  20. Dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of cobalt-60 in wheat-soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of transportation, accumulation, disappearance and distribution of 60Co in the wheat-soil system was studied by using isotope-tracer techniques for simulated pollutants, and the mathematical model of the behavior was established. Rescilts showed that (1) 60Co was transported rapidly in the system after the application on soil surface layer. The uptake of 60Co by wheat was mainly via root, and redistribution in all parts of wheat occurred consequently. The concentration in root was much higher than that in other parts of wheat plant. The specific activity of 60Co in wheat plant rapidly increased to a maximum value, then decreased. The specific activity of 60Co in each part of wheat plant was found in the order of root > straw > husk > seed. (2) 60Co is mainly detained with in 6cm of soil surface, and specific activity of 60Co in soil present a simple exponential declining with depth of soil. (3) The dynamic law can be described as multinomial exponential function of concentration in the wheat-soil system. (4) The wheat plant has certain ability to accumulate 60Co from soil. (authors)