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Sample records for afex-treated wheat straw

  1. Comparison of mechanistic models in the initial rate enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated wheat straw

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    Agbogbo Frank K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of these mechanistic models fit into two- and three-parameter mechanistic models. The purpose of this study is to compare the models and determine the activation energy and the enthalpy of adsorption of Trichoderma reesei enzymes on ammonia fibre explosion (AFEX-treated wheat straw. Experimental enzymatic hydrolysis data from AFEX-treated wheat straw were modelled with two- and three-parameter mechanistic models from the literature. In order to discriminate between the models, initial rate data at 49°C were subjected to statistical analysis (analysis of variance and scatter plots. Results For three-parameter models, the HCH-1 model best fitted the experimental data; for two-parameter models Michaelis-Menten (M-M best fitted the experimental data. All the three-parameter models fitted the data better than the two-parameter models. The best three models at 49°C (HCH-1, Huang and M-M were compared using initial rate data at three temperatures (35°, 42° and 49°C. The HCH-1 model provided the best fit based on the F values, the scatter plot and the residual sum of squares. Also, its kinetic parameters were linear in Arrhenius/van't Hoff's plots, unlike the other models. The activation energy (Ea is 47.6 kJ/mol and the enthalpy change of adsorption (ΔH is -118 kJ/mol for T. reesei enzymes on AFEX-treated wheat straw. Conclusion Among the two-parameter models, Michaelis-Menten model provided the best fit compared to models proposed by Humphrey and Wald. For the three-parameter models, HCH-1 provided the best fit because the model includes a fractional coverage parameter (ϕ which accounts for the number of reactive sites covered by the enzymes.

  2. WHEAT STRAW AS RAW MATERIAL FOR MANUFACTURE OF STRAW MDF

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    Sören Bernhard Halvarsson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw was used to produce medium-density fiberboard (MDF. The chemical and physical characteristics of fractionated size-reduced wheat straw were investigated. The pH, pH-buffering capacity, ash, and silicon content increased as wheat straw particle size decreased. Ash of the finest straw

  3. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  4. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  5. Effects of compositional changes of AFEX-treated and H-AFEX-treated corn stover on enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Ding, Weimin; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Shao, Qianjun

    2014-03-01

    Corn stover is one of the main agricultural residues being considered as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. This work evaluated the effectiveness of AFEX™(1) pretreatment for converting corn stover to fermentable sugars, both with and without pre-soaking in hydrogen peroxide. The compositional changes and enzymatic digestibility of AFEX-treated and H-AFEX-treated biomass were investigated. Results showed that most of the polysaccharides remained intact following each of these two methods. Compared with AFEX pretreatment, the H-AFEX process enhanced delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis yields of both glucose and xylose. The maximum glucan and xylan digestibility of H-AFEX process were 87.78% and 90.64%, respectively, and were obtained using 0.7 (w/w) water loading, 1.0 (w/w) ammonia loading, 0.5 (w/w) 30wt.% hydrogen peroxide loading, and 130°C for 10min. The results of the present work show that H-AFEX is a feasible pretreatment to improve the enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for bioethanol production.

  6. Study on Homogeneous Particleboard of Wheat Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the paper homogeneous particleboard of wheat straw is researched. The result shows the technology of homogeneous particleboard from cost and quality. The moisture content of straw particle is 2.0%~2.5 %. The temperature of hot-pressing is 150℃. The time of hot-pressing is 48 sec/mm ( panel thickness). The ratio between MDI and UF is 0.40. The glue content for surface layer of wheat straw particle is 10% (MDI 2.86%, UF 7.14%). The glue content for core layer of wheat straw particle is 8% (MDI 2.29%, U...

  7. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

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    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  8. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...... straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  9. Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate.

  10. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...... and milled particle size (the extent to which the wheat straw was milled) were investigated and optimized. The developed methodology offered the advantage of a simple and relatively fast (0.5–2 h) pretreatment allowing a dry matter concentration of 45–60%. FTIR measurements did not suggest any structural...

  11. Fungal upgrading of wheat straw for straw-thermoplastics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Tracy P; Thompson, David N; Hess, J Richard; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Wolcott, Michael P; Schirp, Anke; Englund, Karl; Dostal, David; Loge, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Combining biologic pretreatment with storage is an innovative approach for improving feedstock characteristics and cost, but the magnitude of responses of such systems to upsets is unknown. Unsterile wheat straw stems were upgraded for 12 wk with Pleurotus ostreatus at constant temperature to estimate the variation in final compositions with variations in initial moisture and inoculum. Degradation rates and conversions increased with both moisture and inoculum. A regression analysis indicated that system performance was quite stable with respect to inoculum and moisture content after 6 wk of treatment. Scale-up by 150x indicated that system stability and final straw composition are sensitive to inoculum source, history, and inoculation method. Comparative testing of straw-thermoplastic composites produced from upgraded stems is under way.

  12. Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

    2013-01-01

    In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article.

  13. Biological nitrate removal using wheat straw and PLA as substrate.

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    Fan, Zhenxing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2012-01-01

    Biological nitrate removal using wheat straw and polylactic acid (PLA) as both carbon source and biofilm support was investigated. The results showed that biofilm could develop on the surface of wheat straw within 15 d, the denitrification rate was 0.067 mg-N/(g-wheat straw x h) and nitrate removal efficiency was about 100%. For PLA, the time required for biofilm development was 40 d, the denitrification rate was 0.0026 mg-N/(g-PLA x h) and nitrate removal efficiency could also reach 100%. Temperature had a substantial influence on the denitrification performance of both wheat straw and PLA. The FTIR analysis and SEM observation confirmed that wheat straw and PLA were used for denitrification, and explained some reasons for the differences between the two substrates. The wheat straw was superior to PLA when used as carbon source for nitrate removal, in terms of the denitrification rate.

  14. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process...... was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was slightly lower...

  15. Coproduction of xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengdong; Huang, Wangxiang; Huang, Wenjing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Qiming; Wu, Yuanxin

    2015-06-01

    A novel integrated process to coproduce xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw was investigated. Firstly, wheat straw was treated by dilute sulfuric acid and xylose was recovered from its hydrolyzate. Its optimal conditions were 1.0wt% sulfuric acid, 10% (w/v) wheat straw loading, 100°C, and 2h. Then the acid treated wheat straw was treated by sulfomethylation reagent and its hydrolyzate containing lignosulfonate was directly recovered. Its optimal conditions were 150°C, 15% (w/v) acid treated wheat straw loading, and 5h. Finally, the two-step treated wheat straw was converted to ethanol through enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Under optimal conditions, 1kg wheat straw could produce 0.225kg xylose with 95% purity, 4.16kg hydrolyzate of sulfomethylation treatment containing 5.5% lignosulfonate, 0.183kg ethanol and 0.05kg lignin residue. Compared to present technology, this process is a potential economically profitable wheat straw biorefinery.

  16. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of torrefaction on the grindability of wheat straw. Straw samples were torrefied at temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C and with residence times between 0.5 and 3 h. Spectroscopic information obtained from ATR-FTIR indicated that below ...... Weight Loss (AWL%) of the wheat straw sample was 30% on dry and ash free basis (daf), and the higher heating value of the torrefied wheat straw was 24.2 MJ kg−1 (daf). The energy loss compared to the original material was 15% (daf)....

  17. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...... these conditions two transitions arising from the glass transition of lignin and hemicelluloses have been identified. Key transitions attributed to softening of lignin were found at 53, 63 and 91 °C for moist samples of wheat straw, extracted straw and spruce, respectively. Transitions for hemicelluloses were...... determined at 2, −1 and 5 °C, respectively. Differences are likely due to different compositions of lignin and hemicelluloses from straw and spruce and structural differences between the raw materials. The high wax content in wheat straw resulted in a transition at about 40 °C which was absent in solvent...

  18. Wettability changes of wheat straw treated with chemicals and enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jiang-hua; LIU Zhi-ming; LI Jing; NIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test wettability changes of the wheat straw treated with different methods for the preparation of wheat straw particle board. The wheat straws were separately sprayed with two chemicals (0.6% NaOH, 0.3% H2O2) and three enzymes (lipase, xylanase,cellulase). The contact angle between water and the surface of wheat straw was measured and the spreading-penetration parameters (K-values) were also calculated with wetting model. The surfaces of treated wheat straw and control sample were scanned by means of Micro-FTIR, and their peaks arrangements were analyzed. The surface morphologies of treated wheat straw and control sample were also observed by SEM.Chemical etching was found on the exterior surfaces of the straws treated separately with 0.6% NaOH and 0.3% H2O2; furthermore, the spreading-penetration parameters (K-values) of the distilled water on the exterior surfaces of the treated wheat straw along the grain were higher than that of control. The wettability of exterior surfaces of the wheat straws treated separately with lipase, xylanase and cellulose were improved after treating for seven days, and among the three enzymes treatments, the tipase treatment showed best result. The lipase treatment and NaOH treatment were determined as better methods for improving the wettability of wheat straw surfaces. However, in the economic aspect, NaOHtreatment was more practical and easier in the pretreatment for the manufacture of straw particle board.

  19. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

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    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  20. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw.

  1. METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW PULP CELL TYPES

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    Mikko Karjalainen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues are receiving increasing interest when studying renewable raw materials for industrial use. Residues, generally referred to as nonwood materials, are usually complex materials. Wheat straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world and is therefore available for extensive industrial use. However, more information of its cell types is needed to utilize wheat straw efficiently in pulp and papermaking. The pulp cell types and particle dimensions of wheat straw were studied, using an optical microscope and an automatic optical fibre analyzer. The role of various cell types in wheat straw pulp and papermaking is discussed. Wheat straw pulp components were categorized according to particle morphology and categorization with an automatic optical analyzer was used to determine wheat straw pulp cell types. The results from automatic optical analysis were compared to those with microscopic analysis and a good correlation was found. Automatic optical analysis was found to be a promising tool for the in-depth analysis of wheat straw pulp cell types.

  2. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

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    James Barsness

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo-sition, but that the crystallinity index increased considerably. To be able to understand the behavior of wheat straw fiber as part of a commercial papermaking furnish, a paper containing 20% wheat straw fiber was produced on a 24 inch pilot paper machine and was recycled using a handsheet mold with white water return. Chemical analysis of the control (no wheat fiber and the wheat-containing paper demonstrated slightly higher xylan content for the wheat-containing material. Recyclability increased slightly with addition of wheat fibers to a commercial furnish.

  3. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  4. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanxiaoLiu; HuaiyuZhan; BeihaiHe; ShuhuiYang; JianhuaLiu; JianluLiu(1); ZhenxingPang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin, polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  5. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanxiao Liu; Huaiyu Zhan; Beihai He; Shuhui Yang; Jianhua Liu; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin,polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4′-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  6. Power plant intake quantification of wheat straw composition for 2nd generation bioethanol optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Carina J.; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Jensen, Erik Steen;

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of 2nd generation bioethanol production from wheat straw requires comprehensive knowledge of plant intake feedstock composition. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is evaluated as a potential method for instantaneous quantification of the salient fermentation wheat straw components: cellulose...

  7. Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Ma José; Oliva, José Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    Bioconversion of cereal straw to bioethanol is becoming an attractive alternative to conventional fuel ethanol production from grains. In this work, the best operational conditions for steam-explosion pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process were studied, using diluted acid [H2SO4 0.9% (w/w)] and water as preimpregnation agents. Acid- or water-impregnated biomass was steam-exploded at different temperatures (160-200 degrees C) and residence times (5, 10, and 20 min). Composition of solid and filtrate obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility and ethanol production of pretreated wheat straw at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best pretreatment conditions to obtain high conversion yield to ethanol (approx 80% of theoretical) of cellulose-rich residue after steam-explosion were 190 degrees C and 10 min or 200 degrees C and 5 min, in acid-impregnated straw. However, 180 degrees C for 10 min in acid-impregnated biomass provided the highest ethanol yield referred to raw material (140 L/t wheat straw), and sugars recovery yield in the filtrate (300 g/kg wheat straw).

  8. Reprint of: Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization are used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. However, pelletization of torrefied biomass can be challenging and in this study the torrefaction and pelletizing properties...... of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...... straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF LIME PRETREATMENT FOR ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF WHEAT STRAW

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    Miroslav Ondrejovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was optimization of lime pretreatment parameters such as temperature, time and reaction ratio to maximization of reducing saccharide yields occurred by enzyme hydrolysis of pretreated plant material (wheat straw. Pretreatment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were chosen to promote reducing saccharide yields following enzymatic digestion and they were temperature 91.5 °C, time 2.4 hours and reaction ratio 19.7 mL to 1 g of treated wheat straw. The experimental values agreed with predicted within a 95 % confidence interval. The computed model of wheat straw pretreatment by lime can be used for the effective utilization of secondary products obtained in agriculture sector.

  10. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  11. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) performance of Clostridium phytofermentans on AFEX-treated corn stover for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is believed to be a potentially cost-efficient and commercially viable way to produce cellulosic biofuels. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of the CBP organism Clostridium phytofermentans (ATCC 700394) on AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEX-CS). Fermentation conditions including temperature, inoculation size, nutrients, and initial pH were investigated. At optimal conditions with 0.5% (w/w) glucan loading of AFEX-CS, C. phytofermentans hydrolyzed 76% of glucan and 88.6% of xylan in 10 days. These values reached 87% and 102% of those obtained by simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) using commercial enzymes and S. cerevisiae 424A. Ethanol titer for CBP was found to be 2.8 g/L which was 71.8% of that yielded by SSCF (3.9 g/L). Decomposition products from AFEX-CS helped to increase ethanol yield somewhat during CBP. Particle size played a crucial role in the enhancement of sugar conversion by CBP.

  12. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent......, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus......The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent...

  13. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glu

  14. [Effect of pretreatment on storage and biogas production of baling wheat straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Juan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Du, Jing; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Ye, Xiao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    Long-term storage of crop straw is very important for biogas plant while pretreatment is always used to improve biogas production of crop straw. Feasibility of integrating the storage with pretreatment of baling wheat straw was studied. Changes of physicochemical properties and the biogas productivity of wheat straw obtained before and after 120 days storage were analyzed. The results showed that it was feasible to directly bale wheat straw for storage (control) and storage treatment had little effect on the physicochemical properties, structure and biogas productivity of wheat straw. After 120 day's storage, biogas production potential of the surface wheat straw of pile was decreased by 7.40%. Integrating NaOH pretreatment with straw storage was good for biogas production of wheat straw and the total solid (TS) biogas yield was increased by 7.02%-8.31% (compared to that of wheat straw without storage) and 5.68% -16.96% (compared to that of storage without alkaline pretreatment), respectively. Storage with urea treatment was adverse to biogas production of wheat straw and the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose of wheat straw were decreased by 18.25%-27.22% and 5.31%-16.15% and the TS biogas yield was decreased by 2.80%-7.71% after 120 day's storage. Exposing wheat straw to the air during the storage process was adverse to the conserving of organic matter and biogas utilization of wheat straw, but the influence was very slight and the TS biogas yield of wheat straw obtained from pile surface of control and urea treatment was decreased by 7.40% and 4.25%, respectively.

  15. ALKALINE PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HOT WATER TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Mustajoki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities for chemical consumption reduction in P-P-Paa-P bleaching (P alkaline peroxide stage, Paa peracetic stage of hot water treated straw and the effect of the wheat straw variability on the process. Papermaking fibre production from wheat straw using such a process could be implemented on a small scale if chemical consumption was low enough to eliminate the need for chemical recovery. The pulp properties obtained with this process are equal to or even superior to the properties of wheat straw soda pulp. The possibility of enhancing the first peroxide stage with oxygen and pressure was studied. The possibility for substitution of sodium hydroxide partially with sodium carbonate was also investigated. The objective was to achieve International Standardization Organization (ISO brightness of 75%, with minimal sodium hydroxide consumption, whilst maintaining the pulp properties. The optimization of the peroxide bleaching is challenging if the final brightness target cannot be reduced. Results indicate that up to 25% of the sodium hydroxide could be substituted with sodium carbonate without losing brightness or affecting pulp properties. Another possibility is a mild alkali treatment between the hot water treatment and the bleaching sequence.

  16. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries.

  17. Wheat straw burning and its associated impacts on Beijing air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LingJun; WANG Ying; ZHANG Qiang; LI JinXiang; YANG XiaoGuang; JIN Jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on MODIS images, large-scale flow field charts and environmental monitoring data, we thoroughly analyzed the spatial distribution of wheat straw burning in North China, with focus on its environmental impacts on the air quality of Beijing and pollution transport paths. And we anatomized changes of air quality in Beijing under the impacts of pollution generated by wheat straw burning around. The results indicate that: (1) The North China Plain, a winter-wheat growing area, is the main source of pollutants induced by wheat straw burning in Beijing. The direction of south-west is the dominant heavy pollution transport path. (2) Impacts of wheat straw burning on air quality are mainly manifested by significantly increasing CO concentration. (3) Precursors of O3 generated by wheat straw burning, combining with favorable meteorological conditions, can induce increasing O3 concentration greatly. NO concentration will be greatly increased due to decreasing O3 concentration at night.(4) Atmospheric particles, especially the fine ones, from wheat straw burning exert considerable influence on Beijing air quality. (5) Different contributions of wheat straw burning to pollutants are identified.Ratios of PM10/SO2, CO/SO2, etc., can be applied to indicate pollution extent of wheat straw burning.High ratios of PM10/SO2 and CO/SO2 show that the air quality was heavily impacted by wheat straw burning and these ratios can be employed as indicators of contribution of wheat straw burning to the degradation of Beijing air quality. (6) Randomness of wheat straw burning activities renders random outbreak of air pollution of this type. Regional and extensive wheat straw burning activities can cause serious air pollution event.

  18. Wheat straw burning and its associated impacts on Beijing air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on MODIS images, large-scale flow field charts and environmental monitoring data, we thor- oughly analyzed the spatial distribution of wheat straw burning in North China, with focus on its envi- ronmental impacts on the air quality of Beijing and pollution transport paths. And we anatomized changes of air quality in Beijing under the impacts of pollution generated by wheat straw burning around. The results indicate that: (1) The North China Plain, a winter-wheat growing area, is the main source of pollutants induced by wheat straw burning in Beijing. The direction of south-west is the dominant heavy pollution transport path. (2) Impacts of wheat straw burning on air quality are mainly manifested by significantly increasing CO concentration. (3) Precursors of O3 generated by wheat straw burning, combining with favorable meteorological conditions, can induce increasing O3 concentration greatly. NO concentration will be greatly increased due to decreasing O3 concentration at night. (4) Atmospheric particles, especially the fine ones, from wheat straw burning exert considerable influ- ence on Beijing air quality. (5) Different contributions of wheat straw burning to pollutants are identified. Ratios of PM10/SO2, CO/SO2, etc., can be applied to indicate pollution extent of wheat straw burning. High ratios of PM10/SO2 and CO/SO2 show that the air quality was heavily impacted by wheat straw burning and these ratios can be employed as indicators of contribution of wheat straw burning to the degradation of Beijing air quality. (6) Randomness of wheat straw burning activities renders random outbreak of air pollution of this type. Regional and extensive wheat straw burning activities can cause serious air pollution event.

  19. INFLUENCE OF STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT ON THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF WHEAT STRAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li Cui; Zhong Liu; Chuanling Si,; Lanfeng Hui; Neng Kang,; Ting Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw can solubilize a significant portion of the hemicellulosic component and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of the remaining cellulose for fermentation into ethanol. In this work, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different steam temperatures and retention times, and the chemical compositions of the raw and steam-exploded wheat straw were analyzed. Results showed that the content of hemicellulose decreased sharply at higher steam ...

  20. Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw using various ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,André; João, Karen; Bogel-Lukasik, Ewa; Roseiro, Luísa; Bogel-Lukasik, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising and challenging process for an alternative method of biomass processing. The present work emphasizes the examination of wheat straw pretreatment using ILs, namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate ([bmim][HSO4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim]-[SCN]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][N(CN)2]). Only [bmim][HSO4] was found to achieve a macroscopic complete dissolution o...

  1. Optimization of wet oxidation pretreatment of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Thomsen, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    The wet oxidation process (water; oxygen and elevated temperature) was investigated under alkaline conditions for fractionation of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin from wheat straw. At higher temperature and longer reaction time, a purified cellulose fraction (69% w/w) was produced with high ...... for by saccharides and carboxylic acids; hence, a significant proportion of reaction products remained unidentified. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. BLEACHING OF SULFONATED CMP FROM BIO-TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw chemi-mechanical pulp was pretreated with a crude xylanase which was secreted by white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium prior to hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The process of xylanase pretreatment and hydrogen peroxide bleaching was optimized. The xylanase treated pulp achieved a brightness gain of 5.8% ISO over the untreated pulp. The xylanase treatment was found to liberate reducing sugars and facilitating lignin removal. Fiber morphology of pulp treated with xylanase was also studied by SEM.

  3. Plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    García-Velázquez, Ángel; Amado-Moreno, María Guadalupe; Campbell-Ramírez, Héctor Enrique; Brito-Páez, Reyna Arcelia; Toscano-Palomar, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to develop plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix. In the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, Mexico, the agricultural activities and the maquiladora industry are the main source of income in the region.  However, agricultural activities generate wastes that contribute heavily to pollution of Mexicali and its valley. The burning of agricultural waste is a traditional practice in the Valley, and is done in order to prepare the soil for the next cro...

  4. Effects of grinding processes on enzymatic degradation of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriela Ghizzi D; Couturier, Marie; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Buléon, Alain; Rouau, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of wheat straw fine to ultra-fine grindings at pilot scale was studied. The produced powders were characterised by their particle-size distribution (laser diffraction), crystallinity (WAXS) and enzymatic degradability (Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail). A large range of wheat-straw powders was produced: from coarse (median particle size ∼800 μm) to fine particles (∼50 μm) using sieve-based grindings, then ultra-fine particles ∼20 μm by jet milling and ∼10 μm by ball milling. The wheat straw degradability was enhanced by the decrease of particle size until a limit: ∼100 μm, up to 36% total carbohydrate and 40% glucose hydrolysis yields. Ball milling samples overcame this limit up to 46% total carbohydrate and 72% glucose yields as a consequence of cellulose crystallinity reduction (from 22% to 13%). Ball milling appeared to be an effective pretreatment with similar glucose yield and superior carbohydrate yield compared to steam explosion pretreatment.

  5. Use of Pleurotus pulmonarius to change the nutritional quality of wheat straw. I. effect on chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oziel Dante Montañez-Valdez; Enrique Octavio García Flores; José Antonio Martínez García; Jaime Salinas Chavira; Rolando Rojo Rubio; J. Jesús Germán Peralta Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Pleurotus pulmonarius on the chemical composition of wheat straw was evaluated. Wheat straw, treated and untreated with P. pulmonarius, was obtained from a commercial facility. Ten samples plastic bags of wheat straw used previously as substrate to culture edible fungus were collected at random. The negative control group consisted of the pasteurized wheat straw untreated with P. pulmonarius. All samples were analyzed to determine dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutr...

  6. Determination of Performance of Yearlings Fed with Rations Containing Wheat, Maize and Buckwheat Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as cereal straw, the use of maize straw in ruminant feeding has been increasing as the feed shortage widens. In addition, cultivation of buckwheat with high straw yield potential is becoming widespread. Thus, performance of 15 female Karya yearlings fed with ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws were compared. The yearlings fed either containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws in three total mixed rations (30% straw in dry matter that were consisted of, maize silage, concentrate and cracked maize, formulated to provide 150 g daily live weight gain for 21 d. Total mixed rations was prepared based on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Prior to feeding trial yearlings were acclimatized to their respective feed for a period of 14 d. Straws were included in total mixed rations following the chopping at 1-2 cm. Daily live weight gain and dry matter intake of yearlings fed with mixed ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straw were 88, 85 and 135 g/d (P=0.10 and 954, 931 and 1078 g/d (P=0.09, respectively. However, crude protein intake of yearlings (g/d fed with the ration containing buckwheat straw 14% higher than yearlings fed with the ration containing wheat or maize straw. It was concluded that performance of yearling fed with ration containing buckwheat straws was superior to performance of yearlings fed with ration containing wheat and maize straw, while performance of yearling fed with ration containing wheat or maize straw was similar.

  7. Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate.

  8. Effect of Alkali Treatment of Wheat Straw on Adsorption of Cu(II under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The convenient and feasible pretreatment method of alkali treatment is very common in the degradation process of wheat straw. However, its utilization in the pretreatment of wheat straw as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation is rarely reported. The present study investigated the removal efficiency of Cu(II ions using wheat straw with alkali pretreatment. The condition of alkali treatment on wheat straw was optimized with the adsorption capacity of Cu(II as indicator using single-factor experiments. The influences of wheat straw dosages, pH values, contact time, and temperatures on adsorption performance for both untreated wheat straw (UWS and alkali-treated wheat straw (AWS were investigated. Results showed that the relatively large removal rate of Cu(II could be obtained, and chemical behavior occurred during the adsorption process. Characteristic analysis found that the major function of alkali treatment to wheat straw was to introduce the hydroxy group, which resulted in the increase of -C-O- group. Although the adsorption capacity is not as high as the one of ligands supported adsorbents, the method is easy to operate and has a wide range of application; at the same time, it could realize both purposes of treating heavy metal pollution and solid wastes.

  9. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    pretreatment conditions; hot water extraction and acid- or water impregnation followed by steam explosion showed there were slight differences between the effect of pretreatment conditions in relation to the overall yield from enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose concentration was found for barley straw...... subjected to acid impregnation followed by steam explosion; however when the glucose concentration was related to the glucose potential in the substrates, the highest yield was obtained with hot water extracted. Analysis of the supernatants from the pretreatments by mass spectrometry showed that the water...... feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...

  11. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment.

  12. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  13. Dynamic Wettability of Different Adhesives on Wheat Straw Surface Modified by Cold Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cold oxygen plasma treatment on the exterior and interior surfaces and wettability of wheat straw were investigated. The wheat straw was treated with oxygen plasma for 150 s, and the radio-frequency power was set at 100 W. The surface wettability was evaluated by measuring the contact angles and the K values of urea-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate resins. Specimens with different gluing surfaces were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde and then hot-pressed to assess bonding strength. Results indicate that the dynamic wettability and the shear strength of wheat straw were remarkably improved after it was exposed to the cold oxygen plasma. Additionally, the adhesive type and the wheat straw surface characteristics had significant effects on the dynamic wettability and bonding strength of both untreated and plasma-treated wheat straw.

  14. Enzymic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallander, L; Eriksson, K E

    1985-05-01

    Studies of pretreatment of wheat and its subsequent saccharification by Trichoderma reesei cellulases are reported. Steam explosion was found to be the most effective of the pretreatment methods tested. Data are presented describing the effect of enzyme and substrate concentration on the rate and degree of hydrolysis. Significant inhibition of the cellulases was observed when sugar concentrations were 6% or higher. This inhibition increased when glucose and ethanol were present simultaneously. Adsorption of enzymes to the substrate was followed during a 24-h hydrolysis period. An initial rapid and extensive adsorption occurred, followed by a short desorption period that was followed in turn by a further increased adsorption peaking after 3 h. Intermediate removal of hydrolysate, particularly in combination with a second addition of enzyme, clearly improved the yield of saccharification compared to an uninterrupted hydrolysis over a 24-h period. Thus, a 74% yield of reducing sugars was obtained. Furthermore, an increase in the amount of recoverable enzymes was observed under these conditions. Evidence is presented that suggests that a countercurrent technique, whereby free enzymes in recovered hydrolysate are adsorbed onto new substrate, may provide a means of recirculating dissolved enzymes.

  15. Growth of bacteria and yeast on enzymically degraded alkali treated rice and wheat straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.K.; Shirkot, C.K.; Dhawan, S.

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme filtrate of Trichoderma viride QM 9414 was used to saccharify rice and wheat straw. Delignification of the straw by alkali treatment increased the enzymic saccharification of both materials to approximately 70%. The optimum conditions for delignification were autoclaving at 120 degrees for 30 minutes with 2% Sodium Hydroxide. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus megaterium, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae grew very well on enriched hydrolyzates of rice and wheat straws. Even nonenriched straw hydrolyzates supported better growth of L. acidophilus, B. megaterium, and E. coli on rice straw than the enriched synthetic medium containing equivalent glucose. S. cerevisiae grown in shake flasks containing 25 mL of enriched rice and wheat straw hydrolyzates yielded 0.595 g and 0.450 g of dry cells, respectively. The corresponding yield was 0.396 g from enriched synthetic medium containing equal amounts of glucose.

  16. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A L; Tengerdy, R P; Murphy, V G

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented.

  17. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B; Du, Chenyu

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase.

  18. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  19. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...

  20. Impact of environmental factors on fungal respiration and dry matter losses in wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcock; Magan

    2000-01-15

    An automatic electrolytic respirometer enabled replicated determinations of the respiration rates of individual fungi on sterile straw, and the mixed mycoflora of naturally contaminated wheat straw at different steady-state temperatures (10-30 degrees C) and water activities (a(w), 0.75-0.98) over periods of 8-14 days. Generally, the respiratory activity of individual spoilage fungi (Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium amstelodami, Fusarium culmorum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum) on sterile wheat straw increased linearly with increasing a(w) at 25 degrees C. The calculated maximum dry matter loss of wheat straw due to colonisation by individual species was about 10%, regardless of a(w). On naturally contaminated wheat straw fungal activity was also related to temperature and a(w), with maximum respiration at 30 degrees C and 0.98 a(w). At the lowest temperature examined, 10 degrees C, there was a slight lag prior to respiratory activity occurring. The respiratory activity was also significantly reduced (by half) when available water was reduced to 0.95-0.90 a(w). In contrast to the colonisation of sterile straw by individual species, the maximum dry matter loss caused by fungal deterioration of naturally contaminated wheat straw was 3.4% at 0.98 a(w) and 30 degrees C. The dominant fungal genera and species varied with a(w) and temperature. These results are discussed in relation to the storage of cereal straw without spoilage.

  1. A multi-scale biomechanical model based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longjian; Li, Aiwei; He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia

    2015-11-20

    Biomechanical behavior is a fundamental property for the efficient utilization of wheat straw in such applications as fuel and renewable materials. Tensile experiments and lignocellulose analyses were performed on three types of wheat straw. A multi-scale finite element model composed of the microscopic model of the microfibril equivalent volume element and the macroscopic model of straw tissue was proposed based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw. The tensile properties of wheat straw were simulated by ANSYS software. The predicted stress-strain data were compared with the observed data, and good correspondence was achieved for all three types of wheat straw. The validated multi-scale finite-element (FE) model was then used to investigate the effect of the lignocellulose components on the biomechanical properties of wheat straw. More than 80% of stress is carried by the cellulose fiber, whereas the strain is mainly carried by the amorphous cellulose.

  2. Wet explosion of wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure: effect on the methane productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K

    2009-11-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary feedstock but their economical profitable operation relies on the addition of other biomass products with a high biogas yield. Wheat straw is the major crop residue in Europe and the second largest agricultural residue in the world. So far it has been used in several applications, i.e. pulp and paper making, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was slightly lower compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered as a promising, low-cost biomass for increasing the methane productivity of biogas plants that are based mainly on swine manure.

  3. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    of products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated...... with KCl has been investigated. To facilitate interpretation of the results, pyrolysis of biopolymers (cellulose, xylan, lignin) in the presence and absence of KCl was investigated as well. The raw straw decomposed in a single broad featureless peak. By washing, two peaks appeared in the derivative weight...... straw resulted in a char yield which was close to that of the raw straw, and the yields of tar and gases were in between those from the raw and washed straw. Furthermore, the peaks corresponding to hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition moved to lower temperatures, from 670 K to 633 K...

  4. Structural convergence of maize and wheat straw during two-year decomposition under different climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Sun, Bo; Mao, Jingdong; Sui, Yueyu; Cao, Xiaoyan

    2012-07-03

    Straw decomposition plays an important role in soil carbon sequestration. Litter quality and climate condition are considered to be key factors that regulate straw decomposition. This study investigated the decomposition characteristics of wheat and maize straw under cold temperate, warm temperate, and midsubtropic climate conditions, and examined whether the chemical structures of straw residues became similar during decomposition under different climate conditions. Straws were put in 0.074-mm-mesh size litter bags to exclude soil fauna and buried in black soil plots at three experimental stations located in the aforementioned climate regions to rule out the impact of soil type. The decomposition rate constants of wheat straw and maize straw increased linearly with temperature, and the former was more sensitive to temperature. Climate conditions and straw quality had marked effects on the residual material structure in the first half year of decomposition, but then decreased. Wheat and maize straw showed common decomposition characteristics with a decrease of O/N-alkyl carbons and di-O-alkyls, and a simultaneous increase of alkyl carbons, aromatic carbons, aromatic C-O groups, and COO/N-C ═ O groups. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical compositions of the two types of straw became similar after 2-year decomposition under different climate conditions.

  5. Intrinsic kinetics and devolatilization of wheat straw during torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a mild thermal treatment (200–300 °C) in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the degradation kinetics and devolatilization of wheat straw was studied in a thermogravimetric...... of water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, methyl chloride, traces of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were found at torrefaction temperatures of 250 and 300 °C. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...... analyzer by coupling with a mass spectrometer. The kinetic parameters obtained by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking initial dynamic heating period into account can accurately describe the experimental results with different heating programs. Activation energies and pre...

  6. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NAOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Li; Yongjun Deng; Ping Li; Guigan Fang; Shuchai Liu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination,alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulp from Gaoyou Papermill.Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps were improved.

  7. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NaOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaixiaLi; YongjunDeng; PingLi; GuiganFang; ShuchaiLiu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination, alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulpfrom Gaoyou Papermill. Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps wereimproved.

  8. Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandolias, Konstantinos; Pardaev, Sindor; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat straw was converted into carboxylic acids and biohydrogen using digesting bacteria. The fermentations were carried out using both free and membrane-encased thermophilic bacteria (55°C) at various OLRs (4.42-17.95g COD/L.d), in semi-continuous conditions using one or two bioreactors in a series. The highest production of biohydrogen and acetic acid was achieved at an OLR of 4.42g COD/L.d, whilst the highest lactic acid production occurred at an OLR of 9.33g COD/L.d. Furthermore, the bioreactor with both free and membrane-encased cells produced 60% more lactic acid compared to the conventional, free-cell bioreactor. In addition, an increase of 121% and 100% in the production of acetic and isobutyric acid, respectively, was achieved in the 2nd-stage bioreactor compared to the 1st-stage bioreactor.

  9. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer.

  10. Production of ethanol from wet oxidised wheat straw by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, B.K.; Licht, D.; Schmidt, A.S.;

    1999-01-01

    The wet oxidation process (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, sodium carbonate) was investigated as a means of solubilising hemicellulose from wheat straw. Sixteen different combinations of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration were applied. The hemicellulose hydrolysates were...

  11. Comparison of dilute mineral and organic acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiencies of fumaric, maleic, and sulfuric acid in wheat straw pretreatment were compared. As a measure for pretreatment efficiency, enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulose was determined. Monomeric glucose and xylose concentrations were measured after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, a

  12. Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A

    2007-11-01

    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9 g L(-1) glucose (initial sugar 62.0 g L(-1)) was used to produce 20.1 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2 g L(-1) total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of 86 g L(-1) wheat straw) was used, the culture produced 25.0 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.60 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.42, respectively. These results are superior to the control experiment and productivity was improved by 214%. When WSH was supplemented with 35 g L(-1) glucose, a reactor productivity was improved to 0.63 g L(-1 )h(-1) with a yield of 0.42. In this case, ABE concentration in the broth was 28.2 g L(-1). When WSH was supplemented with 60 g L(-1) glucose, the resultant medium containing 128.3 g L(-1) sugars was successfully fermented (due to product removal) to produce 47.6 g L(-1) ABE, and the culture utilized all the sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose). These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii P260 has excellent capacity to convert biomass derived sugars to solvents and can produce over 28 g L(-1) (in one case 41.7 g L(-1) from glucose) ABE from WSH. Medium containing 250 g L(-1) glucose resulted in no growth and no ABE production. Mixtures containing WSH + 140 g L(-1) glucose (total sugar approximately 200 g L(-1)) showed poor growth and poor ABE production.

  13. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  14. Enhancing Biogas Production from Anaerobically Digested Wheat Straw Through Ammonia Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨懂艳; 庞云芝; 袁海荣; 陈树林; 马晶伟; 郁亮; 李秀金

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous ammonia was used to pretreat wheat straw to improve biodegradability and provide nitrogen source for enhancing biogas production. Three doses of ammonia (2%, 4%, and 6%, dry matter) and three moisture contents (30%, 60%, and 80%, dry matter) were applied to pretreat wheat straw for 7 days. The pretreated wheat straws were anaerobically digested at three loading rates (50, 65, and 80 g·L-1) to produce biogas. The results indi-cated that the wheat straw pretreated with 80%moisture content and 4%ammonia achieved the highest methane yield of 199.7 ml·g-1 (based on per unit volatile solids loaded), with shorter digestion time (T80) of 25 days at the loading rate of 65 g·L-1 compared to untreated one. The main chemical compositions of wheat straw were also ana-lyzed. The cellulose and hemicellulose contents were decomposed by 2%-20%and 26%-42%, respectively, while the lignin content was hardly removed, cold-water and hot-water extracts were increased by 4%-44%, and 12%-52%, respectively, for the ammonia-pretreated wheat straws at different moisture contents. The appropriate C/N ratio and decomposition of original chemical compositions into relatively readily biodegradable substances will improve the biodegradability and biogas yield.

  15. Wheat straw pretreatment with KOH for enhancing biomethane production and fertilizer value in anaerobic digestion☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Jaffar; Yunzhi Pang; Hairong Yuan; Dexun Zou; Yanping Liu; Baoning Zhu; Rashid Mustafa Korai; Xiujin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw biodegradability during anaerobic digestion was improved by treatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH) to decrease digestion time and enhance biomethane production and fertility value. KOH concentrations of 1%(K1), 3%(K2), 6%(K3) and 9%(K4) were tested for wheat straw pretreatment at ambient temperature with a C:N ratio of 25:1. 86%of total solids (TS), 89%of volatile solids (VS) and 22%of lignocel ulose, cellulose and hemi-cellulose (LCH) (22%) were decomposed effectively with the wheat straw pretreated by 6%KOH. Enhanced bio-gas production and cumulative biomethane yield of 258 ml·(g VS)−1 were obtained increased by 45%and 41%respectively, compared with untreated wheat straw. Pretreated wheat straw digestion also yielded a digestate with higher fertilizer values potassium (138%), calcium (22%) and magnesium (16%). These results show that TS, VS and LCH can be effectively removed from wheat straw pretreated with KOH, improving biodegradability biomethane production and fertilizer value.

  16. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  17. Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Wheat Fields with Different Returning Methods of Maize Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xin-hua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different returning methods of maize straw on the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields, we explored the greenhouse gas CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from the wheat fields using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique from December 2013 to May 2014. The experiments set four treatments including no maize straw returning(CK, direct maize straw returning directly(CS, maize straw-rumen-cattle dung returning(CGS and maize straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS, and the four treatments were investigated under the same watering and fertilizing conditions. The results showed that the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields all had distinct seasonal variations and the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gas emissions were different. During the maize growing season, the cumulative emissions of both CO2 and N2O were emitted and in the order of CK >CGS >CS >CMS while the cumulative absorptions of CH4 were in the order of CS >CGS >CK >CMS with the significant difference between different treatments(PCGS >CK >CMS under the different returning methods of maize straw, which indicated that direct straw returning could significantly increase the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field, followed by CGS while the straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS could decrease the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field. The method of straw-mushroom residue returning should be recommended from the viewpoint of reducing GWP of the greenhouse gas. In all, our study could provide the scientific foundation for the efficiency straw recycle and reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  18. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  19. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  20. Decomposition and Products of Wheat and Rice Straw from a FACE Experiment Under Flooded Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan; HAN Yong; CAI Zu-Cong

    2009-01-01

    Winter wheat and rice straw produced under ambient and elevated CO2 in a China rice-wheat rotation free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment was mixed with a paddy soil at a rate of 10 g kg-1 (air-dried),and the mixture was incubated under flooded conditions at 25 ℃ to examine the differences in decomposition as well as the products of crop residues produced under elevated CO2.Results showed that the C/N ratio and the amount of soluble fraction in the amended rice straw grown under elevated CO2 (FR) were 9.8% and 73.1% greater,and the cellulose and lignin were 16.0% and 9.9% lesser than those of the amended rice straw grown under ambient CO2 (AR),respectively.Compared with those of the AR treatment,the CO2-C and CH4-C emissions in the FR treatment for 25 d were increased by 7.9% and 25.0%,respectively;a higher ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions induced by straw in the FR treatment was also observed.In contrast,in the treatments with winter wheat straw,the CO2-C and CH4-C emissions,the ratio of straw-induced CH4 to CO2 emissions,and the straw composition were not significantly affected by elevated CO2,exdept for an 8.0% decrease in total N and a 9.7% increase in C/N ratio in the wheat straw grown under elevated CO2.Correlation analysis showed that the net CO2-C and CH4-C emission from straw and the ratio of straw-induced CH4 to CO2 emissions were all exponentially related to the amount of soluble fraction in the amended straw (P < 0.05).These indicated that under flooded conditions,the turnover and CH4 emission from crop straw incorporated into soil were dependent on the effect of elevated CO2 on straw composition,and varied with crop species.Incorporation of rice straw grown under elevated CO2 would stimulate CH4 emission from flooded rice fields,whereas winter wheat straw grown under elevated CO2 had no effect on CH4 emission.

  1. INFLUENCE OF STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT ON THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw can solubilize a significant portion of the hemicellulosic component and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of the remaining cellulose for fermentation into ethanol. In this work, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different steam temperatures and retention times, and the chemical compositions of the raw and steam-exploded wheat straw were analyzed. Results showed that the content of hemicellulose decreased sharply at higher steam temperatures and longer retention times; however, the content of lignin changed inconspicuously. After pretreatment, the characteristics of the straw fiber were investigated by studying their proportion of microfibrils, SEM, and FTIR. To assess the differences among various pretreatment parameters, the concentration of the reducing sugar and glucose conversion were determined. The highest reducing sugar concentration and glucose conversion were achieved at the explosion conditions of a pretreatment temperature of 220 ºC and a residence time of 3 min.

  2. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.;

    2012-01-01

    -plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark......Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well...... suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits....

  3. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L (R) from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw...... generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid...

  4. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2012-01-01

    and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength...... are investigated by comparing wheat straw before and after organic solvent extraction. The lignin glass transition temperature for wheat straw and extracted wheat straw is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. At a moisture content of 8%, transitions are identified at 53°C and 63°C, respectively....... Pellets are pressed from wheat straw and straw where the waxes have been extracted from. Two pelletizing temperatures were chosen—one below and one above the glass transition temperature of lignin. The pellets compression strength, density, and fracture surface were compared to each other. Pellets pressed...

  5. Pyrolysis Kinetic Modelling of Wheat Straw from the Pannonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pešenjanski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis/devolatilization is a basic step of thermochemical processes and requires fundamental characterization. In this paper, the kinetic model of pyrolysis is specified as a one-step global reaction. This type of reaction is used to describe the thermal degradation of wheat straw samples by measuring rates of mass loss of solid matter at a linear increase in temperature. The mentioned experiments were carried out using a derivatograph in an open-air environment. The influence of different factors was investigated, such as particle size, humidity levels, and the heating rate in the kinetics of devolatilization. As the measured values of mass loss and temperature functions transform in Arrhenius coordinates, the results are shown in the form of saddle curves. Such characteristics cannot be approximated with one equation in the form of Arrhenius law. For use in numerical applications, transformed functions can be approximated by linear regression for three separate intervals. Analysis of measurement resulting in granulation and moisture content variations shows that these factors have no significant influence. Tests of heating rate variations confirm the significance of this impact, especially in warmer regions. The influence of this factor should be more precisely investigated as a general variable, which should be the topic of further experiments.

  6. WHEAT STRAW CONVERSION BY ENZYMATIC SYSTEM OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stajic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to resolve the question of whether various nitrogen sources and concentrations affect characteristics of selected G. lucidum ligninolytic enzymes participating in wheat straw fermentation. This is the first study reporting the presence of versatile peroxidase activity in crude extract of G. lucidum culture, as well as isoforms profile of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. NH4NO3 was the optimum nitrogen source for laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activity, while peptone was the optimum one for versatile peroxidase activity. Four bands with laccase activity were obtained by native PAGE and IEF separations from medium enriched with inorganic nitrogen source, and only two bands from medium containing organic source. Medium composition was not shown to affect isoenzyme patterns of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. Four isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and three of versatile peroxidase were obtained on native PAGE. By IEF separation, five isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and only two of versatile peroxidase were observed. The results demonstrated that G. lucidum has potential for mineralization and transformation of various agricultural residues and should take more significant participation in large-scale biotechnological processes.

  7. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Viets, T.C.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Bruchem, van J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM).

  8. Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in

  9. Effect of pretreatment severity on xylan solubility and enzymatic breakdown of the remaining cellulose from wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Bos, G.; Zeevalking, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of process conditions used for wheat straw pretreatments on the liquor- and residue-composition was studied. Hereto, the pretreatment conditions were expressed in a `combined severity -factor¿. The higher the combined severity factor () the more xylan was released from the wheat straw, bu

  10. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay i...

  11. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (pmushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  12. Effect of steam explosion on biodegradation of lignin in wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Hui; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Ti-Peng; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Mao, Zhi-Huai

    2008-11-01

    The effect of steam explosion pretreatment on biodegradation of lignin in wheat straw was studied in this paper. Through experiments and analysis, 0.8MPa operation pressure and 1:20 wheat straw to water ratio are optimum for destroying lignin and the maximum of lignin loss rate is 19.94%. After steam explosion pretreatment, the wheat straw was retted by Trametes versicolor for 40 days. Biodegradation rate of lignin was tested and the maximum of 55.40% lignin loss rate was found on day 30. During the whole process of both steam explosion pretreatment and biodegradation, 75.34% lignin was degraded, without steam explosion the biodegradation of raw material the degradation rate of lignin was 31.23% only. FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA and SEM were used for further validating the results of biodegradation.

  13. ENZYMATIC BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA-AQ PULP BY LMS TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiwen Wang; Huaiyu Zhan; Lili Xu

    2004-01-01

    Laccase has been proven that it has a good selectivity and efficiency in pulp bleaching. In this paper, the effects of LMS (Laccase Mediator System) treatment on delignification and bleaching of wheat straw pulp at various conditions, such as laccase dosage,temperature, oxygen pressure and pH, were investigated. The TCF sequence including LMS can bleach the wheat straw pulp to 81% ISO brightness with good strength. The synergetic biobleaching of LMS and xylanase of wheat straw pulp was also investigated. It was found that the final brightness and strength of synergetic biobleaching pulps increased to a certain extent and the bleaching selectivity was improved. The combination of the enzymes is feasible for the delignification and bleaching.

  14. ENZYMATIC BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA--AQ PULP BY LMS TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiwenWang; HuaiyuZhan; LiliXu

    2004-01-01

    Laccase has been proven that it has a good selectivity and efficiency in pulp bleaching. In this paper, the effects of LMS (Laccase Mediator System) treatment on delignification and bleaching of wheat straw pulp at various conditions, such as laccase dosage, temperature, oxygen pressure and pH, were investigated. The TCF sequence including LMS can bleach the wheat straw pulp to 81% ISO brightness with good strength. The synergetic biobleaching of LMS and xylanase of wheat straw pulp was also investigated. It was found that the final brightness and strength of synergetic biobleaching pulps increased to a certain extent and the bleaching selectivity was improved. The combination of the enzymes is feasible for the delignification and bleaching.

  15. Technoeconomic analysis of wheat straw densification in the Canadian Prairie Province of Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupondwa, Edmund; Li, Xue; Tabil, Lope; Phani, Adapa; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Stumborg, Mark; Gruber, Margie; Laberge, Serge

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a technoeconomic analysis of wheat straw densification in Canada's prairie province of Manitoba as an integral part of biomass-to-cellulosic-ethanol infrastructure. Costs of wheat straw bale and pellet transportation and densification are analysed, including densification plant profitability. Wheat straw collection radius increases nonlinearly with pellet plant capacity, from 9.2 to 37km for a 2-35tonnesh(-1) plant. Bales are cheaper under 250km, beyond which the cheapest feedstocks are pellets from the largest pellet plant that can be built to exploit economies of scale. Feedstocks account for the largest percentage of variable costs. Marginal and average cost curves suggest Manitoba could support a pellet plant up to 35tonnesh(-1). Operating below capacity (75-50%) significantly erodes a plant's net present value (NPV). Smaller plants require higher NPV break-even prices. Very large plants have considerable risk under low pellet prices and increased processing costs.

  16. Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Ahring, B.K.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation pre-treatment (water, sodium carbonate, oxygen, high temperature and pressure) of wheat straw was performed as a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design with the process parameters: temperature, reaction time, sodium carbonate and oxygen. Alkaline wet oxidation was an efficient...... pre-treatment of wheat straw that resulted in solid fractions with high cellulose recovery (96%) and high enzymatic convertibility to glucose (67%). Carbonate and temperature were the most important factors for fractionation of wheat straw by wet oxidation. Optimal conditions were 10 min at 195...... the solid fraction (62%) did not provide a corresponding increase in the phenol monomer content but was correlated to high carboxylic acid concentrations. The degradation products in the hemicellulose fractions co-varied with the pre-treatment conditions in the principal component analysis according...

  17. Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, Alvin R; Bitra, Venkata S P; Igathinathane, C; Yang, Yuechuan T; Miu, Petre I; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2010-01-01

    Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5+/-18.4 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 36.1+/-8.6 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 52.1+/-10.8 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8+/-26.2 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 42.8+/-11.7 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 58.9+/-13.4 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2-51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1-117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5-120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone's model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone's model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

  18. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  19. Assessment of pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw as a sugar source for bioprocess industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Volynets, Yaser Dahman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and rising oil prices have led to development of biofuels from crop residue lignocelluloses, among which wheat straw is an important feedstock used in leading commercial bioethanol processes. Lignocellulose is structured in a way that makes direct bioconversion of biomass into sugars by hydrolytic enzymes difficult and unfeasible, requiring a pretreatment step. Common biomass pretreatment technologies are assessed for potential application in obtaining fermentable sugars of wheat straw. Current outlook, challenges and opportunities on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose are also presented.

  20. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  1. Heat and microbial treatments for nutritional upgrading of wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Vered, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The ligninolytic activities of four cellulolytic organisms were compared using straw. Only Aspergillus japonicus and Polyporous versicolor appreciably degraded lignin with A. japonicus yielding the most protein. In solid culture, most protein was produced by P. versicolor, closely followed by A. japonicus. Pertreatment of the straw by hot water facilitated biodegradation and protein production. The nutritional value of the residual straw was also increased by some fungal cultures. The greatest amount of degradable polysaccharide in the straw was made available by A. japonicus in liquid media and Pleurotus ostreatus in solid media. 29 references.

  2. 中国小麦秸秆纤维潜力研究%Study on the Potential of Wheat Straw Fiber in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 杨曼曼; 陈伟强; 宋安东

    2008-01-01

    Based on researches of the crop potential productivity, the potential productivity of light, temperature, water and land from wheat in China were calculated respectively, and converted into the potential productivity of wheat straw according to the coefficient of grain-straw ratio of wheat. Furthermore, based on the wheat planting area in 2006, the potential yield of wheat straw fiber in China was estimated. The results showed that the potential yield of wheat straw fiber in China could reach 94.91 million ton, which could provide evidence for the further potential analysis of bio-ethanol.

  3. Fermentation of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production: comparison of fermentative microorganisms and process configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi to produce bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used physico-chemical processes. After biological pretreatment, a solid substrate composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the two latter with a composition lower than that of the initial substrate, is obtained. In this study, six microorganisms and four process configurations were utilised to ferment a hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. To enhance total sugars utilisation, five of these microorganisms are able to metabolise, in addition to glucose, most of the pentoses obtained after the hydrolysis of wheat straw by the application of a mixture of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. The highest overall ethanol yield was obtained with the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus. Its application in combination with the best process configuration yielded 163 mg ethanol per gram of raw wheat straw, which was between 23 and 35 % greater than the yields typically obtained with a conventional bioethanol process, in which wheat straw is pretreated using steam explosion and fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. Removal of organic sulfur from coal by wheat straw ash and potassium ferric hexacyanoferrat (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan; Karslioglu, Selami [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), KFe(Fe(CN)6) and wheat straw ash, as the desulfurization agents. Effect of temperature, particle size and stirring time on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the yield of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K for potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), and from 350 t0 600 K for wheat straw ash. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 25 min stirring time. After 30 min it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between-100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects on the amount of organic sulfur removal. Maximum removed sulfur values were 23.4% at 368 K for potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) method and 38.2% at 600 K for wheat straw ash method. The wheat straw ash method was more effective than potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) method. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating a Wheat Straw PRB for Nitrate Removal at an Agricultural Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a wheat straw permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with nitrate from a now-closed swine concentrat...

  6. TiO2/UV based photocatalytic pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Awais, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of an advanced oxidation process combining UV irradiation in the presence of the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an effective pretreatment method of wheat straw as means for increasing its biodegradability for increased biogas production...

  7. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. OPTIMIZING SULFITE PRRETREATMENT FOR SACCHARIFICATION OF WHEAT STRAW USING ORTHOGONAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Yang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An orthogonal designed experiment was used to investigate the effects of sulfite pretreatment on the components separation and saccharification of wheat straw. The process involved sulfite pretreatment of wheat straw under acidic conditions followed by mechanical size reduction using a high consistency refiner. Reaction temperature, retention time, and charges of sodium bisulfite and sulphuric acid were considered as key factors. The results showed the four factors had impact on saccharification of wheat straw. Raising the temperature, increasing the charge of sodium bisulfite or sulphuric acid, or extending the retention time would improve the dissolution of pentosan, lignin, and saccharification efficiency, while causing further conversion of pentose. The separation of lignin and pentosan from wheat straw was the main cause of improvements in saccharification. With an enzyme loading of 5 FPU cellulase plus 4 CBU β-glucosidase per gram of o.d. substrate, a glucose yield 72.45% was achieved using the substrate pretreated under the conditions of temperature 180 oC, sodium bisulfite charge 3%, sulfuric acid charge 1.48%, and retention time 20 min.

  9. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic enzymes

  10. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinis, M.J.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Nunes, F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Barros, A.R.N.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP)

  11. Characteristics of Wheat Straw Lignins from Ethanol-based Organosolv Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Telysheva, G.; Arshanitsa, A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Wild, de P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-purified lignins resulting from ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw were characterized for the presence of impurities (carbohydrates and ash), functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl), phenyl-propanoid structural moieties, molar mass distribution and thermal behavior

  12. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage...

  13. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, J.; Dornez, E.; Benjelloun-Mlayah, B.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Gerritsma, J.; Courtin, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized

  14. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by PAP (plasma assisted pretreatment) was investigated. Wax removal was observed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) as chemical change on the surface of most intensively pretreated samples as well...... as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  15. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

  16. Isotherm and Kinetics of Arsenic (V Adsorption fromAqueous Solution Using Modified Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Water contamination with arsenic has been recognized as a serious problem and its epidemiological problems to human health have been reported. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility modified wheat straw using sodium bicarbonate for removing arsenic from aqueous solution."nMaterials and Methods: Adsorption process was accomplished in a laboratory-scale batch with emphasis on the effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time, arsenic concentration and adsorbent dosage on adsorption efficiency. In order to understand the adsorption process, sorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were also determined."nResults: It was found that adsorption of the arsenic was influenced by several parameters such as arsenic initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and solution pH. Maximum absorption efficiency was achieved at pH 7. As expected the amount of arsenic adsorbed on wheat straw incresed as its concentration went up. Among the models tested, namely the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherms, the adsorption equilibrium for arsenic was best described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. It was also found that adsorption of arsenic by wheat straw followed pseudo second-order kinetics. Mean free energy of adsorption (15.8 kJ mol-1 indicates that adsorption of arsenic by wheat straw might follow a chemisorption mechanism. Desorption studies show that arsenic ions are strongly bounded with the adsorbent and exhibit low desorption."nConclusion: It is concluded that that adsorption by modified wheat straw is an efficient and reliable method for arsenic removal from liquid solutions.

  17. Effects of Straw Processing Methods and Irrigation Sources on Enzymatic Activity of Soils under Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei LU; Guofeng WAN; Zijun YANG; Lei HOU; Wenhui ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study on effects of "straw returning and ir-re- turning" and "irrigation with ground water and water in the Yellow River" on changes of enzyme activity in soils under wheat at different developmental stages. [Method] Jimai 22, a kind of winter wheat, was made use of in fields to study on effects of " straw returning and Jr-returning" and "irrigation with ground water and water in the Yellow River" on changes of enzyme activity in soils under wheat in different devel- opmental stages. [Result] With advancement of developmental stage, urease activity of wheat in the four groups all showed the trend of "increasing-decreasing-increas- ing" and activities of invertase and phosphatase both changed from increasing to de- creasing. In addition, urease activities of soils in wheat roots were improved by straw returning in four developmental stages. Meanwhile, activity of soil enzyme was better promoted by irrigation with ground water than with water in the Yellow River, except in grain-filling stage. Before developmental stage, different processing meth- ods had a significant effect on phosphatase activity, for example, straw returning and ground water significantly enhanced activities of two kinds of phosphatase and pro- moted P absorption and transferring by plants and microorganisms in jointing stage; activity of acid phosphatase was higher in the group where irrigation with ground water and straw returning were adopted than those in the rest three groups in boot- ing stage. [Conclusion] The research laid a foundation for dynamic relationship among activity of soil enzyme, crop growth and microorganisms.

  18. Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Mortensen, Kell;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated...... and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low....... Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions: Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated...

  19. [Effects of wheat-straw returning into paddy soil on dissolved organic carbon contents and rice grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jing-du; Gu, Hai-yan; Dai, Qi-gen; Ma, Ke-qiang; Jiang, Feng; He, Li

    2015-02-01

    A tank experiment using conventional rice cultivar Nanjing 44 as experimental material was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Yangzhou University to investigate the dynamics of wheat straw decomposition rate and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils, as well as its effects on the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and rice yield. The two rates of wheat straw returning were 0 and 6000 kg · hm(-2), and three N application levels were 0, 225, 300 kg · hm(-2). The results showed that, the rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils were highest during the initial 30 days after wheat straw returning, and then slowed down after, which could be promoted by a higher level of nitrogen application. The rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay soil were higher than that in sandy soil. The DOC content in soil increased gradually with wheat straw returning into paddy soil and at the twenty-fifth day, and then decreased gradually to a stable value. The DOC content at the soil depth of 15 cm was significantly increased by wheat straw returning, but not at the soil depth of 30 cm and 45 cm. It was concluded that wheat straw returning increased the DOC content in the soil depth of 0-15 cm mainly. N application decreased the DOC content and there was no difference between the two N application levels. Straw returning decreased the number of tillers in the early growth period, resulted in significantly reduced panicles per unit area, but increased spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentages, 1000-grain mass, and then enhanced grain yield.

  20. Ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak wood chips used in shiitake (Lentinula edodes) substrate formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, Daniel J; Sanchez, Jose E

    2007-08-01

    Oak woodchips, used for production of shiitake Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, are increasingly difficult to obtain due to dwindling supplies. We investigated the effect of adding ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak woodchips in substrate formulae on mushroom yield and size. We also determined the effect of mushroom cropping on relative feed value (RFV) by chemical analysis of the substrate at spawning (AS) and after cropping (AC). Three formulae containing 0%, 8% and 16% ground wheat straw and 52%, 44% and 36% oak sawdust, respectively, were bulk pasteurized (111 degrees C for 20 min) in an autoclaving mixer, subjected to spawn run (21 d), browning (28 d) and a production cycle of three breaks (38 d). Mean (4 crops) mushroom yields were 11% higher when 8% wheat straw was used in the medium and 19% higher when 16% wheat straw was substituted for portions of oak sawdust. There were no significant differences in mushroom sizes between any of the treatments. Relative feed values of shiitake substrates AC increased more dramatically as more wheat straw was added to the formulae. Using mature alfalfa (full bloom) as a base value of 100%, RFVs for substrate AS were 98%, 92%, and 92% for 0%, 8% and 16% straw, respectively; RFVs AC were 118%, 120% and 133%, respectively. Substrate AC containing 16% straw had a RFV comparable to corn silage (well-eared). Fat contents of the substrates decreased by 50-62% AC, whereas potassium contents decreased by 40%. Use of ground wheat straw in synthetic medium would not only increase mushroom yield by up to 19%, but may help alleviate periodic shortages of oak sawdust. In addition, growers would avoid the added expense of aging the wheat straw (for 8-12 week) as is typically done for oak sawdust in the industry. This is the first report of RFVs for spent shiitake substrate (SSS) predicting its excellent potential for use as animal feed.

  1. [Effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on nutrient balance and grain yield of late sowing wheat in rice-wheat rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Shi, Zu-liang; Yang, Si-jun; Gu, Ke-jun; Dai, Ting-bo; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Ren-hua

    2015-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, nutrient release from straw and nutrient balance in late sowing wheat. The results showed that straw returning together with appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer improved the grain yield. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased significantly as the nitrogen application rate increased. At the same nitrogen application rate (270 kg N · hm(-2)), the dry matter, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of the treatment with straw returning were higher than that without straw returning, but the nitrogen accumulation was lower. Higher-rate nitrogen application promoted straw decomposition and nutrient release, and decreased the proportion of the nutrient released from straw after jointing. The dry matter, phosphorus and potassium release from straw showed a reverse 'N' type change with the wheat growing, while nitrogen release showed a 'V' type change. The nutrient surplus increased significantly with the nitrogen application rate. At the nitrogen application rate for the highest grain yield, nitrogen and potassium were surplus significantly, and phosphorus input could keep balance. It could be concluded that as to late sowing wheat with straw returning, applying nitrogen at 257 kg · hm(-2) and reducing potassium fertilizer application could improve grain yield and reduce nutrients loss.

  2. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Bjerring Olesen, A.; Fernqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hy drolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 degrees C, 5...

  3. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  4. Effects of long-term full straw return on yield and potassium response in wheat-maize rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI You-lu; WANG Lei; LU Yan-li; YANG Li-ping; ZHOU Li-ping; NI Lu; CHENG Ming-fang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term straw return on crop yield, soil potassium (K) content, soil organic matter, and crop response to K from both straw and chemical K fertilizer (K2SO4) were investigated in a ifxed site ifeld experiment for winter wheat-summer maize rotation in 6 years for 12 seasons. The ifeld experiment was located in northern part of North China Plain with a sandy soil in relatively low yield potential. Two factors, straw return and chemical K fertilizer, were studied with two levels in each factor. Field split design was employed, with two straw treatments, ful straw return of previous crop (St) and no straw return, in main plots, and two chemical K fertilizer treatments, 0 and 60 kg K2O ha–1, as sub-plots. The results showed that straw return signiifcantly increased yields of winter wheat and summer maize by 16.5 and 13.2% in average, respectively, and the positive effect of straw return to crop yield showed more effective in lower yield season. Straw return signiifcantly increased K absorption by the crops, with signiifcant increase in straw part. In treatment with straw return, the K content in crop straw increased by 15.9 and 21.8%in wheat and maize, respectively, compared with no straw return treatment. But, straw return had little effect on K content in grain of the crops. Straw return had signiifcant inlfuences on total K uptake by wheat and maize plants, with an increase of 32.7 and 30.9%, respectively. There was a signiifcant correlation between crop yield and K uptake by the plant. To produce 100 kg grain, the wheat and maize plants absorbed 3.26 and 2.24 kg K2O, respectively. The contents of soil available K and soil organic matter were signiifcantly affected by the straw return with an increase of 6.07 and 23.0%, respectively, compared to no straw return treatment. K2SO4 application in rate of 60 kg K2O ha–1 showed no signiifcant effect on wheat and maize yield, K content in crop straw, total K uptake by the crops, soil available K content

  5. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... at six different levels of nitrogen supply ranging from 48 to 288kg nitrogen ha-1 was analyzed for major cell wall components and mineral elements. Enzymatic digestion of the straw was carried out to evaluate the saccharification efficiency. The nitrogen concentration in the straw dry matter increased...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1...

  6. Adapting the Forchheimer equation for the flow of air through wheat straw beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doder Đorđije D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of air pressure drop while flowing through wheat straw beds. According to Darcy’s law, the smaller the porosity of the bed is, the bigger the pressure drop will be. The investigation was conducted using three different porosities (or three bed densities, and for two different air flow rates. After determining porosity (which is directly measurable, the permeability of straw could be found. For high flow velocities, such as the velocity of air flowing through a straw bale, the Forchheimer equation becomes more relevant as a correction of Darcy’s law with inertial effects included. Otherwise, the permeability tensor depends only on the geometry of the porous medium. With permeability known, the Forchheimer equation coefficients can be easily estimated. These results may be important for the future development of efficient biomass combustion facilities. The measurement methods and facility characteristics are described in more detail.

  7. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw.

  8. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  9. Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmones, Dulce; Mata, Gerardo; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2005-03-01

    The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period of up to 36 days. Analysis were made of changes during the mycelium incubation period (16 days) and throughout different stages of fructification. Greater metabolic activity was observed in the wheat straw samples, with a significant increase between 4 and 12 days of incubation. The degradation of polysaccharide compounds was associated with the fruiting stage, while the reduction in phenolic contents was detected in both substrates samples during the first eight days of incubation. A decrease was observed in caffeine content of the coffee pulp samples during fruiting stage, which could mean that some caffeine accumulates in the fruiting bodies.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF BENTONITE AND ITS SYNERGISTIC RETENTION EFFECT WITH CPAM ON WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Wenxia Liu

    2004-01-01

    The various properties of bentonite samples with different sources and their synergistic retention effect with CPAM on wheat straw pulps were investigated.The investigated properties of bentonite included adsorptive capacity based on methylene blue,cation-exchange capacity, swelling volume, colloidal volume, particle size and charge properties. The results show that particle size is the most important properties of bentonite for its synergistic retention effect with CPAM. Using Wyoming type sodium bentonite without drying after modification can obtain the excellent furnishes retention.

  11. Understanding External Plasticization of Melt Extruded PHBV-Wheat Straw Fibers Biodegradable Composites for Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Lucrezia; Berthet, Marie-Alix; Gontard, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to get further knowledge on the external plasticization mechanisms of melt extruded polyhydroxyl-3-butyrate-co-3-valerate (PHBV) when combined with wheat straw fibers (WSF). Different types of biodegradable substances, all authorized for food contact according to the European regulation, i.e., acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), glycerol triacetate (GTA) and (PEG) at different molecular weights, were tested at different percentages (5, 10 and 20 wt %). Thermal and mec...

  12. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  13. Effect of inhibitors formed during wheat straw pretreatment on ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Bolado, Silvia; Coca, Mónica; Lucas, Susana; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2011-12-01

    The inhibitory effect of the main inhibitors (acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) formed during steam explosion of wheat straw was studied through ethanol fermentations of model substrates and hydrolysates from wheat straw by Pichia stipitis. Experimental results showed that an increase in acetic acid concentration led to a reduction in ethanol productivity and complete inhibition was observed at 3.5 g/L. Furfural produced a delay on sugar consumption rates with increasing concentration and HMF did not exert a significant effect. Fermentations of the whole slurry from steam exploded wheat straw were completely inhibited by a synergistic effect due to the presence of 1.5 g/L acetic acid, 0.15 g/L furfural and 0.05 g/L HMF together with solid fraction. When using only the solid fraction from steam explosion, hydrolysates presented 0.5 g/L of acetic acid, whose fermentations have submitted promising results, providing an ethanol yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g sugars and the final ethanol concentration reached was 12.2 g/L (10.9 g ethanol/100 g DM).

  14. Novel bioconversion of wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer in a solid-state bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Sun, Fubao

    2007-03-01

    In order to increase the eco-efficiency and overall availability of naturally renewable resource, the novel bioconversion of steam-exploded wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer containing N(2)-fixer, P and K solubilizers was investigated. The conversion was performed in solid-state fermentation (SSF) with periodic air-forced pressure oscillation (PAPO). The results showed that SSF-PAPO was competitive with the conventional solid-state fermentation (cSSF) in biomass accumulation and wheat straw digestion. With solid-liquid ratio 1:3, microbial biomass production at 72 h was high up to 2 x 10(11) cfu g(-1), nearly twice as that in cSSF. The degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after fermentation in SSF-PAPO reached 48.57 +/- 10.66, 84.77 +/- 2.75 and 2.15 +/- 10.11, respectively, which was greater than that of 29.30 +/- 10.28%, 33.47 +/- 4.85% and 0.53 +/- 9.07% in cSSF, correspondingly. The SSF-PAPO system displayed unique advantage, by a novel gas phase control strategy on gas concentration and heat gradient, on the bioconversion of wheat straw to the bio-organic fertilizer.

  15. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.

  16. Biological upgrading of wheat straw through solid-state fermentation with Streptomyces cyaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, M.; Hernandez, M.; Perez-Leblie, M.I.; Arias, M.E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia; Ball, A.S. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Huerta, S. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Biotecnologia; Barrasa, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal

    2000-07-01

    The biological upgrading of wheat straw with Streptomyces cyaneus was examined through the analysis of chemical and structural changes of the transformed substrate during solid-state fermentation. Analysis of enzymes produced during the growth of S. cyaneus showed that phenol oxidase was the predominant enzyme. The reduction in Klason lignin content (16.4%) in the transformed substrate indicated the ability of this strain to delignify lignocellulose residues and suggests a role for phenol oxidase in the bacterial delignification process. Microscopic examination of the transformed substrate showed that the initial attack occurred at the less lignified cell walls (phloem and parenchyma), while xylem and sclerenchyma were slowly degraded. The pattern of degradation of sclerenchymatic tissues by S. cyaneus showed delamination between primary and secondary walls and between S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} due to partial removal of lignin. In the later stages of the decay a disorganization of the secondary walls was detected on account of fibrillation of this layer. A comparison of the properties of the pulp from wheat straw transformed by S. cyaneus with untreated wheat straw showed that pretreatment improved the characteristics that determine the quality of pulp. This was indicated by an increase in pulp brightness and by a decrease in the kappa number. These changes occurred without significantly affecting the viscosity, a measure of the quality of the cellulose fibres. These results support the potential application of this organism or its oxidative enzymes in biopulping. (orig.)

  17. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  18. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  19. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  20. Influence of maize straw amendment on soil-borne diseases of winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenchao ZHEN; Shutong WANG; Chengyin ZHANG; Zhiying MA

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during the 2006-2007 wheat growing season at Baoding, Hebei Province, China, aiming at exploring the influence of different amendment rates of maize straw on winter wheat soil-borne diseases induced by Rhizoctonia cereali, Gaeumannomyces graminis and Bipolaris sorokiniana in field conditions. Wheat root vitality, ion infiltration, SOD activity, MDA content and microbial population of the tillage layer were measured. The results showed that the occurrence of three soil-borne diseases tested was significantly different under different amendment rates. During the greening stage and jointing stage, the disease indexes of three soil-borne diseases were reduced signi-ficantly by treatments at the maize straw amendment rates indexes of wheat common rot and sharp eyespot increased dramatically when the amendment rate decreased, and ion infiltration and cell membrane-lipid peroxidation level increased, respectively. In the mean-time, higher amounts of bacteria and actinomycetes ment, while a higher amount of fungi was recorded in the 15000kg·hm-2 amendment rate treatment.

  1. Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  2. Cement-bonded particleboard with a mixture of wheat straw and poplar wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Nazerian; Vajiihe Sadeghiipanah

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the hydration behavior and some physical/mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboard (CBPB) containing particles of wheat straw and poplar wood at various usage ratios and bonded with Portland cement mixed with different levels of inorganic additives.We determined the setting time and compression strength of cement pastes containing different additives and particles,and studied the effects of these additives and particles on thickness swelling,internal bond strength and modulus of rupture of CBPB by using RSM (Response Surface Methodology).The mathematical model equations (second-order response functions) were derived to optimize properties of CBPB by computer simulation programming.Predicted values were in agreement with experimental values (R2 values of 0.93,0.96 and 0.96 for TS,IB and MOR,respectively).RSM can be efficiently applied to model panel properties.The variables can affect the properties of panels.The cement composites with bending strength > 12.5 MPa and internal bond strength > 0.28 MPa can be made by using wheat straw as a reinforcing material.Straw particle usage up to 11.5% in the mixture satisfies the minimum requirements of International Standard,EN 312 (2003) for IB and MOR.The dose of 4.95% calcium chloride,by weight of cement,can improve mechanical properties of the panels at the minimum requirement of EN 312.By increasing straw content from 0 to 30%,TS was reduced by increasing straw particle usage up to 1.5% and with 5.54% calcium chloride in the mixture,TS satisfied the EN 312 standard.

  3. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-14

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha(-1) straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha(-1) straw incorporation and 300 kg ha(-1) straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  4. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumangalah Thirmal, Yaser Dahman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment represented by 1 mm size reduction of the straws was applied prior to each pretreatment. Results showed that 13.91 g/L glucose concentration was produced from saccharification with just the physical pretreatment (i.e., no chemical pretreatment. This represented ~5-20 % lower sugar release in saccharification compared to the other three pretreatment processes. Saccharification with acid pretreatment obtained the highest sugar concentrations, which were 18.77 g/L glucose and 12.19 g/L xylose. Second this study produced butanol from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using wheat straw hydrolysate and Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. Water pretreatment was applied to separate lignin and polysaccharides from the wheat straw. Physical pretreatment was applied prior to water pretreatment where, wheat straw was grounded into fine particles less than 1 mm size. Another experiment was conducted where physical pretreatment was applied alone prior to SSF (i.e. no chemical pretreatment was applied. Both processes converted more than 10% of wheat straw into butanol product. This was 2% higher than previous studies. The results illustrated that SSF with physical pretreatment alone obtained 2.61 g/L butanol.

  5. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2014-09-01

    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media.

  6. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  7. Thermomechanical and Thermo-mechano-chemical Pretreatment of Wheat Straw using a Twin-screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vandenbossche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatments were evaluated as alternatives to traditional biomass pretreatments for lignocellulosic ethanol production. Wheat straw, a commonly available agricultural co-product, was chosen as the substrate model for the study. Five thermo-mechanical pretreatments were evaluated: one purely thermo-mechanical (TM using just water, and the rest thermo-mechano-chemical (TMC, thus using acid, alkaline, oxidant in alkaline medium, and organic solvent. The parietal constituents, hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin were quantified to enable the amounts extracted by the pretreatment to be estimated. The digestibility of cellulose was evaluated by quantifying the hydrolysability with an enzyme cocktail. Water thermomechanical treatment gave strong straw defibration; however the digestibility only attained 35%, whereas ground wheat straw was already 22%. This improvement is insufficient to prepare material for direct enzymatic hydrolysis; thus a combination of the thermo-mechanical and chemical treatment is required. All chemical treatments produced greater improvements in cellulose digestibility. For the acidic treatments, hydrolysability was between 42 and 50%, and reached 89% with alkaline pretreatment.

  8. TiO2/UV based photocatalytic pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Awais, Muhammad; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-11-16

    The present study deals with the application of an advanced oxidation process combining UV irradiation in the presence of the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an effective pretreatment method of wheat straw as means for increasing its biodegradability for increased biogas production by anaerobic digestion (AD). Especially attention was paid in oxidation of the lignin in straw, besides release the sugars from the lignocellulosic structure of straw. Specifically, four different TiO2 concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/w) TiO2) were tested at three different irradiation times (0, 1, 2, and 3 h). Products of lignin-fraction oxidation, namely, vanillic acid, ferullic acid and acetic acid were quantified for each set of pretreatment conditions. Subsequently, biochemical methane potentials (BMPs) assays were conducted under thermophilic conditions from differentially pretreated samples and the pretreatment with the best performance was further tested in continuous mode operation. From BMP assays, 1.5% (w/w) TiO2/straw at 3 h of UV light exposure pretreatment resulted in 37% (p TiO2 and the products of lignin oxidation did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, a simplified energy assessment showed that all pretreatment conditions become feasible when amounts of substrate to be treated are greater than the threshold value of 1.15 g.

  9. The effect of fungal decay (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw lignin using pyrolysis-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Department of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry (Postgraduate Institute), NRG, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), was used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in wheat straw during its fungal degradation by Agaricus bisporus. The decayed wheat straw had a lower proportion of syringyl to guaiacyl derived moieties than its native counterpart. The ratio of methyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 6.4 following fungal degradation. Similarly the ratio of methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.6 in native wheat straw to 3.1 upon decay. The increase in both guaiacyl and syringyl acid to aldehyde ratios indicated that A. bisporus induces oxidative cleavage of lignin at the C{alpha}-C{beta} bonds. Both the threo- and erythro- isomers of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane decreased in intensity relative to other thermochemolysis products in degraded wheat straw. The increase in the ratio of methyl 3,4,-dimethoxybenzoate to the sum of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane (threo- and erythro- isomers) from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 10.9 in A. bisporus decayed wheat straw confirmed that the fungus had cleaved alkyl side chains. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of TMAH provides a sensitive method for tracking the oxidative degradation of lignin during the fungal decay of wheat straw.

  10. Ethanol production from wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate by thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a continuous immobilized reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding...

  11. Optimisation of a microwave pretreatment of wheat straw for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowiak, D; Bassard, D; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at the optimisation of a microwave pretreatment for wheat straw solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability. The maximum yield of methane production was obtained at 150°C with an improvement of 28% compared to an untreated sample. In addition, at this temperature, the time to reach 80% of the methane volume obtained from untreated straw was about 35%. The study of ramp time and holding time at targeted temperature showed that they had no improvement effect. Thus, the best conditions are the highest heating rate for a final temperature 150°C without any holding time. The reading of energy consumed by pretreatment and energy overproduced by pretreated samples showed that increasing tVS amount and heating rate led to a saving of energy consumption. Nevertheless, to obtain a positive energy balance, a microwave device should consume less than 2.65 kJ/g(tVS).

  12. Induction of laccase activity in the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus using water polluted with wheat straw extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Alejandra; Muguerza, Elaia; Iroz, Amaia Redin; Omarini, Alejandra; Conde, Enma; Alfaro, Manuel; Castanera, Raúl; Santoyo, Francisco; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of polluted water effluents from wheat straw using industries as inducers of lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities in cultures of white rot basidiomycetes. For this purpose, we studied the effect of a wheat straw water extract on the evolution of the laccase activity recovered from submerged cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus made in different media and under various culture conditions. Our results demonstrated an accumulative induction effect in all the cultures and conditions tested. This induction is parallel to changes in the laccase electrophoretic profiles recovered from the culture supernatants. The isoenzyme that appeared to be mainly responsible for the laccase activity under these conditions was laccase 10, as confirmed by sequencing the induced protein. These results support the idea of using wheat straw effluents as inducers in liquid cultures of P. ostreatus mycelia for the production of ligninolytic enzymatic cocktails.

  13. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... reacted differently in the two processes. The chemical composition changed little following enzyme treatment. After alkaline wet oxidation, fibers enriched in cellulose were obtained. With both materials, almost all hemicellulose (80%) together with a large portion of the lignin were solubilised...... by alkaline wet oxidation, but essentially all cellulose remained in the solid fraction. Following enzyme treatment most material remained as a solid. For wheat straw, reaction with acetic anhydride indicated that both treatments resulted in more hydroxyl groups being accessible for reaction. The enzyme...

  14. The influence of thermochemical treatments on the lignocellulosic structure of wheat straw as studied by natural abundance 13C NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, S.; Van Eck, E. [Solid-State NMR, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Wild, P.J.; Huijgen, W.J.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    The effects of thermochemical treatments (aquathermolysis, pyrolysis, and combinations thereof) on the lignocellulosic structure and composition of wheat straw were studied with 13C and 1H solid state NMR spectroscopy and proton T{sub 1p} relaxation measurements. Results show that aquathermolysis removes hemicellulose, acetyl groups, and ash minerals. As a result, the susceptibility of lignocellulose to pyrolysis is reduced most likely due to the removal of catalytically active salts, although recondensation of lignin during aquathermolysis treatment can also play a role. In contrast to pyrolysis of wheat straw, pyrolysis of aquathermolysed wheat straw leaves traces of cellulose in the char as well as more intense lignin methoxy peaks. Finally, it was found that both pyrolysis chars contain aliphatic chains, which were attributed to the presence of cutin or cutin-like materials, a macromolecule that covers the aerial surface of plants, not soluble in water and seemingly stable under the pyrolysis conditions applied.

  15. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  16. Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the

  17. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Ligninolytic mitosporic fungus represent an alternative where very little research has been done, even though they are capable of depol-ymerize REWSLI in simple nutritional conditions in relatively short periods, when compared to basidio-mycetes. The aim of this research was to study the depolymerization activity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp on semipurified REWSLI as the sole carbon source to produce aromatics. The depoly-merization capacity was determined by the activity of the laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase enzymes. The generated aromatics derived from the REWSLI depolymerization were identi-fied by gas chromatography. Obtained results revealed that Penicillium chrysogenum depolymerized the lignin material by 34.8% during the 28-day experimentation period. Laccase activity showed the largest activity with 111 U L-1 in a seven-day period, this enzyme induction was detected in a smaller period than that required by basidiomycetes to induce it. Moreover, the enzymatic activity was produced with-out the addition of an extra carbon source as metabolic inductor. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp generated guaiacol, vanillin, and hydroxybenzoic, vanillinic, syringic and ferulic acid with a maximum weekly production of 3.5, 3.3, 3.2, 3.3, 10.1 and 21.9 mg mL-1, respectively.

  18. Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, María; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-12-01

    The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195 degrees C for 10-12 min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept. Bioresource Technology 100 (9), 2562-2568]. Results from batch assays showed that hydrolysate had a methane potential of 384 ml/g-volatile solids (VS)(added). Process performance in CTSR and UASB reactors was investigated by varying hydrolysate concentration and/or organic loading rate (OLR). In CSTR, methane yields increased with increase in hydrolysate concentration and maximum yield of 297 ml/g-COD was obtained at an OLR of 1.9 g-COD/l d and 100% (v/v) hydrolysate. On the other hand, process performance and methane yields in UASB were affected by OLR and/or substrate concentration. Maximum methane yields of 267 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%) was obtained in UASB reactor when operated at an OLR of 2.8 g-COD/l d but with only 10% (v/v) hydrolysate. However, co-digestion of hydrolysate with pig manure (1:3 v/v ratio) improved the process performance and resulted in methane yield of 219 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%). Thus, anaerobic digestion of hydrolysate for biogas production was feasible in both CSTR and UASB reactor types. However, biogas process was affected by the reactor type and operating conditions.

  19. USING Mg(OH2 IN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA-AQ PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlan Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxide bleaching of high yield pulps from wood with Mg(OH2 has been developing recently in the pulp and paper industry. However, there is still a lack of data on the application of Mg(OH2 in peroxide bleaching of non-wood fibres. In this work, our purpose was to study the effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The results showed that Mg(OH2 significantly improved peroxide bleaching efficiency (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the H2O2 consumption and selectivity (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the viscosity losses of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The brightness, viscosity, and yield of bleached pulp can be significantly enhanced by increasing the replacement ratio of Mg(OH2. However, at 100% replacement of NaOH with Mg(OH2, the brightness of bleached pulp was much lower than that of the bleached pulp with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When 24 to 73% of the NaOH was replaced with Mg(OH2, the COD of the bleaching filtrate was 11 to 38% lower than that of the NaOH as the sole alkaline source. The lower solubility and alkalinity of Mg(OH2, as well as the reduction of Cu ion content in bleached pulp were proposed as accounting for the favorable effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp.

  20. Alkaline-assisted screw press pretreatment affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingqi; Wang, Yumei; Rodiahwati, Wawat; Spiess, Antje; Modigell, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency. After alkaline soaking (at 0.1 M for 30 min) and sequential screw press pretreatment with various screw press configurations and modified screw barrel, the lignin content of pretreated wheat straw was quantified. In addition, the structure of pretreated wheat straw was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and measurement of specific surface area. It could be shown that removal of lignin is more important than increase of surface area of the biomass to reach a high sugar recovery. The rate constant of the enzymatic hydrolysis increased from 1.1 × 10(-3) 1/h for the non-treated material over 2.3 × 10(-3) 1/h for the alkaline-soaked material to 26.9 × 10(-3) 1/h for alkaline-assisted screw press pretreated material, indicating a nearly 25-fold improvement of the digestibility by the combined chemo-mechanical pretreatment. Finally, the screw configuration was found to be an important factor for improving the sugar recovery and for reducing the specific energy consumption of the screw press pretreatment.

  1. Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Mortensen, Kell

    2014-01-01

    field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results: Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves....... Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions: Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated...

  2. Fabrication of cellulose aerogel from wheat straw with strong absorptive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian LI,Caichao WAN,Yun LU,Qingfeng SUN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An effectively mild solvent solution containing NaOH/PEG was employed to dissolve the cellulose extracted from the wheat straw. With further combined regeneration process and freeze-drying, the cellulose aerogel was successfully obtained. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were used to characterize this cellulose aerogel of low density (about 40 mg·cm-3 and three-dimensional network with large specific surface area (about 101 m2·g-1. Additionally, with a hydrophobic modification by trimethylchlorosilane, the cellulose aerogel showed a strong absorptive capacity for oil and dye solutions.

  3. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation...... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted...

  4. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China′s papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery,in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20% ~40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  5. THREE -PHASE CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED EVAPORATOR FOR WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    A novel vapor-liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed evaporator, meaning for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling, is applied to wheat straw black liquor, which is the primary pollutant in China's papermaking industry. It is treated by alkali recovery, in which evaporation is a key process. The experimental results show that the vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by 20%-40% than that of vapor-liquid two-phase boiling flow, also, the novel evaporator exhibits an excellent function of fouling prevention.

  6. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Wheat Straw in a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Gjernes, Erik; Hansen, Lars Kresten

    1996-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been an interest for pressurized combustion and gasification of solid fuels in power plants due to the potential for high efficiency. The utilization of new types of solid fuels for pressurized combustion and gasification depends on char yield and char reactivity...... at relevant conditions. The pressurized entrained now reactor designed at Rise is introduced. Pyrolysis and combustion at 10 and 20 bar pressure have been studied using pulverized wheat straw. Samples of partly reacted particles are collected, and the conversion is calculated using the ash tracer technique...

  7. Butyric acid fermentation from pre-treated wheat straw by a mutant clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter;

    ’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid is considered as a potential chemical building-block for the production of chemicals for e.g. polymeric compounds and the aim of this work was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces less acetic...... acid (higher selectivity), has a higher yield and a higher productivity of butyric acid from pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass. Pre-treated wheat straw was used as the main carbon source. After one year of serial adaptation and selection a mutant strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. This new...

  8. Assessment of leaf/stem ratio in wheat straw feedstock and impact on enzymatic conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    . By preparing samples of various leaf-to-stem (L/S) ratios, we found shifting conversion behavior as processing parameters were modified. Increasing the enzyme dosage, pretreatment temperature and pretreatment time all significantly improved conversion rates in samples with more than 50% leaf content, whereas...... conversion processes and additionally in feedstock breeding. Furthermore, this highlights the need for rapid techniques for determining L/S ratio in wheat straw harvests. The CoMPP data on specific carbohydrates and leaf pectin highlight carbohydrate epitopes that may be useful as markers in the development...

  9. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact...

  10. Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Jensen, K.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet oxidation (oxygen pressure, alkaline conditions, elevated temperature) or hydrothermal processing (without oxygen) in order to solubilize the hemicellulose, facilitating bio-conversion. The effect of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate addition on hemicellulose...... solubilization was investigated. The two process parameters had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose. However alkaline conditions affected the furfural formation whereas oxygen had no effect. After pretreatment, the filtrate was used as a fermentation medium for thermophilic anaerobic bacterin...... of the microorganism to the wet oxidized filtrate was also examined. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  11. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension...... supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat straw. The cultivations with B. cinerea and R brasilianum gave the highest endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3...

  12. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat st.......Conclusion: The combination of the L. buchneri ensiling and C. subvermispora WRF treatment provided a significant improvement in the pretreatment effect on WS. This combined biopretreatment produced particularly promising results for ethanol production.......Background: Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat...... straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. Results...

  13. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-12-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  14. Effects of straw mulch on soil water and winter wheat production in dryland farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang; Ting, Wei; Haixia, Wang; Min, Wang; Xiangping, Meng; Siwei, Mou; Rui, Zhang; Zhikuan, Jia; Qingfang, Han

    2015-06-02

    The soil water supply is the main factor that limits dryland crop production in China. In a three-year field experiment at a dryland farming experimental station, we evaluated the effects of various straw mulch practices on soil water storage, grain yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Field experiments were conducted with six different mulch combinations (two different mulch durations and three different mulch amounts): high (SM1; 9000 kg ha(-1)), medium (SM2; 6000 kg ha(-1)), and low (SM3; 3000 kg ha(-1)) straw mulch treatments for the whole period; and high (SM4), medium (SM5) and low (SM6) straw mulch treatments during the growth period only, where the control was the whole period without mulch (CK). Throughout the whole growth period of the three-year experiment, the average soil water content in the 0-200 cm soil layer increased by 0.7-22.5% compared with CK, while the WUE increased significantly by 30.6%, 32.7% and 24.2% with SM1, SM2, and SM3, respectively (P < 0.05). The yield increased by 13.3-23.0% when mulch was provided during the growth period, while the WUE increased by 15.2%, 17.2% and 18.0% with SM4, SM5, and SM6, respectively, compared with CK.

  15. Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

    2005-04-01

    Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

  16. Enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw after combined steam explosion and laccase pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weihua; Chen, Hongzhang

    2012-08-01

    Laccase, capable of selectively degrading lignin while keeping cellulose intact, has been widely applied for the modification and bio-bleaching of pulp. In this study Sclerotium sp. laccase (MSLac) was employed in combination with steam explosion to evaluate the effect of this treatment on cellulose hydrolysis. Combined steam explosion with laccase pretreatment enhanced the cellulose conversion rate of wheat straw no matter in the case of successive (MSLac-Cel) and simultaneous (MSLac+Cel) MSLac and cellulase hydrolysis. The highest cellulose conversion rate of 84.23% was obtained when steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS) (1.3 MPa, 5 min) was treated by MSLac+Cel at a laccase loading of 0.55 U g(-1) substrate. FT-IR and SEM analyses indicated that MSLac oxidized the phenol and changed electron configuration of the ring, which contributed to loosening the compact wrap of lignin-carbohydrate complex and consequently enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose. This article provided a promising method for lignocellulose bio-pretreatment.

  17. Study of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for steam exploded wheat straw to ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LUO; Zhong LIU; Chuanmin YANG; Gaosheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Although simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has been investigated extensively, the optimum condition for SSF of wheat straw has not yet been determined. Dilute sulfuric acid impregnated and steam explosion pretreated wheat straw was used as a substrate for the production of ethanol by SSF through orthogonal experiment design in this study. Cellulase mix-ture (Celluclast 1.5 1 and β-glucosidase Novozym 188) were adopted in combination with the yeast Sacchar-omyces cerevisiae AS2.1. The effects of reaction temper-ature, substrate concentration, initial fermentation liquid pH value and enzyme loading were evaluated and the SSF conditions were optimized. The ranking, from high to low, of influential extent of the SSF affecting factors to ethanol concentration and yield was substrate concentra-tion, enzyme loading, initial fermentation liquid pH value and reaction temperature, respectively. The optimal SSF conditions were: reaction temperature, 35℃; substrate the ethanol concentration increased with reaction time, and after 72 h, ethanol was obtained in 65.8% yield with

  18. Preparation and utilization of wheat straw anionic sorbent for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Bao-yu; Yue, Wen-wen; Yue, Qin-yan

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the impact of eutrophication caused by agricultural residues (i.e., excess nitrate) in aqueous solution, economic and effective anionic sorbents are required. In this article, we prepared anionic sorbent using wheat straw. Its structural characteristics and adsorption properties for nitrate removal from aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicate that the yield of the prepared anionic sorbent, the total exchange capacity, and the maximum adsorption capacity were 350%, 2.57 mEq/g, and 2.08 mmol/g, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm mode is more suitable than the Langmuir mode and the adsorption process accords with the first order reaction kinetic rate equation. When multiple anions (SO4(2-), H2PO4(-), NO3(-), and NO2(-)) were present, the isotherm mode of prepared anionic sorbent for nitrate was consistent with Freundlich mode; however, the capacity of nitrate adsorption was reduced by 50%. In alkaline solutions, about 90% of adsorbed nitrate ions could be desorbed from prepared anionic sorbent. The results of this study confirmed that the wheat straw anionic sorbent can be used as an excellent nitrate sorbent that removes nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  19. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost impact on ryegrass yields.

  20. Wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron for removal of trichloroethylene from groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Ya Qin; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiao Li; Guo, Shu; Qiu, Yue Feng; Liu, Yong Di; Duan, Xiao Li; Yu, Yun Jiang

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized the wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (BC-nZVI) via in-situ reduction with NaBH4 and biochar pyrolyzed at 600°C. Wheat straw biochar, as a carrier, significantly enhanced the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) by nZVI. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of TCE removal by BC-nZVI (1.079 h−1) within 260 min was 1.4 times higher and 539.5 times higher than that of biochar and nZVI, respectively. TCE was 79% dechlorinated by BC-nZVI within 15 h, but only 11% dechlorinated by unsupported nZVI, and no TCE dechlorination occurred with unmodified biochar. Weakly acidic solution (pH 5.7–6.8) significantly enhanced the dechlorination of TCE. Chloride enhanced the removal of TCE, while SO42−, HCO3− and NO3− all inhibited it. Humic acid (HA) inhibited BC-nZVI reactivity, but the inhibition decreased slightly as the concentration of HA increased from 40 mg∙L-1 to 80 mg∙L-1, which was due to the electron shutting by HA aggregates. Results suggest that BC-nZVI was promising for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. PMID:28264061

  1. The Effects of Three Mineral Nitrogen Sources and Zinc on Maize and Wheat Straw Decomposition and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ogunniyi Jumoke Esther; GUO Chun-hui; TIAN Xiao-hong; LI Hong-yun; ZHOU Yang-xue

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of straw in cultivated ifelds can potentially improve soil quality and crop yield. However, the presence of recalcitrant carbon compounds in straw slow its decomposition rate. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different nitrogen sources, with and without the application of zinc, on straw decomposition and soil quality. Soils were treated with three different nitrogen sources, with and without zinc: urea (CO(NH2)2), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). The combined treatments were as follows:maize (M) and wheat (W) straw incorporated into urea-, ammonium sulfate-, or ammonium chloride-treated soil (U, S, and C, respectively) with and without zinc (Z) (MU, MUZ, WU, WUZ;MS, MSZ, WS, WSZ;MC, MCZ, WC, WCZ, respectively);straw with zinc only (MZ, WZ);straw with untreated soil (MS, WS);and soil-only or control conditions (NT). The experiment consisted of 17 treatments with four replications. Each pot contained 150 g soil and 1.125 g straw, had a moisture content of 80%of the ifeld capacity, and was incubated for 53 days at 25°C. The rates of CO2-C emission, cumulative CO2-C evolution, total CO2 production in the soils of different treatments were measured to infer decomposition rates. The total organic carbon (TOC), labile organic carbon (LOC), and soil microbial biomass in the soils of different treatments were measured to infer soil quality. All results were signiifcantly different (P<0.05) with the exception of the labile organic carbon (LOC). The maize and wheat straw showed different patterns in CO2 evolution rates. For both straw types, Zn had a synergic effect with U, but an antagonistic effect with the other N sources as determined by the total CO2 produced. The MUZ treatment showed the highest decomposition rate and cumulative CO2 concentration (1 120.29 mg/pot), whereas the WACZ treatment had the lowest cumulative CO2 concentration (1 040.57 mg/pot). The addition of NH4Cl resulted in the

  2. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sadeghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for their potential to improve the feeding value of wheat straw. Upgrading of wheat straw by ammoniation has been known for a long time, but application of this method of wheat straw treatment has received the least attention in the area (Khorasan Province, Iran. Therefore, the object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gaseous and liquid ammonia on nutritive value of wheat straw through in vitro techniques. Material and Methods One kg dry wheat straw was placed into the plastic cylinders with dimension of 1 m (diameter and 1.8 m (height and 0.8 mm (thickness. Gaseous and liquid commercial ammonia was injected or added to the wrapped straw at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 percent. The treatment time was 1 month at room temperature (20-25 ºC. At the end of treatment period the cylinders were opened and the ammoniated straw exposed to the air for 4 days. The treated straws were sampled for the subsequent analyses. Dry matter degradability of the samples was done by using nylon bags (10x20 cm with pore size of 40 micron. About 2 g ground samples (2 mm were placed into the nylon bags and incubated in rumen of 4 permanently fistulated steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The experimental steers were fed by the ordinary diet containing 65% forage and 35% concentrate twice daily. The Menke and Steingass method was followed for the in vitro gas production method. Result and discussion Crude protein (CP content of the treated wheat straw samples

  3. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to e...

  4. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose...

  5. Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, L.;

    2009-01-01

    Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity producing microbial communities developed in two chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Power density reached 123 mW/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1000 mg-COD/L while...... to improve understanding and optimizing the electricity generation in microbial fuel cells....

  6. Direct Conversion of Wheat Straw into Electricity with a Biomass Flow Fuel Cell Mediated by Two Redox Ion Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Liu, Wei; Du, Xu; Liu, Congmin; Zhang, Zhe; Sun, Feifei; Yang, Le; Xu, Dong; Guo, Hua; Deng, Yulin

    2017-02-08

    In this paper, a biomass flow fuel cell to directly convert wheat straw to electricity at low temperature (80-90 °C) and atmospheric pressure is presented. Two redox ion pairs, Fe(3+) /Fe(2+) and VO2(+) /VO(2+) , acting as redox catalysts and charge carriers, were used in the anode and cathode flow tanks, respectively. The wheat straw was first oxidized by Fe(3+) in the anode tank at approximately 100 °C. The reduced Fe(2+) in the anode was used to construct a fuel cell with VO2(+) in the cathode. The VO2(+) ions were reduced to VO(2+) and regenerated to VO2(+) by oxygen oxidation. The wheat straw flow fuel cell showed a power output of 100 mW cm(-2) . Mediated with liquid Fe(3+) carriers, the solid powder of wheat straw could be gradually degraded into low-molecular-weight organic molecules and even oxidized to CO2 at the anode without using noble-metal catalysts. The overpotential for the electrodes of the flow fuel cell was examined and the energy cost was estimated.

  7. Sulfur Distribution during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignite, Wheat Straw and Plastic Waste in Sub-Critical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Huang Yaru; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of sulfur in products during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water were investigated in an autoclave. The inlfuence of blending ratio, temperature, initial nitrogen pressure, residence time and additives on sulfur distribution was studied systematically. The results showed that most of sulfur existed as organic sulfur and transferred into the residue, and only a small part of sulfur transferred into oil and gas during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water. The results also showed that lower temperature (less than 300℃) was favorable for obtaining oil with low sulfur content. It can be also seen from the results that the best condition to obtain the oil with low sulfur content should be implemented at a lignite/wheat straw/plastic waste blending ratio of 5:4:1, an initial nitrogen pressure of 3 MPa and a residence time of 30 minutes. Fur-thermore, the results indicated that adding tourmaline during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste was beneifcial to production of oil with low sulfur content.

  8. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément

    2015-01-01

    are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during...

  9. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pinto, P.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were conduct

  10. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of spent mushroom substrate with yard trimmings and wheat straw for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunqin; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a biomass waste generated from mushroom production. About 5 kg of SMS is generated for every kg of mushroom produced. In this study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of SMS, wheat straw, yard trimmings, and their mixtures was investigated at different feedstock to effluent ratios. SMS was found to be highly degradable, which resulted in inhibition of SS-AD due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and a decrease in pH. This issue was addressed by co-digestion of SMS with either yard trimmings or wheat straw. SS-AD of SMS/yard trimmings achieved a cumulative methane yield of 194 L/kg VS, which was 16 and 2 times higher than that from SMS and yard trimmings, respectively. SS-AD of SMS/wheat straw obtained a cumulative methane yield of 269 L/kg VS, which was 23 times as high as that from SMS and comparable to that from wheat straw.

  11. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw.

  12. Thermo- and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw by the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Marcel; Mumme, Jan; Heeg, Kathrin; Nettmann, Edith

    2012-11-01

    In this experimental work, the feasibility of wheat straw as a feedstock for biogas production is investigated using the newly developed upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) process. With the analytical emphasis placed on methane and metabolite production, both mesophilic and thermophilic 39 L UASS reactors were operated for 218 days at an organic loading rate of 2.5 g(VS)L(-1)d(-1) using wheat straw as sole substrate. For improved methanization of soluble metabolites, each UASS reactor was connected to an individual 30 L anaerobic filter (AF). During steady state thermophilic straw digestion was found to have a 36% higher methane yield (0.165 L g(VS)(-1)) whereas the hydrolysis rate constant increased by 106% (0.066 d(-1)).

  13. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment......, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...... fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass...

  14. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  15. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, O M; Montano, M F; Calderon, J F; Valdez, J A; Chirino, J O; Gonzalez, V M; Salinas-Chavira, J; Mendoza, G D; Soto, S; Zinn, R A

    2016-06-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (pstraw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (pstraw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (pstraw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH.

  16. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup;

    2016-01-01

    The export of winter wheat straw for bioenergy may reduce soil C stocks and affect N losses. Establishing fast-growing catch crops between successive wheat crops could potentially offset some of the C and N losses. Another option is to sow wheat earlier, increasing biomass production during...... the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations...... included five levels of initial soil C content (1–3% C), three levels of straw incorporation (0, 50 and 100%), +/− catch crop (oil radish) and two sowing dates (1 and 22 September). Exporting the entire straw production reduced soil C stocks by 1.2 to 14% after 100 years, depending on the initial C content...

  17. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Borbála

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS, resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and

  18. Characterization of the newly isolated Geobacillus sp. T1, the efficient cellulase-producer on untreated barley and wheat straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Reza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Bakhshi Khaniki, Gholamreza

    2012-09-01

    A thermophile cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated and identified as closely related to Geobacillus subterraneus. The strain, named Geobacillus sp. T1, was able to grow and produce cellulase on cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), barley straw, wheat straw and Whatman No. 1 filter paper. However, barley and wheat straws were significantly better substrates for cellulase production. When Geobacillus sp. T1 was cultivated in the presence of 0.5% barley straw, 0.1% Tween 80 and pH 6.5 at 50°C, the maximum level of free cellulase up to 143.50 U/mL was produced after 24h. This cellulase (≈ 54 kDa) was most active at pH 6.5 and 70°C. The enzyme in citrate phosphate buffer (10mM) was stable at 60°C for at least 1h. Geobacillus sp. T1 with efficient growth and cellulase production on straws seems a potential candidate for conversion of agricultural biomass to fuels.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel super-absorbent based on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zuohao; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Zhong, Qianqian

    2011-02-01

    In order to develop an eco-friendly polymer, a novel super-absorbent polymer was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC) onto the pretreatment wheat straw (PTWS). The molecular structure of the super-absorbent was confirmed by FTIR. The factors that can influence absorbencies of the super-absorbent resin (SAR) were investigated, such as weight ratio between the monomers, the ratio of PTWS to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, temperature reaction time and neutralization degree of AA. The SAR has the water absorbency of 133.76 g/g in distilled water and 33.83 g/g in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution.

  20. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact.

  1. Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Arvid; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Schmidt, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. The potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the HH through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. Fermentation of added...... xylose in untreated HH after wet-oxidation, showed no inhibition on the lactic acid production by either Lb. pentosus or Lb. brevis. Lb. pentosus produced lactate corresponding to 88% of the theoretical maximum yield regardless of the hydrolysis method, whereas Lb. brevis produced 51% and 61......% of the theoretical maximum yield after enzymatic, or acid treatment of HH, respectively. Individually, neither of the two strains were able to fully utilize the relatively broad spectra of sugars released by the acid and enzyme treatments; however, lactic acid production increased to 95% of the theoretical maximum...

  2. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  3. Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

    2013-04-10

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH₄⁺ indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH₄⁺, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g⁻¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture.

  4. Wheat straw hemicelluloses added with cellulose nanocrystals and citric acid. Effect on film physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo H F; Waldron, Keith W; Wilson, David R; Cunha, Arcelina P; Brito, Edy S de; Rodrigues, Tigressa H S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2017-05-15

    Wheat straw has been used as a source of hemicelluloses (WSH) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) for the elaboration of biodegradable films. Different films have been formed by using WSH as a matrix and different contents of CNC and citric acid. The predominant hemicelluloses were arabinoxylans. CNC reinforced the films, improving tensile strength and modulus, water resistance and water vapor barrier. Citric acid, on the other hand, presented concomitant plasticizing and crosslinking effects (the latter also evidenced by FTIR), probably due to a crosslinking extension by glycerol. The use of 5.9wt% CNC and 30wt% citric acid was defined as optimal conditions, resulting in minimum water sensitivity and permeability, while maintaining a good combination of tensile properties. Under those conditions, the films presented enhanced modulus, elongation, water resistance, and barrier to water vapor when compared to the control WSH film, and might be used for wrapping or coating a variety of foods.

  5. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-05

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained.

  6. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatme...... fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...

  7. Structural modification of lignin and characterization of pretreated wheat straw by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bule, Mahesh V; Gao, Allan H; Hiscox, Bill; Chen, Shulin

    2013-04-24

    Ozonolysis is potentially an effective method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass to improve the production of fermentable sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis. Further understanding of the ozonolysis process and identifying specific lignin structural changes are crucial for improving the pretreatment process. Investigation into pretreatment of wheat straw using ozonolysisis is reported in this paper, with special emphasis on selective modification/degradation of lignin subunits. The ozonolysis was performed for 2 h with less than 60 mesh particles in order to achieve maximum lignin oxidation. The results showed that the lignin structure was significantly modified under these conditions, leading to higher sugar recovery of more than 50% which increased from 13.11% to 63.17% corresponding to the control and ozone treated samples, respectively. Moisture content was found to be an important parameter for improving sugar recovery. Ninety percent (w/w) moisture produced the highest sugar recovery. The concentration of acid soluble lignin in the ozone treated sample increased from 4% to 11% after 2 h treatment. NMR analysis revealed that the S2/6 and G2 lignin units in the wheat straw were most prone to oxidation by ozone as the concentration of aromatic units decreased while the carboxylic acids became more abundant. The experimental data suggest the degradation of β-O-4 moieties and aromatic ring opening in lignin subunits. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results revealed that the rate of lignin unit degradation was in the following order: syringyl > guaiacyl > p-hydroxyphenyl. Long ozone exposure resulted in few condensed lignin structure formation. In addition, the formation of condensed units during this process increased the activation energy from ASTM-E, 259.74 kJ/mol; Friedman-E, 270.08 kJ/mol to ASTM-E, 509.29 kJ/mol; Friedman-E, 462.17 kJ/mol. The results provide new information in overcoming lignin barrier for lignocellulose utilization.

  8. Oxidation of wheat straw lignin by fungal lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ingo, M.J.; Kurek, B. [Laboratorie de Chimie Biologique, Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    1996-10-01

    Lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and laccase from Pleurotus eryngii were separately used to degrade alkali wheat straw lignin (AL). In order to characterize the catalytic action of the different enzymes, the chemical structure and the hydrodynamic properties of the treated lignin were analyzed by thioacidolysis-gas chromatography and molecular size exclusion chromatography. The results confirmed that only LiP was able to degrade guiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) structures in non-phenolic methylated lignins. However, provided that some phenolic terminal structures are present, MnP and laccase were able to degrade the non-phenolic portion of the polymer linked by {beta}-O-4 alkyl aryl ether bonds. This suggested that the oxidative reactions catalyzed in alkali straw lignin could progress through bond cleavages generating phenoxy radicals. The molecular size distribution of both thioacidolysis products and the oxidized polymer showed that AL underwent condensation side-reactions regardless of the enzyme treatment, but only LiP oxidation led to the increase in the hydrodynamic volume of the recovered lignin. This indicated that modification of enzymes by bonding patterns in lignin is not always associated with alterations in the spatial network of the polymer.

  9. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  10. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  11. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan Jia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements(except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and Al; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants; The organic ingredients amout to about 20% of the foulant;Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 @llH2O is the main composition in foulants.The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor,because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2+, K+, Na+, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done.The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  12. ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITION OF FOULANTS FROM ALKALINE WHEAT STRAW BLACK LIQUOR AND DISCUSSION ON ITS FORMING MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuanJia

    2004-01-01

    Analysis on foulants shows that: the elements (except for C, H and O) in foulants formed during evaporating alkaline wheat straw black liquor are Si,Ca, K, Na, Mg and AI; Si and Ca account for about 36% of the weight of foulants, The organic ingredients about to about 20% of the foulant; Rhodesite (Ca,K,Na)8Si16O40 ·11H2O is the main composition in foulants. The fouling mechanism of wheat black liquor is quite different from that of soft/hard wood black liquor, because the content of Si inside wheat straw black liquor is much more than that of soft/hard wood black liquor. Complex chemical reactions occur when evaporating wheat straw black liquor. The author considers that colloid H2SiO3 plays an important role in the process. The minerals produced by reactions between H2SiO3, with anion charges and positive ions, such as Ca2-, K-, Na-, etc. Further investigation on the process should be done. The fractal theory is used to analyze the fouling geometric texture. The fractal dimension values D of foulants are also calculated.

  13. Effects of Corn Straw Returning and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Methods on N2O Emission from Wheat Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a wheat field experiment, the effect of four treatments such as no-straw returning (SN, straw returning (SR, control release fertilizer application(SRC and nitrogen drilling(SRR on N2O emission was studied using the static chamber method and the gas chromatographic technique. The results indicated that the wheat field was the sources of N2O emission. The N2O emission peaks followed each time of fertilizer application and irrigation, and usually continued for 1~2 weeks. N2O emissions accounted for more than 40% of total emissions during the N2O emission peak. The amount of N2O emission during three growing stage of wheat from high to low was arranged in turn pre-wintering period, post-wintering period and wintering period. N2O emission could be increased by straw returning. Compared with SN, N2O emission could be enhanced by 48.6% under SR. Both SRC and SRR could decrease the N2O emission, increase wheat yield and economic benefit, especially the latter. Nitrogen drilling is a good method for yield increment and N2O abatement.

  14. Field investigation on effects of wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch on ecological environment of upland crop farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志勇; 钱炳法

    2002-01-01

    This work systematically investigates the effects of wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch on the ecological environment in upland crops (winter wheat, summer corn) field from 1997 to 1998. With and without mulch soil moisture distribution, water demand, day and night variation of soil temperature, weeds control, crop yields, water and soil conservation, as well as improvement of soil texture were experimentally investigated. The optimal mulch rate for both water saving and yield-increase was determined. Ineffective interplant evaporation can be turned into effective transpiration of leaf by application of wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch, which enhances the utility factor of soil moisture and reduces irrigation norm, and may also regulate soil temperature, increase soil fertility, and improve soil texture after being returned to the field. Wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch inhibits evaporation of moisture so that accumulation of salinity near the soil surface is prevented, and thus ameliorates salinization of land. In the region of severe soil erosion, mulch is used to cover land so as to forestall hydraulic and wind erosion of the soil.

  15. Influence of Substrate Particle Size and Wet Oxidation on Physical Surface Structures and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    In the worldwide quest for producing biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the importance of the substrate pretreatment is becoming increasingly apparent. This work examined the effects of reducing the substrate particle sizes of wheat straw by grinding prior to wet oxidation and enzymatic...... release only increased (by up to 39%) with particle size decrease for the straw particles that had not been wet oxidized. Wet oxidation pretreatment increased the enzymatic xylose release by 5.4 times and the glucose release by 1.8 times across all particle sizes. Comparison of scanning electron...... microscopy images of the straw particles revealed edged, nonspherical, porous particles with variable surface structures as a result of the grinding. Wet oxidation pretreatment tore up the surface structures of the particles to retain vascular bundles of xylem and phloem. The enzymatic hydrolysis left behind...

  16. [Effects of nitrogen application rates on apparent soil nitrogen surplus of late sowing wheat with straw returning in rice-wheat rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zu-Liang; Gu, Dong-Xiang; Gu, Ke-Jun; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Zhang, Si-Mei; Yu, Jian-Guang; Yang, Si-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of varying rates of nitrogen application on soil mineral nitrogen content, amount of nitrogen released from the straw, and grain yield of late sowing wheat with straw returning. The result showed that a high nitrogen fertilizer application rate enhanced the mineral nitrogen content in the soil layer of 0 to 50 cm, and also in the lower soil layers when using N at 270 and 360 kg · hm(-2) with the advance of growth stages. The amount of nitrogen released form the straw increased as the nitrogen application rate increased; the lowest appeared from overwintering to jointing, and the highest from jointing to maturity. During the whole growing season, apparent nitrogen surplus occurred when the nitrogen application rate was higher than 180 kg · hm(-2). The N surplus before jointing was significantly higher than that from jointing to maturity. Grain yield reached the highest at a nitrogen application rate of 270 kg · hm(-2), and a higher application rate obviously decreased the nitrogen use efficiency. It could be concluded that applying nitrogen at 270 kg · him(-2) could improve the grain yield of late sowing wheat with straw returning with the optimal ecological benefit.

  17. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose.

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wheat Straw in Sub-critical Water/Ethanol with Ionic Liquid for Bio-oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Han Shaohua; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction of wheat straw in sub-critical water with ionic liquid was investigated in an autoclave. The product distribution at different temperatures and pressures was studied. The liquid oil and the residuals were tested by 1H NMR, FTIR and SEM techniques. The results indicated that under the same conditions, the oil yield from liquefaction of wheat straw in water/ethanol was higher than that in sub-critical water. The result also showed that under the investigated conditions, adding 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) could increase the total conversion and gas yield, while at the same time the yield ofn-hexane insoluble fraction and the tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction was reduced. More-over, the results also showed that upon adding [Bmim]Cl the contents of the aliphatic hydrogen and phenols in liquid oil also increased along with improved oil quality.

  19. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Olsson, L.; Thomsen, A.B.;

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/L sodium carbonate and 12 bar oxygen at 195degreesC) was used as pretreatment method for wheat straw (60 g/L), resulting in a hydrolysate and a cellulosic solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (8 g/L), low......-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (3.9 g/L), phenols (0.27 g/L = 1.7 mM) and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/L). The wet oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present in the hydrolysate, were each tested...

  20. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g....../l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...

  1. Comparison of SHF and SSF processes from steam-exploded wheat straw for ethanol production by xylose-fermenting and robust glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Pejo, Elia; Oliva, Jose M.; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw using different process configurations was evaluated using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, F12 and Red Star. The strain F12 has been engineerically modified to allow xylose consumption as cereal straw contain considerable...... concentration was improved in all tests due to the increase of potential fermentable sugars in the fermentation broth. Inhibitory compounds present in the pretreated wheat straw caused a significantly negative effect on the fermentation rate. However, it was found that the inhibitors furfural and HMF were...

  2. Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p urea interventions and yeast culture addition had no effect (p > 0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p < 0.05) propionate yields.

  3. Simultaneous biological removal of endosulfan (alpha+beta) and nitrates from drinking waters using wheat straw as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sükrü; Türkman, Ayşen

    2004-06-01

    Nitrate and endosulfan (alpha+beta) removal was studied in an upflow biological denitrification reactor packed with wheat straw as carbon source and support particles for microorganisms. While almost complete nitrate elimination and between 65% and 70% endosulfan (alpha+beta) elimination occurred when the temperature was higher than 20 degrees C; below that value, nitrate removal efficiency decreased to about 10%. Nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and endosulfan (alpha+beta) removal efficiencies decreased considerably at 1500 microg/l endosulfan concentration in the batch experiments. Although a high removal efficiency was observed for endosulfan (alpha+beta) and nitrate in the biological denitrification continuous reactor, the effluent water could not be used for drinking purpose because of the unacceptable levels of endosulfan (alpha+beta), colour and dissolved organic content. During the continuous study, 23.4% of the initial weight of wheat straw was lost and 24 g was consumed per gram of nitrogen removed. The results of the continuous study showed that 21.3% of the endosulfan removal was achieved by adsorption onto the wheat straw and 68.2% of the endosulfan removal occurred by biological activity and the remaining portion was detected in the effluent water.

  4. Improving water resistance of wheat straw-based medium density fiberboards bonded with aminoplastic and phenolic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laborie, M.-P. G.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A long standing problem in the manufacture of wheat-straw based composites with cost-effective formaldehyde-based resins is their poor water resistance as demonstrated by their large water thickness swell. In this study, wheat straw based medium density fiberboards were manufactured using 3 resin/wax systems: a melamine-urea-formalde-hyde resin with either low or high wax content, and a phenol-formal-dehyde resin with low wax content. The flexural properties, internal bond strength, and thickness swell of the resulting composites were evaluated and compared according to ASTM methods. The three MDF compos-ites passed the requirements for MDF in interior application, except for the MDF manufactured with the aminoplastic resin and low wax content that failed to provide acceptable thickness swell. Using the phenolic resin in combination with low wax content resulted in a higher grade MDF composite, grade 120, than with the aminoplastic and high wax content. This study demonstrates that wheat straw based MDF manu-factured with cost-effective aminoplastic and phenolic resins can have flexural properties, internal bond strength and thickness swell perfor-mance above the requirements from the American National Standards Institute.

  5. Comparison of high temperature chars of wheat straw and rice husk with respect to chemistry, morphology and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid-statenucle......Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid......-statenuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis to investigate the effect ofinorganic matter on the char morphology and oxygen reactivity. The silicon compounds were dispersedthroughout the turbostratic structure of rice husk char in an amorphous phase with a low meltingtemperature (z730 C......), which led to the formation of a glassy char shell, resulting in a preserved particlesize and shape of chars. The high alkali content in the wheat straw resulted in higher char reactivity,whereas the lower silicon content caused variations in the char shape from cylindrical to near...

  6. Acetic Acid Catalyzed Steam Explosion for Improving the Sugar Recovery of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengru Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-catalyzed steam explosion pretreatment was applied to wheat straw at temperatures of 190 and 210 °C for 2, 6, and 10 min of residence time. The effects of pretreatment conditions on the total gravimetric recovery, hemicellulose sugars, glucose content, and yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results indicated that the total gravimetric recovery decreases while the solubility of hemicellulose and the yield of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis increase as the pretreatment severity increases. Pretreatment at 190 °C with a 2-min residence time resulted in the highest total gravimetric recovery, 58.9%. The optimum defiberation, glucose content, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields of 70.4 and 79.6%, respectively, occurred following pretreatment at 210 °C with a 10-min residence time. The optimal pretreatment condition was determined to be 190 °C for 10 min. Under the optimum conditions, the recovery yield of all sugars reached 42.7%. This pretreatment resulted in the highest recovery yield of all sugars.

  7. Strategies of xylanase supplementation for an efficient saccharification and cofermentation process from pretreated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Negro, María José; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2011-07-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials includes a pretreatment step before enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). Pretreated substrates contain complex hemicelluloses in the solid fraction that can protect the cellulose from enzymatic attack. In addition, soluble xylooligomers are contained in the pretreated materials and may have an inhibitory effect on cellulase activity. In this context, several approaches for xylanase supplementation have been studied to increase EH yields. In this study, the whole slurry obtained after steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw has been used as substrate. EH experiments were performed using commercial cellulase preparations supplemented with an endoxylanase (XlnC) from Aspergillus nidulans. Among different strategies of XlnC supplementation, the 24-h xylanase treatment before cellulase addition yielded an increase of 40.1 and 10.1% in glucose and xylose production, respectively. Different XlnC addition strategies were integrated in a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process (SSCF) using the xylose fermenting strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12. Ethanol production in SSCF was 28.4% higher when comparing to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

  8. Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

    2013-09-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE.

  9. Particle-Scale Modeling of Methane Emission during Pig Manure/Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2016-04-19

    Inefficient aerobic composting techniques significantly contribute to the atmospheric methane (CH4) levels. Macro-scale models assuming completely aerobic conditions cannot be used to analyze CH4 generation in strictly anaerobic environments. This study presents a particle-scale model for aerobic pig manure/wheat straw composting that incorporates CH4 generation and oxidation kinetics. Parameter estimation revealed that pig manure is characterized by high CH4 yield coefficient (0.6414 mol CH4 mol(-1) Cman) and maximum CH4 oxidation rate (0.0205 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS(aero) h(-1)). The model accurately predicted CH4 emissions (R(2) = 0.94, RMSE = 2888 ppmv, peak time deviation = 0 h), particularly in the self-heating and cooling phases. During mesophilic and thermophilic stages, a rapid increase of CH4 generation (0.0130 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS h(-1)) and methanotroph inactivation were simulated, implying that additional measures should be performed during these phases to mitigate CH4 emissions. Furthermore, CH4 oxidation efficiency was related to oxygen permeation through the composting particles. Reducing the ambient temperature and extending the aeration duration can decrease CH4 emission, but the threshold temperature is required to trigger the self-heating phase. These findings provide insights into CH4 emission during composting and may inform responsible strategies to counteract climate change.

  10. Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw combined with SI-MCM-41 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Funda; Putun, Ayse Eren [Anadolu University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (Turkey)], e-mail: fdivrikl@anadolu.edu.tr, email: aeputun@anadolu.edu.tr; Tophanecioglu, Sibel [Erkurt Holding (Turkey)], email: sibel8888@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the results of an experiment in which the respective results from fast pyrolysis of wheat straw catalyzed with Si-MCM-4, and in the non-catalytic condition were compared. This experiment was carried out in a well-swept fixed-bed reactor with a heating rate of 300 degree C/min and in a nitrogen atmosphere after which, the main characteristics of pyrolyzed feedstock were determined by proximate, ultimate and component analysis. As the results of this experiment show, the maximum oil yield was 31.9% in a non-catalytic pyrolysis procedure and this gas yield increased in the pyrolysis experiment with catalyst, although the bio-oil yield decreased. On the other hand, the use of catalyst had the benefit of reducing the percentage of oxygen, the presence of which in the fuel is not desirable. Through testing pyrolysis oils, it was established that the use of a catalyst in the pyrolysis can improve fuel quality and produce valuable chemicals.

  11. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-09-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l(-1) of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v(-1) ) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60-80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g(-1) of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9-1.0 g g(-1) of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7.

  12. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on the structural changes of alkaline ethanol lignin from wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Li, Hanyin; Sun, Shaoni; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2016-12-01

    Due to the enormous abundance of lignin and its unique aromatic nature, lignin has great potential for the production of industrially useful fuels, chemicals, and materials. However, the rigid and compact structure of the plant cell walls significantly blocks the separation of lignin. In this study, wheat straw was hydrothermally pretreated at different temperatures (120–200 °C) followed by post-treatment with 70% ethanol containing 1% NaOH to improve the isolation of lignin. Results demonstrated that the content of associated carbohydrates of the lignin fractions was gradually reduced with the increment of the hydrothermal severity. The structure of the lignins changed regularly with the increase of the pretreatment temperature from 120 to 200 °C. In particular, the contents of β-O-4‧, β-β‧, β-5‧ linkages and aliphatic OH in the lignins showed a tendency of decrease, while the content of phenolic OH and thermal stability of the lignin fractions increased steadily as the increment of the pretreatment temperature.

  13. Synergic Effect of Wheat Straw Ash and Rice-Husk Ash on Strength Properties of Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ajay; Kunio, Hattori; Ogata, Hidehiko; Garg, Monika; Anwar, A. M.; Ashraf, M.; Mandula

    Pozzolan materials obtained from various sources; when used as partial replacement for Portland cement in cement based applications play an important role not only towards sustainable development but in reducing the construction costs as well. Present study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of Rice-Husk Ash (RHA) and Wheat Straw Ash (WSA) on the strength properties of ash substituted mortar. Ash materials were obtained after burning the wastes at 600°C for 5 h at a control rate of 2°C min. Two binary blends of mortar substituting 15% cement with WSA and RHA and three combinations of ternary blend with (10+5)%, (5+10)% and (7.5+7.5)% mix ratios of WSA and RHA, together with a control specimen were subjected to destructive (compressive and flexural strength) as well as non-destructive (ultrasonic pulse velocity) tests till 180 days of curing. Ternary blend with (7.5 + 7.5)% combination of WSA and RHA showed better strength results than control and other blends and proved to be the optimum combination for achieving maximum synergic effect.

  14. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor.

  15. Lignocellulosic Wheat Straw-Derived Ion-Exchange Adsorbent for Heavy Metals Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnani, K K

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop partially delignified Ca(2+)-and-Mg(2+)-ion-exchanged product from lignocellulosic wheat straw for the removal of eight different heavy metals Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) and for detoxification of Cr(VI). Maximum fixation capacity, pH, and initial metal concentration dependence were determined to confirm strong affinity of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+) ions onto the product, whereas Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Mn(2+) were the least fixed. Morphology of the product characterized by scanning electron microscope showed its physical integrity. Different experimental approaches were applied to determine the role of cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) and several functional groups present in the product in an ion exchange for the fixation of metal ions. Potentiometric titration and Scatchard and Dahlquist interpretation were employed for determination of binding site heterogeneity. Results showed strong and weak binding sites in the product. This product has advantages over other conventional processes by virtue of abundance, easy operational process, and cost reduction in waste disposal of its raw material.

  16. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

    2008-01-24

    Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic compositeswere measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanningcalorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanningelectron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF inthermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WFand one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphologicalstudy showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs andthermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improvedadhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seenon the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties ofWF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensileand flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties ofthermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPPcoupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with thecombination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with theuse of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties requiredby the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  17. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Karakus

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF filled thermoplastic compositeswere measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanningcalorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanningelectron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF inthermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WFand one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphologicalstudy showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs andthermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improvedadhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seenon the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties ofWF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensileand flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties ofthermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPPcoupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with thecombination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with theuse of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties requiredby the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  18. DRAINAGE AND RETENTION ENHANCEMENT OF A WHEAT STRAW PULP CONTAINING FURNISH USING MICROPARTICLE RETENTION AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hultholm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The usage of non-wood pulps in furnishes for the production of various paper grades is a real alternative for the substitution of wood pulp in papermaking. In terms of the papermaking process, the main limiting factor for non-wood pulp utilization is poor dewatering. This problem can be partially solved by means of retention aids, and the modern microparticle-based retention aids are very promising for this application. In this study the main aim was to characterize how the microparticle retention systems affect the retention, dewatering, and formation of a non-wood pulp furnish and how these effects and mechanisms differ when compared to normal wood pulp. The performance of several commercially available retention aids was studied by making dynamic sheet forming tests for reference and an organosolv wheat straw furnish. The emphasis in the experiments was on drainage enhancement. The maximum drainage gain obtained with the bentonite-CPAM retention aid system was about 5%. Despite the improved drainage, dewatering of the reference furnish was better than for the non-wood containing furnish.

  19. Effect of Long-Term Application of K Fertilizer and Wheat Straw to Soil on Crop Yield and Soil K Under Different Planting Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN De-shui; JIN Ji-yun; HUANG Shao-wen; LI Shu-tian; HE Ping

    2007-01-01

    Effect of application of K fertilizer and wheat straw to soil on crop yield and status of soil K in the plough layer under different planting systems was studied. The experiments on long-term application of K fertilizer and wheat straw to soil in Hebei fluvo aquic soil and Shanxi brown soil in northern China were begun in 1992. The results showed that K fertilizer and straw could improve the yields of wheat and maize with the order of NPK + St > NPK > NP + St > NP, and treatment of K fertilizer made a significant difference to NP, and the efficiency of K fertilizer in maize was higher than in wheat under rotation system of Hebei. In contrast with Shanxi, the wastage of soil potassium was a more serious issue in the rotation system in Hebei, only treatment of NPK + St showed a surplus of potassium and the others showed a wane. K fertilizer and straw could improve the content of water-soluble K, nonspecifically adsorbed K, non-exchangeable K, mineral K, and total K in contrast to NP; however, K fertilizer and straw reduce the proportion of mineral K and improve proportion of other forms of potassium in the two locating sites. Compared with the beginning of orientation, temporal variability character of soil K content and proportion showed a difference between the two soil types; furthermore, there was a decrease in the content of mineral K and total K simultaneously in the two locating sites. As a whole, the effect of K fertilizer applied to soil directly excelled to wheat straw to soil. Wheat straw to soil was an effective measure to complement potassium to increase crop yield and retard the decrease of soil K.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases from rice production with simultaneous incorporation of wheat straw and nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Longlong; Xia, Yongqiu; Ma, Shutan; Wang, Jinyang; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Impacts of simultaneous inputs of crop straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and N losses from rice production are not well understood. A 2-year field experiment was established in a rice-wheat cropping system in the Taihu Lake region (TLR) of China to evaluate the GHG intensity (GHGI) as well as reactive N intensity (NrI) of rice production with inputs of wheat straw and N fertilizer. The field experiment included five treatments of different N fertilization rates for rice production: 0 (RN0), 120 (RN120), 180 (RN180), 240 (RN240), and 300 kg N ha-1 (RN300, traditional N application rate in the TLR). Wheat straws were fully incorporated into soil before rice transplantation. The meta-analytic technique was employed to evaluate various Nr losses. Results showed that the response of rice yield to N rate successfully fitted a quadratic model, while N fertilization promoted Nr discharges exponentially (nitrous oxide emission, N leaching, and runoff) or linearly (ammonia volatilization). The GHGI of rice production ranged from 1.20 (RN240) to 1.61 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) kg-1 (RN0), while NrI varied from 2.14 (RN0) to 10.92 g N kg-1 (RN300). Methane (CH4) emission dominated the GHGI with a proportion of 70.2-88.6 % due to direct straw incorporation, while ammonia (NH3) volatilization dominated the NrI with proportion of 53.5-57.4 %. Damage costs to environment incurred by GHG and Nr releases from current rice production (RN300) accounted for 8.8 and 4.9 % of farmers' incomes, respectively. Cutting N application rate from 300 (traditional N rate) to 240 kg N ha-1 could improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 2.14 and 10.30 %, respectively, while simultaneously reducing GHGI by 13 %, NrI by 23 %, and total environmental costs by 16 %. Moreover, the reduction of 60 kg N ha-1 improved farmers' income by CNY 639 ha-1, which would provide them with an incentive to change the current N application rate. Our study suggests that GHG

  1. The Influence of Wheat Straw Powder Particle Size on Microcellular Foaming Wheat Straw/PE Composites%麦秸粉粒径对微发泡木塑复合材性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振棠

    2015-01-01

    采用挤出成型方式制备麦秸/聚乙烯微孔发泡复合材料,研究麦秸粉不同粒径(40~60目、60~80目、80~120目)对复合材料密度、弯曲强度、拉伸强度、冲击强度的影响并通过扫描电镜观察泡孔结构。结果表明:随着麦秸粉粒径的减小,复合材料的弯曲强度和拉伸强度增加,冲击强度、密度呈先增加后降低趋势,泡孔结构由疏到密、由大到小。%Microcellular straw/PE composites was prepared by extrusion process,the effects of different particle size(40~60 mesh, 60~80 mesh,80~120 mesh) of wheat straw powder on density, bending strength,tensile strength,impact strength and micro-struc-ture of Composites were studied.The results showed that with the decrease of the particle size of wheat straw powder, bending strength and tensile strength of composites increased, the density and the impact strength of composites presented decreased trend af-ter the first increased.Bubble pore structure was observed by scanning electron microscope.With the straw powder particle size de-creasing,bubble pore structure was from sparse to dense, from big to small.

  2. Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

  3. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing.

  4. Preliminary results on optimization of pilot scale pretreatment of wheat straw used in coproduction of bioethanol and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thygesen, Anders; Jørgensen, Henning; Larsen, Jan; Christensen, Børge Holm; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective in this European Union-project is to develop cost and energy effective production systems for coproduction of bioethanol and electricity based on integrated biomass utilization. A pilot plan reactor for hydrothermal pretreatment (including weak acid hydrolysis, wet oxidation, and steam pretreatment) with a capacity of 100 kg/h was constructed and tested for pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Highest hemicellulose (C5 sugar) recovery and extraction of hemicellulose sugars was obtained at 190 degrees C whereas highest C6 sugar yield was obtained at 200 degrees C. Lowest toxicity of hydrolysates was observed at 190 degrees C; however, addition of H2O2 improved the fermentability and sugar recoveries at the higher temperatures. The estimated total ethanol production was 223 kg/t straw assuming utilisation of both C6 and C5 during fermentation, and 0.5 g ethanol/g sugar.

  5. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process.

  6. Effect of Incorporation of Wheat Straw and Urea into Soil on Biomass Nitrogen and Nitrogen—Supplying Characteristics of Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENQI-RONG; XUSHOU-MING; 等

    1993-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of incorporation of wheat straw and/ or urea into soil on biomass nitrogen and mineral nitrogen and its relation to the growth and yield of rice.The combined appliation of wheat straw and urea increased much more biomass nitrogen in soil than the application of wheat straw or urea alone and consequently increased the immobilization of urea nitrogen added and reduced the loss of urea nitrogen.An adequate nitrogen-supplying process to rice plant could be obtained if C/ N ratio of the material added was about 20.The three yield components of rice were affected significantly by the status of nitrogen supplying.More than 30mg N/ kg soil of mineral nitrogen at effective tillering stage,panicle initiation stage and filling stage should be maintained in order to get high rice yield,though the criteria varied with the different experimental conditions.

  7. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...

  8. Influence of substrate particle size and wet oxidation on physical surface structures and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-01-01

    In the worldwide quest for producing biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the importance of the substrate pretreatment is becoming increasingly apparent. This work examined the effects of reducing the substrate particle sizes of wheat straw by grinding prior to wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis. The yields of glucose and xylose were assessed after treatments with a benchmark cellulase system consisting of Celluclast 1.5 L (Trichoderma reesei) and Novozym 188 beta-glucosidase (Aspergillus niger). Both wet oxidized and not wet oxidized wheat straw particles gave increased glucose release with reduced particle size. After wet oxidation, the glucose release from the smallest particles (53-149 mum) reached 90% of the theoretical maximum after 24 h of enzyme treatment. The corresponding glucose release from the wet oxidized reference samples (2-4 cm) was approximately 65% of the theoretical maximum. The xylose release only increased (by up to 39%) with particle size decrease for the straw particles that had not been wet oxidized. Wet oxidation pretreatment increased the enzymatic xylose release by 5.4 times and the glucose release by 1.8 times across all particle sizes. Comparison of scanning electron microscopy images of the straw particles revealed edged, nonspherical, porous particles with variable surface structures as a result of the grinding. Wet oxidation pretreatment tore up the surface structures of the particles to retain vascular bundles of xylem and phloem. The enzymatic hydrolysis left behind a significant amount of solid, apparently porous structures within all particles size groups of both the not wet oxidized and wet oxidized particles.

  9. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  10. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  11. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M M

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2-3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7-1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  12. COMPLETE CHARACTERIZATION OF WHEAT STRAW (TRITICUM AESTIVUM PBW-343 L. EMEND. FIORI & PAOL. – A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF FIBRES FOR PULP AND PAPER MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Triticum aestivum PBW-343 is grown in most of the regions of India, and it is one of the renewable sources most suitable for papermaking. Anatomical studies illustrate that vascular bundles near the periphery contain a strong sheath of sclerenchyma cells, which constitutes about 80% of the fibers. The total fibers in wheat straw are about 39.20%, and parenchyma and epidermal cells account for 32.10, and 23.56%, respectively, of the total cells. The dimensions of wheat straw fibers are: average fiber length 1.18 mm, fiber width 13.60 µm, lumen diameter 5.68 µm, and cell wall thickness 3.96 µm. The dimensions of non-fibrous cells are: parenchyma 445x124 µm, vessels 96x57 µm, and epidermal cells 390x38 µm, which lie between the corresponding values for rice straw, and bagasse. Flexibility coefficients and Runkel ratio of wheat straw fires are quite comparable to bamboo. The low lignin contents of wheat straw reflect that it requires mild cooking conditions; however, hemicelluloses are on higher side. Addition of AQ under optimum soda cooking conditions improves pulp yield by 0.75%, and lowers kappa number by 26.1%. Optimum strength properties are obtained at 45±1 oSR except tear index, which declines with increased refining. The fine contents are much higher, and relatively comparable to Eucalyptus tereticornis in terms of curl index and kinks per mm.

  13. The preparation and properties of inorganic wheat-straw particleboard%无机麦秸碎料板制备及性能∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符彬; 李新功; 潘亚鸽; 郑霞; 吴义强; 钟文泉

    2015-01-01

    以麦秸碎料和无机胶粘剂为主要原料,通过冷压成型工艺制备无机麦秸碎料板,研究了胶草比及板材密度对板材性能的影响,并通过 X 射线衍射仪、热重分析仪及扫描电镜等仪器分析了胶草比及板材密度对无机麦秸碎料板性能影响机制。结果表明,胶草比增加,麦秸碎料对无机成分水化反应的“隔阻”效应减弱,水化反应速度加快,反应更完全,结晶更完整,胶凝材料生成量增加,板材 IB 增大,TS 减小,MOR 和MOE先增大后减小。胶草比增大,麦秸碎料在板材中的分布均匀性增加,界面接合性能变好,界面摩擦阻力增大,板材力学性能变好,热稳定性增加。板材密度增加可以促进并加速无机成分水化反应,胶凝材料生成量增加,板材MOR、MOE及IB增大,而 TS减小。密度增大板材密实度增加,无机胶粘剂各晶相颗粒间的相互作用增强,界面摩擦阻力及热运动阻力增大,板材力学性能变好,热稳定性增加。%With wheat straw and inorganic glue as main raw materials,inorganic wheat-straw particleboard was prepared by moulding pressing technology.The effect of glue-straw ratio and density on physical and mechanical properties of inorganic wheat-straw particleboard was studied.X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermogravimetric ana-lyzer (TGA)and scanning electron microscope (SEM)were used to analyze influencing mechanism of a differ-ent level of glue-straw ratio and density of the board.The results show that inhibition effect of wheat straw to hydration reaction of inorganic composition decreases with the increasing glue-straw ratio during board mainte-nance.hydration reaction speed of inorganic composition in inorganic wheat-straw particleboard was increased, and the reaction carries out more completely,produced more complete crystallization and more inorganic glue. IB of inorganic wheat-straw particleboard increases gradually and TS of that decreases gradually;MOR and MOE of that

  14. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O-2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O-2 as oxidizing agent...... viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM...

  16. Two-dimensional NMR evidence for cleavage of lignin and xylan substituents in wheat straw through hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelle, Daniel J.; Kaparaju, Laxmi-Narasimha Prasad; Hunt, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond C-H NMR......-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid of xylan. In the polysaccharide anomeric region, decreases in the minor β-d-mannopyranosyl, and α-l-arabinofuranosyl units were observed in the NMR spectra from hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The aromatic region indicated only minor changes to the aromatic structures during the process (e...

  17. Biogas production from wheat straw and manure--impact of pretreatment and process operating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Kajsa; Sun, Li; Levén, Lotta; Horn, Svein Jarle; Schnürer, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8 g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25 days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21 N L CH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures.

  18. Role of Bacillus spp. in antagonism between Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum in heat-treated wheat-straw substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cedeño, Marnyye; Farnet, Anne Marie; Mata, Gerardo; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to identify bacteria involved in Trichodermaharzianum inhibition while promoting Pleurotus ostreatus defences in order to favour cultivation-substrate selectivity for mushroom production. PCR-DGGE profiles of total DNA from wheat-straw substrate showed weak differences between bacterial communities from substrate inoculated with P. ostreatus with or without T. harzianum. The major cultivable bacteria were isolated from three batches of wheat-straw-based cultivation substrates showing an efficient selectivity. They were screened for their ability to inhibit T.harzianum. By using specific media for bacterial isolation and by sequencing certain 16S-rDNA, we observed that Bacillus spp. were the main inhibitors. Among them, a dominant species was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa. This species was co-cultivated on agar media with P. ostreatus. The measurement of laccase activities from culture plugs indicated that P. polymyxa induced increases in enzyme activities. Bacillus spp. and specifically P. polymyxa from cultivation substrates are implicated in their selectivity by both inhibiting the growth of T.harzianum and stimulating defences of the mushroom P. ostreatus through the induction of laccases. The management of microbial communities during P.ostreatus cultivation-substrate preparation in order to favour P. polymyxa and other Bacillus spp. growth, can be a way to optimize the development of P. ostreatus for mushroom production or other environmental uses of this fungus.

  19. Preparation1 and utilization of wheat straw anionic sorbent for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the impact of eutrophication caused by agricultural residues (i.e. excess nitrate) in aqueous solution, economic and effective anionic sorbents are required. In this article, we prepared anionic sorbent using wheat straw. Its structural characteristics and adsorption properties for nitrate removal from aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicate that the yield of the prepared anionic sorbent, the total exchange capacity, and the maximum adsorption capacity were 350%, 2.57 mEq/g, and 2.08 mmol/g, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm mode is more suitable than the Langmuir mode and the adsorption process accords with the first order reaction kinetic rate equation. When multiple anions (SO42-, H2PO4-, NO3-, and NO2-) were present, the isotherm mode of prepared anionic sorbent for nitrate was consistent with Freundlich mode; however, the capacity of nitrate adsorption was reduced by 50%. In alkaline solutions, about 90% of adsorbed nitrate ions could be desorbed from prepared anionic sorbent. The results of this study confirmed that the wheat straw anionic sorbent can be used as an excellent nitrate sorbent that removes nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  20. Effect of β-glucan-fatty acid esters on microstructure and physical properties of wheat straw arabinoxylan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Bijalwan, Vandana; Basu, Santanu; Kesarwani, Atul Kumar; Mazumder, Koushik

    2017-04-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) was isolated from wheat straw, whereas β-glucan (BG) was extracted from oat flour. The compositional analysis indicated wheat straw AX contained arabinose and xylose as major constituent sugars whereas higher β-glucan content (77%) was found in the extracted material from oat flour. The BG was conjugated with lauric (LA), myristic (MA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA) and oleic (OA) acid to prepare corresponding β-glucan-fatty acid esters (BGFAs) with nearly similar degree of substitution. The effect of BGFAs to AX films on the water barrier, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. The addition of LABG and MABG to AX formed laminar structures in the composite films which limited water vapor permeability, giving rise to more opacity. Films prepared by blending AX with SABG and OABG were less effective as water vapor barrier due to their non-layer film microstructures; however they were less opaque. The laminar structures also imparted less mechanical strength and flexibility in the composite films. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that all AX-BGFAs composite films were thermally more stable than pure AX and AX-BG films.

  1. Glucose and xylose co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using mutants of S. cerevisiae TMB3400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Borbála; Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2013-03-10

    Wheat straw was pretreated and fermented to ethanol. Two strains, which had been mutated from the genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400, KE6-12 and KE6-13i, have been used in this study and the results of performance were compared to that of the original strain. The glucose and xylose co-fermentation ability was investigated in batch fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) liquid (undiluted, and diluted 1.5 and 2 times). Both strains showed improved xylose uptake in diluted SPWS liquid, and increased ethanol yields compared with the original TMB3400 strain, although xylitol formation also increased slightly. In undiluted SPWS liquid, however, only KE6-13i performed better than the original strain regarding xylose utilization. Fed-batch fermentation of 1.5 and 2 times diluted liquid was performed by adding the glucose-rich hydrolysates from enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction of SPWS at a constant feed rate after 5 h of fermentation, when the glucose had been depleted. The modified strains showed improved xylose conversion; however, the ethanol yield was not significantly improved due to increased glycerol production. Fed-batch fermentation resulted in faster xylose utilization than in the batch cases.

  2. Optimizing Phosphoric Acid plus Hydrogen Peroxide (PHP) Pretreatment on Wheat Straw by Response Surface Method for Enzymatic Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Qing; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Song, Chun

    2017-03-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP), in which temperature, time, and H3PO4 proportion for pretreatment were investigated by using response surface method. Results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin removal positively responded to the increase of pretreatment temperature, H3PO4 proportion, and time. H3PO4 proportion was the most important variable to control cellulose recovery, followed by pretreatment temperature and time. Moreover, these three variables all negatively related to cellulose recovery. Increasing H3PO4 proportion can improve enzymatic hydrolysis; however, reduction on cellulose recovery results in decrease of glucose yield. Extra high temperature or long time for pretreatment was not beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose yield. Based on the criterion for minimizing H3PO4 usage and maximizing glucose yield, the optimized pretreatment conditions was 40 °C, 2.0 h, and H3PO4 proportion of 70.2 % (H2O2 proportion of 5.2 %), by which glucose yielded 299 mg/g wheat straw (946.2 mg/g cellulose) after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis.

  3. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    C for 10 min. The maximal enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from the solid, pretreated wheat straw fraction were obtained after pretreatments at the most extreme pH values (pH 1 or pH 13) at the maximum pretreatment temperature of 140 degrees C. Surface response models revealed significantly...

  4. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas produ

  5. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. This paper investigates tissues from whole internode sections subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 185 °C and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis up to 144 h. Analyses revealed an increase in surface lignin as hydrolysis progressed...

  6. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  7. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  8. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their utilizati

  9. Effect of the incorporation of date pits and orange pulp in rations composed of wheat straw and concentrate on the blood biochemical parameters of Ouled Djellal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lakhdara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four lambs of Ouled Djellal breeding from the region of Constantine, Algeria, were assigned randomly into 4 groups, the mean initial weights within the groups, ranged between 37.6±4.27 and 39.8±5.41 kg, to investigate the effect of the incorporation of two by-products of food industry, fresh orange pulp, ground date pits in rations composed of wheat straw as roughage, and concentrate as supplement. Four feeding groups were formed, the first group (T1 was fed with wheat straw and concentrate (60%/40%, the second group (T2 with wheat straw and orange pulp (60%/40%, for group 3 and 4 (T3-T4, the diet consisted on a mixture of 60% wheat straw and date pits at a ratio of (80 to 20% as a roughage in addition to 40% orange pulp for T3 and 40% concentrate for T4. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before morning feeding. Values of animal's plasma levels of Ca, glucose, proteins and urea were measured using a UV spectrophotometer. There was no significant difference in all the diets for Ca value, Ca values varied between 8.37 and 10.74 mg/Dl. T4 showed the highest value. Glucose blood content was similar for all the animals with no significant differences. While a very significant difference <0.001 was observed in blood proteins level in T3 and T4 comparing to the other groups. When date pits were incorporated in the diet containing wheat straw and concentrate, a very significant difference on urea blood content of lambs was observed (P<0.001.

  10. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( wheat straw at a 57:43 ratio DM basis was possible; nevertheless, the fermentation quality of PWSS was lesser than that of CS. However, addition of molasses and molasses + LAB improved fermentation quality of PWSS.

  11. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0–15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15–30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0–15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25–0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg‑1). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15–30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively.

  12. 秸秆/聚氯乙烯复合材料的初步研究%Studies on Wheat Straw/Poly (vinyl chloride) Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸣波; 李忠明; 冯建民; 张雁

    2000-01-01

    A novel disposal technique for wheat straw was developed by compounding the straw with poly(vinyl chloride) for the purpose of developing a new material which has the potential to substitute for natural wood. Effects of straw content and interfacial treatment agent on the mechanical properties, processability and the morphology of the composite were extensively studied. Results showed that tensile strength, flexural strength and notched impact strength decreased a little, increasing the straw content from 0 to 60wt`, and that the interfacial active agent caused effective compatibility between the straw and the plastic matrix. Through scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the straw in the composite with an appropriate concentration of interfacial treatment agent was well-distributed, while for the composite without interfacial treatment agent, a straw coalescence phenomenon appeared.%本文介绍了一种新型的秸秆处理方法,即将秸秆与聚氯乙烯复合制备替代木材使用的秸秆/塑料复合材料。主要从秸秆含量、处理剂含量对复合材料的力学性能和成型加工性能的影响,以及复合材料的形态等方面进行了研究。

  13. Stand establishment, root development and yield of winter wheat as affected by tillage and straw mulch in the water deifcit hilly region of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-su; LI Jin-gang; TANG Yong-lu; WU Xiao-li; WU Chun; HUANG Gang; ZENG Hui

    2016-01-01

    Good crop stand establishment and root system development are essential for optimum grain yield of dryland wheat (Triti-cum aestivumL.). At present, little is known about the effect of tilage and straw mulch on the root system of wheat under dryland areas in southwestern China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three tilage treatments (no-til, NT; rotary til, RT; conventional til, CT) and two crop residue management practices (straw mulch, ML; non-straw mulch, NML) on stand establishment, root growth and grain yield of wheat. NT resulted in lower soil cover thickness for the wheat seed, higher number of uncovered seeds, lower percentage of seedling-less ridges and lower tiler density compared to RT and CT; ML resulted in higher tiler density compared to NML. Straw mulching resulted in more soil water content and root length density (RLD) at most of the growth stages and soil depths. The maximum RLD, root surface area density and root dry matter density were obtained under NT. In the topmost 10 cm soil layer, higher RLD values were found under NT than those under RT and CT. There were no signiifcant differences in the yield or yield components of wheat among the tilage treatments in 2011–2012, but NT resulted in a signiifcant higher yield compared to RT and CT in 2012–2013. Grain yield was signiifcantly higher in ML compared to in NML. A strong relationship was observed between the water-use efifciency and the grain yield. Both NT and ML proved beneifcial for wheat in term of maintaining higher tiler density, better soil water status and root growth, leading to a higher grain yield and enhanced water-use efifciency, especialy in a low rainfal year.

  14. The influence of straw returning on N2O emissions from a maize-wheat field in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tian, Di; Mu, Yujing

    2017-01-30

    Crop straw returning has become a prevailing cultivation practice in the vast area of the North China Plain (NCP), while few investigations about its influence on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission have been conducted. In this study, N2O emissions from an agricultural field in the NCP with and without straw returning were comparably investigated by using static chambers in two consecutive maize-wheat growing seasons from June 2010 to June 2012. Compared with the NP treatment (compound nitrogen fertilizer only), the cumulative N2O emission from the SP treatment (compound nitrogen fertilizer plus straw) increased about 150% during the maize season in 2010, but decreased by about 35% during the maize season in 2011. The inconsistent influence of straw returning on N2O emission from the maize field was ascribed to the evidently different soil moisture between the two years, which was further confirmed by laboratory simulation experiments. About 40% reduction of N2O emission from the SP treatment during the two winter wheat seasons, which was mainly attributed to anoxic condition induced by rotting the maize straw.

  15. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique Using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Candace L; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Oba, Masahito; McAllister, Tim A; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast ≥ 4.18% h(-1)) and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow ≤ 3.17% h(-1)) were chosen as inoculum donors for this study. Two Rusitec apparatuses each equipped with eight fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with two blocks (apparatus) and four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (Fast or Slow rumen inoculum and untreated or AFEX treated straw). Fast rumen inoculum and AFEX straw both increased (P 0.05) methane production per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus (P straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  16. Effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw on cell wall composition, hydrophobicity and cellulase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss-Blanquet, Senta; Zheng, Dan; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas; Lapierre, Catherine; Baumberger, Stéphanie

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of cell wall composition and lignin content on enzyme adsorption and degradability. Thioacidolysis analysis of residual lignins in wheat straw after steam-explosion or organosolv pretreatment revealed an increase in lignin condensation degree of 27% and 33%, respectively. Surface hydrophobicity assessed through wettability tests decreased after the pretreatments (contact angle decrease of 20-50%), but increased with enzymatic conversion (30% maximum contact angle increase) and correlatively to lignin content. Adsorption of the three major cellulases Cel7A, Cel6A and Cel7B from Trichoderma reesei decreased with increasing hydrolysis time, down to 7%, 31% and 70% on the sample with the highest lignin content, respectively. The fraction of unspecifically bound enzymes was dependent both on the enzyme and the lignin content. Adsorption and specific activity were shown to be inversely proportional to lignin content and hydrophobicity, suggesting that lignin is one of the factors restricting enzymatic hydrolysis.

  17. Effect of endoxylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase supplementation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira, P; Negro, M J; Ballesteros, M

    2011-03-01

    The cost and hydrolytic efficiency of enzymes are major factors that restrict the commercialization of the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulases and other accessory enzymes are becoming crucial to increase enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) yields at low cellulase dosages. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the EH of steam pretreated wheat straw. Pretreatments at two severity conditions were performed and the whole slurry obtained after steam explosion pretreatment was employed as substrate. An endoxylanase (Xln C) from Aspergillus nidulans and an α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) from Aspergillus niger, have been applied in combination with cellulase enzymes. A degree of synergism of 29.5% and increases up to 10% in the EH yields were obtained, showing the potential of accessory activities to improve the EH step and make the whole process more effective.

  18. Adsorption studies of the removal of anions from aqueous solutions onto an adsorbent prepared from wheat straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Modified wheat straw (MWS) was prepared by the grafting of epichlorohydrin,triethylamine and ethylenediamine onto WS.The characteristics of MWS and its adsorption capacity for NO-3,PO34and Cr2O72were investigated.The results indicate that amine groups with positive charge have been introduced into the structure of MWS,and significantly increased its anion adsorption property.The functions of MWS dosage,the solution pH,the contact time and temperature have significant influence on the adsorption process,and the adsorption is well fitted with the Langmuir equation and pseudo second-order model.The maximum adsorption capacity of MWS for NO-3,PO34(P) and Cr2O27(Cr) is 53.5,62.4 and 386.2 mg g-1,respectively.

  19. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS FOR GRAIN AND STRAW YIELD IN LATE SOWN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUVARNA T. KALE1 * AND ANANT R. MALI2

    2014-10-01

    Response of different fertilizer levels and varieties on grain and straw yield of wheat was studied under late sown condition. The experimental design consists of split plot design with three replications comprising four levels of fertilizer and three varieties, thereby involving twelve treatment combinations. The fertilizer level 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha was found beneficial in improving growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to 80:40:40kg NPK/ha, 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha under late sown condition. The net monetary returns considering prevailing market prices were maximum with application of 120:60:60 kg NPK/ ha.

  20. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  1. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jurak

    Full Text Available In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S to guaiacyl (G units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  2. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.;

    2004-01-01

    Organic municipal solid waste enriched with wheat straw was subjected to wet-oxidation as a pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation into bio-ethanol. The effect of tempera (185-195degrees C), oxygen pressure (3-12) and sodium carbonate (0-2 g l(-1)) addition on enzymatic...... cellulose and hemicellulose convertibility was studied at a constant wet oxidation retention time of 10 minutes. An enzyme convertibility assay at high enzyme loading (25 filter paper unit (FPU) g(-1) dry solids (DS) added) showed that up to 78% of the cellulose and up to 68% of the hemicellulose...... in the treated waste could be converted into respectively hexose and pentose sugars compared to 46% for cellulose and 36% for hemicellulose in the raw waste. For all wet oxidation conditions tested, total carbohydrate recoveries were high (> 89%) and 44-66% of the original lignin could be converted into non...

  3. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100...... by maize, whereas the values were significantly lower for grass-clover and ryegrass. These variations in ranking of the different biomasses productions using different impact categories for environmental performance showed that it is important to consider a wider range of impact categories for assessing......), Eutrophication Potential (EP), Non-Renewable Energy use (NRE), Potential Fresh Water Ecotoxicity (PFWTox) and Potential Biodiversity Damages (PBD). The results showed that GWP100 (in kg CO2 eq, including contribution from soil carbon change) for producing 1 ton of dry matter (t DM) was highest for ryegrass...

  4. SONOCHEMICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW FOR PULP AND PAPERMAKING IN ORDER TO INCREASE ITS ECONOMICAL RATES AND REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Csoka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw (an agricultural by-product was pulped by an alkaline anthraquinone (AQ process. Then the straw pulp was treated by high-power ultrasound under different noble-gas (argon, krypton, xenon combinations. The pulps’ degree of beating and acid-insoluble lignin content were measured. Handsheets were made from sonicated and control pulps and tested for paper tensile strength. In this study we explore which noble-gas combination with ultrasound may be more useable to reduce the lignin content and enhance fibrillation. We also describe the most effective ultrasound-assisted, modified alkaline pulping process. Overall, we found that in two steps ultrasonification decreased the residual lignin contents more then 75 %, the pulp fibrillation increased from 12 to 70 °SR within 20 min. of ultrasound irradiation, and the tensile index of the handsheets increased by 65%. For sustainable paper production, it is required to develop alternative paper resources. Paper made from alternate fiber resources with efficient technology will improve our living standards without sacrificing the environment, our habitat. High frequency ultrasound-based pulp processing offers significant improvements, and it reduces energy and chemical consump-tions for pulp and paper production.

  5. Effects of straw and plastic film mulching on greenhouse gas emissions in Loess Plateau, China: A field study of 2 consecutive wheat-maize rotation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haixin; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Afeng; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Gong; Sun, Benhua; Pi, Xiaomin; Dyck, Miles; Si, Bingcheng; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Mulching practices have long been used to modify the soil temperature and moisture conditions and thus potentially improve crop production in dryland agriculture, but few studies have focused on mulching effects on soil gaseous emissions. We monitored annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the regime of straw and plastic film mulching using a closed chamber method on a typical winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Xiaoyan 22) and summer-maize (Zea mays L. cv Qinlong 11) rotation field over two-year period in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China. The following four field treatments were included: T1 (control, no mulching), T2 (4000kgha(-1) wheat straw mulching, covering 100% of soil surface), T3 (half plastic film mulching, covering 50% of soil surface), and T4 (complete plastic film mulching, covering 100% of soil surface). Compared with the control, straw mulching decreased soil temperature and increased soil moisture, whereas plastic film mulching increased both soil temperature and moisture. Accordingly, straw mulching increased annual crop yields over both cycles, while plastic film mulching significantly enhanced annual crop yield over cycle 2. Compared to the no-mulching treatment, all mulching treatments increased soil CO2 emission over both cycles, and straw mulching increased soil CH4 absorption over both cycles, but patterns of soil N2O emissions under straw or film mulching are not consistent. Overall, compared to T1, annual GHG intensity was significantly decreased by 106%, 24% and 26% under T2, T3 and T4 over cycle 1, respectively; and by 20%, 51% and 29% under T2, T3 and T4 over cycle 2, respectively. Considering the additional cost and environmental issues associated with plastic film mulching, the application of straw mulching might achieve a balance between food security and GHG emissions in the Chinese Loess Plateau. However, further research is required to investigate the perennial influence of different mulching applications.

  6. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  7. Straw return reduces yield-scaled N2O plus NO emissions from annual winter wheat-based cropping systems in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Yan, Guangxuan; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-03-02

    Straw return in combination with synthetic N fertilizer is considered to be beneficial to soil fertility and crop yield. Such practice, however, can considerably modify soil microbial activity and relative C and N availability, both of which are known to regulate soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions. Minimizing these emissions per unit of crop yield is a prerequisite to minimize the environmental footprint of agricultural production and thus, a policy objective. In our study, we quantified N2O and NO emissions and determined fertilizer-N use efficiencies (NUE) and crop yields of two double-cropping (summer maize/Welsh onion-winter wheat) systems with and without straw incorporation in the North China Plain. Relative to the fertilized treatment without straw amendments, straw incorporation showed a significant inhibitory effect on annual N2O emissions from the maize-wheat system (-31%), but no significant effect was observed for the Welsh onion-wheat system. However, straw return significantly reduced annual NO emissions by >30% for both systems. Meanwhile, straw return in both systems significantly increased the NUE and crop yields by 34-47% and 7-16%, respectively, as compared to the treatment without straw additions. Across the double-cropping systems, annual direct emission factors of N2O, NO and N2O+NO were 0.37-0.57%, 0.08-0.78% and 0.57-1.36%, respectively. Furthermore, a negative relationship between direct emission factors of N2O+NO and crop NUE was observed, highlighting the importance of optimizing NUE for reducing environmental risks of a cropping system. When expressing emissions on a yield basis, straw return significantly reduced annual yield-scaled N2O+NO emissions by 15-42% for both systems. Overall, our results show that the combined application of crop straw and synthetic N fertilizer is a promising N management strategy for maximizing crop yields while mitigating N-trace gas emissions.

  8. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, F; Abdullah, M; Chaudhry, A S; Bhatti, J A; Jabbar, M A; Ahmed, F; Mehmood, T; Asim, M; Ahmed, S; Kamran, Z; Irshad, I; Tahir, M N

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  9. Effect of pretreatment severity in continuous steam explosion on enzymatic conversion of wheat straw: Evidence from kinetic analysis of hydrolysis time courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monschein, Mareike; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on continuous steam explosion, the influence of pretreatment severity due to varied acid loading on hydrolysis of wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulases was investigated based on kinetic evaluation of the saccharification of each pretreated substrate. Using semi-empirical descriptors of the hydrolysis time course, key characteristics of saccharification efficiency were captured in a quantifiable fashion. Not only hydrolysis rates per se, but also the transition point of their bi-phasic decline was crucial for high saccharification degree. After 48h the highest saccharification was achieved for substrate pretreated at relatively low severity (1.2% acid). Higher severity increased enzyme binding to wheat straw, but reduced the specific hydrolysis rates. Higher affinity of the lignocellulosic material for cellulases does not necessarily result in increased saccharification, probably because of lignin modifications occurring at high pretreatment severities. At comparable severity, continuous pretreatment produced a substrate more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than the batch process.

  10. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Wet oxidation and fermentation by yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Olsson, Lisbeth; Thomsen, A.B.;

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/L sodium carbonate and 12 bar oxygen at 195degreesC) was used as pretreatment method for wheat straw (60 g/L), resulting in a hydrolysate and a cellulosic solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (8 g/L), low......-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (3.9 g/L), phenols (0.27 g/L = 1.7 mM) and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/L). The wet oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present in the hydrolysate, were each tested...

  11. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by ¤Thermoanaerobacter mathranii¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g....../l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...

  12. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol production is now being implemented in large-scale industrial production. Applying hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the conversion process, a residue containing substantial amounts of lignin...... residue from wheat straw were analysed and processing factors discussed. Roughly 70 and 15% of the solid mass fraction consisted of lignin and ash, respectively. Residual carbohydrates mostly originated from hemicellulose in the liquid fraction and from cellulose in the solid fraction. The solid fraction...

  13. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  14. Predicting the ethanol potential of wheat straw using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics: The challenge of inherently intercorrelated response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinnan, Åsmund; Bruun, Sander; Lindedam, Jane; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Felby, Claus; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-04-01

    The combination of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is a powerful correlation method for predicting the chemical constituents in biological matrices, such as the glucose and xylose content of straw. However, difficulties arise when it comes to predicting enzymatic glucose and xylose release potential, which is matrix dependent. Further complications are caused by xylose and glucose release potential being highly intercorrelated. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the causal relationship between the model and the constituent of interest. It investigates the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the ethanol potential of wheat straw by analyzing more than 1000 samples from different wheat varieties and growth conditions. During the calibration model development, the prime emphasis was to investigate the correlation structure between the two major quality traits for saccharification of wheat straw: glucose and xylose release. The large sample set enabled a versatile and robust calibration model to be developed, showing that the prediction model for xylose release is based on a causal relationship with the NIR spectral data. In contrast, the prediction of glucose release was found to be highly dependent on the intercorrelation with xylose release. If this correlation is broken, the model performance breaks down. A simple method was devised for avoiding this breakdown and can be applied to any large dataset for investigating the causality or lack of causality of a prediction model.

  15. Investigating the Mechanical Properties and Degradability of Bioplastics Made from Wheat Straw Cellulose and Date Palm Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Omrani Fard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, the use of bioplastics as an alternative to regular plastics has received much attention in many different industries. The mechanical and degradable properties of bioplastic are important for their utilization. In this research cellulose of wheat straw and glycerol were mixed by different weight ratios and then reinforced by using date palm fibers. To prepare the bioplastic plates, the materials were poured in molds and pressed by means of a hydraulic press and simultaneously heating of the molds. The experiments were performed based on a 3×3 factorial design with three levels: 50%, 60% and 70% of wheat cellulose and three types of reinforcement methods, namely: no-reinforcement, network reinforcement and parallel string reinforcement. The effect of the two factors on tensile strength, tensile strain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of bending were investigated. The results indicated that the two factors and their interactions had significant effects on the mentioned properties of bioplastics (at α=0.05 level . The comparison of the means of the tests showed that the network reinforcement type with 50% cellulose had the highest tensile and bending strengths with 1992.02 and 28.71 MPa, respectively. The maximum modulus of elasticity and modulus bending were 40.4 and 2.3 MPa, respectively for parallel string arrangement and 70% of cellulose. The degradability tests of bioplastic using a fistulated sheep indicated that with increasing the percentage of cellulose, the degradability rate deceased. The maximum degradability rate, after 48 h holding in the sheep rumen, was 74% that belonged to bioplastics with 50% cellulose. The degradability data were well fitted to a mathematical model (R2=0.97.

  16. Process analysis of superheated steam pre-treatment of wheat straw and its relative effect on ethanol selling price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Barchyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing bioethanol operations rely on starch-based substrates, which have been criticized for their need to displace food crops in order to be produced. As an alternative to these first generation biofuels, the use of agricultural residues is being considered to create more environmentally-benign second generation, or cellulosic biofuels. Recalcitrance of these substrates to fermentation requires extensive pre-treatment processes, which often consume more energy than can be extracted from the ethanol that they produce, so one of the priorities in developing cellulosic ethanol is an effective and efficient pre-treatment method. This study examines the use of superheated steam (SS as a process medium by which wheat straw lignocellulosic material is pre-treated. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, it was found that 47% of the total glucose could be liberated from the substrate, and the optimal conditions for pre-treatment were 15 min in hot water (193 kPa, 119˚C followed by 2 min in SS. Furthermore, a preliminary relative economic analysis showed that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP was comparable to that obtained from steam explosion, a similar process, while energy consumption was 22% less. The conclusion of the study is that SS treatment stands to be a competitive pre-treatment technology to steam explosion.

  17. EFFECT OF TARTARIC ACID ADDITION ON RUMEN FERMENTATION, METHANE PRODUCTION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN DIFFERENT DIETS CONTAINING WHEAT STRAW IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. SIROHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of tartaric acid addition in diets on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Different levels of tartaric acid (5, 10, and 15 ppm were tested for their effect on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and digestibility in three wheat straw containing diets i.e. Low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of tartaric acid was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results of different levels of tartaric acid on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (22.60% in term of mM/gDM was observed in LFD at the supplementation dosage of 15 mM and a similar trend was seen, when methane was expressed in ml/gDM. Non-significant (P≤0.05 effect of tartaric acid addition on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD was observed in almost cases. Protozoal population decreased with increasing concentration of tartaric acid and maximum reduction (54.64% was in the MFD. Acetate to propionate ratio was decreased in tartaric acid supplemented diets which reflects increase in propionic acid production in comparison to control diet. Microbial biomass yield also increased due to the addition of tartaric acid in most of the diets.

  18. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l⁻¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l⁻¹ day⁻¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH₄ g⁻¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ∼6.5 mg K g⁻¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters.

  19. Corn Stover and Wheat Straw Combustion in a 176-kW Boiler Adapted for Round Bales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Villeneuve

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Combustion trials were conducted with corn stover (CS and wheat straw (WS round bales in a 176-kW boiler (model Farm 2000. Hot water (80 °C stored in a 30,000-L water tank was transferred to a turkey barn through a plate exchanger. Gross calorific value measured in the laboratory was 17.0 and 18.9 MJ/kg DM (dry matter for CS and WS, respectively. Twelve bales of CS (1974 kg DM total, moisture content of 13.6% were burned over a 52-h period and produced 9.2% ash. Average emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 were 2725, 9.8 and 2.1 mg/m3, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 40.8%. For WS, six bales (940 kg DM total, MC of 15% were burned over a 28-h period and produced 2.6% ash. Average emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 were 2210, 40.4 and 3.7 mg/m3, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 68.0%. A validation combustion trial performed a year later with 90 CS bales confirmed good heating performance and the potential to lower ash content (6.2% average.

  20. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture.

  1. Removal of elemental Mercury from flue gas using wheat straw chars modified by K2FeO4 reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfei; Liu, Yangxian; Pan, Jianfeng

    2017-02-17

    In this article, wheat straw (WS) char, a common agricultural waste and renewable biomass, was pyrolyzed and then modified by K2FeO4 reagent to develop an efficient sorbent for removal of Hg(0) from flue gas. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, scanning electron microscopy with energy spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the sorbents. The effects of K2FeO4 loading, reaction temperature, Hg(0) inlet concentration and concentrations of gas mixtures O2, NO and SO2 in flue gas on Hg(0) removal were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results show that K2FeO4-impregnation can improve pore structure of WS char and produce new active sites, which significantly enhance Hg(0) removal. Increasing Hg(0) inlet concentration significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency. O2 in flue gas promotes Hg(0) oxidation by replenishing the oxygen groups on the surface of modified chars. The presence of NO obviously promotes Hg(0) removal since it can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(NO3)2. SO2 in flue gas significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency due to the competition adsorption between SO2 and Hg(0). The increase in reaction temperature has a dual impact on Hg(0) removal.

  2. Fe3O4–wheat straw: preparation, characterization and its application for methylene blue adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebrahimian Pirbazari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution by NaOH-treated wheat straw from agriculture biomass impregnated with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNP-NWS was investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 were prepared by chemical precipitation of a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ salts from solution aqueous by ammonia. These magnetic nanoparticles of the adsorbent Fe3O4 were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, nitrogen physisorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. FTIR results showed complexation and ion exchange appears to be the principal mechanism for MB adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir, Sips, Redlich–Peterson and Freundlich equations. Langmuir adsorption capacity, Qmax, was found to be 1374.6 mgg−1. The Freundlich equation yielded the best fit to the experimental data in comparison to the other isotherm models. The removal of MB by MNP-NWS followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics based on Lagergren equations.

  3. Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

    2013-12-15

    The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent.

  4. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme sets on the saccharification of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Joost; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; Zhou, Zhihua; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-10-01

    Plant-degrading enzymes can be produced by fungi on abundantly available low-cost plant biomass. However, enzymes sets after growth on complex substrates need to be better understood, especially with emphasis on differences between fungal species and the influence of inhibitory compounds in plant substrates, such as monosaccharides. In this study, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were evaluated for the production of enzyme sets after growth on two "second generation" substrates: wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). A. niger and T. reesei produced different sets of (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes after growth on WS and SCB. This was reflected in an overall strong synergistic effect in releasing sugars during saccharification using A. niger and T. reesei enzyme sets. T. reesei produced less hydrolytic enzymes after growth on non-washed SCB. The sensitivity to non-washed plant substrates was not reduced by using CreA/Cre1 mutants of T. reesei and A. niger with a defective carbon catabolite repression. The importance of removing monosaccharides for producing enzymes was further underlined by the decrease in hydrolytic activities with increased glucose concentrations in WS media. This study showed the importance of removing monosaccharides from the enzyme production media and combining T. reesei and A. niger enzyme sets to improve plant biomass saccharification.

  5. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  6. 堆肥预处理温度控制促进麦秸厌氧发酵产沼气%Promotion of biogas production of wheat straw by controling composting pretreatment temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 马慧娟; 常志州; 叶小梅; 杜静; 徐越定; 张建英

    2013-01-01

    wheat straw. In the first experiment, the wheat straw was directly used for composting and then composted straw was used in the biomethane potential (BMP) test. For the second one, wheat straw was sterilized by gamma ray radiation pretreatment and treated under different temperature with different time. Then the treated straw was used for the BMP test. The results of experiments indicated that large percentage of organic matter in wheat straw was degraded during composting process. The total solid (TS) loss rate of wheat straw was only 4.06%when composting pile temperature was less than 55℃. When composting pile temperature was set up at 55℃, the TS loss rate of wheat straw increased 22.45%after 10 days’ composting treatment. Gas data showed that biogas production rate of wheat straw was not improved obviously. The TS biogas yield of wheat straw increased with composting pile temperature and then decreased. The highest TS biogas yield of wheat straw of 349.92 mL/g was observed at 55℃of composting pile temperature, which is 7.56% higher than that of uncomposted wheat straw. There was no significantly improvement in biogas production between composted and uncomposted wheat straw during composting process for organic matter loss of wheat straw. However, longer composting time led to lower biogas yield of wheat straw. When composting pile temperature was kept at 55℃for 9 days, The TS biogas yield of composted wheat straw was only 66.58%. When the content of organic matter and material composition of wheat straw were changed, content of hemicellulose of wheat straw was decreased by 28.10%. Results of gas data of simulated composting experiment showed the same trend as the first experiment. The highest TS biogas yield of wheat straw of 342.36 mL/g was obtained at 55℃ with 8.35%, which is higher than that of control. Therefore the high temperature from composting process is an important factor of destruction of lignocellulose structure and improving

  7. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  8. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Li, Dongpo; Gong, Ping; Xue, Yan; Song, Yuchao; Cui, Yalan; Doane, Timothy A.; Wu, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK), N fertilizer (NF) and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS). We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment) increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed. PMID:28045989

  9. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-05-01

    To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition, through quantitative (13)C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  10. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  11. The effect of wheat straw substitution by different levels of date palm leaves on performance and health of Baluchi ewe lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Valizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A major constraint of animal production in south of Iran is the lack of cheap source of roughages. Date palm leaves (DPL is one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in south of Iran. Almost all pruned leaves are discarded in the fields, mainly for nutrients recycling and soil conservation (M. Wan Zahari, et al1999. The yearly maintenance of date palm tree produces a (around 20 kg per each tree considerable quantities of green leaves (Bahman et al (1997; Pascual et al (2000. Ruminant can utilize crop residues, with poor nutritional value. These residues are traditionally fed to animal as the main part of diet in many developing countries. However; dry matter intake of these by-products are not adequate to fulfill the nutrient requirements of livestock even at maintenance level (Dixon and Egan, 2002. DPL has a great potential for use as a roughage or bulk source in total mixed ration (TMR for ruminants in dry areas. Detailed studies on fermentation characteristics and palatability of DPL silage, as well as on animal performance, have been reported by many workers (e.g. Abu Hassan and Ishida, 1991; Ishida and Abu Hassan, 1997; Oshio et al., 1999. Some researchers such as El-din and Tag-El-Din, 1996; and Bahman et al., 1997 have reported that DPL cannot be fed to animals because of low crude protein (6-7% and high level of fibrous cell wall content low palatability and digestibility. Therefore we design one experiment that investigates possibility of using DPL without any enrichment. The objective of this trial was to study the effect of replacement DPL with wheat straw and voluntary intake, average body gain and health of Baluchi ewe lambs. Materials and Methods Twenty-four Iranian Baluchi female lambs with initial body weight (BW of 20.48±0.5 kg and age of 130±10 days were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Groups were balanced for weight and experimental trail lasted for 76 days. All lambs

  12. Characteristics of Co-digestion of Pig Dung and Wheat Straw in Various Ratios%猪粪麦秆不同比例混合厌氧发酵特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚莉莉; 李轶冰; 冯永忠; 杨改河; 任广鑫

    2011-01-01

    以猪粪、麦秆为原料,研究了35℃下二者按不同比例混合对厌氧消化产沼气的影响,分析了消化过程中日产气量、累积产气量、甲烷含量、原料去除率、pH值以及氨态氮质量浓度的变化.结果表明,猪粪与麦秆配比(干物质量比)1:1时产气量最大,为383.0 mL/g,是麦秆单独发酵产气量(231.8 mL/g)的1.6倍;混合原料(猪粪和麦秆配比分别为1:1、2:1、3:1)的Vs去除率均在37%以上,比麦秆提高12.0%-26.9%;添加猪粪可提高发酵液中氨态氮含量,较麦秆提高35.6%~64.8%.因此,合理调控粪秆混合厌氧发酵的比例,能提高秸秆的产气率和利用率.%Pig dung and wheat straw (the ratio of pig dung to wheat straw was 1: 1 , 2:1, 3:1) were used as fermentation materials. The experiments were carried out at 35℃. The biogas production rate, cumulative biogas yield, methane content, material reduction, pH value and NH3-N content were tested. The results showed that the co-digestion of pig dung to wheat straw could increase the biogas yield and material reduction of wheat straw. The biogas production yield of 1: 1 was highest (383. 0 mL/g) , which was 1. 6 times of biogas production yield of wheat straw (231. 8 mL/g) . VS reductions of combination materials were 12.0% -26.9% higher than wheat straw. Compared with wheat straw, the NH3-N contents of combination materials increased by 35. 6% ~ 64. 8%. Reasonable co-digestion ratio of livestock dung and crop straw could increase the biogas production rate and utilization of crop straw.

  13. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yubin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH. The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11 mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production.

  14. Hydrolysis of solubilized hemicellulose derived from wet-oxidized wheat straw by a mixture of commercial fungal enzyme preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skammelsen Schmidt, Anette; Thomsen, Alle Belinda; Woidemann, Anders [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Tenkanen, Maija [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research (Finland)

    1998-04-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of the solubilized hemicellulose fraction from wet-oxidized wheat straw was investigated for quantification purposes. An optimal hydrolysis depends on factors such as composition of the applied enzyme mixture and the hydrolysis conditions (enzyme loading, hydrolysis time, pH-value, and temperature). A concentrated enzyme mixture was used in this study prepared at VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Finland, by mixing four commercial enzyme preparations. No distinctive pH-value and temperature optima were identified after a prolonged incubation of 24 hours. By reducing the hydrolysis time to 2 hours a temperature optimum was found at 50 deg. C, where a pH-value higher than 5.2 resulted in reduced activity. An enzyme-substrate-volume-ratio of 0.042, a pH-value of 5.0, and a temperature of 50 deg. C were chosen as the best hydrolysis conditions due to an improved monosaccharide yield. The hydrolysis time was chosen to be 24 hours to ensure equilibrium and total quantification. Even under the best hydrolysis conditions, the overall sugar yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis was only 85% of that of the optimal acid hydrolysis. The glucose yield were approximately the same for the two types of hydrolyses, probably due to the high cellulase activity in the VTT-enzyme mixture. For xylose and arabinose the enzymatic hydrolysis yielded only 80% of that of the acid hydrolysis. As the pentoses existed mainly as complex polymers their degradation required many different enzymes, some of which might be missing from the VTT-enzyme mixture. Furthermore, the removal of side-choins from the xylan backbone during the wet-oxidation pretreatment process might enable the hemicellulosic polymers to interact and precipitate, hence, reducing the enzymatic digestibility of the hemicellulose. (au) 8 tabs., 10 ills., 65 refs.

  15. Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Wang; Jiane Zuo; Xiaojie Chen; Wei Xing; Linan Xing; Peng Li; Xiangyang Lu

    2014-01-01

    The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology.The 75 L reactor was designed with a 25 L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50 L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom,with a recirculation connected to the two units.The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw,which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials.The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales,Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor,with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit.The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta,Methanosarcina,Methanoculleus,Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta,accounting for 40.5%,54.2%,73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom,indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit.The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit.The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases,as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR.Overall,the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens,more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic assodations among microorganisms,which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient.

  16. [Characterization of soil humus by FTIR spectroscopic analyses after being inoculated with different microorganisms plus wheat straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuail; Dou, Sen; Liu, Yan-Li; Li, Hui-Min; Cui, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Cheng-Yu

    2012-09-01

    The effects of different microbial communities on the structural characteristics of humus from the black soil amended with wheat straw were studied by FTIR Spectroscopy. The results indicated that (1) The structure and amount of functional groups in the water soluble substances (WSS) was tremendously influenced by the tested microorganisms, of which the amino and aryl ether was degraded rapidly in the inoculation process, and in the meantime, the content of hydroxyl groups was significantly reduced. The bacteria was helpful to increasing the amount of aliphatic hydrocarbons, while the other inoculated treatments were contrary. At the end of culture, the phenols and polysaccharides were gradually consumed, but the content of carboxyl groups had an increasing trend. (2) In the aspect of reducing hydroxyl groups of fulvic acid (FA), the role of actinomycetes was the biggest. The fungi had the biggest effect in improving the net generation of FA content. In addition, the fungi was conducive to improve the contents of carboxyl groups and carbohydrates of FA fraction. Except the mixed strains, the other treatments were all beneficial to the degradation of polysaccharide in the FA fraction, whose rate was greater than the decomposition of lipids. (3) The bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were all helpful to reducing the amount of aliphatic hydrocarbons of HA fraction except the mixed strains. The content of carboxyl was effectively increased by fungi, but the effect of bacteria was contrary. The tested microorganisms could consume and utilize the polysaccharides of HA fraction, which could transform the humic-like fractions from plant residues into the real humus of soil.

  17. [Effects of Warming and Straw Application on Soil Respiration and Enzyme Activity in a Winter Wheat Cropland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-tao; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Zheng-hua

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the effects of warming and straw application on soil respiration and enzyme activity, a field experiment was performed from November 2014 to May 2015. Four treatments, which were control (CK), warming, straw application, and warming and straw application, were arranged in field. Seasonal variability in soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture for different treatments were measured. Urease, invertase, and catalase activities for different treatments were measured at the elongation, booting, and anthesis stages. The results showed that soil respiration in different treatments had similar seasonal variation patterns. Seasonal mean soil respiration rates for the CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments were 1.46, 1.96, 1.92, and 2.45 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. ANOVA indicated that both warming and straw applications significantly (P straw application, and warming and straw application treatments, respectively. Warming and straw applications significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced urease, invertase, and catalase activities compared to CK. The relationship between soil respiration and urease activity fitted with a linear regression function, with the P value of 0.061. The relationship between soil respiration and invertase (P = 0.013), and between soil respiration and catalase activity (P = 0.002) fitted well with linear regression functions.

  18. Effect of Straw Fiber Modification on Properties for Wheat Straw Fiber/PBS Composite%纤维改性对小麦秸秆纤维/PBS复合材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强琪; 张敏; 徐丹; 何文清; 宋吉青

    2013-01-01

    利用NaOH对小麦秸秆纤维进行处理,同时采用了不同的蒸煮助剂和改性剂,以改变纤维自身物理性能及其表面化学性质.将改性纤维与聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)共混,制备了秸秆纤维/PBS复合材料,并通过X射线能谱仪(EDS)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对改性前后的纤维进行了分析和观测,研究分析了助剂和改性剂对复合材料性能的影响.结果表明:秸秆纤维经NaOH/4%Na2SO3处理,以及碱处理纤维经钛酸酯偶联剂NDZ201、环氧树脂E44改性,所得纤维增强复合材料的性能较为优异.%Wheat straw fiber was treated with NaOH, meanwhile different additives and modifiers were used to alter the physical properties and surface chemical properties of wheat straw fiber, and the composites were prepared through the blending between the fibers and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS). Through analysis and observation of modified fibers by energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the effects of type and addition for additives and modifies on the properties of straw fiber and the straw fiber/PBS composites were studied. The results show that the property of the composite is better when the raw fiber is treated by NaOH/4%Na2SO3, and the NaOH treated fiber is modified by NOZ201 or E44.

  19. Biogas Production of Wheat and Corn Straw with Different Pre-treatment%小麦、玉米秸秆不同预处理产沼气试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德江; 邱桃玉; 饶晓娟; 刘歆

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the changing rules of gas production and methane content of different pretreated straw, com and wheat straw were pretreated respectively with biogas slurry, green stalk ling. Six treatments were set up. The results showed that, under ambient temperature, keeping the same TS concentration and C / N ratio, the TS gas production rate and the methane content from high to low in turn were; com straw treated with green stalks ling, com straw treated with biogas slurry, wheat straw treated with green stalks ling, wheat straw treated with biogas slurry, com ck, and wheat ck. The differences among the treatments reached significant level. The gas production effect of green stalks ling pretreatment for straw is better than that with biogas slurry. For the same pretreatment, the TS gas production rate and methane production rate for com were higher than those of wheat. It showed that com straw is more suitable for biogas fermentation than wheat straw.%为探讨秸秆不同预处理产气量及甲烷含量的变化规律,本试验在实验室分别用沼液、绿秸灵预处理玉米及小麦秸秆,共设置六个处理进行秸秆沼气发酵试验.结果表明:在常温并保持相同浓度和C/N比的发酵条件下,单位质量干物质产气率(TS产气率)及甲烷含量的大小顺序均为:玉米秸秆+绿秸灵>玉米秸秆+沼液>小麦秸秆+绿秸灵>小麦秸秆+沼液>玉米秸秆CK>小麦秸秆CK,各处理间的差异达到显著水平,其中采用绿秸灵预处理秸秆的产气效果优于用沼液预处理的效果.在采用相同的预处理前提下,玉米秸秆的干物质产气率(TS产气率)及甲烷产气率(TSCH4产气率)均大于小麦秸秆的干物质产气率(TS产气率),表明玉米秸秆比小麦秸秆更适宜于沼气发酵.

  20. 小麦秸秆含水率测量仪的设计与试验%Design and experiment on wheat straw moisture content meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文川; 刘驰; 杨军

    2013-01-01

    Faced with the worldwide shortage of forest resources, industry is showing increasing interest in using straw. Moisture content is listed as a main criterion in wheat straw consuming market. Not only since the unit price is based on weight, but also because moisture content is an important factor which affect straw products’ quality. Wheat straw is a main kind of straws all over the world. In order to detect moisture content of wheat straw conveniently, rapidly and precisely, a moisture content meter was designed with AT89S52 single-chip microcomputer as controller, parallel plate, DS18B20 and FSR402 as capacitance sensor, digital temperature sensor and pressure sensor to detect capacitance, temperature and bulk density of wheat straw, respectively. Liquid crystal display was adopted to show the obtained data. The meter’s accuracy on measuring capacitance, temperature and bulk density was tested. “Xinong 979”winter wheat straw was used as sample to study the influence of moisture content on output capacitance. The tests were set at five levels (10.6%, 13.6%, 15.6%, 17.3% and 19.6% in wet basis), temperature range from 5℃ to 35℃ with 5℃ interval, and three bulk density levels (generally from 77.2 kg/m3 to 103.6 kg/m3). The model describing capacitance and main factors was regressed. Newton iteration method was applied to program for predicting moisture content from obtained data. The model’s feasibility in predicting moisture content from 10%-20% at 5-35℃ was verified. The results indicated that the output voltages of designed circuits for sensing capacitance and pressure had good linear relationship with real capacitance and pressure values, with coefficients of determination higher than 0.996. The absolute temperature error was ±0.2℃. Over the investigated ranges of moisture content, temperature and bulk density, the obtained capacitance value increased with increasing moisture content, temperature and bulk density. The relationship between

  1. Ethanol Production from Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw Hydrolysate by Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a Continuous Immobilized Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie J.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70°C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding to sugar mixtures of glucose and xylose ranging from 12 to 41 g/1. The organism, thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1, exhibited significant resistance to high levels of acetic acid (up to 10 g/1) and other metabolic inhibitors present in the hydrolysate. Although the hydrolysate was not detoxified, ethanol yield in a range of 0.39-0.42 g/g was obtained. Overall, sugar efficiency to ethanol was 68-76%. The reactor was operated continuously for approximately 143 days, and no contamination was seen without the use of any agent for preventing bacterial infections. The tested microorganism has considerable potential to be a novel candidate for lignocellulose bioconversion into ethanol. The work reported here also demonstrates that the use of FBR configuration might be a viable approach for thermophilic anaerobic ethanol fermentation.

  2. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0–5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G‑). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G‑ compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  3. Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Decomposition of Wheat Straw and Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Soils in a Reclaimed Salinity Area: A Microcosm Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jun-Zhu; QIAO Yu-Hui; SUN Zhen-Jun; ZHANG Shuo-Xin; LI Yun-Le; ZHANG Rui-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms,one of the most important macroinvertebrates in terrestrial ecosystems of temperate zones,exert important influences on soil functions.A laboratory microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida on wheat straw decomposition and nutrient cycling in an agricultural soil in a reclaimed salinity area of the North China Plain.Each microcosm was simulated by thoroughly mixing wheat straw into the soil and incubated for 120 d with earthworms added at 3 different densities as treatments control with no earthworms,regular density (RD) with two earthworms,and increased density (ID) with six earthworms.The results showed that there was no depletion of carbon and nitrogen pools in the presence of the earthworms Basal soil respiration rates and metabolic quotient increased with the increase in earthworm density during the initial and middle part of the incubation period.In contrast,concentrations of microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass quotient decreased in the presence of earthworms.Earthworm activity stimulated the transfer of microbial biomass carbon to dissolved organic carbon and could lead to a smaller,but more metabolically active microbial biomass.Concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and NO3--N increased significantly with the increase in earthworm density at the end of the incubation (P < 0.05),resulting in a large pool of inorganic nitrogen available for plant uptake.Cumulative net nitrogen mineralization rates were three times higher in the ID treatment than the RD treatment.

  4. Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

    2009-02-01

    Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy.

  5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION-MOLDED FOAMED WHEAT STRAW FILLED HDPE BIOCOMPOSITES: THE EFFECTS OF FILLER LOADING AND COUPLING AGENT CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mengeloglu,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of filler loading and coupling agent contents on the densities and mechanical properties of injection-molded foamed biocomposites. Biocomposite pellets were manufactured using wheat straw flour, maleic anhydrite grafted polyethylene (MAPE, paraffin wax, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE with an extrusion process. Pellets and the chemical foaming agent (azodicarbonamide were dry-mixed and foamed in an injection-molding machine. Densities and mechanical properties of the foamed biocomposites samples were measured and analyzed using central composite design (CCD. The results showed that both filler loading and coupling agent contents affected the density and mechanical properties of foamed biocomposites. Densities in the range of 0.57 to 0.81 gr cm-3 were achieved. Best results were obtained when less than 20% wheat straw flour and 1% coupling agent content were used. The flexural modulus and tensile modulus of foamed biocomposites were improved with increasing filler loading. However, flexural strength, tensile strength, elongation at break, and impact strength values were diminished. The tensile strength of the biocomposites was positively affected by CA contents, but other mechanical properties were not affected by it. Overall, injection molded foamed biocomposites with moderate mechanical properties were produced.

  6. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Du, Bo; Zhao, Xuebing; Zhu, J Y; Liu, Dehua

    2017-03-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12 was simultaneously reduced. In an external liquid flow cell, the reduced PMo12 was re-oxidized with generation of electricity. The effects of several factors on pretreatment were investigated for optimizing the conditions. Enzymatic conversion of cellulose and xylan were about 80% and 45%, respectively, after pretreatment of wheat straw with 0.25M PMo12, at 95°C for 45min. FeCl3 was found to be an effective liquid mediator to transfer electrons to air, the terminal electron acceptor. By investigating the effects of various operation parameters and cell structural factors, the highest output power density of about 11mW/cm(2) was obtained for discharging of the reduced PMo12.

  7. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  8. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  9. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  10. Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

    2014-10-29

    Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The β-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to β-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic β-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol).

  11. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using (13)C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. (13)C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  12. Research on BM Straw Decomposition Inoculant Applied in Wheat Production%BM秸秆腐熟剂在小麦上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元东; 刘香坤; 姜玉琴; 朱玉成; 董旭勇; 王风英; 刘尚伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to research the effect of BM straw decomposition inoculant on fermentation of smashed corn stalk and wheat production,an experiment with 5 treatments was conducted. The results showed that application of BM straw decomposition inoculant to smashed corn stalk shortened the decomposition term by 30 days. Additionally, wheat plants grew strongly,with more tillers and increasing grain weights. The best treatment was applying BM straw decomposition inoculant of 30 kg/ha to smashed corn stalk on the base of formula fertilizer(525 kg/ha) , which could shorten the decomposition term by 55 days, and increase wheat production by 1 667. 5 kg/ha at an increase rate of 19. 7%, compared to no application of BM straw decomposition inoculant based on 375 kg/ha of DAP.%在大田条件下,研究了BM秸秆腐熟剂对还田玉米秸秆腐熟程度和小麦生长发育及产量的影响,结果表明:施用BM秸秆腐熟剂与不施用BM秸秆腐熟剂相比,还田秸秆提早30d腐熟,且小麦植株生长健壮,分蘖多,千粒重提高.最佳处理方法是在施用配方肥的基础上(525 kg/hm2)进行秸秆还田并加施BM秸秆腐熟剂30 kg/hm2,与在习惯性施肥基础上(底施磷酸二铵375 kg/hm2)不施用BM秸秆腐熟剂相比,可使农田秸秆提早55d腐熟,小麦生长健壮,分蘖多增产1667.5 kg/hm2,增幅19.7%.

  13. Effect of microbial spraying on wheat and rice straw returning to ditch%微生物菌喷施对集沟还田稻麦秸秆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志超; 刘玉涛; 丁为民; 陈玉仑; 秦宽

    2015-01-01

    在稻麦轮作、秸秆集沟还田模式下,针对沟内秸秆因腐解过慢而妨碍下茬作物正常生长的问题,利用微生物复合菌对秸秆的催腐特性,采用已研制的稻麦联合收获开沟埋草多功能一体机的喷施功能,对沟内秸秆进行喷菌使其快速腐解还田。为考察菌剂对秸秆的腐解效果,设计了裂区对比试验。试验结果表明:观察期内,夏季麦秸秆在液体菌剂+覆土处理下腐解率达74.60%,远高于对照组(不施菌剂+覆土)的12.80%,也高于未覆土+液体菌剂处理的44.11%,表明适宜的菌剂对麦秸秆有较好的促腐效果;冬季稻秸秆在各菌剂处理下秸秆的腐解率均不超过30%,且与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05)。粉末状菌剂的各处理腐解率均在25%以下,促腐效果不明显,表明粉剂在该模式下适用性有限。该研究为集沟还田的秸秆进一步处理提供了参考。%China is an important agricultural country with an annual crop straw production of nearly 700 million tons, which represents a substantially large number of straw resources that can be utilized. The wheat-rice rotation cropping system in the Yangtze River delta area is always accompanied by high yield;however, the existing conventional method of straw returning would not completely solve the problems caused by the produced straw with large quantity and short processing time. Alternatively, the new method of returning straw into a ditch is also widely used under the practice of conservation farming with no tillage and direct seeding cultivation. This method not only achieves a fully returning of straw, but also is helpful to the multi-purpose ditch use and enhances soil carbon sequestration. However, long-term practice has shown that under the natural state, straws in the ditch will not decay rapidly, and therefore will not be able to be transferred into organic fertilizer in a timely manner for adsorption by the crops

  14. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet.

  15. The influence of silane coupling agent and poplar particles on the wet-tability, surface roughness, and hardness of UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)/poplar wood particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyedeh Masoumeh Hafezi; Kazem Doosthoseini

    2014-01-01

    We used silane coupling agents to improve the bonding ability between wheat straw particles and UF resin, and investigated surface properties (wettability and surface roughness) and hardness of parti-cleboard made from UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) combined with poplar wood as affected by silane coupling agent content and straw/poplar wood particle ratios. We manufactured one-layered particleboard panels at four different ratios of straw to poplar wood par-ticles (0%, 15%, 30% and 45% wheat straw) and silane coupling agent content at three levels of 0, 5% and 10%. Roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and root mean square roughness (Rq) were measured on unsanded samples by using a fine stylus tracing technique. We obtained contact angle measurements by using a goniometer connected to a digital camera and computer sys-tem. Boards containing greater amounts of poplar particles had superior hardness compared to control samples and had lower wettability. Panels made with higher amounts of silane had lower Rq values.

  16. Study of structural characterization of sulfomethylated wheat straw lignin%麦草碱木质素磺甲基化反应及性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文学; 邱学青; 欧阳新平; 杨东杰

    2007-01-01

    针对麦草碱木质素水溶性差、分子质量低、难以工业利用的问题,采用Fenton试剂为氧化剂,以亚硫酸钠为磺化剂对麦草浆碱木质素进行氧化再进行磺甲基化反应,得到质量分数为33%(Wt)的氧化磺甲基化碱木质素的溶液.红外光谱(FTIR)测试表明产物中具有磺酸基的特征吸收峰.利用凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)测得其重均分子质量达到6653 g·mol-1.通过紫外吸收光谱(UV)测得其最大吸收波长在276 nm处.通过碱木质素磺化反应前后的核磁共振(13CNMR)测得磺甲基接入碱木质素中芳环的C-5位.当溶液质量浓度为30 g·L-1时,溶液表面张力为45.3 mN·m-1.%It is hard to utilize the wheat straw grass lignin as resource due to its in solubility in neutral aqueous and low molecular weight. In order to promote the utilization of it, sulfomethylation of wheat straw grass lignin is studied using Fenton reagent as oxidation reagent, sodium sulfite anhydrous and formaldehyde as sulfomethylation agent. The characterization of oxided and sulfometylated wheat straw grass lignin (OSWSL) is determined using FTIR, GPC,13C-NMR and UV. The results show that the average molecular weight of OSWSL (-Mw) is 6653 g·mol-1 which is greater than that of wheat strew lignin of 2828g·mol-1. 13C-NMR spectrum exhibits that the position of sulfomethylation reaction is C-5 in Guaiacyl suit, and the maximum absorption peak of UV is at 276 nm. When the solution concentration of OSWSL is 30 g·L-1, the surface tension is 45.3 mN·m-1.

  17. 麦秸和奶牛场废弃物联合堆肥试验%Co-composting of wheat straw and dairy waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞鹏; 于建光; 常志州; 顾元; 周立祥

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of co-composting of wheat straw and dairy waste. Wheat straw was co-composting with biogas residues, biogas slurry, dairy manure, and dairy slurry, respectively, and pure wheat straw composting was regarded as control, in which C/N ratio was regulated to 35 : 1 using urea. The results indicated that the high temperature durations above 50 ℃ for five composts were 30 d, 17d,41 d, 12d and 24 d, respectively, which reached the sanitary standard of aerobic composting. The organic carbon contents of five composts decreased by 14. 00% , 5. 50% , 15. 80% , 4.45% and 10.70% at the end of experiment, respectively. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased gradually during composting. At the end of composting, the organic matter content was 590. 28-701. 86 g/kg. The total nutrient content (N+P2O5+K2O) was 46.54-89.45 g/kg. Among five treatments, total nutrients in the co-compost of straw and dairy manure was the highest(89.45 g/kg) , followed by co-compost of wheat straw and biogas residues (69.61 g/kg). Given long high-temperature duration and high total content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, co-com-posting oi wheat straw and dairy manure or biogas residues is suitable in practical application. But it is economical for the co-composting of wheat straw and biogas slurry or dairy slurry, because of high ratio of 1. 8 t biogas slurry or dairy slurry to 1. 0 t wheat straw.%设置小麦秸秆和奶牛场废弃物联合堆肥试验,以评估其消纳养殖废水与制作商品有机肥的可行性.试验用麦秸分别与沼渣、沼液、牛粪、粪水混合堆肥,以小麦秸秆并用尿素调节碳氮比为35∶1的处理为对照.结果表明,各处理堆体温度50℃以上持续时间分别为30 d、17 d、41 d、12 d和24d,均已符合堆肥卫生标准要求的高温天数;堆肥过程中麦秸分别与沼渣、沼液、牛粪、粪水混合堆肥及对照的

  18. 不同表面处理麦秸秆对木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effects of different surface treatment for wheat straw on performances of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于旻; 何春霞; 刘军军; 侯人鸾; 薛娇

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of wheat straw fibers and polypropylene (PP), the wheat straw fibers were treated by combined treatment. The surfaces of fibers were pretreated by 5 methods, such as NaOH, acetic acid, hot water, steam explosion and microwave, and then compounded by coupling agent treatment. The wheat straw/PP wood-plastic composites were prepared by blending with PP and wheat straw through melt blending and molding. The mechanical properties, water absorption and moisture absorption performance of the PP wood-plastic composites filled with different surface treated wheat straw fibers were investigated. The tensile sections of the composites were observed by the stereo microscope. The results showed that the mechanical properties, water absorption and moisture absorption performance of PP composites filled with combined treated fibers were excellent that the composites filled with coupling agent treated fibers. It was found that the composites with wheat straw treated by NaOH and acetic acid had good mechanical properties and anti-water absorption and anti-moisture absorption performance, followed by the composites with wheat straw fibers treated by hydrothermal and steam explosion. After combined treatment, the surface of wheat straw became rough, so that the interfacial adhesion of straw fibers and PP matrix was improved. The results of this paper had great practical significance on improving the properties of wheat straw/waste PP wood-plastic composite by straw fiber surface treatment.%为提高麦秸秆纤维与聚丙烯(polypropylene,PP)基体的界面结合力,采用复合处理法对麦秸秆纤维进行表面处理:先分别用NaOH、乙酸溶液浸泡、水热处理、蒸汽爆破和微波等方法对麦秸秆纤维进行预处理,再复合偶联剂法处理麦秸秆纤维;用熔融共混、模压成型方法制备麦秸秆/废弃PP木塑复合材料,探讨了麦秸秆不同表面处理方法制备PP木塑复合材料

  19. Preparation and properties of wheat straw fibers for composites%用于复合材料的小麦秸秆纤维性能及制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘刚伟; 侯秀良; 朱澍; 王楠; 赵展; 黄丹

    2012-01-01

    In order to make effective utilization of wheat straw and reduce environment pollution from the burning of wheat straw, this paper investigated the pretreatment method with the dilute alkali for wheat straw as raw material in composites. The effects of the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, liquid-solid ratio, processing temperature and time on the weight loss rate of wheat straw were studied. The mechanical properties, surface structures and contact angles of the treated wheat straws were tested. The results showed that the optimized processing parameters with dilute alkali were as follow: liquid-solid ratio was 30, concentration of sodium hydroxide solution was 4%, processing temperature was 100? and processing time was 60 min. The mechanical properties of wheat straw fibers prepared with above processing parameters had no significant changes. Compared with untreated wheat straw, the inner and outer surface structures of the treated wheat straws were looser, their specific surface area increased and contact angle decreased. The above structure changes would improve the infiltration property of polylactic acid to the wheat straw fibers and the interfacial bondability. The research can provide a reference for further research on new eco-friendly composites based on wheat straw fibers and polylactic acid.%针对目前中国小麦秸秆利用率不高以及燃烧秸秆所带来的环境污染问题,该文研究了利用稀烧碱溶液处理小麦秸秆以制备用于复合材料的小麦秸秆纤维的性能及制备工艺,研究了氢氧化钠溶液质量分数、液固比、处理温度和处理时间等工艺参数与小麦秸秆纤维失重率的关系,并对所制备的小麦秸秆纤维的强伸性能、表面性能进行了测试.结果表明,小麦秸秆经稀烧碱溶液处理(氢氧化钠质量分数4%、液固比30 mL/g、处理温度100℃、处理时间60 min)后制备的小麦秸秆纤维力学性能与原样相比没有明显损伤,但内

  20. 理化预处理麦秸改善其聚丙烯复合材料抗霉菌腐蚀力学性能%Physicochemical pretreatments of wheat straw improving fungus corrossion resistance and mechanical properties of wheat straw/polypropylene composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丁宁; 何春霞; 薛娇; 付菁菁; 常萧楠

    2016-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC), whose main raw materials are plant fiber and plastic, is a kind of green low carbon material, prepared by molding, extrusion or injection molding. It has advantages of plant fiber and plastic, widely used in landscape architecture, furniture, logistics and packaging, automotive interiors and other industries. Wheat straw fibers are underutilized agricultural residues with potential for use in reinforced polymer composites that would save existing wood and petroleum resources. The antibacterial property of polymer material is excellent, so WPC is more resistant to corrosion than wood. However, during the pratical application, people found WPC was still affected by fungus corrosion at a certain temperature and humidity, plaque was formed on the surface of the composite and mechanical properties declined. These led the service life of WPC to be shortened greatly. So study on the corrosion resistance of WPC is very necessary. In order to study the effect of different pretreatments of wheat straw on the fungus corrosion resistance of wheat straw / polypropylene (PP) composites, 4 treatments, i.e. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), acetic acid (HAc), hydrotherm and microwave were used to modify the surface of wheat straw, and the accelerated corrosion tests on the treated and untreated composites were carried out. The mechanical properties, color variation and water absorption of the composites after the corrosion were investigated. And the change of functional groups was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the fungus growth and the microstructure of the surface of the composites were observed by stereomicroscope. The results showed that the fungus could corrode the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the wheat straw, which led to the cracks and holes generating on the surface of composites. The pretreatments could improve the interface bonding between wheat straw fiber and PP matrix, and the cellulose, hemicellulose and

  1. Effect of Microbial Inoculants on Wheat Straw Decomposition%微生物催腐剂对小麦秸秆的催腐效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙云鹏; 王兆龙

    2013-01-01

    Culture experiments were conducted to compare the effects of six microbial inoculants on wheat straw decomposition. The result shows that all microbial inoculants treatments promoted wheat straw decomposition significantly (P < 0. 05), with the highest straw decomposition rate of 20. 81% by Trichoderma harzianum and the lowest rate of 10. 84% by Guangyu. The highest water soluble nutrients ratio after fermentation was produced by Jujing (12. 81%). The highest neutral detergent soluble nutrients ratio was produced by Renyuan (13. 29%). The highest total nutrient ratio (water soluble plus neutral detergent soluble nutrients) was produced by Jujing treatment (25. 90%). Compared with the control treatment, there were significant decline of water soluble sugars after microbial fermentation in all treatments and the decline ranged from 25. 2% (Amms) to 46. 6% (Jujing). All microbial inoculants treatments led to the significant increase of water soluble proteins by 6. 6 fold (Jujing) to 10. 6 fold (Trichoderma harzianum),compared with that of the control treatment. All microbial inoculants treatments also resulted in the significant increase of ion content (P<0. 05). Based on the integrated analysis of the results from straw decomposition rate and the nutrients released after fermentation, it is concluded that Jujing and Renyuan were the good candidate microbial inoculants for wheat straw decomposition.%通过培养箱接种试验比较了6种微生物催腐剂对小麦秸杆的降解效果.结果表明,各催腐剂处理均能显著促进小麦秸杆的降解(P<0.05),其中经哈茨木霉处理的小麦秸杆降解率最高(20.81%),广宇生物腐熟剂处理的小麦秸杆降解率最低(10.84%).催腐剂发酵培养后产生的水溶物比率以巨景土壤调节剂为最高(12.81%),而发酵培养后产生的中性洗涤剂溶解物比率以人元秸秆快腐剂为最高(13.29%),巨景土壤调节剂产生的水溶物与中性

  2. Studying the ability of Fusarium oxysporum and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently cooperate in decomposition and ethanolic fermentation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Topakas, Evangelos; Moukouli, Maria

    2011-01-01

    by the addition of commercially available enzymes Celluclast® 1.5 L FG and Novozym® 188 in 3:1 ratio for the treatment of PWS, resulted in a 3-fold increase in the volumetric ethanol productivity without increasing the ethanol production significantly. By direct bioconversion of 110 kg m−3 dry matter of PWS......, ethanol concentration (4.9 kg m−3) and yield (40 g kg−1 of PWS) were similarly obtained by F. oxysporum and the mixed culture, while productivity rates as high as 34 g m−3 h−1 and 108 g m−3 h−1 were obtained by F. oxysporum and the mixed culture, respectively.......Fusarium oxysporum F3 alone or in mixed culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 were used to ferment carbohydrates of wet exploded pre-treated wheat straw (PWS) directly to ethanol. Both microorganisms were first grown aerobically to produce cell mass and thereafter fermented PWS to ethanol under...

  3. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Ed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52% in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (inorganic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane, whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion, yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per

  4. 氨化秸秆还田改善土壤结构增加冬小麦产量%Ammoniated straw improving soil structure and winter wheat yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余坤; 冯浩; 王增丽; 丁奠元

    2014-01-01

    As an important organic resource, straw returning into soil is a most economic and feasible method to improve soil structure and crop yield. Many problems occur in the utilization of straw resources, such as the slow decomposition of straw and the competition of nitrogen between straw and crop when the straw is applied into soil, thereby negatively affecting the crop yield. These problems can be affected by straw-incorporation methods, and an appropriate method may result in few problems. Therefore, this study aimed to select an efficient straw incorporation method to improve soil structure and increase crop yield in semi-arid region of Shaanxi China. To achieve this goal, a 2-year field experiment was carried out in the year of 2011-2013. Summer maize straw was used. Two control treatments included long straw returning by covering soil (CK1), long straw plowed into soil (CK2). Four straw treatments were long-ammoniated straw plowed into soil (CN), powdered-ammoniated straw plowed into soil (FN), long-ammoniated straw mixed with inorganic soil amendment (calcium sulfate) plowed into soil (CNT) and powdered-ammoniated straw mixed with inorganic soil amendment (calcium sulfate) plowed into soil (FNT). The soil bulk density, total porosity, water stable aggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), and fractional dimension of soil aggregates were determined before experiment in 2010. Winter wheat was planted after straw returning. After harvesting winter wheat and measuring its yield, we collected soil samples at the depth of 0-30 cm and determined the soil structure-related indicators as above. The results showed that compared with CK1 and CK2, the treatment FN in the plough layer (0-15 cm) significantly (P15-30 cm. In 0-15 cm soil layer, the application of powdered-ammoniated straw (P0.25 mm), significantly (P0.05), 0.76 (P15~30 cm)土壤体积质量及孔隙度改善效果不明显;氨化秸秆施入土壤后较

  5. Research on Preparation and Properties of PP/Wheat Straw/Kaolin Composites%聚丙烯/小麦秸秆/高岭土复合材料的制备及力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓慧; 侯桂香; 周立朋; 孙立婧; 林雅平; 曹阳

    2012-01-01

    采用熔融共混法,制备了聚丙烯/小麦秸秆/高岭十三元复合材料.并对复合材料的结构和力学性能进行了表征.结果表明:小麦秸秆和高岭土的加入使得复合材料的冲击性能提高,小麦秸秆质量分数为4%,高岭土质量分数为5%的复合材料的冲击强度,比聚丙烯/高岭土体系提高16.3%,比聚丙烯/麦秆体系提高28.5%;但复合材料的拉伸强度下降.微观分析表明:小麦秸秆和高岭土在复合材料中分散良好,增加了聚丙烯基体的界面效应;复合材料断面有微裂纹产生,高岭土的加入增加了小麦秸秆和聚丙烯的相容性.%In this paper, polypropylene/wheat straw/kaolin ternary composites were prepared through the melt blending method. The properties and the structure of the composites were studied. The results indicated that the impact performance of composites was improved. Compared with the PP/kaolin, the impact strength was improved by 16. 3% , and compared with the PP/wheat straw, improved by 28. 6% , when the weight percentage content of the wheat straw was 4% and kaolin was 5%. But tensile strength was decreased with the addition of the wheat straw and kaolin. Micro-analysis showed that wheat straw and kaolin dispersed homogeneously in the composites, and increased the interface effect of the composite materials system, the cross section displayed the distribution of microcrack structure. Compatibility between polypropylene and wheat straw was enhanced with the added of kaolin.

  6. Effects of Straw Application on Soil Organic Carbon and Active Organic Carbon in Wheat-corn Rotation System%秸秆还田对小麦-玉米轮作田土壤有机碳质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 沈阿林; 寇长林; 马政华; 王文亮; 郭战玲

    2012-01-01

    利用小麦-玉米轮条件下不同秸秆还田方式进行定位试验,对不同秸秆还田方式下土壤有机碳和活性有机碳含量进行了6a11季的连续监测,结果表明:单施化肥和秸秆还田配施化肥均能提高土壤有机碳含量;3种还田方式均能显著提高活性有机碳和碳库管理指数,表现为玉米秸秆还田>两季秸秆还田>小麦秸秆还田;3种秸秆还田处理的土壤有机碳增长速率为玉米秸秆还田>两季秸秆还田>小麦秸秆还田.小麦季玉米秸秆还田对有机碳活性提升效果优于两季秸秆还田和玉米季小麦秸秆还田.%A 6-year field experiment was carried out to study the effects of corn stover or/and wheat straw incorporated with chemical fertilizers on organic carbon and active organic carbon in soil in a wheat and corn rotation system. The results showed that the treatments of chemical fertilizer applied only and chemical fertilizer applied with straw returning increased the active organic carbon proportion in soil. All three methods of straw returning significantly improved the quantity of labile organic carbon(LOC) and (carbon management index) (CMI) , which was in the follow order: corn straw application>corn and wheat straw application> wheat straw application. And for the total organic carbon(TOC) increase speed was corn straw applied>corn stover and wheat straw applied>wheat straw applied. There was higher organic carbon activity in the treatment of returning corn straw in wheat season than the treatment of both corn stover and wheat straw applied in two seasons or the treatment of wheat straw applied in corn season.

  7. Toxic action of aqueous wheat straw extract on horse e purslane Ação tóxica do extrato aquoso da palha de trigo sobre beldroega cavalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khaliq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic action of aqueous wheat (Triticum aestivum straw extracts was investigated on germination, early seedling growth, some biochemical attributes and the antioxidant enzymes of horse purslane (Trianthemaportulacastrum. Aqueous extracts of wheat straw were prepared by soaking the wheat straw in distilled water in 1:10 w/v ratio and diluted to obtain the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. These were used as pre and post emergence in laboratory and screen house trials. Wheat aqueous extracts exhibited phytotoxicity to horse purslane by inhibiting and delaying its germination and suppressing seedling growth. Wheat phytotoxins in its aqueous extracts suppressed the chlorophyll content and soluble protein, and enhanced soluble phenolics and the activity of antioxidant enzymes as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the seedlings of horse purslane compared with the control. Such inhibitory activity is believed to originate from exposure to wheat phytotoxins that are present in its aqueous straw extract. The suppressive effects of wheat straw need to be investigated further under field conditions.A ação tóxica de extratos aquosos da palha de trigo (Triticum aestivum foi investigada na germinação, no crescimento inicial da plántula, em alguns atributos bioquímicos e nas enzimas antioxidantes de beldroegas-cavalo (Thianthema portulacastrum. Extratos aquosos de palha de trigo foram preparados pela imersão deste em água destilada na proporção de 01:10 m/v e diluidos para obtenção de cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. Estes foram usados como pré e pós-emergência em ensaios de laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os extratos aquosos de trigo exibiram toxicidade às beldroegas-cavalo, inibindo e retardando a sua germinação e suprimindo o crescimento das plántulas. Toxinas no extrato aquoso de trigo suprimiram o teor de clorofila e proteína solúvel, aumentaram os fenóis solúveis e a atividade de enzimas

  8. Reactivity and Kinetics of Bitumite and Wheat Straw Blends During Co-Gasification%烟煤与生物质秸秆共气化反应动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 张海亮; 蒋雪冬; 杨伯伦

    2011-01-01

    To study the kinetics of coal and straw during co-gasification, Shenfu bitumite and wheat straw were blended in different ratios and then pyrolyzed to get blends char. The synergistic effect in the pyrolysis process of blends and the comparison of reactivity in the blends char-CO2 gasification process were investigated by TGA, and the kinetics of both processes was analyzed with Coats-Redfern method. The results show that the pyrolysis temperature of bitumite and wheat straw is different; Co-pyrolysis demonstrates two different stages coinciding with the individual pyrolysis characteristics of bitumite and wheat straw; the activation energies of pyrolysis of blends and bitumite are similar, which implies that there is no obvious synergistic effect in co-pyrolysis process; the comparison of reactivity of char-CO2 gasification is listed in reducing order: wheat straw char, blends char, bitumite char; the activity energies of co-gasification are lower than bitumite char, which means the addition of wheat straw promotes the char-CO2 gasification.%为研究煤与秸秆共气化过程的反应动力学规律,将不同比例的神府烟煤和小麦秸秆掺混并制焦,用热分析法对混合试样的热解协同作用及混合焦C02气化的反应特性进行了考察,并采用Coats-Redfern方法对该过程进行了动力学解析.研究结果表明:烟煤与秸秆的热解温度相差较大;混合试样呈分段热解,其热解活化能与烟煤热解的活化能相近,秸秆的加入对烟煤的热解没有明显的促进或阻碍作用;焦样的C02气化反应活性从高到低依次为秸秆焦、混合焦、烟煤焦;秸秆的加入使混合焦的活化能相比烟煤焦有较大降低,促进了混合焦的C02气化反应的进行.

  9. Selective production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates from wheat straw using dilute HCl or FeCl3 solutions under mild conditions. X-ray and thermo-gravimetric analysis of the solid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, G; Krisanti, E; Giuntoli, J; de Jong, W

    2011-05-01

    The present work explores the combined production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates and an upgraded solid residue from wheat straw using a dilute-acid pretreatment at mild temperature. Dilute aqueous HCl solutions were studied at temperatures of 100 and 120°C, and they were compared to dilute FeCl(3) under the same conditions. Comparable yields of soluble sugars and acetic acid were obtained, affording an almost complete removal of pentoses when using 200 mM aqueous solutions at 120°C. The solid residues of pretreatment were characterized showing a preserved crystallinity of the cellulose, and a almost complete removal of ash forming matter other than Si. Results showed upgraded characteristic of the residues for thermal conversion applications compared to the untreated wheat straw.

  10. Impact of Covering Wheat Straw and Shading on Vegetative Growth of Zhangqiu Green Onion%覆麦草和遮光对夏季章丘大葱营养生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁园园; 张荣亭; 高莉敏; 郭守鹏; 徐佳宁; 黄翊鹏

    2012-01-01

    以章丘大葱大梧桐品种为试材,研究了夏季栽培中覆麦草和遮光对大葱株高和单株鲜重的影响.结果表明:7~9月各处理的株高和单株鲜重差异显著,覆麦草不利于大葱的长高和增重,而遮光可明显促进大葱生长,不覆麦草、遮光50%的处理株高平均值与对照差异不显著,但平均单株鲜重比对照高63.82%,增产潜力较大.多因素方差分析表明:覆麦草、遮光及两者交互效应对大葱株高和单株鲜重有极显著影响(P<0.01).%The experiment was conducted to study the impact of covering wheat straw and shading on the plant height and the individual fresh weight of Zhangqiu green onion "Dawutong" in summer cultivation. The results showed that the plant height and the individual fresh weight of different treatments had significant differences from July to September. The survey data displayed that covering wheat straw was bad while shading was advantageous for the growth of onion. Especially, the treatment with no wheat straw covering but 50% shading had the plant height similar to CK, but its individual fresh weight was 63.82% more than that of CK, which indicated the enormous potential in increasing yield. The multi - way ANOVA showed that covering wheat straw, shading and their interaction significantly affected the plant height and individual fresh weight of Zhangqiu green onion(P<0.01).

  11. [Short-term effects of different tillage modes combined with straw-returning on the soil labile organic carbon components in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Fang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Han, Xin-Zhong; Gu, Ke-Jun; Hu, Nai-Juan; Bian, Xin-Min

    2013-05-01

    A two-year (2009-2011) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes, straw-returning, and their interactions on the soil total organic carbon (TOC) and labile organic carbon (LOC) components (easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC)) at the soil depths of 0-7, 7-14, and 14-21 cm in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping. In all treatments of straw-returning, the TOC and LOC contents in each soil layer were significantly higher than those without straw-returning. Under plowing tillage, the MBC content in 0-7 cm soil layer was significantly higher than that under rotary tillage, but the EOC content was in adverse. Rotary tillage made the TOC content in 7 - 14 cm soil layer being significantly higher, as compared with plowing tillage. The TOC, WSOC, and MBC contents in 14-21 cm soil layer under plowing tillage were significantly higher than those under rotary tillage. Plowing tillage combined with rice and wheat straws-returning made the soil TOC content being higher than the other treatments.

  12. Wheat straw moisture meter based on alterative current impedance method%基于交流阻抗法的小麦秸秆含水率检测仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文川; 杨军; 刘驰; 朱新华

    2013-01-01

    Wheat straw is a main kind of straws in China. Since it contains a large amount of fiber, wheat straw is used to make paper and produce particleboards in different densities. Moreover, high energy content in wheat straw provides an opportunity to convert straw’s heat energy to electric power. Since the unit price of wheat straw is based on weight and straw decays when kept in a high moisture state, moisture content is listed as a main criterion in wheat straw consuming market. It is also an important factor in straw’s application. Therefore, moisture content detection is very important during wheat straw marketing, storing and processing. Since the traditional oven drying method has the major disadvantages for long time measurement and unsuitable for on-site detection in collection fields, developing the new kinds of wheat straw moisture meters with advantages of convenience, rapid measurement and high precision is needed in wheat straw industry. In this study, based on alterative current (AC) impedance method, a straw moisture meter, which can detect impedance, temperature and pressure, was designed with an 8-bit single-chip microcomputer as controller. Experiment was conducted at five moisture content levels from 10.4%to 19.7%at wet basis, temperature range from 5 to 40ºC at 5ºC interval, and three bulk density levels (75.3~101.3 kg/m3) at each moisture content to study the effect of moisture content, temperature and bulk density on impedance. A cubic equation on impedance as functions of moisture content, temperature and bulk density was established. The significance effect of each variable on the regressed equation was analyzed. The results indicate that bulk density has no significant effect on the equation at the significance level of 0.05. Therefore, a cubic equation of impedance with two variables of moisture content and temperature was regressed. The test results showed that the regressed cubic model with two variables can describe the relationship

  13. Preparation of Pinewood- and Wheat Straw-based Activated Carbon via a Microwave-assisted Potassium Hydroxide Treatment and an Analysis of the Effects of the Microwave Activation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Mao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of activated carbon preparation conditions on their adsorption performance. Pinewood and wheat straw were used as source materials to prepare activated carbon via a fast activation process using KOH and microwave heating. The iodine numbers and carbon yields were determined to evaluate the adsorption properties of the activated carbon. The effects of various KOH/char mass ratios, particle sizes, humidity levels, and microwave heating times on the physical characteristics of the activated carbon were investigated. The iodine number and yield and SEM images were used to characterize the activated carbon. Small particle sizes, the presence of humidity in the purge gas, and high KOH/char ratios resulted in higher iodine numbers. The best activated carbons were obtained using a KOH/char ratio of 3.0, a microwave power of 600 W, a radiation time of 30 min, and a particle size of 0.1 to 0.42 mm in a humid environment; these carbons showed iodine numbers of 2208 mg/g (pinewood activated carbon and 1420 mg/g (wheat straw activated carbon, with carbon yields of 73% and 52%, respectively. Longer microwave heating times increased the iodine number. The iodine numbers and yields of the pinewood activated carbons were much higher than those of their wheat straw counterparts.

  14. 不同腐解剂在麦秸秆还田中的腐解作用%Assessments of Different Effective Microorganisms on Decomposition of Wheat Straw Return to Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文平兰; 赵九红; 梁明华; 吴行国; 朱桂珍; 王丽娟

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了明确4种腐解剂对小麦秸秆的腐解效果.[方法]采用小麦秸秆全量还田模式.[结果]不同腐解剂处理后,秸秆的腐熟程度、粗纤维含量和有机质含量与对照间均无明显差异.[结论]外加4种腐解剂不能促进秸秆腐熟.腐解剂在秸秆还田中的推广应用还需要进一步验证.%[ Objective] To understand the effect of four effective microorganisms on decomposition of wheat straw. [ Method] The model of returning all the wheat straw to field was adopted. [ Result] The changes-of the decay degree, crude fiber and organic matter content by adding composite microbial system was consistent with that of blank. [ Conclusion] The four microbial formulations didn' t accelerate the decomposition of wheat straw, and the application of effective microorganisms should be studied further.

  15. 玉米秸秆不同还田方式下麦田温室气体排放特征%Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Wheat Fields with Different Returning Methods of Maize Straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 朱振林; 董红云; 杨丽萍; 郭洪海

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨玉米秸秆不同还田方式对麦田温室气体排放的影响,通过田间试验,设玉米秸秆不还田(CK)、玉米秸秆直接还田(CS)、玉米秸秆过腹还田(CGS)和玉米秸秆转化为食用菌基质,出菇后菌渣还田(CMS)4个处理,利用静态箱-气相色谱法测定了玉米秸秆不同还田方式下,麦田温室气体(CO2、N2O和CH4)的排放特征。结果表明:玉米秸秆不同还田方式下,麦田温室气体通量均具有明显的季节变化,且排放量不同。在小麦生长季,CO2和N2O均表现为排放,其排放量为CK>CGS>CS>CMS;甲烷表现为吸收,其吸收量为CS>CGS>CK>CMS,且不同处理间差异显著(PCGS>CK>CMS,也就是说秸秆直接还田,显著增加麦田温室气体的全球增温潜势,其次是玉米秸秆过腹还田方式,而秸秆-菌渣还田则降低了麦田温室气体的全球增温潜势。从减少温室气体排放角度,推荐秸秆-菌渣还田方式。该研究结果可为秸秆合理利用和温室气体减排提供基础数据。%In order to investigate the effect of different returning methods of maize straw on the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields, we explored the greenhouse gas CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from the wheat fields using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique from December 2013 to May 2014 . The experiments set four treatments including no maize straw returning(CK), direct maize straw returning directly(CS), maize straw-rumen-cattle dung returning(CGS)and maize straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS), and the four treatments were investigated under the same watering and fertilizing conditions. The results showed that the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields all had distinct seasonal variations and the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gas emissions were different. During the maize growing season, the cumulative emissions of both CO2 and N2O were emitted and in the order of CK

  16. Biogasification of steam-exploded wheat straw by a two-phased digestion system%汽爆麦草的两相法生物气化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪章; 王麾; 张爱军; 李佐虎

    2005-01-01

    蒸汽爆破作为一种新型的预处理方法被初次运用于麦草的两相气化系统,以碳酸氢铵作为补充氮源调节碳氮比,并在相同条件下以未汽爆麦草作对照试验.以汽爆麦草为原料时,水解反应器的pH值低于加入未汽爆麦草的pH值,并且在25 d后慢慢升至7;以两种麦草为原料时,甲烷反应器的pH都稳定在7左右,此时最适合甲烷生成.汽爆麦草的总固形物和挥发性固形物含量分别降低了57.5%和62.1%,下降率差不多是未汽爆麦草的2倍;纤维素和半纤维素的降解率也有了显著的提高,分别为63.0%和67.4%;木质素的降解率变化不大,都在5%左右.汽爆麦草的总产气量高于非汽爆麦草,并且一直保持较高的增长率,而非汽爆麦草的增长率一直较低;两种麦草产生的生物气中的甲烷含量大致相同,在水解反应器中后期为50%左右,在甲烷反应器中为70%左右.以上结果表明,汽爆可以促进麦草的降解,提高生物气的产量,是一种行之有效的预处理技术.%In the study, steam-explosion, a novel pretreatment method of substrate, was firstly introduced in the twophased digestion system. Ammonium bicarbonate was used as added nitrogen source to adjust C/N in the system. Under the same conditions, experiments using NPWS (non-pretreated wheat straw) were processed as the control. Results showed that pH value in the hydrolysis reactor using SEWS (Steam-exploded wheat straw) was lower and increased slowly to 7 in 25 days. In methanogenesis reactors using SEWS and NPWS, pH value was all around 7, which is most suitable to produce methane. In the digestion system using SEWS, the content of TS (Total solid) and VS (Volatile solid) decreased by 57.5% and by 62.1%, respectively, about twice as high as NWPS. The degradation rate of cellulose and semi-cellulose of SEWS were 63.0% and 67.4%, respectively, much higher than NPWS. The degradation rate of the lignin is similar and about 5 %. The total

  17. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Petersen, Mai; Larsen, Jan; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat s...... cellulase mixtures - increasing to 92% when adding a commercial xylanase. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. 模压压力和温度对PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料的影响%Effects of Molding Pressure and Temperature of PE/Wheat Straw Foam Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常萧楠; 何春霞; 付菁菁; 熊静; 刘丁宁

    2015-01-01

    为探讨模压压力和温度对聚乙烯(PE)/麦秸秆发泡复合材料微观结构和性能的影响,以偶氮二甲酰胺(AC)为发泡剂模压制备PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料,对比研究模压压力和温度对PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料热导率、表观密度和吸水性能的影响,用体视显微镜观察材料的断面微观形貌,用傅立叶变换红外光谱分析探讨复合材料的化学结构.结果表明,当模压压力为10 MPa,模压温度为150℃时,PE/麦秸秆发泡复合材料内部泡孔结构均匀,热导率、表观密度和吸水率较小,麦秸秆和PE的界面结合较好,材料较致密.%Azodicarbonamide(AC) was adopted as a foaming agent to prepare polyethylene(PE)/wheat straw foam composite by compression molding process to investigate the effects of molding pressure and temperature on the microstructure and properties of PE/wheat straw foam composite. In order to compare the effects of molding pressure and temperature on the thermal conductivity,apparent density and water absorption capabilityof the foam composites,stereomicroscope was used to observe the section microstructure of material,FTIR was used to characterize the chemical structure of materials. The results indicate that when the molding pressure and temperature are 10 MPa and 150℃respectively, the foam structure inside the PE/wheat straw foam com-posite is uniform, the thermal conductivity, apparent density and water absorption of PE/wheat straw foam composite are lower, wheat straw and PE have better interfacial adhesion so that the material has dense structure.

  19. Feasibility of using olive mill effluent (OME) as a wetting agent during the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmis, Erbil; Azbar, Nuri; Yildiz, Hasan; Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw substrate containing tap water and olive mill effluent (OME) mixture containing varying volume of OME was studied in order to investigate the feasibility of using OME as an alternative wetting agent and OME's impact on some fundamental food quality characteristics of mushrooms. Time period for mycelial colonization, primordium initiation and first harvest were comparatively evaluated with the control group. It was shown that the use of OME and tap water mixture consisting of OME up to 25% volumetrically was possible for the purpose of commercial mushroom production. Experimental results obtained from substrate containing 25% OME mixture showed no statistically significant difference compared to control group. The negative effects of increasing volume of OME in the mixture were also indicated by bioefficiency, which was found to be 13.8% for substrates wetted with 100% OME, whereas bioefficiency was 53.6% for control group. Increasing volume of OME in the mixture resulted in deformation of fruit body shape, whereas no significant difference in food quality was observed due to the higher amount of OME. This work suggested that the use of OME up to 25% as moisturizer could be considered, especially for the locations having significant number of olive mills and mushroom producers, both as an environmentally friendly solution for the safe and ecological disposal of OME and a practical way for recovering OME's economic value thereby.

  20. In vitro evaluation of salinomycin addition in wheat straw based total mixed diets on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and dry matter degradability in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Sirohi

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of salinomycin in vitro on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Materials and Methods: Different levels of (0,10, 15 and 20 ppm salinomycin were checked for their effect on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation on three wheat straw based diets i.e. low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of salinomycin was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results: Results of different levels of salinomycin on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (38.14% in term of mM/gDM was noticed in HFD at 20 ppm level. IVDMD showing increasing trend with an increasing concentration of salinomycin with HFD and LFD, while shown decreasing trend with MFD respectively. Protozoal population significantly decreased by addition of salinomycin in all diets. Conclusion: The results of salinomycin evaluation in the current study can be implicated to mitigate the methane production, thus saving the feed energy loss and the accumulation of green house gases in environment. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 609-613

  1. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization.

  2. Characterization of wheat straw-degrading anaerobic alkali-tolerant mixed cultures from soda lake sediments by molecular and cultivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Katharina; Wirth, Balázs; Tóth, Erika M; Schattenberg, Florian; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment has the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas. However, the elevated pH of the substrate may require alkalitolerant microbial communities for an effective digestion. Three mixed anaerobic lignocellulolytic cultures were enriched from sediments from two soda lakes with wheat straw as substrate under alkaline (pH 9) mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The gas production of the three cultures ceased after 4 to 5 weeks, and the produced gas was composed of carbon dioxide and methane. The main liquid intermediates were acetate and propionate. The physiological behavior of the cultures was stable even after several transfers. The enrichment process was also followed by molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and of the mcrA/mrtA functional gene for methanogens. The main shift in the microbial community composition occurred between the sediment samples and the first enrichment, whereas the structure was stable in the following transfers. The bacterial communities mainly consisted of Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales and Spirochaeta, but differed at genus level. Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina genera and the order Methanomicrobiales were predominant methanogenes in the obtained cultures. Additionally, single cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as members of the alkaliphilic or alkalitolerant genera. The results show that anaerobic alkaline habitats harbor diverse microbial communities, which can degrade lignocellulose effectively and are therefore a potential resource for improving anaerobic digestion.

  3. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38–60 kg N ha‑1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32–71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  4. Enhancing nutritional contents of Lentinus sajor-caju using residual biogas slurry waste of detoxified mahua cake mixed with wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residual biogas slurries (BGS of detoxified mahua cake (DMC and cow dung (CD were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS. Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p≤0.05 in protein content (29.6-38.9%, sugars (29.1-32.3% and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%, lignin (%, celluloses (% and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%, hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1% and lignin (27.4-39.23% in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  5. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover.

  6. Fertilization of Watermelon Grown with Wheat Straw Substrate in Passive Plastic Greenhouse%大棚西瓜秸秆基质栽培施肥量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁培祥

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization was studied using watermelon "Xiuli' grown in wheat straw substrate in passive plastic greenhouse. The tests included 5 levels of chicken manure + ammonium phosphate. The measurements included plant growth, yield and fruit quality. With the levels tested in this experiment yield was increased with the increase of fertilizer amount, the best treatment was 30 kg chicken manure + 1.5 kg ammonium phosphate per plot(19.87 m2).%以西瓜品种秀丽为试材,在大棚中采用秸秆基质栽培,腐熟鸡粪+磷酸二铵作为施肥配方,分析比较了5种施肥量对西瓜生长发育、产量及品质的影响,结果表明,在一定施肥量的范围内,产量随施肥量的增加而增加,综合所有因素,最佳施肥配方为每小区腐熟鸡粪30 kg+磷酸二铵1.5 kg.

  7. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38–60 kg N ha−1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32–71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system. PMID:28176865

  8. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  9. 麦草氨法制浆工艺及动力学%Pulping of Wheat Straw with Caustic Potash-Ammonia Aqueous Solutions and Its Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 张成芳; 陈中胜

    2006-01-01

    A pulping technology of wheat straw with aqueous ammonia and diluent caustic potash was investigated.Because its strong alkalinity, the addition of caustic potash not only reduced the quantity of NH3 consumed and cooking time, but also enriched the black liquor with nutrients such as potassium and nitrogen, which could be used as fertilizer for agriculture. Various pulping conditions including composition of cooking liquor, liquor-to-solid ratio,maximum cooking temperature, time to reach the maximum temperature and time at the maximum temperature were studied systematically to determine the suitable pulping conditions. Results of the cooking course showed that there were three distinct delignification phases, namely, the bulk delignification phase from the beginning of cooking to 100 ℃, the supplementary delignification phase from 100 ℃ to 155 ℃ for 45min and the third delignification phase till the end of cooking. The rate of delignification was found to be first order with respect to residual lignin and 0.34 order with respect to [OH-]. The activation energy of the delignification reaction was 29.75 kJ·mol-1 and the rate equation of delignification was also obtained.

  10. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  11. Allelopathy of decomposed maize straw products on three soil-born diseases of wheat and the analysis by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yong-zhi; ZHEN Wen-chao; LI Hai-yan

    2015-01-01

    In northern China, the soil-born diseases of wheat have been getting more and more serious under a new farming system that returns maize straw to the ifeld. In order to investigate the alelopathy of the decomposed maize straw products on three soil-born diseases of wheat, culture dish and pot experiments were conducted and the compounds in the products were identiifed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Culture dish experiments showed that the mycelial growth, sclerotia formation amount and total weight ofRhizoctonia cerealiswere promoted at concentrations of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g mL–1 and inhibited at concentration of 0.48 g mL–1 of the decomposed products. No signiifcant effects were found of the product concentrations on average weight of the sclerotia. Mycelial growth ofGaeumannomyces graminis was promoted at almost al concentrations except the highest one. Mycelial growth and spore germination ofBipolaris sorokiniana were signiifcantly inhibited by al concentrations of the decomposed products, with enhanced inhibition effects along with the increased concentrations. The length, number and dry weight of roots together with the root superoxide dismutase activity were promoted by the lowest concentration (0.03 g mL–1), with a synthetic effect index of 0.012, and inhibited by other concentrations. The ion leakage of roots was increased and the root peroxidase activity of roots was lowered by al the treatments. Pot experiments revealed that occurrence of the sharp eyespot was reduced by 0.03 and 0.06 g mL–1 of decomposed products after irrigation. However, the incidence rates and disease indexes were signiifcantly increased by 0.12, 0.24 and 0.48 g mL–1 of decomposed products. The results indicated that incidence rates and disease indexes of the take-al were signiifcantly promoted after being irrigated with the decomposed products, while occurrences of the common rot didn’t change, signiifcantly. GC-MS results showed that the compounds of

  12. One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ming; Zhong, Ruibo; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Wanrong; Yun, Xiaoling; Liu, Jingran; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Guofen; Zhang, Feng, E-mail: fengzhang1978@hotmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots can be synthesized simply by a green, economic and one-pot hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw with ∼20% yield, in addition to the compact size and robust photostability they are experimentally demonstrated for multiplexed applications such as sensing ions and labeling and imaging for inorganic nanostructures, cells and even nematodes. The converting biomass wastes to promising biocompatible nanomaterials could be a “one-stone-two-birds” strategy to other carbon-containing biomass waste for a highly effectively carbon recycling use and sustainable energy and environment future. - Highlights: • Photoluminescent carbon dots can be synthesized by wheat straw with about 20% yield. • Carbon dots can be used for both nonliving and living labeling, imaging, and sensing. • Carbon dots can be used as a fluorescent ink. - Abstract: The use of biomass as renewable and sustainable energy source has attracted the attention of politics and research and development (R&D) facilities around the world. Agricultural straw acts as a typical biowaste, which still needs highly effective recycling to save the biomass urgently at present. Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) are novel biocompatible nanomaterials that have been proved to be produced from many carbon-abundant materials and hold great promise for the modern nanobiomedicine. In order to realize a “one-stone-two-birds” strategy, we report a green, economic, one-pot method in this article for synthesizing photoluminescent C-dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we show that the as-prepared C-dots are amorphous in structure and are mainly composed of carbon. Their tiny size (<2 nm), combined with the characteristic excitation-dependent relatively bright emission, and robust photostability made the C-dots a potential biocompatible nanomaterial for bio-applications. We

  13. One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Zhong, Ruibo; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Wanrong; Yun, Xiaoling; Liu, Jingran; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Guofen; Zhang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The use of biomass as renewable and sustainable energy source has attracted the attention of politics and research and development (R&D) facilities around the world. Agricultural straw acts as a typical biowaste, which still needs highly effective recycling to save the biomass urgently at present. Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) are novel biocompatible nanomaterials that have been proved to be produced from many carbon-abundant materials and hold great promise for the modern nanobiomedicine. In order to realize a "one-stone-two-birds" strategy, we report a green, economic, one-pot method in this article for synthesizing photoluminescent C-dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we show that the as-prepared C-dots are amorphous in structure and are mainly composed of carbon. Their tiny size (bio-applications. We have experimentally demonstrated their potential applications in biomedical labeling, imaging, and sensing/detecting. The high yield (∼20%) of C-dots from wheat straw may suggest a new economic strategy for recycling biowaste.

  14. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility.

  15. Effect of Different Pretreatments on Tribological Properties of Wheat Straw/Polypropylene Composites%预处理对麦秸/聚丙烯复合材料摩擦磨损性能影响实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于旻; 何春霞; 张还; 侯人鸾; 薛娇

    2013-01-01

    为提高麦秸秆纤维与聚丙烯(PP)基体的界面结合力,采用复合处理法对麦秸秆纤维进行表面处理:先分别用NaOH溶液浸泡、乙酸溶液浸泡、水热处理、蒸汽爆破和微波等方法对麦秸秆纤维进行预处理,再复合偶联剂法处理麦秸秆纤维;用熔融共混、模压成型方法制备麦秸秆/PP复合材料.用体视显微镜观察了不同处理后的麦秸秆纤维微观结构,采用红外光谱技术(FTIR)研究了不同表面处理麦秸秆纤维的红外光谱,用M-2000A型磨损实验机测试了麦秸秆不同表面处理方法制备PP复合材料摩擦磨损性能,并通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察分析复合材料磨损表面形貌.结果表明,NaOH、水热和蒸汽爆破处理对麦秸秆纤维表面化学成分有明显的影响;复合处理麦秸秆制备的复合材料摩擦磨损性能均优于单纯使用偶联剂处理麦秸秆制备的复合材料;复合材料的主要磨损机制为磨粒磨损和粘着磨损,水热处理和蒸汽爆破的复合材料耐磨性能较好.%In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of wheat straw fibers and polypropylene (PP),the wheat straw fibers were treated by combining treatment.The surfaces of fibers were pretreated by five methods,such as NaOH,soaked in acetic acid solution,hydrothermal treatment,steam explosion treatments and microwave treatment.Then,they were compounded with coupling agent treatment.The wheat straw/PP composites were prepared by melt blending and molding.The microstructure of wheat fibers after different surface treatments was observed by stereo microscope.The infrared spectroscopy of wheat straw fibers after different surface treatments was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technology.The tribological properties of PP composites filled with different surface treated wheat straw fibers were investigated by using M-2000A abrasion testing machine.The results showed that NaOH,hydrothermal treatment and

  16. Production of manganese peroxidase and organic acids and mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled lignin ({sup 14}C-DHP) during solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with the white rot fungus Nematoloma frowardii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofrichter, M.; Scheibner, K.; Fritsche, W. [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Microbiology; Vares, T.; Kalsi, M.; Galkin, S.; Hatakka, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology

    1999-05-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Nematoloma frowardii produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) as the predominant ligninolytic enzyme during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 50 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.2. In addition to MnP, low levels of laccase and lignin peroxidase were detected. Synthetic {sup 14}C-ring-labelled lignin ({sup 14}C-DHP) was efficiently degraded during SSF. Approximately 75% of the initial radioactivity was released as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, while only 6% was associated with the residual straw material, including the well-developed fungal biomass. On the basis of this finding the authors concluded that at least partial extracellular mineralization of lignin may have occurred. This conclusion was supported by the fact that they detected high levels of organic acids in the fermented straw, which rendered MnP effective and therefore made partial direct mineralization of lignin possible. Experiments performed in a cell-free system, which simulated the conditions in the straw cultures, revealed that MnP in fact converted part of the {sup 14}C-DHP to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labelled water-soluble products in the presence of natural levels of organic acids.

  17. 以强度增长率评价麦秸秆加筋盐渍土的加筋效果%Examination of reinforcement effect on basis of strength increment of reinforced saline soil with wheat straw and lime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 柴寿喜; 王晓燕; 魏丽

    2011-01-01

    Inferior strength, which is caused by salt expansion, dissolution and water absarption of inshore saline soil, will be prevented with the help of reinforcement with wheat straw and lime.First.some samples are prepared.which including saline soil,reinforced saline soil with wheat straw, lime-saline soil.and reinforced saline soil with lime and wheat straw as the way of reinforcement in whole, upper and lower position respectively.Then.unconfined compressive strength tests of 50 mm 152 mm (heavy compaaion specimen) and 102 mm (lightly compaction specimen), as well as triaxial shear test of 61.8 mm in diameter are carried out.Finally.strength increment ratio of deviator stress, and cohesion increment are defined to evaluate the reinforcement effect.The results show that: 1, Reinforcement raise the strength and the anti-deformation of soil.2.Reinforced action increase largely the cohesion of soil and the reinforcement in lower position can contribute a more effective role.3.Strength of reinforced soil is contributed mostly by wheat straw and lime; the strength in water depends on chemical reaction of lime.4.Lateral deformation of reinforced soil is restricted by means of wheat straw within a lower confining pressure, and that is supported jointly by reinforcement and confining pressure within a higher confining pressure.Reinforcement with wheat straw is one of the suitable means for improving strength and anti-deformation of inshore saline soil.%采用麦秸秆与石灰共同加筋固化滨海盐渍土,可解决由于盐胀、溶陷和吸湿软化引起的土体强度下降问题.首先,制备盐渍土、石灰土、麦秸秆加筋盐渍土和麦秸秆加筋石灰土试样(整体均匀加筋、上部均匀加筋和下部均匀加筋);进而,进行φ50 mm试样、φ152 mm重型击实试样和φ102 mm轻型击实试样的无侧限抗压强度试验,以及φ61.8 mm试样三轴压缩试验;最后,分析抗压强度增长率、主应力差比值和黏聚力增长率的变

  18. Study of properties and the preparation of composite of wheat straw and HDPE/PP%麦秸粉与HDPE/PP基复合材料的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆哲; 许民

    2014-01-01

    本文采用麦秸粉为增强体,分别与高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)、聚丙烯(PP)热塑性塑料基体采用挤出方式混合制备木塑复合材料,研究麦秸粉与HDPE、PP的配比对复合材料性能的影响。利用高速混合机在一定条件下对麦秸粉、热塑性塑料和其他助剂进行混合,利用双螺杆挤出机熔融造粒,单螺杆挤出机挤出成型,对制备的麦秸粉/塑料复合材料进行物理力学性能测试。结果表明:加入少量麦秸粉使木塑复合材料力学性能降低,随着麦秸粉含量的增加,复合材料的力学性能呈提高的趋势;当麦秸粉含量超过一定比例时,木塑复合材料力学性能降低,且冲击性能降低明显;本次试验HDPE基木塑复合材料力学强度略高于PP基木塑复合材料。%The paper is mixing the raw materials of wheat straw as enhanceosome and high-density polyethylene/pohyprpylene (HDPE/PP) of thermoplastic to produced wood-plastic com-posite by adopting extrusion way and researching effect about the content of HDPE and PP on the properties of composite. Under a certain conditions,the high-speed mixer mixed the com-pound of wheat straw powder and thermoplastics and other auxiliaries,and then the compound were melting prilling by twin-screw extruder followed and molding by the single screw extrud-er. The mechanical properties of composite of wheat straw and thermoplastic were measured . The results indicated that adding a small amount of wheat straw powder caused the reduction of mechanical properties of wood plastic composite,the mechanical properties of wood plastic composite increased with increasing wheat straw powder content,mechanical properties de-creased when the content of wheat straw was more than a certain percentage,especially,the impact property decreased obviously;the test indicated that the mechanical properties of HDPE were higher than PP.

  19. MAPP对麦秸纤维-聚丙烯复合材料热力学性能的影响%Effects of MAPP on the dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of wheat straw fiber-polypropylene composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明珠; 周定国; 张述垠; Mosto Bousmina

    2009-01-01

    以麦秸纤维为增强材料、聚丙烯为基体物质、马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(MAPP)为改性剂,制备麦秸纤维-聚丙烯复合材料.利用DMA、DSC、TG和SEM,探讨了MAPP的添加量(质量百分比1%、2%、5%、10%)和麦秸纤维形态(35目)对麦秸纤维-聚丙烯复合材料的热力学性能和结晶性能的影响.结果表明:①当MAPP的添加量为2%时,麦秸纤维-聚丙烯复合材料的储能弹性模量减小;当MAPP的添加量增加到5%、10%时,复合材料的储能弹性模量增加.②在麦秸纤维-聚丙烯体系内添加MAPP后,麦秸纤维-聚丙烯复合材料的结晶温度提高约1℃,结晶度增加了4%~8%;麦秸纤维以28~35目的形态作为聚丙烯基体的增强材料时,其复合材料的结晶温度为122.7℃,结晶率达到45.8%.③麦秸纤维-聚丙烯复合材料的热分解峰温分别为355和460℃.④麦秸纤维以纤维束的形态分布在基体聚丙烯中起增强作用,在整个体系内,麦秸纤维局部团聚且断裂明显.添加MAPP后,有利于基体物质在麦秸纤维表面的均匀覆盖.%Composites of polypropylene (PP) and wheat straw fiber (9, 28, 35 mesh) modified by maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% ,weight percentage) were prepared, and the dynamic flexural mechanical, thermal properties and surface morphology of wheat straw fiber-PP composites were investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimeters (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With incorporation of 2% MAPP, wheat straw fiber-PP composites showed the lowest storage flexural modulus (E'), while the composites containing 5 % and 10% of MAPP exhibited the highest E'. The DSC study revealed that the addition of the MAPP to the composites increased the nucleating ability of PP in the surface of wheat straw fiber, with an increase of 1℃ in crystallization temperature (T_c) and an increase of 4%-8 % in crystallinity (X

  20. Studies on refining properties of kraft bamboo pulp, hardwood pulp and wheat straw pulp%竹浆、阔叶木浆和麦草浆打浆性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴乾斌; 张美云; 夏新兴; 赵琳

    2012-01-01

      对竹浆、阔叶木浆和麦草浆进行了筛分,得出竹浆中R16目纤维和R200目细小纤维组分含量均最高。收集三种浆料的长纤维,进行打浆,得出:麦草纤维细胞壁容易破除,打浆度和保水值较高,纤维本身强度较差;竹纤维难分丝帚化;竹浆中的细小纤维组分容易破裂,吸水润胀。麦草纤维结合力强,成纸的抗张指数和耐破指数较高,撕裂指数和耐折度低;竹纤维成纸的各项物理指标均较高。%  After screened classification of the kraft bamboo pulp, hardwood pulp and wheat straw pulp, the fibers (above 16 mesh) content and fines (below 200 mesh) content of bamboo pulp are both high. Long fibers (over 200 mesh) of three kinds of pulp being refined, the fiber’s wall of wheat straw is removed easily and fiber’s strength is low. Fiber’s wall of bamboo brooms hardly. Fines of bamboo are beaten easily. The binding strength of wheat straw is high, so the tensile index and burst index are high, while the tear index and folding endurance are low. The entire physical index of bamboo fiber is high.

  1. 酶法降解小麦秸秆碱预处理浓度的选择及酶解产物的检测%Pre-treatment by sodium hydroxide forhydrolysis of wheat straw and analysis of the product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘沙沙; 李静梅; 吴颖; 石波; 梁平; OJOKOH Eromosele solomon

    2013-01-01

    通过研究氢氧化钠溶液预处理小麦秸秆浓度与β-葡聚糖酶对预处理后的小麦秸秆降解产物的关系,确定酶解小麦秸秆的最佳碱处理浓度,分析降解产物主要成分.将不同浓度碱处理的小麦秸秆用72%硫酸溶液酸解,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定酸降解产物中的葡萄糖及木糖含量,并进而推算出小麦秸秆中的纤维素及半纤维素含量,由纤维素、半纤维素含量及酶解转化率决定最佳碱处理条件;HPLC定性检测β-葡聚糖酶降解预处理后的小麦秸秆的主要降解产物 .结果表明,NaOH预处理小麦秸秆的最佳浓度为1%,处理后的小麦秸秆纤维素、半纤维素含量分别为44.13%、21.34%;β-葡聚糖酶降解小麦秸秆的主要产物为纤维二糖. 本研究为以小麦秸秆为原料酶解制备纤维寡糖提供了依据.%The aim of this study was to explore main components of wheat straw and to get optimum pretreatment method. The wheat straw was pretreated with NaOH of different concentrations and the enzymatic products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) to get an optimum concentration. Analysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses content and the rate of hydrolysis were also carried out. The result showed that optimum concentration of NaOH pretreatment was 1%,and the content of cellulose and hemicelluloses were 44.13% and 21.34% respectively. Cellbiose was seen to be the main enzymatic product of wheat straw. Findings obtained in this study could be recommended as refenrence for the production of cello-oligaaccharides hydrolysis by wheat straw with enzyme.

  2. Whole genome sequence of Clostridium bornimense strain M2/40 isolated from a lab-scale mesophilic two-phase biogas reactor digesting maize silage and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnke, Sarah; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Andreas

    2014-08-20

    The bacterium Clostridium bornimense M2/40 is a mesophilic, anaerobic bacterium isolated from a two-phase biogas reactor continuously fed with maize silage and 5% wheat straw. Grown on glucose, it produced H2, CO2, formiate, lactate and propionate as the main fermentation products, of which some compounds serve as substrates for methanogenic Archaea to form methane. Here, the whole genome sequence of the bacterium consisting of two circular replicons is reported. This genome information provides the basis for further studies addressing metabolic features of the isolate and its role in anaerobic biomass degradation.

  3. 百菌清对麦秸秆/PP复合材料耐腐蚀性能的影响%Effects of Chlorothalonil on Fungus Resistance of Wheat Straw/PP Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛娇; 何春霞; 侯人鸾; 刘军恒

    2013-01-01

    The effects of chlorothalonil as a fungicide on fungus resistance of wheat straw/PP composites were studied in this paper. Wheat straw/PP composites prepared with 5 different contents of chlorothalonil, were used in the experiment of fungus corrosion of composites with ASTMG21 -96 as the standard. Through the test, the mechanical property, water absorption, chromatic aberration, microstructure surface of wheat straw/PP composites were observed after corrosion. The results showed that compared with wheat straw/PP composites with no addition of chlorothalonil, if the content of chlorothalonil was 1. 25% , mechanical property of composites was better after fungus corrosion, the bending strength increased by 13. 71% , the bending modulus of elasticity increased by 54. 91% ,the tensile strength increased by 10.46% and the impact strength increased by 47. 53% , while water absorption ability and chromatic aberration were smallest, the bibulous rate reduced 23. 69% , the color difference value reduced 11.56.%研究了百菌清作为抗菌剂对麦秸秆/PP复合材料耐腐蚀性能的影响,制备5种百菌清含量的麦秸秆/PP复合材料,参照ASTMG21-96对复合材料进行腐蚀实验,并测试腐蚀后麦秸秆/PP复合材料的力学性能、吸水性能、色差以及表面微观结构.结果表明:百菌清添加量为1.25%时,腐蚀后麦秸秆/PP复合材料的综合性能较好,与不添加抗菌剂的复合材料相比,弯曲强度、弯曲弹性模量、拉伸强度、冲击强度分别提高了13.71%,54.91%,10.46%,47.53%,吸水192h的吸水率降低了23.69%,腐蚀前后色差值则减小了11.56.

  4. Nutritive Value and Chemical Treatment of Peanut Shell and Wheat Straw for Feeding Beef Cattle%花生壳和麦秸用于饲养肉牛的营养价值和化学处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高腾云; 王艳玲; 惠参军; 郭金玲; 唐桂芬

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the nutritive value of peanut s hell, wheat straw and the typical ration, analysis was conducted on the nutrient s of the roughage and ration, and determination was conducted on the digestion c oefficient of ration with 5 male beef cattles, evaluation was conducted on the r umen degradation rate of dry matter(DM), crude protein(CP) of the roughage and r ation with 3 cannulated goats an d nylon bag technique. The peanut shell and wheat straw were treated with ammoni ation method or complex chemical method. Compared with the untreated roughage, t he ammoniated or complex chemical treated roughage was used to feed the beef cat tle in different groups for 60 days. The result shows that the crude fiber conte nt of peanut shell is higher than that of wheat straw. Both peanut shell and whe at straw have low levels of crude protein, higher degradation rate of DM and low er degradation rate of CP. For the typical ration mainly composed of peanut shel l and wheat straw, the degradation rates are higher and stable for DM and CP, th e digestion coefficients of DM, CP and crude fiber(CF) are 44.60%, 61.88% and 30 .41% respecti vely. Ammoniation of peanut shell and wheat straw with 3.5% urea has a good effe ct on the beef cattle fattening. The effect of complex treatment with 3.5% and 4 % Ca(OH)2 is better than the simple ammoniation for peanut shell.%为了评定花生壳、麦秸和花生壳-麦秸型典型肉牛日粮的营养价值, 分析了粗饲料和日粮的营养成分,以3只瘤胃瘘管山羊和尼龙袋技术评价了粗饲料和日粮中 干物质和粗蛋白质的瘤胃降解率,以5头肉牛进行了日粮消化率测定;对花生壳和麦秸分别 进行氨化处理和综合化学处理,以不同组的肉牛进行60 d的饲养试验,比较氨化处理以及综合化学处理对粗饲料饲养效果的影响。结果表明,花生壳中粗纤维含量高于麦秸,花生壳和 麦秸中粗蛋白质含量低、干物质

  5. 秸秆还田条件下小麦耕作模式与施肥技术研究%Study on Wheat Tillage Model and Fertilizer Application under Straw Returning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣亭; 黄翊鹏; 朱长华; 袁圆圆; 刘佳

    2013-01-01

    在小麦高肥水地块,确定秸秆还田与不还田2种还田条件,免耕、深耕和两年旋耕一年深耕3种耕作方式,666.7m2施纯氮15、11、20 kg3个水平,通过区组优化,设计建立不还田免耕(BM)、还田免耕(HM)、还田深耕(HS)和还田综合(HZ)4种耕作模式,在每种耕作模式上进行纯氮3个水平的裂区试验.经过数据调查、统计分析和AHP层次比较,得出在秸秆还田条件下,实行深耕的耕作模式,666.7m2施纯氮15kg、钾肥(K20)5 kg、磷肥(P205)7 kg为最佳方案.%The experiment was conducted in the wheat field with high fertilizer and water supplies. Through block combination optimization of 2 conditions including straw returning and non - straw returning, 3 tillage models including no tillage, deep tillage and two - year rotary tillage plus one year deep tillage, and 3 fertilizer application levels including pure nitrogen fertilizer of 15, 11 and 20 kg per 666.7 m2, 4 experiment platforms were finally designed, namely as non - straw returning plus no - tillage (BM), straw returning plus no -tillage (HM), straw returning plus deep tillage (HS), and straw returning combination (HZ). Three fertilizer levels were done on each platform. Through data survey, statistical analysis and analytic hierarchy process ( AHP), the best scheme was obtained under the straw returning condition, applying deep tillage model with the application of 15 kg N, 5 kg K2O, and 7 kg P2O5 per 666.7m2.

  6. Feasibility Study of Wheat Straw as Raw Material to Produce Glycol%以小麦秸杆为原料生产乙二醇的可行性探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2012-01-01

    以小麦秸杆为原料生产乙二醇的可行性探索。通过系统分析和实验,各方面都得到很好的结果,预处理产率为99.5%、发酵产率为93.60%、秆转化总产率为29.50%;并且得到的乙二醇质量达到国家标准水平,属于合格产品。以小麦秸杆为原料生产乙二醇也是可行的。%Wheat straw as raw material, the feasibility of producing ethylene glycol was explored. Through systematic analysis and experiments, each respect obtained good effect, pretreatment yield for 99.5%, fermentation production rate for 93.60%, culm transformation for yield 29.50%. and the ethylene glycol quality met the national standards, belonged to the qualified products. So taking wheat straw as raw material to produce glycol was feasible.

  7. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  8. Effect of C/N Ratio Adjusted by Wheat Straw on Biogas Production from Pig Manure%小麦秸秆调节猪粪碳氮比对产沼气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 马忠明; 王文丽; 卢秉林; 赵旭

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟沼气发酵试验,笔者研究利用小麦秸秆调节猪粪碳氮比对沼气产气量的影响.结果表明:低温条件下,碳氮比为22(CK)的纯猪粪处理,产气速率最快,产气量最大,说明碳氮比为22的猪粪直接作为沼气的发酵原料最好;高温条件下,利用秸秆调节猪粪碳氮比为25的处理总产气量大,产气速率适中,有利于沼气稳定产气,避免高温条件下产气过量污染环境.%Through the simulation fermentation test, the author studied the biogas production of pig manure with adjusting of C/N ratio by adding of wheat straw. The result showed that, at low temperature (20℃ ) , the sole pig manure with C/N ratio of 22 produced the fastest biogas production speed and highest biogas production. At the higher temperature ( 30℃ ) , the C/N ratio of 25 adjusted by wheat straw had the highest total biogas production with the moderate gas production speed, which was in favour of the stability of biogas production.

  9. Ammoniated straw incorporation promoting straw decomposition and improving winter wheat yield and water use efficiency%氨化秸秆还田加快秸秆分解提高冬小麦产量和水分利用效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余坤; 冯浩; 赵英; 董勤各

    2015-01-01

    pests and diseases when crop straw is applied into soil, thereby negatively affecting the crop yield. An appropriate method may solve the problems above. The objectives of this study were to select an efficient straw incorporation method that could accelerate the decomposition rate of crop straw and promote the growth of winter wheat in semi-arid region of Shaanxi, China. To achieve these goals, a 3-year field experiment was carried out in the year of 2011-2014at the Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Area sponsored by Ministry of Education (34°18′N, 108°04′E), at Northwest A & F University. Using summer maize straw harvested last season, two control treatments were designed including long straw returning by covering soil (CK1), and long straw plowed into soil (CK2). In comparison, another two straw treatments were long-ammoniated straw plowed into soil (AS) and powdered-ammoniated straw plowed into soil (PAS). The straw decomposition rate, soil respiration, leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass of winter wheat were measured during different growth stage in the growing seasons of 2013-2014. Soil water of 0-100 cm depth during different growth stages and winter wheat yield under different treatments in the growing season of 2011-2014 were measured. Results showed that compared with the CK1 and CK2, the straw left in soils with the treatment AS was significantly (P0.05). The three-year mean water use efficiency (WUE) with AS and PAS was significantly(P<0.05) increased by 5.03% and 8.73%, respectively, compared with CK1, and by 5.13% and 8.83%, respectively, compared with CK2. And the three-year mean WUE of the treatment PAS was higher than that of the treatment AS. Comparably, the treatment of PAS was the best among the four treatments in accelerating the straw decomposition, promoting the growth of winter wheat, and increasing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency, which could be an effective straw incorporation measure for

  10. Evaluation on the Nutritive Value of Wheat Straw Silage Using Gas Production Technique in vitro%利用体外产气法评价微贮小麦秸秆营养价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宇哲; 吴克选; 张晓卫; 张艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to increase the utilization ratio of wheat straw in Qinghai Province. [ Method] Wheat straw was used as materials for silage. pH, the contents of crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) , ether extract (EE) and water in wheat straw at different silage time were determined. The effects of silage time on the quality of wheat straw were studied and its was evaluated by using gas production technique in vitro. [Result] pH in each test group gradually decreased with the silage time,which was all significantly lower than that in control group(P 0.05). Water content in test groups decreased with the silage time. With the silage time,net gas production gradually increased,dry matter degradability, organic matter degradability,digestible energy and metabolizable energy gradually increased. [Conclusion] Comprehensively considered,silaging wheat straw for 22 d could meet the production demands.%[目的]提高青海省小麦秸秆的利用率.[方法]采用小麦秸秆为原料进行微贮,测定不同微贮时间小麦秸秆的pH、粗蛋白(CP)、粗纤维(CF)、粗脂肪(EE)、水分(H2O)含量,研究微贮时间对小麦秸秆品质的影响,并利用体外产气技术对其进行评价.[结果]各试验组pH随微贮时间的增加逐渐减小,均极显著低于对照组(P<0.01).试验组CP随微贮时间的增加而升高,均高于对照组.试验组CF含量随微贮时间增加而降低,均极显著低于对照组(P<0.01).试验组EE含量随微贮时间呈逐渐递增的趋势,均高于对照组,但与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).试验组水分含量随微贮时间增加而降低.随微贮时间的增加,净产气量逐渐上升、干物质降解率(DM)和有机物质降解率(OMD)、消化能(DE)和代谢能(ME)逐渐升高.[结论]综合考虑,小麦秸秆微贮22 d即可满足生产需求.

  11. Nitrogen fixation associated with development and localization of mixed populations of Cellulomonas species and Azospirillium brasilense grown on cellulose or wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Goodchild, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas sp. and Azospirillum brasilense were grown with straw or cellulose as the carbon source under conditions favoring the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Rapid increases in cell numbers, up to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate, were evident after 4 and 5 days of incubation at 30 degrees C for cellulose and straw, respectively. Nitrogen fixation (detected by acetylene reduction measured on parallel cultures) commenced after 2 and 4 days of incubation for straw and cellulose, respectively, and continued for the duration of the experiment. Pure cultures of Cellulomonas sp. showed an increase in cell numbers, but CO/sub 2/ production was low, and acetylene reduction was not detected on either cellulose or straw. Pure cultures of A. brasilense on cellulose showed an inital increase in cell numbers (10/sup 7/ cells per g of substrate) over 4 days, followed by a decline presumably caused by the exhaustion of available carbon substrate. On straw, A. brasilense increased to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate over 5 days and then declined slowly; this growth was accompanied by acetylene reduction. Scanning electron micrographs of straw incubated with a mixture under the above conditions for 8 days showed cells of both species in close proximity to each other. Evidence was furnished that the close spatial relatioship of cells from the two species facilitated the mutally beneficial association between them and thus increased the efficiency with which the products of straw breakdown were used for nitrogen fixation. 17 references.

  12. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  13. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  14. Kinetics of wheat straw solid-state fermentation with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus - lignin and polysaccharide alteration and production of related enzymatic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valmaseda, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Martinez, A.T. (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro des Investigaciones Biologicas)

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of straw solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to characterize the delignification processes by these white-rot fungi. Two sucessive phases could be defined during straw transformation, characterized by changes in respiratory activity, changes in lignin and polysaccharide content and composition, increase in in-vitro digestibility, and enzymatic activities produced by the fungi. Lignin composition was analysed after CuO alkaline degradation, and decreases in syringyl/guaiacyl and syringyl/p-hydroxyphenyl ratios and cinnamic acid content were observed during the fungal treatment. An increase in the phenolic acid yield, revealing fungal degradation of sidechains in lignin, was produced by P. ostreatus. The highest xylanase level was produced by P. ostreatus, and exocellulase activity was nearly absent from straw treated with this fungus. Laccase activity was found in straw treated with both fungi, but lignin peroxidase was only detected during the initial phase of straw transformation with T. versicolor. High levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-producing acryl-alcohol oxidase occurred throughout the straw SSF with P. ostreatus. (orig.).

  15. 自由空域对猪粪麦秸好氧堆肥的影响实验分析%Effects Analysis of Free Airspace to Pig Slurry Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting in Laboratory Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2011-01-01

    为研究不同水平自由空域(Fas)对堆肥效果的影响,利用实验室小型反应器进行了好氧堆肥试验,使用等量猪粪分别与等量不同粒径(0~1 cm、2~5 cm和7 cm)麦秸按照质量比1∶0.086混合获得不同Fas水平(56.70%、62.67%和68.36%),利用温度传感器、氧浓度传感器动态监测堆肥过程中温度和氧气体积分数的变化,研究分析了堆肥始末含水率和挥发性固体(VS)含量的变化,并基于Matlab平台建立了基于温度、氧气体积分数等多因素Monod形式的VS降解动力学模型.试验结果表明:等量猪粪与等量麦秸混合堆肥,麦秸粒径产生的Fas差异对堆肥过程影响显著;所建立的基于温度、氧气体积分数等多因素Monod形式VS降解动力学模型模拟结果与实际测量结果一致.%To study the effects of different initial free airspaces (Fas) on pig slurry-wheat straw reactor scale composting, three levels of Fas (56. 70% ,62. 67% ,68. 36% ) were obtained by mixing pig slurry and wheat straw with the same mass ratio (1:0. 086) but in different wheat straw sizes (0 ~1 cm, 2 -5 cm, 7 cm). Oxygen concentration and temperature were monitored by sensors during the whole composting period, while moisture and volatile solid (VS) content were checked by chemical analysis method at the end of composting. In addition, a Monod form model was employed to simulate VS content during composting period. According to the results of composting test, changes of oxygen concentration, temperature, moisture and VS based on different initial Fas levels were respectively clearly different; effects of bulking agent sizes on mixture structure were apparent.

  16. Shear strength and failure form of lime-soil reinforced with wheat straw%麦秸秆加筋石灰土的抗剪强度及剪切破坏形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 柴寿喜; 杜红普; 魏丽; 石茜

    2011-01-01

    选取整体均匀布筋、上部均匀布筋和下部均匀布筋3种布筋位置,借助三轴压缩实验,研究布筋位置对麦秸秆加筋石灰土抗剪强度的影响及3种布筋位置加筋土的破坏形式.结果表明,布筋位置主要影响土的黏聚力,对内摩擦角的影响较小,适宜的麦秸秆布筋方式可有效提高土的黏聚力;石灰土呈脆性破坏,3种布筋位置的麦秸秆加筋石灰土的破坏均在未加筋区域产生,加筋部位土的变形较小;石灰土和麦秸秆加筋石灰土的破坏面倾角均符合Mohr-Coulomb破坏准则和SMP(spatial mobilization plane)破坏准则.借助麦秸秆的高抗拉性能、空间交织作用和筋土摩擦作用,可有效约束土的变形,提高土的强度.%The reinforcement effect and strength of reinforced soil depending on a suitable reinforced position and triaxial shear test for reinforced lime-soil with wheat straw in three positions was carried out in this paper. First,reinforced position mainly affects the cohesion of reinforced soil, but has little influence on the internal friction angle; reasonable reinforced position plays an important role in improving strength of reinforced soil. Second, limesoil displays failure in brittle manner; failure of reinforced lime-soil is located in un-reinforced region; the deformation in reinforced region decreases. Third, shear angle of lime-soil and reinforced lime-soil with wheat straw conform to the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and SMP (spatial mobilization plane) failure criterion. By the function of high tensile strength, space interweaving and load-sharing of wheat straw, the strength and anti-deformation of reinforced soil is improved.

  17. 小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵制取燃料乙醇%Optimization of Processing Conditions for Bioethanol Production from Wheat Straw Through Simultaneously Saccharification and Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李文; 赵继东; 林燕; 彭兆城; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    利用酿酒酵母Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742对小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵(simultaneously saccharification and fermentation,SSF)生产燃料乙醇的条件进行了研究,系统考察和研究了温度、固体含量、纤维素酶投加量、酵母菌浓度对SSF过程中乙醇浓度和产率的影响,并对以上参数做了初步优化,以提高最终乙醇浓度和产率.结果表明,小麦秸秆同步糖化发酵乙醇的最优条件为:温度38℃,固体含量16.0%(m/V),纤维素酶投加量35FPU/g底物,酵母菌浓度8 g/L.在此条件下,NaOH预处理后的小麦经过120 h同步糖化发酵,乙醇浓度达到最大值,为38.32 g/L,产率达理论产率的71.71%,木糖浓度为12.94 g/L.%Experiments were carried out on the conditions of bioethanol production from wheat straw through simultaneously saccharification and fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742. The effects of temperature, solid content, enzymeloading and yeast concentration on concentration and yield of ethanol in the SSF processes were systematically investigated. These parameters were further optimized to increase the final concentration and yield of ethanol. The results showed that the optimum conditions for SSF of wheat straw were as follows: temperature 38℃ , solid content 16. 0% (w/v) , enzyme loading 35 FPU/g and substrate and yeast concentration 8 g/L. The maximum ethanol concentration reached 38. 32 g/L, which was equivalent to 71. 71% of the theoretical ethanol yield, with xylose concentration of 12. 94 g/L obtained after 120 h SSF of NaOH pretreated wheat straw under the optimized conditions.

  18. 麦草有机酸生物炼制的研究(I)--常压下复合有机酸与麦草的反应特性%Wheat Straw Biorefinery by Organic Acids (I)--Reaction Characteristics of Complex Organic Acids and Wheat Straw at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅瑜; 袁梅婷; 翟华敏

    2014-01-01

    Biorefinery process by organic acids is a potential way to utilize wheat straw effectively. The influences of reaction temperature and time on the dissolutions of the wheat straw chemical components in formic acid-acetic acid-water organic acids ( FAWOA) at atmospheric pressure were investigated in present study. The results indicated that the delignification process can be divided into three phases, namely a bulk phase, a complementary one and a residual one, with lignin removal by 37. 1%, 27.2% and 2. 50% respectively. The dissolution of pentosan also demonstrated as three stages, i. e. , a bulk one, a complementary one and a residual one, with the dissolution ratios of 50. 0%, 24. 9% and 3. 20% respectively. The removal of holocellulose, benzene-ethanol and ash can be divided into similar three phases as the removal of lignin and pentosan. The increasing trend of organic matter content in black liquor was similar to that of lignin and pentosan. However, only a slight variation of inorganic matter content was observed and represented a constant level at 2. 0 g/L in the biorefinery process.%研究了麦草在甲酸-乙酸-水复合有机酸( FAWOA)体系中于常压反应条件下,反应温度和时间对麦草各组分溶出规律的影响。结果表明:麦草在与复合有机酸反应过程中,脱木质素历程可以分为3个阶段:大量脱木质素阶段,补充脱木质素阶段和残余脱木质素阶段,各阶段木质素溶出分别为37.1%、27.2%和2.50%;戊聚糖的反应历程也分为3个阶段:戊聚糖大量反应阶段、补充反应阶段和少量反应阶段,各阶段戊聚糖溶出分别为50.0%、24.9%和3.20%;综纤维素、苯-乙醇抽出物和灰分的溶出呈现与脱木质素、戊聚糖溶出相似的趋势;黑液中有机物含量的增加趋势与木质素和戊聚糖溶出趋势相似,而无机物含量变化很小,基本维持在2.0 g/L左右。

  19. Effects of prepartum controlled-energy wheat straw and grass hay diets supplemented with starch or sugar on periparturient dairy cow performance and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, N B; da Silva, D N L; Hansen, W P; Davis, L; Emanuele, S; Blalock, H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of a forage source [wheat straw (WS) versus grass hay (GH)] prepartum and supplemental carbohydrate source [corn (dry feed; DF) versus molasses (liquid feed; LF)] on pre- and postpartum intake, digestibility, selective particle consumption, milk yield, and lipid metabolism. The objectives were to determine if forage or pre- and postpartum supplement alters periparturient intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Sixty (n=15) multiparous dairy cows were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare WS versus GH diets supplemented with either DF or LF. Dietary treatments were (1) WS prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (WSDF), 2) WS prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (WSLF), (3) GH prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (GHDF), and (4) GH prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (GHLF). Treatments began at dry-off, × before expected calving. During the prepartum phase, cows maintained dry matter intake (DMI) at 2.0% of body weight and prepartum energy balance remained positive for all treatments until calving. Prepartum GH diets had a more positive energy balance compared with WS diets. On week -5, energy balance was more positive for GHDF than for WSDF or GHLF. Energy balance for WSLF, however, was lower on week -3 and -1 than GHDF. Liquid feed decreased dry matter digestibility and increased prepartum liver triglyceride, serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and tended to increase β-hydroxybutyrate. After calving, LF decreased DMI and energy balance, but not yield of milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk, resulting in greater feed efficiency compared with DF. Forage did not affect postpartum DMI, but milk yield tended to be higher for WS versus GH. The DMI expressed as percentage of body weight was not affected by supplement or prepartum forage type. Cows fed WS had lower serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and tended to have a lower triglyceride to glycogen ratio postpartum than GH. Serum

  20. 小麦秸秆水浸提液对五种植物化感作用的研究%Allelopathy of wheat straw aqueous extract on five kinds of plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑曦; 杨茜茜; 李小花

    2016-01-01

    该文研究了不同浓度的小麦秸秆水浸提液对徐州地区2种玉米(郑单958和农大108)和3种常见玉米田间杂草(马唐、稗草和反枝苋)种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度分别大于75、50和25 g•L-1时,马唐、稗草和反枝苋种子的萌发受到显著的抑制;当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度分别大于50和37.5 g•L-1时,玉米郑单958和农大108种子的萌发受到显著的抑制;但当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度大于37.5 g•L-1时,马唐、稗草和反枝苋幼苗根和芽的生长均受到明显的抑制;当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度小于75 g•L-1时,玉米郑单958和农大108幼苗根与芽的生长受到明显的促进,且郑单958幼苗叶片中叶绿素的含量以及郑单958的POD酶活性均得到提高。该研究结果表明较高浓度的小麦秸秆浸提液(50 g•L-1)会抑制杂草的生长,有利于玉米郑单958的生长,为小麦秸秆还田和玉米田杂草的生态防治提供了理论基础。%An experiment was carried out to explore effects of wheat straw aqueous extract on the seed germination and seedling growth of two kinds of maize ( Zhengdan 958 and Nongda 108) , large crabgrass ( Digitaria sanguinalis) , barn-yard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) and redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus). The results showed that when the concentration of wheat straw aqueous extract was respective over 75, 50 and 37.5 g•L-1 , the seed germination rates of large crabgrass, barnyard grass and redroot amaranth were inhabited, while the concentration was over 50 and 37.5 g•L-1 , the seed germination rates of Zhengdan 958 and Nongda 108 were inhabited;but the root and shoot length of large crabgrass, barnyard grass and redroot amaranth decreased obviously when the extract concentration was over 37. 5 g•L-1;while the concentration of wheat straw aqueous extract was under 75 g•L-1 , the root and shoot length of these two kinds of maize

  1. Study on the absorption of ammonia nitrogen by using carbonized wheat straw%炭化小麦秸秆对水中氨氮吸附性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继义; 韩雪; 武英香; 徐春梅; 李金涛

    2012-01-01

    用直接炭化法制备了小麦秸秆吸附剂,并通过静态吸附试验研究了炭化小麦秸秆对氨氮的吸附性能和影响因素.结果表明:直接炭化法制备小麦秸秆吸附剂的最佳炭化温度为300℃;在试验的pH值范围内,pH=9时炭化小麦秸秆对氨氮的吸附去除最好;300℃时炭化小麦秸秆吸附不同质量浓度(ρ=30 mg/L、50 mg/L、100 mg/L)氨氮的动力学曲线符合准二级动力学模型,吸附常数k2分别为0.681 8g/(mg· min)、0.747 4 g/(mg· min)、1.025 0 g/(mg·min);直接炭化小麦秸秆吸附剂对氨氮吸附去除的最佳温度是30℃;不同温度下的吸附等温线可用Freundlich吸附等温方程进行拟合;由吸附热力学方程计算得到的等量吸附焓变△H>0,吸附自由能变△G<0,吸附熵变△S>0,表明炭化小麦秸秆对氨氮的吸附为吸热的和熵增加的自发过程,且属于物理吸附.%The present article is aimed at the study of the sewage treatment efficiency by using carbonized wheat straw. For this purpose , first of all, the article tested three important factors that may affect the absorption process, including the choice of the carbonization temperature, adsorption temperature, and the pH value. Secondly, we have worked out all the kinetic data respectively by means of pseudo-first-order equation, pseudo-second-order equation, Elovich equation and the intra-particle diffusion model. Thirdly, we have analyzed the equilibrium isotherms by using the Langmuir and the Fre-undlich. And, finally, calculation was done to race the free energy changes AC, the enthalpy changes AH and enthalpy changes AS via the thermodynamics equation. The experimental results indicate that the optimal temperature for direct carbonization proves to be 300 t . Within the scope of the pH value, the optimal pH value for the ammonia nitrogen adsorption tends to be 9, whereas the carbonized wheat straw can adsorb different mass concentration (p = 30 mg/L, SO mg

  2. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  3. Study on Impact of Modified Wheat Straw Fibers on PBS Composites Properties%改性小麦秸秆纤维对PBS复合材料性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强琪; 张敏; 徐丹; 邱建辉

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw fiber was treated by NaOH,on this basis,the Na 2 S 2 O 4 and coupling agents (KH550,KH560) were used to modify the fiber,then the wheat straw fiber/PBS composites were prepared through the blending with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS).The effects of addition of Na2S2O4,and modification of KH550 and KH560 after NaOH treatment on the properties of the straw fiber/PBS composites were studied.Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) ,X-ray diffraction and SEM were used to characterize and observe the modified fibers and composites before and after modification.The results indicated that the properties of the composite would be the best when the fiber was treated by NaOH-3% Na2S2O4,compared with KH550,the mechanical properties of composite modified by KH560 could been improved more effectively,and the properties would be the best when the addition of KH560 was 2%.%采用NaOH对小麦秸秆纤维进行处理,在此基础上使用蒸煮助剂Na2S2O4和偶联剂(KH550、KH560)改性秸秆纤维,并将其分别与聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)共混,制备了秸秆纤维/PBS复合材料.研究了NaOH处理中Na2S2O4的添加以及NaOH处理后KH550、KH560的改性对复合材料性能的影响.采用EDS、WXRD和SEM对改性前后的纤维及复合材料分别进行了分析和观测.研究结果表明:NaOH同3% Na2S2O4混合处理得到的复合材料的性能最好,KH560较KH550更能有效地改善复合材料的力学性能,当KH560质量分数为2%时,复合材料的力学性能最好.

  4. 麦秸与奶牛场废水高固体混合厌氧发酵产甲烷研究%Study on methane production of high-solid anaerobic co-digestion of wheat straw and cattle wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍习峰; 叶小梅; 陈广银; 常志州; 李玉春; 周立祥

    2012-01-01

    Effects of cattle wastewater on anaerobic digestion process of wheat straw and characteristics of digestion with different ratios of cattle wastewater and wheat straw were studied to promote biogas production.Four treatments with the ratio of wheat straw to cattle wastewater of 1 ∶4(T1),1 ∶3(T2),1 ∶2(T3) and control(the ratio of wheat straw to distilled water is 1 ∶4,T4) were designed.The results showed that,co-digested wheat straw with cattle wastewater was viable and gas phase was extended to two weeks,and there was no significant difference among the treatments.The biogas yield of wheat straw was influenced significantly by the initial total solid loading(TSL) of wheat straw and decreased with increasing initial TSL.The highest biogas yield of 0.41 L · g-1 TS of wheat straw was obtained with T1,which was 17.14% higher than that of T4.Hemi-cellulose content of wheat straw decreased significantly and cellulose content decreased slightly after anaerobic digestion.Content of lignin increased slightly,and there was no significant difference between different treatments.The results of FTIR and XRD indicated that the crystalline of cellulous of wheat straw increased after anaerobic digestion,and co-digestion promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulous of wheat straw.These results suggested that co-digestion of wheat straw and cattle wastewater with 1 ∶4 ratio(based on fresh weight) was beneficial to biotransformation in organic matter in wheat straw and biogas production.%在实验室条件下,以麦秸和奶牛场废水为原料,设计麦秸与奶牛场废水质量比1∶4(T1)、1∶3(T2)和1∶2(T3)以及对照(麦秸与水质量比1∶4(T4))4个处理,研究发酵过程中日产气量、甲烷含量、发酵前后麦秸理化特性和结构的变化.结果表明,奶牛场废水与麦秸在中温、高固体条件下,厌氧发酵可以正常进行,且产气期延长2周以上,对甲烷含量的影响不大;厌

  5. Influence of Wheat Straws and Corn Stalks on Composting of Cow and Sheep Manure%小麦、玉米秸秆与不同比例牛、羊粪堆置腐熟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田曦; 王晓巍; 刘明军; 张玉鑫

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different ratios of wheat straws (corn stalks) and cow (sheep) manure on the temperature,the pH in the composts and seed germination index. The results indicated that the effect of composts mixed with corn stalks was better than composts mixed with wheat stalks. The time of maintaining high temperature of composts mixed with corn stalk was 15 - 24 days longer than the composts mixed with wheat straw, and the time of maturity was shortened by about 3 d. The effect of fermentation from composts mixed with sheep manure was better than composts mixed cow manure. The treatment with the same ratios of the corn stalk and sheep manure by weight rose to above 50 ℃ on the third day, high temperature remained 22 days, the pH value was 8. 35 at the end of reaction, and the seed germination index exceeded 80% on the 30th day of fermetation.%采用小麦、玉米秸秆分别与牛、羊粪按不同比例进行高温堆肥,通过测定堆体温度、pH值、发芽指数等理化指标,研究不同物料配比对高温堆肥的影响.结果表明,添加玉米秸秆进行堆肥发酵的效果好于添加小麦秸秆,其高温持续时间较小麦秸秆处理长15~24 d,腐熟时间短3d左右.添加羊粪处理腐熟效果优于牛粪处理.综合分析可知,以玉米秸秆和羊粪质量1∶1配比效果最佳,堆肥升温快,第3天即达50℃以上,高温持续时间为22 d,反应结束时pH值为8.35,发酵第30天种子发芽指数即可达80%以上,达到了快速腐熟的目的.

  6. Effects of straw mulching and planting green manure on water use and nutrients uptake of winter wheat on dryland%旱地夏闲期秸秆覆盖和种植绿肥对冬小麦水分利用及养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富翠; 赵护兵; 王朝辉; 李小涵; 刘慧; 李可懿; 周玲

    2012-01-01

    以夏季裸地休闲为对照,研究了免耕条件下小麦秸秆覆盖和种植豆科绿肥及二者混合对旱地冬小麦产量、作物水分利用、氮磷钾养分吸收的影响.结果表明,秸秆覆盖和种植绿肥对冬小麦籽粒产量和生物量无影响,但秸秆覆盖作物耗水量较对照增加10 mm,种植绿肥则减少11mm,水分利用效率却无显著变化;夏闲期种植绿肥和秸秆覆盖+种植绿肥使小麦籽粒吸氮量分别降低6.0%和6.6%,差异显著,吸磷量降低5.9%和6.2%,籽粒吸钾量降低了7.9%和7.9%.可见,一年的秸秆覆盖和种植绿肥对冬小麦产量没有显著影响,但秸秆覆盖使小麦生育期耗水量增加而种植绿肥使之降低,种植绿肥和秸秆覆盖+种植绿肥使小麦对氮磷钾养分吸收有所降低.%With bare fallow in summer as control, field experiments were carried out to study effects of wheat straw mulching, green manure planting and their mixture under no-tillage on grain yield, water use efficiency and uptake of ni-trogen (N) , phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) of winter wheat in dryland areas. The obtained results showed that straw mulching and green manure planting had no significant effect on the winter wheat yield and biomass. Compared with the control, straw mulching increased water consumption of wheat by 10 mm while planting green manure decreased it by 11 mm. However, straw mulching and planting green manure had no significant effect on water use efficiency. Additionally, planting green manure and straw mulching plus planting green manure in summer fallow period significantly declined nu-trient uptake by winter wheat with N by 6.0% and6.6%, P uptake by 5.9 % and6.2%, and K uptake by 7.9 % and 7.9% , respectively. Consequently, one-year straw mulching and green manure planting had no obvious effect on winter wheat yield, however, straw mulching increased water consumption of winter wheat while planting green manure de-creased it. Planting green

  7. The effect of a combined biological and thermo-mechanical pretreatment of wheat straw on energy yields in coupled ethanol and methane generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Blomqvist, Johanna; Lizasoain, Javier; Klietz, Lena; Potthast, Antje; Horn, Svein Jarle; Nilsen, Paal J; Gronauer, Andreas; Passoth, Volkmar; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol and biogas are energy carriers that could contribute to a future energy system independent of fossil fuels. Straw is a favorable bioenergy substrate as it does not compete with food or feed production. As straw is very resistant to microbial degradation, it requires a pretreatment to insure efficient conversion to ethanol and/or methane. This study investigates the effect of combining biological pretreatment and steam explosion on ethanol and methane yields in order to improve the coupled generation process. Results show that the temperature of the steam explosion pretreatment has a particularly strong effect on possible ethanol yields, whereas combination with the biological pretreatment showed no difference in overall energy yield. The highest overall energy output was found to be 10.86 MJ kg VS(-1) using a combined biological and steam explosion pretreatment at a temperature of 200°C.

  8. “洁区播种”思路下麦茬全秸秆覆盖地花生免耕播种机研制%Development and experiment of peanut no-till planter under full wheat straw mulching based on “clean area planting”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾峰玮; 胡志超; 陈有庆; 吴峰

    2016-01-01

    针对黄淮海花生主产区常规机播多种机具多次下田、生产成本高问题,以及传统免耕播种不适宜全秸秆覆盖地作业,存在缠绕壅堵、架种、晾种问题,研制了基于“洁区播种”思路的麦茬全秸秆覆盖地花生免耕播种机。该机配套75 kW 以上拖拉机,作业幅宽2400 mm,可一次完成碎秸清秸、苗床整理、施肥播种、均匀覆秸,整个施肥、播种、覆土作业在无秸秆影响、相对“洁净”的区域内完成,纯生产率大于0.53 hm2/h,适宜麦收后秸秆未作任何处理的全秸秆覆盖地。田间试验及测产表明,该机作业顺畅、可靠、播种质量高,作业后麦秸秆平均长度115 mm,秸秆覆盖均匀率83%,播种施肥平均深度分别为46和59 mm,合格率分别达到98%和89%,每公顷产量约为5749.5 kg,各项作业指标均符合主产区花生生产要求。该研究提出的“洁区播种”思路亦可实现全秸秆覆盖地免耕播种小麦、玉米、大豆等不同旱地作物,为推进机械化秸秆禁烧提供了适宜装备。%Huang-Huai-Hai region is the main production area of peanut, where currently exist some outstanding problems, such as multiple operations of multiple machines in routine machine sowing work, high production cost, high energy and time consumption, and missing farming season. In addition, the traditional way of no-till seeding is not fit for peanut no-till seeding under the coverage of the wheat straw, and 3 major technical problems exist: soil-buried parts of machine are blocked with grass, which can’t guarantee the smooth operation; the seeds may be planted on the wheat straw, causing the seeds are above the soil and not into the soil; soil-covering is unreliable, causing the seeds are not covered by soil. In this paper, a no-till peanut planter under the coverage of the wheat straw based on "cleaned area seeding" was developed. Firstly, smash the wheat straw on the surface

  9. Effects of no-tillage plus inter-planting and remaining straw on the field on cropland eco-environment and wheat growth%免耕套种与秸秆还田对农田生态环境及小麦生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世平; 张洪程; 戴其根; 霍中洋; 许轲; 阮慧芳

    2005-01-01

    The studies showed that under no-tillage plus inter-planting rice and wheat, the height nf rice stubble remained on the field significantly affected light transmission rate, with an optimal height of 20 - 30 cm. No-tillage and straw-remaining decreased soil temperature at noon in sunny days, but slightly increased it in the morning and evening, led to a less diurnal difference of soil temperature. The average diurnal .soil temperature under no-tillage was higher in cloudy but lower in sunny days. Under no-tillage and straw-remaining, both the bulk density and the penetration resistance of topsoil increased, but no apparent adverse effect of them was observed on wheat growth. Under no-tillage, soil water content was higher under drought condition, and soil permeability after irrigation was better, which was propitious to the wheat growth. Straw-remaining significantly inhibited weeds, but led to the decrease of basic seedlings and enhanced the damage of freezing. Under no tillage plus inter-planting,the individuals of effective ears decreased, while the kilo-grain weight increased. The grain yield was slightly but not significantly low under no-tillage plus inter-planting.

  10. 秸秆与缓释肥配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响%Effects of Application of Controlled-release Fertilizer Combined with Wheat Straw on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会峰; 周胜; 付子轼; 陈桂发; 邹国燕; 宋祥甫

    2015-01-01

    The effects of application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency were studied in this paper ,with Huayou 14(Oryza sativa L.) as material. The results showed that application of controlled-release fer-tilizer combined with wheat straw clearly increased rice yield by 13.4%~17.8%, mainly due to the increases of effective panicles and 1000-grain weight compared to common chemical fertilizer application. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw could also enhance rice straw biomass, nitrogen content in grain and straw, which led to a significantly higher nitrogen use efficiency(71.6%~77.6%) compared to common chemical fertilizer application(28.7%~40.2%). Controlled-release fertilizer was ap-plied only once, and as base fertilizer, would effectively save labor costs. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw increased rice yield, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, saved labor costs, may have a promising future.%以花优14为材料,研究了秸秆与缓释尿素配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响。结果表明,秸秆与缓释肥配施处理较常规施肥处理有效穗数和千粒重明显增加,从而显著提高水稻产量,增幅达到13.4%~17.8%。秸秆与缓释肥配施能明显提高秸秆生物量、籽粒及秸秆含氮量,将氮素吸收利用率从28.7%~40.2%(常规施肥处理)提高到71.6%~77.6%。缓释肥作基肥一次性施入,可有效节省人力成本。秸秆与缓释肥配施能增加水稻产量,提高氮素吸收利用率,减少人力成本,具有很大的应用前景。

  11. Studies on Feeding Animals with Straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice 201

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-gui; CHEN Jun-chen; HUANG Qin-lou; ZHENG Kai-bin; YE Xin-fu; TU Jie-feng; CHEN Bing-huan

    2002-01-01

    The straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice (GSDUR) variety 201 of which the grain quality and yield were equivalent to that of common rice variety (the grain yield approximately 7.5 t ha-1 ), but straw protein content was 9.31% (common rice straw i.e. CK was approximately 4.0%), and other eight fodder indexes were better than CK to some extent, was employed to feed animals. 15 N tracing result suggested that the protein in 201 straw could be effectively transformed into fish body protein and white mouse body protein. The digestibility of fodder, the 15N recovery rate of animal body and the absorption of fodder protein were 13.8,9.6, 24. 49 % and 16.5, 6.0, 47.2 % higher than those of common rice straw respectively when feeding grass carp and white mice with 201 rice straw, whereas the 1s N recovery rates of animal manure were 3.25, 6.5 %lower than those of common rice straw, respectively. The results of feeding animals with 201 straw were as carp, fish weight gain per kg fresh rice straw were increased by 60.0, 16.8 and 37.0% respectively when 201fresh straw was used to feed grass carp compared to feeding CK, and fish yield could be increased by 297.5 kg creased by 33.9 and 26.8% respectively when 201 rice straw was used as the main raw material of the compound fodder to feed white geese compared to feeding CK, and geese weight could be increased by 2 358.0 kg powder substituting for wheat bran which made up of 5 % compound fodder to feed cross bred pigs compared to CK, but 0. 11 kg fine fodder could be saved when 1 kg cross bred pig weight was increased.

  12. 鸡粪与NaOH预处理麦秸联合厌氧发酵产气性能与协同效果研究%Performance and synergistic effect of anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and pretreated wheat straw with NaOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 袁海荣; 邹德勋; 朱保宁; 张良; 李兵; 冯亚君; 李秀金

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production and gynergistic effect on anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and pretreated wheat straw with 2% NaOH was studied.Three loadings were tested, which were made by mixing chicken manure with pretreated wheat straw at different ratios.Biogas yield of the chicken manure and wheat straw ratios of 1:2 was the optimal in the three loading rates, and their cumulative gas yield achieved 32 000 mL,43 030 mL,and 50 370 mL when corresponding loading was 50,65,80 g/L,and the gas yield achieved 328.2,356.9,352.8 mL/g and increased by 27%, 29%, 23% compared to pure chiken manure.The loading of the best biogas performance was 65 g/L in the chicken manure and wheat straw ratios of 1:2,and cumulative biogas yield increased by 7%~17.7% due to the synergistic effect of chicken manure and pretreated wheat straw.%试验研究了不同负荷下不同混合比例的鸡粪与NaOH预处理麦秸的厌氧发酵产气性能和协同作用效果.以鸡粪和2%NaOH预处理后的麦秸作为发酵原料,研究了混合物料在3种负荷和9种混合比例条件下的厌氧发酵产气情况.结果表明:在3种负荷(50,65,80 g/L)中,均是鸡粪和麦秸比例为1∶2时产气效果最佳,其累计产气量分别达到32000,43 030 mL和50 370mL;其TS产气率分别达到328.2,356.9,352.8 mL/g,比纯鸡粪相应负荷分别提高了 27%,29%,23%.不同比例下,3种负荷中,均是65 g/L时产气效果最好,鸡粪与麦秸的协同作用使累计产气量提高了7%~17.7%.

  13. Liquefaction of wheat straw catalyzed by acidic ionic liquid and analysis of liquefied products%酸性离子液体催化麦秸液化及其产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关倩; 蒋剑春; 徐俊明; 王奎; 冯君锋

    2016-01-01

    changed into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The report about producing levulinate from agriculture waste catalyzed by ionic liquids is rare. Therefore, we choose wheat straw as raw material and ionic liquids as catalyst in the liquefaction process. In this study, 1-methyl-3-(4-Sulfobutyl)-imidazolium hydrosulfate is synthesized and used as catalyst for the liquefaction of wheat straw in ethanol. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance carbon-13 spectrum (13C NMR), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TG) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterized the structure of ionic liquid and liquid products. The synthesized ionic liquid is confirmed to be 1-methyl-3-(4-Sulfobutyl)-imidazolium hydrosulfate. Results of the experiments show that the ionic liquid has the optimum catalytic properties for the liquefaction of wheat straw. Under the conditions that wheat the straw mass is 5 g, the mass fraction of catalyst is 26%, the reaction temperature is 200℃, and the reaction time is 60 min, a high conversion rate of 85.5% is obtained; under the conditions, the yield of ethyl levulinate is 9.97%, and the relative percentage content of ethyl levulinate is 29.9% in liquid products. The liquid products include aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, phenols and other oxygenated chemicals; among them, phenols are from the degradation of lignin mainly, and the other compounds are from the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose principally. The results can provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of low corrosive and environment-friendly catalysts, which will be used on liquefaction to prepare high grade chemicals.%为降低有机酸催化剂对设备的腐蚀,提高秸秆类生物质原料的利用率,该文以合成的1-甲基-3-(4-磺酸基丁基)咪唑硫酸氢盐离子液体为催化剂,乙醇为溶剂,考察小麦秸秆的液化过程,并对离子液体的结构进行傅里叶红外光谱和核磁共振表

  14. Co-cultivation of Trichoderma reesei RutC30 with three black Aspergillus strains facilitates efficient hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw and shows promises for on-site enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Marta; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette

    2014-10-01

    Co-cultivation of fungi may be an excellent system for on-site production of cellulolytic enzymes in a single bioreactor. Enzyme supernatants from mixed cultures of Trichoderma reesei RutC30, with either the novel Aspergillus saccharolyticus AP, Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010 or Aspergillus niger CBS 554.65 cultivated in solid-state fermentation were tested for avicelase, FPase, endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase activity as well as in hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw. Around 30% more avicelase activity was produced in co-cultivation of T. reesei and A. saccharolyticus than in T. reesei monoculture, suggesting synergistic interaction between those fungi. Fermentation broths of mixed cultures of T. reesei with different Aspergillus strains resulted in approx. 80% efficiency of hydrolysis which was comparable to results obtained using blended supernatants from parallel monocultures. This indicates that co-cultivation of T. reesei with A. saccharolyticus or A. carbonarius could be a competitive alternative for monoculture enzyme production and a cheaper alternative to commercial enzymes.

  15. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials.

  16. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  17. Effects of Maize Straw Mulching on Soil Physical Properties in Spring Wheat Fields%玉米秸秆覆盖对春小麦田土壤物理性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志贤; 文卿琳

    2012-01-01

    The field experiments were made to study the changes of soil temperature, bulk density and soil moisture content under the different mulching. The results showed that mulching and straw standing treatment dicrease soil bulk density compared with the check treatment. In sowing and tillering of spring wheat, the soil layer which the depth of 5 cm, mulching soil temperature is lowest, compared with conventional tillage low than 2.13℃ and 1.79℃; soil temperature of 15 cm was 2.36℃ and 1.90℃ lower on straw mulching than conventional tillage. Between the soil layers, the highest and lowest points of soil temperature delayed 3 hours with the deepening of soil layer. Water content of soil in the layers of 0~10 cm, the cover and pole treatment higher than conventional tillage,but in the layers of 10~20 cm, soil moisture of the cover and pole treatment lower than conventional tillage.%为了明确生物覆盖对塔里木盆地绿洲区土壤性能的影响,采用田间试验研究了玉米秸秆不同覆盖处理方式对土壤容重、温度及含水量的影响。结果表明,覆盖处理、立秆处理都较常规处理降低了土壤容重。在春小麦播种期和分蘖期,覆盖处理的5cm土层温度最低,较常规处理的分别低2.13℃和1.79℃;15 cm土层温度较常规处理的分别低2.36℃和1.90℃;土层加深10 cm土壤温度的最高点和最低点都延迟3 h出现。土壤含水量表现为0~10 cm土层立秆、覆盖处理的土壤含水量均较常规处理的高,而10~20 cm土层则表现为立秆、覆盖处理的土壤含水量均较常规处理的低。

  18. Wheat straw returned combined with nitrogen as base fertilizers and topdressing at tiller stage improving the tiller emergency, earbearing traits and yield for machine-transplanted superjaponica rice%麦秸还田配施基蘖氮肥提高机插超级粳稻分蘖成穗及产量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊瑞恒; 杭玉浩; 王强盛; 许国春; 刘欣; 武皞

    2015-01-01

    The tiller emergency and ear bearing traits of super rice have important influence on actual yield. With the transfer of rural labor and the integration of farming machine and agronomy, rice planting mechanization has become a dominated developing direction and key technology for modern agriculture in China. Rice-wheat rotation is the main mode in farming system of China, every year large amount of straw is produced by wheat planting, and the returning of straw has become the most direct and sustainable technical method to the comprehensive utilization of straw. The application of nitrogen is an important measure in improving rice yield, however, the unreasonable application is unfavorable for the growth of rice and the utilization efficiency of nitrogen. At present, the research about the tiller emergency and ear bearing traits of machine-transplanted super rice under the growing condition of straw returning and nitrogen management is still scare. In order to analyze the effects of different amount of returned wheat straw treatments and different ratio of basic and tiller nitrogen on tiller emergency, ear bearing and yield composition of machine-transplanted super rice, the experiment took the super rice Nanjing 9108 as experimental materials, and designed 5 treatments with different ratios of basic and tiller nitrogen and 3 treatments with different wheat straw returned amounts. Under the condition that the total nitrogen application amount was 300 kg/hm2 and the panicle nitrogen was 120 kg/hm2, the ratios of basic and tiller nitrogen were 0:180, 45:135, 90:90, 135:45 and 180 :0 respectively (unit: kg/hm2), and the amounts of the returned straw were 0, 3 000 and 6 000 kg/hm2. The study was done in a field plot experiment to survey the tiller traits and the yield composition at mature stage of machine-planted super rice in 2013 and 2014. The result showed that the tiller starting position of the primary tiller emergency for main stems of non-straw returned machine

  19. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower.

  20. 菌种添加量对生物预处理小麦秸秆厌氧发酵的影响%Effects of Supplement Dose of Microorganism in Biological Pretreatment of Wheat Straw on Its Characteristics of Anaerobic Digestion for Biogas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣厚; 吴晋锴; 武丽娟

    2012-01-01

    对小麦秸秆进行了氨-生物联合预处理,在实验室自制的小型厌氧发酵装置上,对预处理后的小麦秸秆进行了厌氧发酵制取沼气试验,探讨了氨-生物联合预处理中,菌种的添加量对小麦秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气的影响.结果表明,在氨预处理尿素溶液质量浓度为35 g/L,生物预处理pH值为4,黄孢原毛平革菌和里氏木霉的添加比例为1∶1(数量级为109)的条件下,小麦秸秆厌氧发酵过程中沼气总产气量最大,为7 968 mL,较空白组提高了23.11%.发酵过程终了pH值、VFA和甲烷的变化均在正常的范围内,甲烷最高体积分数为51.33%,较空白组提高了6.01%,整个发酵过程历时23 d.%Co-pretreatment of wheat straw by urea and microorganism was conducted. The effects of supplement dose of microorganism in biological pretreatment of wheat straw on its anaerobic digestion for biogas production were investigated by using a self-made anaerobic digestion device with pretreated wheat straw as raw materials. Results showed that the total yield of biogas reached the maximum of 7 968 mL, which was 23. 11% higher than the control, when the urea concentration, pH value of biological pretreatment and ratio of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to Trichoderma reesei added into the wheat straw were 35 g/L, 4, and 1:1, respectively. The values of VFA, CH4 and pH value were located in normal range. The maximum CH4 content was 51.33% , which was 6. 01% higher than that of control. The fermentation time was shortened to 23 d during the whole experiment.

  1. Effects of moisture resistance agent on moisture resistance and microstructure of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites%阻湿剂对麦秸秆/植物蛋白胶复合材料阻湿性能与微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨星星; 何春霞; 周颖

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of moisture resistance agents chlorinated paraffin and glycerol on the moisture resistance,microstructure and chemical structure of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites, composites added with two moisture resistance agents were prepared by hot pressing molding method.The mechani-cal properties,water and moisture absorption rate variation of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites were measured respectively,and the functional group variations were analyzed by FTIR.The wettability was ana-lyzed by testing contact angles,and the bending cross-section microstructure of the composites was observed by the stereo microscope.The results show that the maximum bending strength and bending elastic modulus of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites adding chlorinated paraffin increase by 67% and 129% respectively compared with those of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites without additive.The maximum impact strength of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites adding glycerol increases by 44% compared with that of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites without additive.The 2 h thickness swelling rate of water ab-sorption of the wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites adding chlorinated paraffin and glycerol are gener-ally smaller than that of composites without additive.With the moisture absorption time increasing,the moisture absorption rate of three composites increases,and the smallest rate of balanced moisture absorption of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites adding chlorinated paraffin is 4.3%.The bending cross-section microstructure of wheat straw/vegetable protein adhesive composites adding chlorinated paraffin is better than that of other com-posites,the inner surface is integrated tightly and the surface of the fiber is less exposed and the moisture resistance is the best.%为探讨阻湿剂氯化石蜡、甘油对麦秸秆/植物蛋白胶复

  2. The variability and causes of organic carbon retention ability of different agricultural straw types returned to soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yannan; Hu, Yu; Wu, Jihua; Fu, Xiaohua; Le, Yiquan

    2017-03-01

    Retaining the organic carbon (C) content of agricultural straw when returned to soil is restricted by rapid decomposition. In order to clarify the difference in returned straw decomposition and the causes, and to develop a straw returning mode with high-efficiency of organic C accumulation, the decomposition processes of corn, soybean, rice and wheat straws were systematically studied in fields. When returned in situ (the original planting area), the C in soybean straw was decomposed most quickly with a decomposition constant of 0.00542 d(-1), but wheat straw showed a longer retention in soil with 0.00303 d(-1). However, for ex situ return of all straw in one area away from in situ return, soybean straw was decomposed most slowly (0.00452 d(-1)) and wheat straw more quickly (0.00652 d(-1)). The sequence of C decomposition rate in 270 d was soybean > corn > rice > wheat (in situ) and corn > wheat > rice > soybean (ex situ). Both surrounding soil and straw nature were important factors influencing the decomposition rate. The farmland with rice and wheat rotation retained more C from returned straws due to its high moisture and low nitrogen (N) content, while the soybean field was a contrast. Soybean straw had a low decomposition rate after ex situ return due to its low N content and high C/N ratio. The farmland of wheat-rice rotation combined with soybean straw ex situ return may develop into a field of higher C retention ability.

  3. 不同秸秆还田年限对稻麦轮作系统温室气体排放的影响%Effects of years of straw return to soil on greenhouse gas emission in rice/wheat rotation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翰林; 吕卫光; 郑宪清; 李双喜; 王金庆; 张娟琴; 何七勇; 袁大伟; 顾晓君

    2015-01-01

    为揭示稻麦轮作系统不同秸秆还田年限下温室气体排放特征及减排调控机制,本研究采用大田小区试验,考察了稻麦轮作不同秸秆还田年限[空白对照(CK)、常规处理秸秆不还田(NT)、1年秸秆还田(SR1)和5年秸秆还田(SR5)]对CH4、CO2和N2O 3种温室气体排放规律的影响,同时测定了土壤固碳量,估算了秸秆焚烧产生的温室气体排放量,综合计算了4种处理对全球变暖的贡献。试验结果表明, SR1和SR5均显著提升CH4和CO2的排放通量,分别高出NT、CK处理73.52%、309.49%和13.29%、13.06%;同时显著降低N2O排放通量,较NT降低29.68%和42.55%;但SR1和SR5之间温室气体排放通量差异不显著;与NT相比, SR1和SR5可以显著提高土壤固碳量517.9%和709.03%, SR5土壤固碳量高出SR1达30.93%; NT秸秆焚烧产生的全球气温变暖贡献为9698.49 kg(CO2-eqv)·hm−2,比CK高126.98%。综合分析温室气体排放、土壤固碳以及秸秆焚烧3个因素, SR1全球升温贡献最低,显著低于NT 4.72%。短期全量秸秆还田有助于降低总体温室气体排放,长期进行秸秆还田后降低幅度会逐步减小。%AbstractCrop straw is the largest renewable resource on earth but it is often burned after crop harvest, resulting in loss of nutrients and environmental pollution. With current advocate for ecological agriculture, straw return to soil is the most important mode of reutilization of agricultural by-products. This mode is vigorously applied and promoted in rice/wheat rotation system. Research has shown that straw return to soil as a key mode of ecological agriculture affects many aspects of agricultural systems, including soil physical and chemical properties, carbon sequestration in soils, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Despite this, less research has focused on the effects of different years of straw return to soil on the contributions of agricultural systems to global warming. In this study, field

  4. Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

  5. Effects of changes in straw chemical properties and alkaline soils on bacterial communities engaged in straw decomposition at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhang, Congzhi; Feng, Youzhi; Chen, Lin; Yu, Zhenghong; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2016-02-26

    Differences in the composition of a bacterial community engaged in decomposing wheat straw in a fluvo-aquic soil at 15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C were identified using barcode pyrosequencing. Functional carbon groups in the decomposing wheat straw were evaluated by (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were more abundant, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were less abundant, at higher temperatures during the later stages of decomposition. Differences in the chemical properties of straw accounted for 19.3% of the variation in the community composition, whereas soil properties accounted for more (24.0%) and temperature, for less (7.4%). Carbon content of the soil microbial biomass and nitrogen content of straw were significantly correlated with the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The chemical properties of straw, especially the NCH/OCH3, alkyl O-C-O, and O-alkyl functional groups, exercised a significant effect on the composition of the bacterial community at different temperatures during decomposition-results that extend our understanding of bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of straw in agro-ecosystems and of the effects of temperature and chemical properties of the decomposing straw and soil on such communities.

  6. Building with Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  7. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  8. Effects of combined application of inorganic fertilizer with straw and pig slurry and their compost on wheat growth and nitrogen uptake%不同有机物及其堆肥与化肥配施对小麦生长及氮素吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁洁; 蒋益; 徐春淼; 沈其荣; 徐阳春

    2012-01-01

    Effects of combined application of inorganic fertilizer with straw, pig slurry, straw compost and pig slurry compost on wheat growth and nitrogen uptake were studied in paddy soils and gray alluvial soils. A pot experiment was carried out in paddy soils and gray alluvial soils in Yixing based on 15N isotope tracer. The results show that compared to the inorganic N fertilization treatments, the combined applications of organic and inorganic fertilizers increase wheat yields by 4.46%-24. 82% and 1.01%-20.53% in paddy soils and gray alluvial soils, respectively. Wheat yields under the combined applications of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost are higher than those of the combined applications of straw and pig slurry, respectively. The combined applications of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost stimulate N uptake and improve N accumulation of wheat. The treatments of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost have the highest ^15N recovery rates, while the ^15N recovery rates of the inorganic N fertilization the treatments are the lowest. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen under the combined application of straw and pig slurry is always higher than that under the combined application of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost during wheat growth season. At the tillering stage, soil mineral nitrogen under the inorganic N fertilization treatment is higher, and it is lower in the later growing stages. During the whole growing period, soil mineral nitrogen amounts under the combined applications of the straw compost and the pigslurry compost are higher than those under the combined applications of straw and slurry. In summary, the combined application of the composts and inorganic fertilizer is more conducive to improving crop yields and plant N uptake.%采用^15N示踪技术,选用水稻土和灰潮土在宜兴进行小麦盆栽试验,研究了稻草、猪粪及其堆肥与化肥配施对作物生长及氮素吸收的影响。结果表明,

  9. Effects of rice or wheat residue retention on the quality of milled japonica rice in a rice–wheat rotation system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfu; Hou; Yanfeng; Ding; Guofa; Zhang; Quan; Li; Shaohua; Wang; She; Tang; Zhenghui; Liu; Chengqiang; Ding; Ganghua; Li

    2015-01-01

    In rice–wheat rotation systems, crop straw is usually retained in the field at land preparation in every, or every other, season. We conducted a 3-year-6-season experiment in the middle–lower Yangtze River Valley to compare the grain qualities of rice under straw retained after single or double seasons per year. Four treatments were designed as: both wheat and rice straw retained(WR), only rice straw retained(R), only wheat straw retained(W), and no straw retained(CK). The varieties were Yangmai 16 wheat and Wuyunjing 23 japonica rice. The results showed contrasting effects of W and R on rice quality. Amylopectin content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of rice grain were significantly increased in W compared to the CK, whereas gelatinization temperature,setback viscosity, and protein content significantly decreased. In addition, the effect of WR on rice grain quality was similar to that of W, although soil fertility was enhanced in WR due to straw being retained in two cycles. The differences in protein and starch contents among the treatments might result from soil nitrogen supply. These results indicate that wheat straw retained in the field is more important for high rice quality than rice straw return, and straw from both seasons is recommended for positive effects on soil fertility.

  10. 激发式秸秆深还对土壤养分和冬小麦产量的影响%Effect of Straw Returning via Deep Burial Coupled with Application of Fertilizer as Primer on Soil Nutrients and Winter Wheat Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金花; 张丛志; 张佳宝

    2016-01-01

    针对目前黄淮海平原潮土区普遍实施的覆盖式秸秆还田所存在的主要问题,本研究提出了基于氮肥激发的秸秆深埋还田技术,并通过连续4年(2011—2014)的大田定位试验进行检验。系统比较了秸秆移除、秸秆覆盖还田、激发式秸秆深还(秸秆与无机氮肥或有机氮肥配施进行深埋,并于行间种植作物)的3种秸秆还田方式对土壤养分和冬小麦产量的影响。结果表明:激发式秸秆深还在各项土壤养分指标和冬小麦产量方面均有显著优势,该处理能够显著增加土壤有机质、微生物生物量碳、微生物生物量氮、土壤全氮和土壤硝态氮含量,并显著提升冬小麦产量。其中无机氮肥激发秸秆深还处理能显著增加土壤硝态氮含量和冬小麦有效穗数,从而显著提升冬小麦产量。而有机氮肥激发的秸秆深还处理主要通过提升土壤有机质,增加冬小麦千粒重来增加产量。所有处理中16%无机氮肥激发的秸秆深还冬小麦产量最高。%Currently,crop straw return via mulching is a practice extensively applied in the fluvo-aquic soil zone of the North China Plain,however,the straw returned via mulching is not readily decomposed and hence unable to raise soil fertility and crop yield instantly.Moreover,straw decomposition needs to consume soil N in competition with crop growth,thus making it hard for the two to share the limited N supply harmoniously. A technique of deep burial of straw coupled with application of inorganic or organic nitrogen as primer was presented in this paper,and a continuous four-year(2011—2014)field experiment was conducted to study effects of the technique on soil fertility and wheat yield. The experiment was designed to have 3 treatments in straw returning method,i.e.,Treatment NS(No straw returned),Treatment S(Straw returned via mulching,and Treatment IS(straw buried in deep furrows and then covered with crop

  11. 西北旱区碎麦秸垫式膜上灌对玉米出苗及产量的影响%Effects of irrigation on film by crushed wheat straw padding to the corn seedling and yield in Northwest Arid Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金霞; 贾生海; 成自勇

    2015-01-01

    针对西北旱区秸秆覆盖的生态适应性和地膜覆盖的残膜难回收问题,设置了覆盖方式和灌水定额两个主导因素,研究了碎麦秸垫式膜上灌对玉米出苗和产量的影响。覆盖方式设有四个水平:无覆盖(N),秸秆覆盖(S),地膜覆盖(F),碎麦秸垫膜覆盖(SF);灌水定额设有高(H,900 m3·hm -2)、中(M,750 m3·hm -2)、低(L,600 m3·hm -2)三个水平;结果表明:SF 明显提高了出苗率和产量,与 S 相比,出苗率提高了49.50%,子粒产量提高了4415.79 kg·hm -2,所以 SF 使解决秸秆覆盖在西北旱区的出苗低和产量低等问题有了可能。从产量方面来看,最佳组合为 FL、SFM,分别可将灌水定额降至 L(600 m3·hm -2)和 M(750 m3·hm -2)水平,这凸显了 SF 和 F 的节水增产效果。SF 中的碎麦秸有利于土膜剥离回收,解决了地膜覆盖中残膜难回收的环境问题。%Pointed at the practical problems about ecological adaptability by straw mulch and residual film difficult recovery by film mulch,set up two dominant factors as mulch mode and irrigation quota,researched the effects of irriga-tion on film by crushed wheat straw padding to corn seedling and yield.The mulch mode designed as four levels:Without mulch (N),straw mulch (S),plastic film mulch (F)and plastic film mulch by crushed wheat straw padding (SF).The irrigation quota designed as three levels:High (H,900 m3·hm -2),Middle (M,750 m3·hm -2),and Lower (L,600 m3·hm -2).The results showed that:The SF significantly increased the seedling emergence rate and yield,compared with S,the seedling emergence rate was increased 49.50% and the grain yield was increased 4 415 .79 kg·hm -2 .So the SF can be possible to solve the problem “Lower emergence rate and low yield”by straw mulch in Northwest Arid Re-gions,China.From the yield point of view,the best combinations were FL and SFM,which the

  12. Effects of NBPT urease inhibitor on ammonia volatilization in paddy fields with wheat straw application%添加脲酶抑制剂NBPT对麦秆还田稻田氨挥发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉净; 田玉华; 尹斌

    2012-01-01

    While ammonia volatilization is the main mode of nitrogen loss in paddy fields,urease inhibitors are known to effectively inhibit urease activity,delay urea hydrolysis and reduce ammonia emission.Urease inhibitors have,however,not been widely applied in paddy fields.In this study,the effects of NBPT urease inhibitor on the dynamic changes in urea hydrolysis and ammonia volatilization in wheat-straw incorporated gley paddy soils in Taihu Lake region were investigated via the dynamic chamber method.Results showed that ammonia volatilization mainly occurred during basal and tillering fertilization periods.While the highest ammonia volatilization was at basal fertilization stage,the lowest was at booting fertilization stage.Ammonia volatilization mainly occurred within three days after fertilization.Applying NBPT one day before fertilization significantly retarded urea hydrolysis,delayed occurring time and decreased value of NH+-N peak and reduced rate and amount of ammonia volatilization of surface water.After basal and tillering fertilization,urea hydrolysis ended within 2~3 days after fertilization,NH4+-N and ammonia volatilization peaks occurred on the second day under non-NBPT treatment.Peak values of NH/-N of basal and tillering fertilization were 132.3 mg·L-1 and 66.3 mg·L-1,respectively.Also ammonia volatilization peak values were 15.6 kg·hm-2·d-1 and 10.4 kg·hm-2·d-1,respectively.Under NBPT treatment,however,the peak of NH/-N occurred 4 days after fertilization after which it dropped to 70.7 mg·L--1 and then to 51.6 mg-L-1.After 4 days of fertilization,ammonia volatilization peak dropped to 4.7 kg·hm-2·d-1 and then to 2.6 kg-hm-2·d-1.Total ammonia volatilization dropped from 73.3 kg(N)hm-2 (24.4% of applied N) to 34.5 kg(N)-hm-2 (11.5% of applied N) after NBPT application,a drop of 53%.NBPT application in wheat-straw incorporated paddy fields significantly reduced ammo-nia volatilization by delaying urea hydrolysis.It was recommended that NBPT

  13. The effect of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar on soil quality and crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina;

    2016-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investig......Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and winter wheat, respectively, to assess the potential effects on the soil carbon pool, soil microorganisms, earthworms, soil chemical properties and crop yields. The application of GB did not increase the soil organic carbon...

  14. [Effect of straw-returning on the storage and distribution of different active fractions of soil organic carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hul; Wang, Xu-dong; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of straw mulching and returning on the storage of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral associated organic carbon (MOC), and their proportions to the total organic carbon (TOC) were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that compared to the treatment of wheat straw soil-returning (WR), the storage of TOC and MOC decreased by 4.1% and 9.7% respectively in 0-20 cm soil in the treatment with wheat straw mulching (WM), but the storage of DOC and POC increased by 207.7% and 11.9%, and TOC and POC increased significantly in 20-40 cm soil. Compared to the treatment with maize straw soil-returning (MR), the storage of TOC and MOC in the plough pan soil of the treatment with maize straw mulching (MM) increased by 13.6% and 14.6% , respectively. Compared to the WR-MR treatment, the storage of TOC and MOC in top soil (0-20 icm) significantly decreased by 8.5% and 10.3% respectively in WM-MM treatment. The storage of TOC, and POC in top soil was significantly higher in the treatments with maize straw soil-returning or mulching than that with wheat straw. Compared to the treatment without straw (CK), the storage of TOC in top soil increased by 5.2% to 18.0% in the treatments with straw returning or mulching in the six modes (WM, WR, MM, MR, WM-MM,WR-MR) (Pstraw mulching or returning in six modes. The storage of POC and POC/TOC ratio in WM and WM-MM treatments, MOC and MOC/TOC ratio in WR treatment, increased significantly in top soil. In the other three treatments with straw mulching and returning (MM, MR, WR-MR), the storage of POC and MOC increased significantly in top soil. These results suggested that straw mulching had the potential to accumulate active organic carbon fraction in soil, straw soil-returning had the potential to accumulate stable organic carbon fraction. Considering organic carbon sequestration in cropland in the region of Guanzhong plain, maize straw mulching or soil-returning was

  15. Impact of fungicides used for wheat treatment on button mushroom cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Jelena Vukojević; Mirjana Stajić; Dejana Kosanović; Emil Rekanović; Miloš Stepanović; Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields ...

  16. Methane emissions from rice fields under continuous straw return in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfu Hou; Ganghua Li; Shaohua Wang; Xin Jin; Yiming Yang; Xiaoting Chen; Chengqiang Ding

    2013-01-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China to study the influence of continuous wheat straw return during the rice season and continuous rice straw return in wheat on methane (CH4) emissions from rice fields in which,the rice-wheat rotation system is the most dominant planting pattern.The field experiment was initiated in October 2009 and has continued since the wheat-growing season of that year.The analyses for the present study were conducted in the second (2011) and third (2012) rice growing seasons.Four treatments,namely,the continuous return of wheat straw and rice straw in every season (WR),of rice straw but no wheat straw return (R),of wheat straw but no rice straw return (W) and a control with no straw return (CK),were laid out in a randomized split-plot design.The total seasonal CH4 emissions ranged from 107.4 to 491.7 kg/ha (2011) and 160.3 to 909.6 kg/ha (2012).The increase in CH4 emissions for treatments WR and W were 289% and 230% in the second year and 185% and 225% in the third year,respectively,in relation to CK.We observed less methane emissions in the treatment R than in CK by 14%-43%,but not statistically significant.Treatment R could increase rice productivity while no more CH4 emission occurs.The difference in the total CH4 emissions mainly related to a difference in the methane flux rate during the first 30-35 days after transplant in the rice growing season,which was caused by the amount of dissolved oxygen in paddy water and the amount of reducible soil materials.

  17. Effects of compound chemical treatment on dry matter and fiber degradation rate of wheat straw in rumen%复合化学处理对麦秸干物质和纤维瘤胃降解率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国强; 吕永艳; 崔海净; 蔡李逢

    2012-01-01

    To investigate effects of compound chemical treatment on dry matter( DM) and fiber degradation rate of wheat straw in rumen, urea and calcium hydroxide were added on the basis of straw air-dried matter with 2% , 3% and 4% respectively, a total of nine experimental groups, urea and calcium hydroxide added in groupl to group9 in turn were: 2% + 2% , 2% + 3% , 2% +4% , 3% +2% , 3% +3% , 3% +4% , 4% +2% , 4% +3% and4% + 4% ,the control(CK) group was the original wheat straw, DM and fiber degradation rate after 72 hours of different treatments for straw were measured by short-term artificial rumen technique. The results showed that: group 7, 8 and 9 were significantly higher than CK group and other experimental groups (P 0. 05) among group 7,8 and 9. Group 7 and 8 were significantly higher than CK group and other six experimental groups (P <0. 01) in neutral detergent fiber ( NDF) degradation rate after 72 hours, which was increased by 92. 06% , 82. 51 % respectively, and significantly higher than that of group 9 (P < 0. 05 ). Under this experimental condition, the treatment added with 4% urea and 2% calcium hydroxide of wheat straw air-dried matter was the most suitable compound chemical treatment.%为了研究复合化学处理对麦秸干物质和纤维瘤胃降解率的影响,本试验将尿素和氢氧化钙均按麦秸风干重2%,3%和4%的量分别添加,共9个试验组,各试验组尿素和氢氧化钙的添加量依次为1组2%+2%,2组2%+3%,3组2%+4%,4组3%+2%,5组3%+3%,6组3%+4%,7组4%+2%,8组4%+3%和9组4%+4%,对照组为原麦秸,通过短期人工瘤胃技术测定不同复合处理麦秸干物质和纤维的瘤胃72 h降解率.结果表明:7组,8组和9组三个组的干物质和酸性洗涤纤维瘤胃72 h降解率极显著高于对照组和其他试验组(P<0.01);干物质和酸性洗涤纤维瘤胃72 h降解率分别比对照组提高90.96%,85.24%,75.03%和139.38%,132.06%,130.94%;7组和8组

  18. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw by Using Response Surface Methodology%响应曲面法优化小麦秸秆纤维素酶水解条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张琦; 阮馨怡; 王欣泽; 孔海南; 林燕

    2015-01-01

    With an aim to optimize the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw,the parameters including solid content, enzyme loading,temperature,pH,and hydrolysis time were investigated by means of response surface methodology( RSM) with the reducing sugar(RS) yield as response value. The results showed that all the parameters had significant effects(p<0. 05) on the reducing sugar yield. A well fitted regression equation with R2 value of 0. 946 9,p<0. 05,coefficient variability(Cv) value of 4. 37%,and adequate precision value of 26. 396 indicated that the developed model was significant and could be used to navigate the designed space and predict the response. The predicted optimum conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were solid content of 8. 0%,enzyme loading of 35 FPU/g, temperature of 50 ℃, pH of 5. 4, and hydrolysis time of 96 h. The experimental results showed that under the optimum conditions the corresponding RS yield was 60. 73% with glucose and xylose concentrations of 31. 84 and 16. 74 g/L,respectively. Further,the results obtained in this research showed a high RS yield with high initial solid content,which would significantly improve the ethanol concentration,reduce the subsequently distillation costs,and improve the commercial potential of the lignocellulosic bioethanol production.%利用响应曲面试验设计方法( RSM),选择底物质量分数、酶投加量、温度、pH值及水解时间为试验因子,还原糖( RS)产率为响应值,考察小麦秸秆纤维素酶水解过程中各影响因子对还原糖产率的影响,对小麦秸秆纤维素酶水解条件进行优化。结果表明,所考察的5个影响因子对还原糖产率均具有显著影响(p <0.05)。所得回归方程 R2值为0.9469,p<0.05,变异系数(CV)值为4.37%,足够精度值为26.396,说明模型高度显著,可以在设计范围内对响应值进行预测。模型预测最佳水解条件为底物质量分数8.0%,酶投加量为35 FPU/g(以秸杆质量计),温度50

  19. Remediation of Wheat-Straw-Biochar on Petroleum-Polluted Soil%小麦秸秆生物炭对石油烃污染土壤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文英; 唐景春

    2014-01-01

    Biochar was made from wheat straw at 300℃for 3, 6, 8 hours respectively. The productivity, pH, ash content and C, H, N content of these biochar were compared. The surface morphology of the 300 ℃-6 h biochar was characterized, and it was used to remediate the petroleum-polluted soil of Dagang oil field. Results showed that, as the extension of pyrolisis time, the productivity of biochar decreased, pH increased, ash content increased, H/C decreased. But productivity, pH, ash content and H/C changed significantly from 3 h to 6 h, unsignifi-cantly from 6 h to 8 h. C content showed a downward trend after the first rise. After remediation of biochar for 14 and 28 days, the TPH degra-dation rate were 45.48%and 46.88%respectively, higher than control group. After 14 days remediation, content of naphthalene, acenaph-thene, Benzo [a] anthracene, chrysene, Benzo [b] fluoranthene, Benzo [k] fluoranthene, Benzo [a] pyrene, Indene and [1,2,3-CD] pyrene were decreased to various degrees, with the Benzo [a] pyrene content decreased by 98.18%, and the degradation rate of other PAH higher than con-trol group. After 28 days remediation however, content of these PAH showed a rising trend. It suggested that pyrolisis time had influence on biochar’s characteristics, and 300℃-6 h biochar could be used to remediate petroleum-polluted soil.%以小麦秸秆为原材料,在300℃下缺氧裂解3、6、8 h制备生物炭,比较了3种生物炭的产率、pH值、灰分以及C、H、N元素含量,表征了300℃、6 h生物炭的表面形态,并用其作为修复材料,对大港油田的石油污染土壤进行修复。结果表明,随裂解时间的延长,生物炭产率下降,pH值升高,灰分含量增加,H/C值下降,但产率、pH值、灰分和H/C值都是从3h到6h差异显著,6h到8h差异不显著。C元素含量先升高后下降。石油污染土壤经生物炭修复14 d和28 d后,总石油烃降解率分别为45.48%和46.88%,均

  20. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation Produção de xilitol em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de trigo: destoxificação do hidrolisado e fonte de carbono utilizada para o preparo do inóculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Canilha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds.Hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de trigo foi utilizado para a bioprodução de xilitol. O uso de meio contendo xilose para crescer o inóculo não favoreceu a produção de xilitol no hidrolisado, que foi submetido a um tratamento prévio de destoxificação com 2.5% de carvão ativo para remoção otimizada de compostos inibitórios.

  1. Straw in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

  2. 秸秆覆盖还田对稻麦轮作体系中土壤及作物甲基汞累积的影响%Effects of straw amendment on methylmercury accumulation in soil and crop plants under wheat-rice rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗娅; 王永杰; 舒瑞; 付芳婧; 吴永贵

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury(MeHg)accumulation in crop plants in Hg-contaminated areas. To investigate the possible influences of straw amendment on soil methylmercury levels and its accumulation in crop plants, mercury-contaminated paddy soil was collected from Wanshan mercury mine area and amended with 1%(W/W)crop straw(wheat or rice)in a wheat-rice rotation system. At different stages(e.g., seedling, tillering, jointing, flowering and harvesting)of plant growth, the soil and plant samples were collected and an-alyzed for MeHg. The results show that straw amendment could lead to a substantial increases in MeHg levels in both soils and plants. Soil MeHg increased by 127.1%under wheat-straw amendment and 25.1%under rice-straw amendment, respectively. This was possibly due to the different planting conditions. Correspondingly, MeHg levels in root, aboveground part and grain of wheat increased by 124.6%, 79.2%and 169%, respectively, compared to the control. Similarly, MeHg levels in root, aboveground part and grain of rice increased by 40.1%, 61.7% and 25.9%, respectively. Overall, there is a positive relationship between the crop plant MeHg levels and soil MeHg levels under wheat-rice rotation, indicating that straw amendment could increase soil MeHg levels and subsequently the MeHg accumulation in crops,which could enhance the potential risk of human exposure to MeHg in mercury-contaminated areas. These results suggest that it should be cautious when promoting straw amendment in mercury-contaminated areas.%以贵州万山汞矿区的汞污染稻田土为研究对象,采用盆栽模拟探究了小麦-水稻轮作情况下秸秆覆盖还田对土壤及小麦与水稻在重要生育期(出苗期、分蘖期、拔节期、扬花-灌浆期、乳熟-收获期)甲基汞累积的影响。结果表明:秸秆还田能提高土壤中甲基汞含量,且不同作物秸秆还田对土壤甲基汞及作物甲基汞的影响存在显著差别,其中,

  3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED OPTIONS OF STRAW USE DEPENDING ON HARVESTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz KUTA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest straw deserves particular attention among agricultural raw materials. It can be intended for sale, applied as litter material in animal husbandry or used in field fertilization. To a lesser extent it can be used for fodder production, covering mounds of roots and tubers and the production of insulation materials in horticulture and building construction. Using surplus straw directly for energy generation, including production of pellets and briquettes, should also be considered rational. Several applications were analyzed. The main purpose of the research is to determine the profitability level of winter wheat cultivation and of energy use of the straw obtained. Among others, they included situations in which obtained straw was used in the production of pellets, in fertilization after prior grinding and mixing with manure or used for direct sale. For our calculations, the costs/ha of wheat cultivation and then straw collection were estimated. The comparative analysis of various options of wheat straw utilization shows the highest profitability in the option of selling the straw and mineral fertilization.

  4. Response of Wheat to Tillage Plus Rice Residue and Nitrogen Management in Rice-Wheat System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Fazal Yazdan; Saleem Ud Din

    2014-01-01

    Zero tillage with residues retention and optimizing nitrogen fertilization are important strategies to improve soil quality and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system. Field experiments were conducted on silty clay soil (Hyperthermic, and Typic Torrilfuvents) in D. I. Khan, Pakistan, to explore the impact of six tillage methods (zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), ZT straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi, including tiller and rotavator), RT straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi, including disc plow, tiller, rotavator, and leveling operations), CT straw burnt (CTsb)) and ifve nitrogen rates, i.e., 0, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg ha-1 on wheat yield. Mean values for N revealed that spikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight (g), and grain yield (kg ha-1) were signiifcantly higher at 200 kg N ha-1 in both the years as well as mean over years than all other treatments. Mean values for tillage revealed that ZTsr produced highest number of spikes m-2 among tillage methods. However, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, and grain yield were higher in tillage methods with either straw retained/incorporated than tillage methods with straw burnt. Interaction effects were signiifcant in year 1 and in mean over years regarding spikes m-2, 1 000-grain weight, total soil organic matter (SOM), and total soil N (TSN). ZTsr produced the most spikes m-2 and 1 000-grain weight at 200 kg N ha-1. ZTsr also produced higher SOM and TSN at 200-250 kg N ha-1 at the end of 2 yr cropping. Thus ZTsr with 200 kg N ha-1 may be an optimum and sustainable approach to enhance wheat yield and soil quality in rice-wheat system.

  5. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  6. [Effects of different straw-returning regimes on soil organic carbon and carbon pool management index in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Wang, Shu-juan; Shi, Jiang-lan; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-04-01

    A four-year (2008-2012) field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different straw-returning regimes on soil total organic carbon (TOC), labile organic carbon (LOC) and the ratio of LOC to TOC (LOC/TOC) as well as TOC stock (SCS) and soil carbon pool management index (CPMI) in a farmland with maize-wheat double cropping system in Guanzhong Plain area, Shaanxi Province, China. The results indicated that soil TOC and LOC contents and SCS were significantly increased when wheat or maize straw was returned to field, and the increasing extent showed the rising order as follows: double straw-returning > single straw-returning > no straw-returning. Compared to no straw returning, a significant increase of TOC and LOC contents and SCS was found in the treatment of wheat straw chopping retention combined with maize straw chopping subsoiling retention (WC-MM), and CPMI of WC-MM was significantly higher than in the other treatments in 0-20 cm soil layer. Compared to no wheat straw returning, soil CPMIs in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer increased by 19.1% and 67.9% for the wheat straw chopping returning treatment, and by 22.6% and 32.4% for the maize straw chopping subsoiling treatment, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that soil CPMI was a more effective index reflecting the sequestration of soil organic carbon in 0-30 cm soil layer than the ratio of LOC to TOC. This study thus suggested that WC-MM regime is the best straw-returning regime for soil organic carbon sequestration.

  7. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  8. Effects of Wheat Straw Mulching Amount on the Quantity of Microorganisms in Different Tobacco Planting Soil%小麦秸秆覆盖量对不同植烟土壤微生物数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林云红; 查永丽; 毛昆明; 刘彦中

    2012-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different mulching amount of wheat (the mulching a-mount being 0,250,500,750 kilogram per 667 squarer meter as 4 treatments) on the quantity of microorganisms in different tobacco planting soil. Result showed that the quantity of bacteria, actinomycetes and cellulose - decomposing bacteria in rhizosphere soil of the upland and paddy increased with the amount of mulching. And the quantities of them reached biggest in treatment with mulching amount of 750 kilogram per 667 squarer meter after harvest, and were respectively 53. 03% , 47. 08% , 75. 72% and 63. 79% , 30. 27% , 69. 08% higher than contrast. The quantity of bacteria in rhizosphere soil of the upland in treatments with different mulching amount were 1.81 ~ 2. 13 times higher than that without mulching, actinomycetes and cellulose - decomposing bacteria were respectivelyl. 08 ~ 1. 89 and 1. 49 ~4. 1 times higher. The quantity of azotobacter were most in treatments with mulching amount of 500 kilogram per 667 squarer meter , and were significantly higher than contrast. There were no effects on the quantity of fungi with straw mulching. The quantity of bacteria in rhizosphere soil of the paddy in treatments with different mulching amount werel. 87 ~2. 76 times higher than that without mulching, actinomycetes and cellulose -decomposing bacteria were respectively 1. 12 ~ 1. 43 and 1.3 ~3. 39 times higher . The quantity of fungi and azotobacter were most in treatments with mulching amount of 500 kilogram per 667 squarer meter,, and were 2. 24 and 1. 60 times higher than contrast.%采用田间小区试验,研究了小麦秸秆覆盖量(覆盖量为0、250、500、750 kg/(667 m2)等4个处理)对不同植烟土壤微生物数量的影响.结果表明:覆盖量越大,地烟和田烟根际土壤细菌、放线菌和纤维分解菌的数量越大,覆盖量为750 kg/(667m2)时,采收后,地烟和田烟土壤中细菌、放线菌和纤维分解菌的数

  9. The effect of urea pretreatment on the formaldehyde emission and properties of straw particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hojat Hematabadi; Rabi Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    For manufacturing low-formaldehyde emission particleboard from wheat straw and urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins using urea treatment for indoor environments,we investigated the influence of urea treatment on the formaldehyde emission,physical and mechanical properties of the manufactured particleboard.Wheat straws were treated at three levels of urea concentration (5%,10%,15%) and 95℃ as holding temperature.Wheat straw particleboards were manufactured using hot press at 180℃ and 3 MPa with two types of UF adhesive (UF-45,UF-91).Then the formaldehyde emission values,physical properties and mechanical properties were considered.The results show that the formaldehyde emission value was decreased by increasing urea concentration.Furthermore,the results indicate that the specimens under urea treatment have better mechanical and physical properties compared with control specimens.Also specimens under urea treatment at 10% concentration and UF-91 type adhesive have the most optimum physical and mechanical strength.

  10. 秸秆覆盖对旱作冬小麦农田土壤呼吸、作物产量及经济-环境效益的影响%Effect of straw mulching on soil respiration, crop yield, economy-environment benefit in rainfed winter wheat fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂纯; 王俊; 官情; 刘文兆

    2013-01-01

    基于2009-2011年田间试验,研究了黄土旱塬区不同秸秆覆盖措施下冬小麦农田土壤呼吸和小麦产量变化,计算了生产每千克籽粒产量下土壤CO2的释放量,并以此比较了处理间的经济-环境效益值.试验包括4个处理:无覆盖对照(CK)、全年9000kg·hm-2秸秆覆盖(M9000)、全年4500 kg·hm-2秸秆覆盖(M4500)和夏闲期秸秆覆盖(SF).结果表明:冬小麦生育期内土壤CO2累积释放量在处理间无显著差异,但第1年生育期为14.92~17.43 t(CO2)·hm-2,显著高于第2年[12.95~13.69 t(CO2)·hm-2](P<0.05),处理和年份的交互作用不显著.与CK(产量5.03 t·hm-2)相比,秸秆覆盖降低了作物产量,其中M9000 (4.71 t·hm-2)与CK差异显著.经济-环境效益值计算结果显示,冬小麦生育期内生产每千克籽粒释放2.96~3.16 kg CO2,处理间无显著差异.从各处理平均值看,小麦产量以及经济-环境效益值均存在显著的年际差异,降水偏少的第1年度作物产量(4.60~4.98t·hm-2)显著低于降水相对丰富的第2年度(4.50~5.47 t·hm-2),但经济-环境效益值(3.03~3.69 kg·kg-1、2.45~2.88kg·kg-1)结果相反.处理和年份对作物产量和经济-环境效益值具有显著的交互影响,在缺水年份秸秆覆盖能够提高作物产量,M9000处理具有最优的经济-环境效益;而在丰水年份,秸秆覆盖导致产量显著下降,CK具有更好的经济-环境效益.%As a common cultivation pattern in the Loess Plateau,straw mulching has played a significant role in increasing grain yield,improving water use efficiency and regulating soil CO2 emission.A field experiment was conducted to measure the response of soil respiration and crop yield to different straw mulching treatments under winter wheat monoculture system in 2009-2011.Economy-environment benefit,calculated by soil CO2 emission per unit wheat yield,was also evaluated for each mulching treatment.The four treatments included the control (CK

  11. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    concentration in the recovered straw samples. After five months of decomposition, hyphal biomass was significantly lower in straw from plants grown at elevated CO2 (-30% and -13% in the fallow and wheat field, respectively). Bacterial biomass was not significantly affected by the CO2 induced changes...... in the litter quality, but the lower decomposition rate and fewer bacterial grazers in the straw from plants grown at elevated CO2 together indicate reduced microbial activity and turnover. Notwithstanding this, these data show that growth at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration results in slower...

  12. [Effects of different straw recycling and tillage methods on soil respiration and microbial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-sha; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ling; Feng, Yu-peng; Xu, Xu; Han, Hui-fang; Ning, Tang-yuan; Li, Zeng-jia

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage methods and straw recycling on soil respiration and microbial activity in summer maize field during the winter wheat and summer maize double cropping system, substrate induced respiration method and CO2 release method were used to determine soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, soil respiration, and microbial respiratory quotient. The experiment included 3 tillage methods during the winter wheat growing season, i.e., no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage. Each tillage method was companied with 2 straw management patterns, i.e., straw recycling and no straw. The results indicated that the conservation tillage methods and straw recycling mainly affected 0-10 cm soil layer. Straw recycling could significantly improve the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity, while decrease microbial respiratory quotient. Straw recycling could improve the soil respiration at both seedling stage and anthesis, however, it could reduce the soil respiration at filling stage, wax ripeness, and harvest stage. Under the same straw application, compared with conventional tillage, the soil respiration and microbial respiratory quotient in both subsoiling and no-tillage were reduced, while the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity were increased. During the summer maize growing season, soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity were increased in straw returning with conservation tillage, while the respiratory quotient was reduced. In 0-10 cm soil layer, compared with conventional tillage, straw recycling with subsoiling and no-tillage significantly increased soil microbial biomass carbon by 95.8% and 74.3%, and increased soil microbial activity by 97.1% and 74.2%, respectively.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on Yield and Nitrogen Utilization of Winter Wheat under Straw Returning Condition in Guanzhong Irrigation Area%关中灌区秸秆还田条件下施氮量对冬小麦产量及氮素利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海军; 祝飞华; 顾炽明; 郑险峰; 张向茹; 李有兵; 刘淼

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment with five treatments was conducted to study the nitrogen fertilization application rate of winter wheat in Guanzhong area under the straw returning condition, and winter wheat variety Xinong 979 served as material. The yield and the component factors of winter wheat, the nitrogen utilization rate, the contents of the nitrate nitrogen in the soil and the content of wheat protein under the different treatments were determined. With the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increasing, the grain yield of the wheat, biomass, 1 OOOgrain mass and the spike number per hectare climbed up and then declined. Grain yield, biomass and spike number per hectare reached its maximum under the treatment of N262.5, however, the maximum of 1 000-grain mass reached its maximum under the treatment of N175. Nitrogen recovery efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency decreased along with the increase of the nitrogen application rate, while the nitrogen harvest index showed the tendency by increasing then declining and reached the largest under the treatment of N175. Compared to the N0 treatment, the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in soil in the treatments N262.5 and N350 improved significantly after wheat harvest. The content of wheat protein increased significantly with the increasing of N applied in the range of 0 - 262. 5 kg/hm2. The optimum application rates of N fertilizer should be in the range of 175 - 262. 5 kg/hm2 considering the local technology level and the climate.%以西农979为供试材料,在秸秆还田条件下设置5个不同的冬小麦施氮水平进行田间试验,分析不同处理下冬小麦产量及产量构成因素、收获后土壤硝态氮以及冬小麦籽粒蛋白质含量.在秸秆还田条件下随施氮量的增加,冬小麦籽粒产量、生物学产量、有效穗数和千粒质量均呈先增后降趋势,籽粒产量、生物产量和公顷穗数在N262.5达到最大,千粒质量在N175达到最大.氮

  14. Cattle, straw and systems control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Straw is an important animal feed in many farming systems of the world. It can be fed in different ways, and for a variety of objectives. An analysis of the role of straw is therefore undertaken to explain the usefulness of straw feeding methods in different systems. Automatically this leads to the

  15. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity: A farm case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Imparato, Valentina; Krogh, Paul Henning; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Dolmer, Anders; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-15

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and winter wheat, respectively, to assess the potential effects on the soil carbon pool, soil microorganisms, earthworms, soil chemical properties and crop yields. The application of GB did not increase the soil organic carbon content significantly and had no effect on crop yields. The application of straw and GB had a positive effect on the populations of bacteria and protists, but no effect on earthworms. The high rate of GB increased soil exchangeable potassium content and soil pH indicating its potassium bioavailability and liming properties. These results suggest, that recycling GB into agricultural soils has the potential to be developed into a system combining bioenergy generation from agricultural residues and crop production, while maintaining soil quality. However, future studies should be undertaken to assess its long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate.

  16. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela, E-mail: coroirina@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Ana, E-mail: anagarlea@gmail.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Ţopa, Denis, E-mail: topadennis@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Jităreanu, Gerard, E-mail: gerardj@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  17. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  18. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    how Si influences cell wall composition in cereal straw and, consequently, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency. Considering the importance of Nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereal production, an additional objective was to elucidate the effect of N supply on Si concentration and cell wall...

  19. 不同温度下NaOH-绿氧联合预处理对麦秆厌氧发酵的影响%Effect of Pretreatments with NaOH-Green Oxygen at Different Temperatures on Anaerobic Digestion of Wheat Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎雪; 张彤; 邹书珍; 杨改河; 王晓娇; 韩新辉; 任广鑫

    2015-01-01

    Increasing gas production during straw digestion and reducing the environmental pollution are interesting to both agricultural waste utilization and environmental protection. Here we examined anaerobic digestion performance of wheat straw pretreated by combined 0.05%of Green Oxygen(GO)and different concentrations of NaOH at 3 temperatures, e.g. low temperature(15℃), medium temperature (35℃)and high temperature(55℃). The best pretreatment combinations were found to be 0.05%GO+3%NaOH(A3), 0.05%GO+2%NaOH(B2), and 0.05%GO+2%NaOH(C2)at 15℃, 35℃and 55℃, respectively. Compared with the control(no pretreatment), cumula-tive methane gas production increased by 86%, 93% and 87% for 0.05% GO+3% NaOH at 15 ℃, 0.05% GO+2% NaOH at 35 ℃, and 0.05%GO+2%NaOH at 55℃, respectively. A significant regression relationship was found between cumulative methane production and NaOH concentration at 35℃and 55℃. The scanning electron microscopy showed different degrees of destroy in the structure of cellulose after pretreatments. The structure of cellulose showed separation in thermophilic treatment. Therefore, pretreatments with NaOH-Green Oxygen have significantly stimulated the gas production of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion.%为减少秸秆预处理过程中NaOH的使用量,降低其环境影响,提高秸秆厌氧发酵产气量。采用NaOH和绿氧(GO)对小麦秸秆进行联合预处理,研究低温(15℃)、中温(35℃)、高温(55℃)三个温度下0.05%的绿氧(GO)和不同浓度NaOH组合预处理对秸秆成分、厌氧消化性能的影响。试验结果表明,15℃、35℃、55℃下,最佳的预处理组合分别为0.05%GO+3%NaOH、0.05%GO+2%NaOH、0.05%GO+2%NaOH,与对应温度下未经预处理组的效果相比,累积甲烷产气量分别提高了86%、93%、87%。并得到35℃、55℃下NaOH浓度和累积甲烷产量的显著性回归方程。NaOH和GO联合试剂

  20. The dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and gastric ulceration of pars oesophagea in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karin H; Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Haugegaard, Svend; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit B; Pedersen, Lene J; Canibe, Nuria

    2017-01-12

    The aim of the present study was (1) to determine the dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and oesophageal ulceration in pigs kept under typical Danish production conditions (18 pigs/pen, 0.7m(2)/pig, partly slatted floor, ad libitum access to feed), (2) to reveal whether straw ingestion explains the effect of straw provision on the stomach health and (3) to elucidate the effect of straw ingestion on the stomach conditions. Data were collected at slaughter (approximately 100kg body weight) on pigs provided with straw amounts in the range 10g to 500g wheat straw/pig/day from 30kg body weight and fed a wheat-based pelleted feed added 15% non-heated and non-pelleted rolled barley. Aims (1) and (2) included 712 pigs kept in 42 pens, whereas (3) was studied on a subset of 37 pigs with either none or obvious amounts of straw in the stomach. The amount of straw provided affected stomach health in a curvilinear manner. Provision of up to approximately 300gstraw/pig/day progressively decreased the risk of oesophageal ulceration and scarring. At larger amounts of straw the ulceroprotective effect of straw was reduced which requires further investigation. Straw ingestion appeared to be an essential intermediary factor for the improvement of stomach health. The number of pigs without straw in the stomach decreased linearly with the logarithm of the amount of straw provided, which explained the effect of straw provision on stomach health. The structure of the stomach contents increased as revealed by the increased weight and dry matter content and decreased sedimentation of the digesta. Provision of approximately 300gstraw/pig/day on the floor may be a potential strategy to reduce, but not inevitably eliminate, oesophageal ulceration in pigs in commercial pig production.

  1. Influence of different tillage, straw and nitrogen management on weeds biomass in winter wheat - summer maize rotation systems%不同耕作、秸秆及氮素管理措施对冬小麦-夏玉米轮作田杂草生物量影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛新胜; 刘美菊; 张宏彦; 李晓林

    2011-01-01

    农田杂草的发生受多种生产措施的影响,是造成作物减产的重要原因之一.本研究目的在于探索我国华北平原冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系下农田杂草对不同耕作、秸秆和氮管理的响应.研究结果发现:(1)夏玉米拔节期杂草种类和平均总生物量分别是冬小麦拔节期的1.25倍和6.66倍,因此,玉米季是轮作中农田杂草防治最主要季节,而马唐、打碗花、稗草等是杂草防治的主要对象.(2)不同管理措施对冬小麦季农田杂草生物量无显著影响.(3)夏玉米季,全免耕处理杂草平均生物量比半免耕处理高77.5%~99.4%.玉米拔节期,无小麦秸秆覆盖还田时,会促进翻耕杂草的发生.(4)夏玉米收获时,高氮水平(当季施氮量240 kg·hm-2)杂草平均生物量比低氮水平(当季施氮量120 kg·hm-2)显著低55.9%,耕作和氮效应的交互作用达显著水平,全免耕、低氮投入杂草生物量是半免耕、高氮投入的4.05倍,在翻耕条件下,高氮水平抑制杂草效果不显著.因此,华北平原区冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系应加强夏玉米季杂草的综合防治,利用秸秆覆盖还田抑制杂草的发生,也可通过优化氮素管理改善作物生长发育从而抑制杂草发生,其中在全免耕条件下,可通过适当增加氮素供应水平而减轻杂草的危害.%Weeds was one of the most important factors causing crop yield reduction, which were affected by multi-management in agricultural production. This research was conducted to explore the effects of the different tillage, crop straw and nitrogen (N) managements on weeds in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in North China Plain. The results suggested that; (1) The weeds grew critically in summer maize growing season with average weeds species and average total weeds biomass being 1. 25 and 6. 66 times separately at jointing stage of summer maize as many or much as that at the jointing stage of winter wheat. It would be a

  2. Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

    2002-09-01

    The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, Pcocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  4. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  5. Effects of Wheat Straw Returning Patterns on Characteristics of Dry Matter Accumulation, Distribution and Yield of Rotation Maize%小麦秸秆还田方式对轮作玉米干物质累积分配及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷文; 冯福学; 赵财; 于爱忠; 柴强; 胡发龙; 郭瑶

    2016-01-01

    Research on the response of dry matter accumulation, distribution and yield of crops to previous straw returning usually plays an important role for optimizing cropping systems. In this investigation, a field experiment was carried out in typical oasis irrigation region, to determine the characteristics of dry matter distribution and yield of rotated maize with four previous wheat straw treatments, including 25 cm no tillage with straw standing (NTSS); 25 cm no tillage with straw covering (NTS); 25 cm till-age with straw incorporation (TIS); and conventional tillage (CT). The results showed that, compraed with CT, NTSS, NTS, TIS significantly increased dry matter accumulation by an average of 4.8% to 12.7% after maize heading stage in two years; and im-proved contribution rate to grain yield (i.e. GCR) of maize by an average of 12.8% to 25.0% from leaf, 6.3% to 11.3% from stem, and 18.3% to 78.4% from sheath, respectively. Especially, NTS had more improvement than NTSS, TIS. The grain yield of maize was 11.3% to 17.5% higher in the three straw returning treatments than in CT check. NTS exhibited the most significant effect of improving yield, reaching 13470 and 13274 kg ha-1 in two study years, which was 5.6% to 9.0% higher than that of TIS due to the increase of kernel number per spike. Meanwhile, NTS had the best effect on increasing harvest index, which was increased by 6.4% to 8.4% during the two study years, and resulted in a high grain yield. Our results showed that NTS treatment is recom-mended as the best feasible cultural method to optimize dry matter accumulation, distribution and obtain high yield for rotated maize in the oasis irrigation region.%研究茬口对轮作作物的产量贡献及干物质积累与分配规律的影响,对于优化作物高产高效栽培理论和技术具有重要意义.本研究在甘肃河西绿洲灌区,通过田间试验,研究了前茬小麦不同秸秆还田方式(25 cm高茬收割免耕,NTSS;25 cm高

  6. The application of exogenous cellulase to improve soil fertility and plant growth due to acceleration of straw decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; He, Ming

    2010-05-01

    The effects of exogenous cellulase application on straw decomposition, soil fertility, and plant growth were investigated with nylon bag and pot experiments. Cellulase application promoted straw decomposition, and the decomposition rates of rice and wheat straw increased by 6.3-26.0% and 6.8-28.0%, respectively, in the nylon bag experiments. In pot experiments soil-available N and P contents, soil cellulase activity, and growth of rice seedlings increased. Soil respiration rate and microbial population were unaffected. Seventy Ug(-1) was the optimal cellulase concentration for plant growth. The exogenous cellulase persisted in soil for more than 100days. Although the data show that exogenous cellulase application can enhance soil fertility and plant growth in the short-term due to the acceleration of straw decomposition and has the potential to be an environment-friendly approach to manage straw, cellulase application to soil seems currently not economical.

  7. Estimation of emissions from field burning of crop