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Sample records for afco1 induce systemic

  1. In vitro study of protein release from AFCo1 and implications in mucosal immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Acevedo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1 (AFCo1 is a Proteoliposome-derived cochleate obtained from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. Transformation of proteoliposomes into AFCo1 potentiates the immune response on Neisseria antigens when it is administered by intranasal or intragastric (i.g routes. However, the i.n route has been demonstrated to be more effective. The aim of this work is to evaluate in vitro the protein release from AFCo1, in simulated gastric fluid (SGF or simulated nasal fluid (SNF using a microdissolution test and to provide support for the results found when AFCo1 was administered by i.g or i.n routes in BALB/c mice. Results showed that dilution of AFCo1 in simulated gastric fluid affects the delivery of Neisseria protein antigens because they were released from cochleate structures faster than when simulated nasal fluid was used. In conclusion, conditions simulating gastric environment affect the delivery of protein antigens from AFCo1 and this result could partially explain why i.n administration is more effective in vivo than i.g immunisation.

  2. Evaluación de la irritabilidad en mucosa del adyuvante AFCO1 por el método de HET-CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Batista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Los adyuvantes pueden producir irritación local en la mucosa y esto pudiera ser una limitación para su uso clínico. Para evaluar si el adyuvante vacunal AFCo1, un cocleato obtenido a partir del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis, produce irritación directa en la mucosa nasal, se estudió el efecto de su aplicación en la membrana corioalantoidea del embrión de pollo (MCA, por la técnica de HET-CAM (hen's egg test on chorioallantoic membrane, según el Protocolo 47 de INVITTOX, método alternativo que sustituye la clásica prueba de Draize en conejos. En este ensayo se utilizaron por cada producto a evaluar (AFCo1 o amortiguador fosfato salino como diluente tres huevos de gallinas White Leghorn de 10 días de embrionados; para los controles positivos de irritación (NaOH a 0,1 N y SDS al 1% se utilizaron dos huevos para cada uno. Los productos fueron aplicados en la MCA para evaluar las lesiones de lisis, hemorragia y coagulación, a los 5 min. Las sustancias se clasificaron según una escala establecida para productos no transparentes. Adicionalmente se realizó una evaluación microscópica de las MCA tratadas para confirmar las observaciones realizadas. Al determinar el grado de severidad de las tres reacciones, después de la aplicación de AFCo1 y del diluente, ambos clasifican como no irritantes, lo que evidencia que este cocleato no produce lesión epitelial directa. Este resultado, además, confirma la utilidad del HET-CAM para la determinación de irritabilidad nasal de adyuvantes vacunales.

  3. Evaluación citotóxica y genotóxica del adyuvante AFCo1 por el ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratón NMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Domínguez; Maibia Tamayo; Irela Y. Pérez; Hilario Salas; Oliver Pérez; Alexander Batista

    2016-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el potencial citogenotóxico en células espermáticas de ratón, del adyuvante AFCo1 (Adyuvante Finlay Cocleato 1), obtenido a partir del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B. El AFCo1 y su diluente se administraron por vía intranasal en una dosis de 40 µL (1 mg/mL), mientras que los controles positivo (ciclofosfamida) y negativo (agua destilada estéril), se administraron por vía oral a razón de 40 mg y 1 mL/kg, respectivamente. Se utilizaron ra...

  4. Evaluación citotóxica y genotóxica del adyuvante AFCo1 por el ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratón NMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el potencial citogenotóxico en células espermáticas de ratón, del adyuvante AFCo1 (Adyuvante Finlay Cocleato 1, obtenido a partir del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B. El AFCo1 y su diluente se administraron por vía intranasal en una dosis de 40 µL (1 mg/mL, mientras que los controles positivo (ciclofosfamida y negativo (agua destilada estéril, se administraron por vía oral a razón de 40 mg y 1 mL/kg, respectivamente. Se utilizaron ratones (NMRI de 8-12 semanas de edad, con peso corporal entre 27-30 g, a los cuales se les aplicaron cinco dosis con un intervalo de 24 h, durante los primeros cinco días del experimento. Se evaluó la toxicidad general (peso corporal e indicadores testiculares de citotoxicidad testicular (concentración espermática y genotoxicidad (morfología espermática. El AFCo1 y su diluente no provocaron toxicidad general, citotoxicidad, ni genotoxicidad. La ciclofosfamida sí produjo citotoxicidad (47,77% y genotoxicidad (534,61%. Se concluye que el AFCo1 y su diluente pueden ser considerados como no tóxicos para las células espermáticas en el nivel de dosis y para el biomodelo animal utilizado.

  5. Influencia de las vías de inmunización mucosales sobre la protección contra herpes simple tipo 2 con el AFCo1 como adyuvante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmir Cabrera1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas mucosales se han planteado como una estrategia prometedora para inducir protección mucosal. El virus herpes simple tipo 2 es uno de los patógenos más frecuentes en el humano transmitidos por vía sexual. Varios candidatos vacunales contra este patógeno se han evaluado, pero no han sido efectivos, por lo que aún no se cuenta con una vacuna profiláctica ni terapéutica. La gD2 es una glicoproteína recombinante y está reportada como uno de los antígenos de importancia vacunal contra este germen. Contamos con el cocleato derivado del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B (AFCo1 que ha mostrado capacidades adyuvantes por varias vías de inmunización. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la protección inducida en ratones por el AFCo1-gD2, administrada por diferentes vías mucosales. Se utilizaron ratones hembras C57BL6, los cuales fueron inmunizados por vía intranasal (IN, intravaginal (IVag o intrarrectal (IR con AFCo1-gD2 o gD2 sola. Se determinó la IgG anti gD2, la proliferación celular específica, la replicación viral en lavado vaginal, los signos de la enfermedad y la protección frente al reto viral. Se obtuvo respuestas significativas de IgG anti gD2 por todas las vías, aunque la IN mostró los valores más elevados. Se observó proliferación celular en células de animales inmunizados IN e IVag, pero no por vía IR. Se observó la mayor protección (100% en los animales inmunizados por vía IN. Se concluye que la vía nasal es la más prometedora en la inducción de protección contra este reto viral.

  6. In vitro study of protein release from AFCo1 and implications in mucosal immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Dopico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los anticuerpos aviares (IgY presentan algunas ventajas con relación a los anticuerpos IgG de mamíferos, debido a su fácil obtención y purificación y su bajo costo de producción. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la factibilidad de acoplar anticuerpos IgY a partículas de poliestireno y evaluar su desempeño en ensayos de látex-aglutinación en lámina. Para este propósito se utilizó como modelo la detección del antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B (HBsAg. Gallinas Leghorn se inmunizaron con el ingrediente farmacéutico activo que se utiliza en la elaboración de la vacuna recombinante cubana Heberbiovac-HB. Los anticuerpos obtenidos se purificaron y emplearon en la preparación de reactivos de látex-aglutinación (0,8 µm para la detección del HBsAg, los cuales se evaluaron con 50 muestras de suero frente a un reactivo comercial similar. Los resultados se evaluaron de satisfactorios. Se demostró la factibilidad de acoplar anticuerpos aviares a partículas de látex y se abre una perspectiva al empleo de este tipo de ensayo para el diagnóstico rápido de diversas enfermedades.

  7. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA; I. A. GRINEVA; T. L. SKAKUN; L. E. SADOVSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus) is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and ...

  8. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  9. Induced seismicity associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90-R1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baria, Roy [MIL-TECH UK Ltd., 62 Rosewood Way, West End, Woking, Surrey GU24 9PF (United Kingdom); Stark, Mitch [Calpine Corp., 10350 Socrates Mine Road, Middletown, CA 95461 (United States); Oates, Stephen [Shell International Exploration and Production, Kesslerpark 1, 2288-GS Rijswijk-ZH (Netherlands); Bommer, Julian [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Smith, Bill [Northern California Power Agency, Middletown, P.O. Box 663, Middletown, CA 95461 (United States); Asanuma, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) have the potential to make a significant contribution to the world energy inventory. One controversial issue associated with EGS, however, is the impact of induced seismicity or microseismicity, which has been the cause of delays and threatened cancellation of at least two EGS projects worldwide. Although microseismicity has in fact had few (or no) adverse physical effects on operations or on surrounding communities, there remains public concern over the amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. The primary objectives of this paper are to present an up-to-date review of what is already known about the seismicity induced during the creation and operation of EGS, and of the gaps in our knowledge that, once addressed, should lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events. Several case histories also illustrate a number of technical and public acceptance issues. We conclude that EGS-induced seismicity need not pose a threat to the development of geothermal energy resources if site selection is carried out properly, community issues are handled adequately and operators understand the underlying mechanisms causing the events. Induced seismicity could indeed prove beneficial, in that it can be used to monitor the effectiveness of EGS operations and shed light on geothermal reservoir processes. (author)

  10. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and poultry industries with high quality vegetable protein. It is used for biofuel production as well.Gibberellin preparation was isolated from liquid culture of strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca grown in 250 mL of M9 medium (48 h, 28 °C under darkroom conditions. Gibberellins were extracted according procedure described by Tien et al. (1979. Gibberellins concentration in the medium was determined by fluorometric method.Elicitor activity of bacterial metabolites – gibberellins – was analyzed in model system of artificial inoculation of oilseed rape germs with phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola. The elicitor action efficiency was evaluated on the 15th day of oilseed rape cultivation based on the percentage of leaf surface covered by necrotic lesions.Gibberellins were shown to induce systemic resistance resulted in decreasing of oil seed plants   vulnerability by 52.7%.It is known that under the unfavorable conditions plants synthesis the reactive oxygen intermediates   which activate destructive processes. One of the first organism reactions to stress action is the change of the lipid peroxidation level. It was shown that treatment of the soil with gibberellins resulted in decreasing of the lipid peroxidation level twofold.Gibberellins were shown to have a similar effect on permeability of cell membranes for free nucleotides. The permeability of cell membranes in leaves decreased 2.8-fold at room temperature. We suggest that gibberellins

  11. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest; Majer, Ernest L.; Baria, Roy; Stark, Mitch; Oates, Stephen; Bommer, Julian; Smith, Bill; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2006-09-26

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) offer the potential to significantly add to the world energy inventory. As with any development of new technology, some aspects of the technology has been accepted by the general public, but some have not yet been accepted and await further clarification before such acceptance is possible. One of the issues associated with EGS is the role of microseismicity during the creation of the underground reservoir and the subsequent extraction of the energy. The primary objectives of this white paper are to present an up-to-date review of the state of knowledge about induced seismicity during the creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems, and to point out the gaps in knowledge that if addressed will allow an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events as well as serve as a basis to develop successful protocols for monitoring and addressing community issues associated with such induced seismicity. The information was collected though literature searches as well as convening three workshops to gather information from a wide audience. Although microseismicity has been associated with the development of production and injection operations in a variety of geothermal regions, there have been no or few adverse physical effects on the operations or on surrounding communities. Still, there is public concern over the possible amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. It is pointed out that microseismicity has been successfully dealt with in a variety of non-geothermal as well as geothermal environments. Several case histories are also presented to illustrate a variety of technical and public acceptance issues. It is concluded that EGS Induced seismicity need not pose any threat to the development of geothermal resources if community issues are properly handled. In fact, induced seismicity provides benefits because it can be used as a monitoring tool to understand the

  12. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S.; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely ex...

  13. Optimization of the dynamic inducer wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.; Zalay, A. D.; Hibbs, B.

    The dynamic inducer, essentially a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor with small vanes at the tips is a promising, advanced technology wind turbine concept. By adding small vanes to the tip of the conventional rotor, significant increases in power can be obtained with the dynamic inducer system. The development of the system is reviewed, including past theoretical and experimental programs. Recent tow tests and wind tunnel tests established the predicted augmentation power. A new optimization program is outlined, based on advanced theory back by extensive wind tunnel testing, aimed at developing an advanced dynamic inducer system for a state-of-the art high performance, two-bladed rotor system. It is estimated that the dynamic inducer rotor is about 20% more cost-effective than a conventional system.

  14. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  15. Enfoques mucosales en vacunologia de Neisseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal B strains accounts for some 72% and 28% of meningococcal diseases in infants and toddlers in Europe and the USA, respectively. Nevertheless, meningococcal diseases are rare in Cuba owing to the wide spread program on antimeningococcal vaccination in the country. Finlay Institute is one of the pioneering organizations in Neisseria Vaccinology mainly by its contribution to N. meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane-based bivalent vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC™. This vaccine was given intramuscularly in more than 60 million doses corresponding 10.7 millions of them to Cuban young adults, children, and infants. However, most dangerous or commensally Neisseria strains enter and establish in the mucosa, where the secretory (S IgA is the main specific guardian and is mainly induced by mucosal routes. However, few mucosal vaccines exist principally due to the absent of mucosal adjuvants. We develop a Finlay Adjuvant (AF platform based in outer membrane vesicles (Proteoliposome, PL and its derivate Cochleate (Co. AFPL1 derived from serogroup B N. meningitidis is a potent Th1/CTL driving parenteral adjuvant. AFCo1 is a potent mucosal adjuvant. Therefore, we sought to go deeper in the possible mucosal cross recognition between N. meningitidis serogroups and Neisseria species and explore a concurrent mucosal and parenteral immunization strategy (SinTimVaS in order to develop suitable mucosal vaccines. Experiments were conducted in Balb/c or C57Bl6 mice with mucosal and systemic immunization using AFCo1 and AFPL1. Human sera and saliva were also analyzed for cross cognition. Mucosal cross recognition at SIgA level in human saliva between N. meningitidis serogroups B, A, C, Y, and W135 were observed. This SIgA cross recognition response was also observed between pathogenic (N. meningitidis serogroup B, N. gonorrhoeae and non-pathogenic strains (N. flava, N. lactamica. The possible influence of meningococcal vaccination against Gonorrhea was also

  16. Inducible gene expression system by 3-hydroxypropionic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shengfang; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Seol, Eunhee; Nguyen, Trinh Thi; Park, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Background 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical that boasts a variety of industrial applications. Gene expression systems inducible by 3-HP, if available, are of great utility for optimization of the pathways of 3-HP production and excretion. Results Here we report the presence of unique inducible gene expression systems in Pseudomonas denitrificans and other microorganisms. In P. denitrificans, transcription of three genes (hpdH, mmsA and hbdH-4) involved in 3-HP ...

  17. Discreteness-Induced Transitions in Autocatalytic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Togashi, Y; Togashi, Yuichi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    To study the dynamics of chemical processes, we often adopt rate equations to observe the change in chemical concentrations. However, when the number of the molecules is small, the fluctuations cannot be neglected. We often study the effects of fluctuations with the help of stochastic differential equations. Chemicals are composed of molecules on a microscopic level. In principle, the number of molecules must be an integer, which must only change discretely. However, in analysis using stochastic differential equations, the fluctuations are regarded as continuous changes. This approximation can only be valid if applied to fluctuations that involve a sufficiently large number of molecules. In the case of extremely rare chemical species, the actual discreteness of the molecules may critically affect the dynamics of the system. To elucidate the effects of the discreteness, we study an autocatalytic system consisting of several interacting chemical species with a small number of molecules through stochastic partic...

  18. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  19. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely explored. Here we present the observation of the EIA analog due to constructive interference in a vertically coupled three-resonator metamaterial system that consists of two bright and one dark resonator. The absorption resonance is one of the collective modes of the tripartite unit cell. Theoretical analysis shows that the absorption arises from a magnetic resonance induced by the near-field coupling of the three resonators within the unit cell. A classical analog of EIA opens up opportunities for designing novel photonic devices for narrow-band filtering, absorptive switching, optical modulation, and absorber applications. PMID:26023061

  20. Flow induced noise modelling for industrial piping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijrath, H.; Ǎbom, M.

    2003-01-01

    Noise from e.g. gas-transport piping systems becomes more and more a problem for plants located close to urban areas. Too high noise levels are unacceptable and will put limitations on the plant capacity. Flow-induced noise of valves, orifices and headers installed in the installation plays a domina

  1. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  2. Electromagnetically induced grating in a crystal of molecular magnets system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibing; Liu, Na; Shan, Chuanjia; Liu, Tangkun; Li, Hong; Zheng, Anshou; Xie, Xiao-Tao

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the response of the molecular system to the magnetic field modulation. Molecular magnets are subjected to a strong standing ac magnetic field and a weak probe magnetic field. The transmission and absorption of the weak probe magnetic field can be changed due to quantum coherence and the spatially modulating of the standing field. And a electromagnetically induced grating is formed in the crystal of molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The diffraction efficiency of the grating can be adjusted efficiently by tuning the intensity of the standing wave field and the single photon detuning.

  3. Effective mass sensing using optomechanically induced transparency in microresonator system

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yong-Pan; Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Yang, Daquan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and weighing the individual nanoparticles is an important approach to study the behavior and properties of single particles. Here we illustrate an effective mass sensing scheme using optomechanical resonator system. Based on the optomechanically induced transparency phenomenon, a Stokes field reference approach is used to sense the mass of the particle on the microresonator. The field intensity of the transmission field will be changed by the effect of the particle which avoids the limits of decay induced spectral width in the resonance shift detection. Exploiting the perturbation method, we theoretically evaluated the dynamical behavior of the system, and achieved the femtogram level mass sensing without the need for high cavity Q-value, and strong coupling strength in the optomechanically system.

  4. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Lu, R. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  5. Imaging of Drug-induced Complications in the Gastrointestinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Melissa J; Menias, Christine O; Gao, Zhenqiang J; Mellnick, Vincent M; Hara, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced injury commonly affects the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems because of the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. In pill esophagitis, injury is frequently related to direct contact with the esophageal mucosa, resulting in small superficial ulcers in the mid esophagus. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lead to gastrointestinal tract ulcers and small bowel mucosal diaphragms (thin weblike strictures). Injury to the pancreatic and hepatobiliary systems can manifest as pancreatitis, acute or chronic hepatitis, cholestasis, or steatosis and steatohepatitis (which may progress to cirrhosis). Various drugs may also insult the hepatic vasculature, resulting in Budd-Chiari and sinusoidal obstructive syndromes. Focal lesions such as hepatic adenomas may develop after use of oral contraceptives or anabolic steroids. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can aid in diagnosis of drug-induced injuries and often are necessary to exclude other causes. PMID:26761532

  6. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-Hua; WANG Wen-Yi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze and discuss the absorption properties of the probe beam in a four-level atomic system with a nearly hyper-fine doublet structure of two higher-lying excited levels based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for the two cases of transient process and steady-state process. The main gain of this work is to investigate theoretically the influence of the nearly hyper-fine levels on the probe absorption. For the transient process,using the numerical calculations by a simple Mathematica code we find that the magnitude of the probe absorption at the line center is small compared to the typical three-level atomic system in the context of electromagnetically induced transparency. For the case of the steady state, our results show that the probe absorption can be completely eliminated at the line center of the probe transition just as the usual three-level EIT scheme.

  7. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJia-Hua; WANGWen-Yi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze and discuss the absorption properties of the probe beam in a four-level atomic system with a nearly hyper-fine doublet structure of two higher-lying excited levels based on electromagnetieally induced transparency (EIT) for the two cases of transient process and steady-state process. The main gain of this work is to investigate theoretically the influence of the nearly hyper-fine levels on the probe absorption. For the transient process, using the numerical calculations by a simple Mathematica code we find that the magnitude of the probe absorption at the line center is small compared to the typical three-level atomic system in the context of electromagnetieally induced transparency. For the case of the steady state, our results show that the probe absorption can be completely eliminated at the line center of the probe transition just as the usual three-level EIT scheme.

  8. Statin Induced Myopathy a Patient with Multiple Systemic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgül Uçar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins are the most successful class of drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia. However, the popular profile of statins in terms of efficacy has been maligned by theiradverse effects. Statin induced myopathy, which can be seen at any time during the course of therapy, is a clinically important cause of statin intolerance and discontinuation. When a patient with multiple systemic diseases who use numerous medications represent with myalgia and muscle cramps, statin induced myopathy may not be remembered at first. We present a patient with multiple systemic diseases, alcohol and morphine abuse in whom myopathy developed. After exclusion of other etiologies, we concluded that myopathy was related to statin therapy.

  9. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A; Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-03-25

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis.

  10. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaman Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, dapsone, and antiretroviral agents such as abacavir and nevirapine. We describe a rare case of nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome that was successfully treated with oral steroids.

  11. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Shaman; Sagar, Amitabh; Shankar, S; Nair, Velu

    2013-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, dapsone, and antiretroviral agents such as abacavir and nevirapine. We describe a rare case of nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome that was successfully treated with oral steroids. PMID:24014920

  12. THE INDUCED REPRESENTATION OF C*-GROUPOID DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGXIAOCHUN

    1996-01-01

    Let G be a second countable locally compact groupoid with Haar system {λuH}, H be aclosed subgroupoid containing G0 with Haar system {λuH}. T.Masuda introduced the C*-Groupoid dynamic system (G, A, α) and its reduced crossed product Crea(G, A) in [2]: where A is C*-algebra α is the komomorphism G → Aut(A). In this paper the author introduces the C*-groupoid dynamic systems (H,A, α/H) and (H\\G2,A,-α) induced by (G,A,α) and proves that C*red(H, A) and C*red(H\\G2, A) are strongly Morita equivalent Moreover the inducedrepresentation from C*red(H, A) to C*red(G,A) is got.

  13. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dreger, Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heidbach, Oliver [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (Germany, German Research Center for Geosciences; Hutchings, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This DOE funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology (AIT), the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It was also part of the European research project “GEISER”, an international collaboration with 11 European partners from six countries including universities, research centers and industry, with the goal to address and mitigate the problems associated with induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The goal of the current project was to develop a combination of techniques, which evaluate the relationship between enhanced geothermal operations and the induced stress changes and associated earthquakes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. The project addressed the following questions: how enhanced geothermal activity changes the local and regional stress field; whether these activities can induce medium sized seismicity M > 3; (if so) how these events are correlated to geothermal activity in space and time; what is the largest possible event and strongest ground motion, and hence the potential hazard associated with these activities. The development of appropriate technology to thoroughly investigate and address these questions required a number of datasets to provide the different physical measurements distributed in space and time. Because such a dataset did not yet exist for an EGS system in the United State, we used current and past data from The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, which has been in operation since the 1960s. The research addressed the need to understand the causal mechanisms of induced seismicity, and demonstrated the advantage of imaging the physical properties and temporal changes of the reservoir. The work helped to model the relationship between injection and production and medium sized magnitude events that have

  14. Organ pipe resonance induced vibration in piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic-induced vibration is a fluid-structure interaction phenomenon. The feedback mechanism between the acoustic pressure pulsation and the structure movements determines the excited acoustic modes which, in turn, amplify the structure response when confidence frequency and mode shape matching occurs. The acoustic modes are not determined from the acoustic boundary conditions alone, structure feedback is as responsible for determining the acoustic modes and shaping the resulting forcing functions. Acoustic-induced piping vibration, when excited, does not attenuate much with distance. Pressure pulsation can be transmitted throughout the piping system and its branch connections. It is this property that makes vibration monitoring difficult, because vibration can surface at locations far away from the acoustic source when resonance occurs. For a large piping system with interconnected branches, the monitoring task can be formidable, particularly when there is no indication what the real source is. In organ pipe resonance induced vibration, the initiating acoustic source may be inconspicuous or unavoidable during operation. In these situations, the forcing function approach can offer an optimal tool for vibration assessment. The forcing function approach was used in the evaluation of a standby steam piping vibration problem. Monitoring locations and instrument specifications were determined from the acoustic eigenfunction profiles. Measured data confirmed the presence of coherent vibrations in the large bore piping. The developed forcing function permits design evaluation of the piping system, which leads to remedial actions and enables fatigue life determination, thus providing confidence to system operation. The forcing function approach is shown to be useful in finding potential vibration area and verifying the integrity of weak structure links. Application is to steam lines at BWR plants

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency in hybrid plasmonic-dielectric system

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Bin; Jiang, Chun

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical and numerical analysis of a plasmonic-dielectric hybrid system for symmetric and asymmetric coupling between silver cut-wire pairs and silicon grating waveguide with periodic grooves. The results show that both couplings can induce electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) analogous to the quantum optical phenomenon. The transmission spectrum shows a single transparency window for the symmetric coupling. The strong normal phase dispersion in the vicinity of this transparent window results in the slow light effect. However, the transmission spectrum appears an additional transparency window for asymmetry coupling due to the double EIT effect, which stems from an asymmetrically coupled resonance (ACR) between the dark and bright modes. More importantly, the excitation of ACR is further associated with remarkable improvement of the group index from less than 40 to more than 2500 corresponding to a high transparent efficiency by comparing with the symmetry coupling. This scheme provide...

  16. Reducing Technology-Induced Errors: Organizational and Health Systems Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Senthriajah, Yalini; Kushniruk, Andre W; Palojoki, Sari; Saranto, Kaija; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Technology-induced errors are a growing concern for health care organizations. Such errors arise from the interaction between healthcare and information technology deployed in complex settings and contexts. As the number of health information technologies that are used to provide patient care rises so will the need to develop ways to improve the quality and safety of the technology that we use. The objective of the panel is to describe varying approaches to improving software safety from and organizational and health systems perspective. We define what a technology-induced error is. Then, we discuss how software design and testing can be used to improve health information technologies. This discussion is followed by work in the area of monitoring and reporting at a health district and national level. Lastly, we draw on the quality, safety and resilience literature. The target audience for this work are nursing and health informatics researchers, practitioners, administrators, policy makers and students. PMID:27332325

  17. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  18. The redox homeostasis system in radiation-induced genome instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The participation of the redox homeostasis system in the formation of the radiation-induced genome instability and new data of literature, that give a direct evidence the presence of this instability in vivo, is considered. The O2- radical, H2O2 and NO radical role as signal molecules, that trigger the cascade of active responses to change of redox status of the cells, are discussed. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) reorganize the membrane physico-chemical system of cell metabolism regulation. The data about changes in ROS generation system, including NO, that lead to genome instability after ionizing irradiation even in low doses, are analyzed. It is noted, that the radiation-induced genome instability and ROS production increase may be observed both in direct irradiated cells and their progeny and in the cells, that are not find oneself in ionization tracks, and their progeny. There evidences that the genome instability of irradiated cell progeny is maintained by the increases ROS production

  19. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  20. Inducible repair system in Haemophilus influenzae unaccompanied by mutation. [uv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notani, N.K.; Setlow, J.K.

    1980-07-01

    Weigle reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated HPlc1 phage was observed after ultraviolet or mitomycin C treatment of Haemophilus influenzae cells. The amount of reactivation was considerably increased when the treated cells were incubated in growth medium before infection. The presence of chloramphenicol during this incubation abolished the reactivation. No mutation of this phage accompanied the reactivation. When cells were treated so as to produce a maximal reactivation of phage, neither reactivation nor mutation of cells was observed. It is concluded that H. influenzae has an inducible repair system that is not accompanied by mutation.

  1. Tourniquet-induced systemic inflammatory response in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury in animals produces significant systemic inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether a biologic response occurs in a clinically relevant model of tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were prospectively randomized into controls (no tourniquet) and subjects (tourniquet-controlled). The effects of tourniquet-induced reperfusion on monocyte activation state, neutrophil activation state, and transendothelial migration (TEM) were studied. Changes in the cytokines implicated in reperfusion injury, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-10 were also determined. RESULTS: After 15 minutes of reperfusion, neutrophil and monocyte activation were significantly increased. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pooled subject (ischemia-primed) plasma significantly increased TEM. In contrast, TEM was not significantly altered by ischemia-primed plasma pretreatment of the endothelial monolayer. Significant elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta were observed in subjects compared with controls after 15 minutes of reperfusion. There was no significant difference in serum IL-10 levels between the groups at all the time points studied. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a transient neutrophil and monocyte activation after tourniquet-ischemia that translates into enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration with potential for tissue injury.

  2. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechan Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (neurotoxicity, DNA (genotoxicity, and kidney (nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s. This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  3. Lightning-induced overvoltages in low-voltage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeidalen, Hans Kristian

    1997-12-31

    Lightning-induced overvoltages (LIOs) are a main source of failures in low-voltage overhead line systems. This thesis deals mainly with calculations of LIOs aiming to enable the design of a proper voltage protection. Models for calculation of LIOs are adapted from the literature or developed based on measurements. The models used are believed to be fairly accurate for the first few microseconds, which is usually sufficient for predicting the maximum induced voltage in the system. The lightning channel is modelled by the Modified Transmission Line (MTL) model with the Transmission Line (TL) model as a special case. The coupling between the electrical fields from a lightning channel and an overhead line is modelled by Agrawal`s model. The attenuation of electrical fields over a lossy ground is modelled by Norton`s- or the Surface Impedance methods. The validity of all the applied models is analysed. In addition, measurements have been performed in order to develop models of distribution transformers and low-voltage power installation (LVPI) networks. Simple models of typical transformers and LVPIs are developed for calculations when specific data are unavailable. The practical range of values and its influence on the LIOs in a system is investigated. The main frequency range of interest related to LIOs is 10 kHz - 1 MHz in which all the models are accurate. The adapted or developed models are used to calculate LIOs in low-voltage systems. The influence of various key parameters in the system is investigated. Most important are the return stroke amplitude and rise time, the overhead line height and location, the termination of overhead line segments, neutral grounding, and the ground conductivity. 135 refs., 136 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Role of the sympathetic nervous system in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is widely used as an animal model of hepatotoxicity and the mechanisms have been arduously studied, however, the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity remains controversial. It is also known that either CCl4 or SNS can affect systemic inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in a mouse model of CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammatory response. Mice exposed to CCl4 or vehicle were pretreated with 6-OHDA or saline. The serum levels of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in the CCl4-poisoning mice with sympathetic denervation were significantly lower than those without sympathetic denervation. With sympathetic denervation, hepatocellular necrosis and fat infiltration induced by CCl4 were greatly decreased. Sympathetic denervation significantly attenuated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and serum. Acute CCl4 intoxication showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [eotaxin-2/CCL24, Fas ligand, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α], as well as decreased expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The overexpressed levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, MCP-1/CCL2, and TNF-α were attenuated by sympathetic denervation. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the SNS plays an important role in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation and the effect may be connected with chemical- or drug-induced hepatotoxicity and circulating immune response.

  5. Interaction-induced localization of mobile impurities in ultracold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; An, Jin; Ting, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    The impurities, introduced intentionally or accidentally into certain materials, can significantly modify their characteristics or reveal their intrinsic physical properties, and thus play an important role in solid-state physics. Different from those static impurities in a solid, the impurities realized in cold atomic systems are naturally mobile. Here we propose an effective theory for treating some unique behaviors exhibited by ultracold mobile impurities. Our theory reveals the interaction-induced transition between the extended and localized impurity states, and also explains the essential features obtained from several previous models in a unified way. Based on our theory, we predict many intriguing phenomena in ultracold systems associated with the extended and localized impurities, including the formation of the impurity-molecules and impurity-lattices. We hope this investigation can open up a new avenue for the future studies on ultracold mobile impurities.

  6. Genetic improvement of Trichoderma ability to induce systemic resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ciliento R; Mach R L; Lorito M; Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Ruocco M; Scala F; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Brunner K; Zeilinger S

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beneficial applications of Trichoderma spp. in agriculture include not only the control of plant pathogens, but also the improvement of plant growth, micronutrient availability, and plant tolerance to abiotic stress. In addition, it has been suggested that these fungi are able to increase plant disease resistance by activating induced systemic resistance (ISR) . The mode of action of these beneficial fungi in the Trichoderma -plant-pathogen interaction are many, complex and not completely understood. Numerous lytic enzymes have been characterized, the encoding genes (ech42 gluc78,nag1 from T. atroviride strain P1) cloned, and their role in biocontrol demonstrated. The corresponding biocontrol-related inducible promoters have been used in a reporter system based on the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene (goxA) to monitor biocontrol activity. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1, 5-lactone and hydrogen peroxide; this latter compound is known to have an antifungal effect and activate the plant defence cascade, thus increasing resistance to pathogen attack. T. atroviride P1 transformants with various promoters gox were tested as seed coating treatments on bean seeds planted in soil infested with a soilborne fungal pathogen. Successively, the emergent leaves were inoculated with a foliar pathogen to determine the effect of the GOX transformants on biocontrol and resistance to pathogen attack.Inoculations with the P1-GOX transformants not only reduced disease symptoms caused by a soil pathogen, but also the lesions of various foliar pathogens applied far from the Trichoderma colonization, thus activating ISR. A similar approach is being use to genetically improve T.harzianum T22, a rhizosphere competent and commercially marketed strain not transformed yet, by using four different gox gene constructs under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters.Plasmids have been introduced in Trichoderma by

  7. Exercise-Induced Systemic Venous Hypertension in the Fontan Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, Devaraj; Fitzsimmons, Samantha; Grocott, Michael; Rossiter, Harry B; Emmanuel, Yaso; Diller, Gerard-Paul; Gordon-Walker, Timothy; Jack, Sandy; Sheron, Nick; Pappachan, John; Pratap, Jayant Nick; Vettukattil, Joseph J; Veldtman, Gruschen

    2016-05-15

    Increasingly end-organ injury is being demonstrated late after institution of the Fontan circulation, particularly liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The exact mechanisms for these late phenomena remain largely elusive. Hypothesizing that exercise induces precipitous systemic venous hypertension and insufficient cardiac output for the exercise demand, that is, a possible mechanism for end-organ injury, we sought to demonstrate the dynamic exercise responses in systemic venous perfusion (SVP) and concurrent end-organ perfusion. Ten stable Fontan patients and 9 control subjects underwent incremental cycle ergometry-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing. SVP was monitored in the right upper limb, and regional tissue oxygen saturation was monitored in the brain and kidney using near-infrared spectroscopy. SVP rose profoundly in concert with workload in the Fontan group, described by the regression equation 15.97 + 0.073 watts per mm Hg. In contrast, SVP did not change in healthy controls. Regional renal (p systemic venous hypertension and reduced systemic oxygen delivery. This physiological substrate has the potential to contribute to end-organ injury. PMID:27032711

  8. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin eBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular virtual tissue model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  9. First experience with the new Coupling Loss Induced Quench system

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Dudarev, A V; Kirby, G; Sperin, K A; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A new protection system called Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ) was recently, developed and tested at CERN. This method provokes a fast change in the magnet transport current by means of a capacitive discharge. The resulting change in the local magnetic field induces inter-filament and inter-strand coupling losses which heat up the superconductor and eventually initiate a quench in a large fraction of the coil winding pack. The method is extensively tested on a Nb-Ti single-wire test solenoid magnet in the CERN Cryogenic Laboratory in order to assess its performance, optimize its operating parameters, and study new electrical configurations. Each parameter is thoroughly analyzed and its impact on the quench effi...

  10. Triple optomechanical induced transparency in a two-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Chao, Wu; Li-Guo, Qin; Jun, Jing; Guo-Hong, Yang; Zhong-Yang, Wang

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical induced transparency (OMIT) phenomenon in a two-cavity system which is composed of two optomechanical cavities. Both of the cavities consist of a fixed mirror and a high-Q mechanical resonator, and they couple to each other via a common waveguide. We show that in the presence of a strong pump field applied to one cavity and a weak probe field applied to the other, a triple-OMIT can be observed in the output field at the probe frequency. The two mechanical resonators in the two cavities are identical, but they lead to different quantum interference pathways. The transparency windows are induced by the coupling of the two cavities and the optical pressure radiated to the mechanical resonators, which can be controlled via the power of the pump field and the coupling strength of the two cavities. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program, China (Grant No. XDB01010200), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y321311401), and the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11347147 and 1547035).

  11. Systemic progesterone for modulating electrocautery-induced secondary brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Ka Chun; Wang, Yue Chun; Wu, Wutian; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar electrocautery is an effective and commonly used haemostatic technique but it may also cause iatrogenic brain trauma due to thermal injury and secondary inflammatory reactions. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions in traumatic brain injury. However, its potential use in preventing iatrogenic brain trauma has not been explored. We conducted a pilot animal study to investigate the effect of systemic progesterone on brain cellular responses to electrocautery-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received standardized bipolar electrocautery (40 W for 2 seconds) over the right cerebral cortex. The treatment group received progesterone intraperitoneally 2 hours prior to surgery; the control group received the drug vehicle only. Immunohistochemical studies showed that progesterone could significantly reduce astrocytic hypertrophy on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7, as well as macrophage infiltration on day 3. The number of astrocytes, however, was unaffected. Our findings suggest that progesterone should be further explored as a neuroprotective agent against electrocautery-induced or other forms of iatrogenic trauma during routine neurosurgical procedures. Future studies may focus on different dosing regimens, neuronal survival, functional outcome, and to compare progesterone with other agents such as dexamethasone. PMID:23830688

  12. Apparatus, system, and method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Jr., Andrew J; Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R

    2014-11-18

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an apparatus includes a pulsed laser configured to generate a pulsed laser signal toward a sample, a constructive interference object and an optical element, each located in a path of light from the sample. The constructive interference object is configured to generate constructive interference patterns of the light. The optical element is configured to disperse the light. A LIBS system includes a first and a second optical element, and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition module is configured to determine an isotope measurement based, at least in part, on light received by an image sensor from the first and second optical elements. A method for performing LIBS includes generating a pulsed laser on a sample to generate light from a plasma, generating constructive interference patterns of the light, and dispersing the light into a plurality of wavelengths.

  13. Methodology for simulation of geomagnetically induced currents in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteler David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the geomagnetic hazard to power systems it is useful to be able to simulate the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC that are produced during major geomagnetic disturbances. This paper examines the methodology used in power system analysis and shows how it can be applied to modelling GIC. Electric fields in the area of the power network are used to determine the voltage sources or equivalent current sources in the transmission lines. The power network can be described by a mesh impedance matrix which is combined with the voltage sources to calculate the GIC in each loop. Alternatively the power network can be described by a nodal admittance matrix which is combined with the sum of current sources into each node to calculate the nodal voltages which are then used to calculate the GIC in the transmission lines and GIC flowing to ground at each substation. Practical calculations can be made by superposition of results calculated separately for northward and eastward electric fields. This can be done using magnetic data from a single observatory to calculate an electric field that is a uniform approximation of the field over the area of the power system. It is also shown how the superposition of results can be extended to use data from two observatories: approximating the electric field by a linear variation between the two observatory locations. These calculations provide an efficient method for simulating the GIC that would be produced by historically significant geomagnetic storm events.

  14. FGF-2 induces neuronal death through upregulation of system xc-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Albano, Rebecca; Lobner, Doug

    2014-02-14

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) upregulates system xc- selectively on astrocytes, which leads to increased cystine uptake, the substrate for glutathione production, and increased glutamate release. While increased intracellular glutathione can limit oxidative stress, the increased glutamate release can potentially lead to excitotoxicity to neurons. To test this hypothesis, mixed neuronal and glial cortical cultures were treated with FGF-2. Treatment with FGF-2 for 48 h caused a significant neuronal death in these cultures. Cell death was not observed in neuronal-enriched cultures, or astrocyte-enriched cultures, suggesting the toxicity was the result of neuron-glia interaction. Blocking system xc- eliminated the neuronal death as did the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), but not the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. When cultures were exposed directly to glutamate, both NBQX and memantine blocked the neuronal toxicity. The mechanism of this altered profile of glutamate receptor mediated toxicity by FGF-2 is unclear. The selective calcium permeable AMPA receptor antagonist 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM) failed to offer protection. The most likely explanation for the results is that 48 h FGF-2 treatment induces AMPA/kainate receptor toxicity through increased system xc- function resulting in increased release of glutamate. At the same time, FGF-2 alters the sensitivity of the neurons to glutamate toxicity in a manner that promotes selective AMPA/kainate receptor mediated toxicity.

  15. An integrated system for rainfall induced shallow landslides modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Rigon, Riccardo; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides (RISL) cause significant damages involving loss of life and properties. Predict susceptible locations for RISL is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, statistic. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. In this work an open source (OS), 3-D, fully distributed hydrological model was integrated in an OS modeling framework (Object Modeling System). The chain is closed by linking the system to a component for safety factor computation with infinite slope approximation able to take into account layered soils and suction contribution to hillslope stability. The model composition was tested for a case study in Calabria (Italy) in order to simulate the triggering of a landslide happened in the Cosenza Province. The integration in OMS allows the use of other components such as a GIS to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. Finally, model performances were quantified by comparing modelled and simulated trigger time. This research is supported by Ambito/Settore AMBIENTE E SICUREZZA (PON01_01503) project.

  16. The crisis induced by the property transition of a system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jun; Wang Wen-Xiu; Jiang Yu-Mei; He Yue; Chen Wen; He Da-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A simultaneous transition in the property of a system from everywhere smooth and conservative to piecewise smooth and quasi-dissipative is observed in a kicked billiard when adjusting a single controlling parameter. The transition induces a special kind of crisis, which signifies a sudden change of a typical conservative stochastic web into a transient web formed by the forward image set of the discontinuity borderline of the system function. Iterations on the transient web finally fall in an escaping hole composed of an elliptic island chain, which appears right after the threshold of the property transition. The size of the hole becomes larger as the controlling parameter increases so that the iterations escape faster. The averaged lifetime of the iterations in the transient web therefore follows a power-law with a special scaling exponent. At the same time, a fat fractal forbidden web, which appears also at the threshold,grows up and cuts off more and more parts from the original conservative stochastic web so that the remnant transient web becomes thinner and thinner. We numerically show that another power law can also describe this.

  17. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    literature ɛN values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

  18. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  19. Confinement-Induced Resonances in Ultracold Atom-Ion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melezhik, Vladimir S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate confinement-induced resonances in a system composed by a tightly trapped ion and a moving atom in a waveguide. We determine the conditions for the appearance of such resonances in a broad region -- from the "long-wavelength" limit to the opposite case when the typical length scale of the atom-ion interaction essentially exceeds the transverse waveguide width. We find considerable dependence of the resonance position on the atomic mass which, however, disappears in the "long-wavelength" limit, where the result for the confined atom-atom scattering is reproduced. We also derive an analytic formula for the resonance position in the "long-wavelength zero-energy" limit. Our results, which can be investigated in current experiments, indicate a strategy to determine the atom-ion scattering length, the temperature of the atomic ensemble in the presence of an ion impurity, and a pathway to control the atom-phonon coupling in a one dimensional ion crystal in interaction with an atomic quantum gas.

  20. Confinement-induced resonances in ultracold atom-ion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melezhik, V. S.; Negretti, A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate confinement-induced resonances in a system composed of a tightly trapped ion and a moving atom in a waveguide. We determine the conditions for the appearance of such resonances in a broad region—from the "long-wavelength" limit to the opposite case when the typical length scale of the atom-ion polarization potential essentially exceeds the transverse waveguide width. We find considerable dependence of the resonance position on the atomic mass which, however, disappears in the "long-wavelength and zero-energy" limit, where the known result for the confined atom-atom scattering is reproduced. We also derive an analytic and a semianalytic formula for the resonance position in the long-wavelength and zero-energy limit and we investigate numerically the dependence of the resonance condition on the finite atomic colliding energy. Our results, which can be investigated experimentally in the near future, could be used to determine the atom-ion scattering length, to determine the temperature of the atomic ensemble in the presence of an ion impurity, and to control the atom-phonon coupling in a linear ion crystal in interaction with a quasi-one-dimensional atomic quantum gas.

  1. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS. PMID:25157984

  2. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.

  3. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  4. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, James [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Savy, Jean [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Wong, Ivan [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  5. Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.

  6. Construction of a doxycycline inducible adipogenic lentiviral expression system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.; Hill, P J; Karamitri, Angeliki; Ryan, K.J.P.; Chen, H. Y.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    To provide a tool for research on regulating adipocyte differentiation, tetracycline inducible (Tet on) lentiviral expression vectors under the control of an adipose-specific promoter were constructed. The lowest basal expression in the absence of doxycycline and most efficient dose-dependent, doxycycline-induced transient overexpression was observed using vectors constructed with a combination of Tetracycline Responsive Element (TRE) and reverse tetracycline-controlled TransActivator advance...

  7. Induced magnetism in transition metal intercalated graphitic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2011-10-26

    We investigate the structure, chemical bonding, electronic properties, and magnetic behavior of a three-dimensional graphitic network in aba and aaa stacking with intercalated transition metal atoms (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu). Using density functional theory, we find induced spin-polarization of the C atoms both when the graphene sheets are aba stacked (forming graphite) and aaa stacked (resembling bi-layer graphene). The magnetic moment induced by Mn, Fe, and Co turns out to vary from 1.38 μB to 4.10 μB, whereas intercalation of Ni and Cu does not lead to a magnetic state. The selective induction of spin-polarization can be utilized in spintronic and nanoelectronic applications.

  8. Physiologic response to a simplified venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Sumpter, L Ryan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Thomas, Joe; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Our original venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system appeared to significantly improve the survival of patients with lung cancer, but was too complex with numerous dialysis problems. We tested a simplified vv-PISH circuit that includes the Avalon Elite (Avalon Laboratories, LLC, Rancho Dominguez, CA) double lumen cannula, a modified heat exchanger, a water heater/cooler, and a centrifugal pump. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this simplified vv-PISH system (without hemodialyzer) and to investigate the physiologic response to whole-body hyperthermia in pigs. We tested our vv-PISH circuit in healthy adult female swine (n = 7, 55-68 kg). The therapeutic core temperature (42°C), calculated as mean of rectal, bladder, and esophageal temperatures, was achieved in six swine. A maximum difference of 0.5°C was observed between the individual temperature sensor readings, indicating homogeneous heat distribution. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were transiently altered, but were safely managed. A significant elevation in pulmonary artery pressure occurred during the heating phase, resulting in death of one pig. In all other pigs, pulmonary artery pressure returned to physiologic values during the therapeutic phase. Arterial blood electrolytes were maintained without the need of a dialyzer. Major organ function was within normal parameters. The simplified vv-PISH circuit reliably delivered the hyperthermic dose with no need of dialysis. PMID:23085942

  9. Radiation-induced effects and the immune system in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    AlexzanderAsea

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are standard therapeutic modalities for patients with cancers, and could induce various tumor cell death modalities, releasing tumor derived antigens as well as danger signals that could either be captured for triggering antitumor immune response. Historic studies examining tissue and cellular responses to radiation therapy have predominantly focused on damage caused to proliferating malignant cells leading to their death. However, there is increasing eviden...

  10. Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Mat Easa

    1996-01-01

    Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

  11. Instability induced pressure isotropization in a longitudinally expanding system

    CERN Document Server

    Dusling, Kevin; Gelis, François; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-01-01

    In two previous works [arXiv:1009.4363,arXiv:1107.0668], we studied the time evolution of a system of real scalar fields with quartic coupling which shares important features with the Color Glass Condensate description of heavy ion collisions. Our primary objective was to understand how such a system, when initialized with a non-perturbatively large classical field configuration, reaches thermal equilibrium. An essential goal of these works was to highlight the role played by the quantum fluctuations. However, these studies considered only a system confined within a box of fixed volume. In the present paper, we extend this work to a system that expands in the longitudinal direction thereby more closely mimicking a heavy ion collision. We conclude that the microscopic processes that drive the system towards equilibrium are able to keep up with the expansion of the system; the pressure tensor becomes isotropic despite the anisotropic expansion.

  12. Temperature Induced Instabilities in Macro-bend Fiber Based Wavelength Measurement Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of temperature-induced instabilities in a wavelength measurement system based on macro-bend fiber filter used in the ratiometric scheme are presented. Two wavelength measurement systems based on macro-bend fiber, a standard low bend loss single-mode fiber filter based system and a high bend loss fiber filter based system are considered. In the case of a low bend loss fiber filter based system, the oscillatory variation in the ratio response with temperature and the difference...

  13. Danaparoid sodium inhibits systemic inflammation and prevents endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Hidaka, Seigo; Hishiyama, Sohei; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Systemic inflammatory mediators, including high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), play an important role in the development of sepsis. Anticoagulants, such as danaparoid sodium (DA), may be able to inhibit sepsis-induced inflammation, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. We hypothesised that DA would act as an inhibitor of systemic inflammation and prevent endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in a rat model. Methods We used male Wistar rats. Animals in the intervention ...

  14. Nonlinear stochastic systems with network-induced phenomena recursive filtering and sliding-mode design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jun; Gao, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces methods for handling filtering and control problems in nonlinear stochastic systems arising from network-induced phenomena consequent on limited communication capacity. Such phenomena include communication delay, packet dropout, signal quantization or saturation, randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring uncertainties.The text is self-contained, beginning with an introduction to nonlinear stochastic systems, network-induced phenomena and filtering and control, moving through a collection of the latest research results which focuses on the three aspects

  15. Analysis of local and systemic inflammatory responses induced by polymicrobial peritonitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Silvia Fröde; Silvia Ines Alejandra Cordoba Pires Ferreira; Yara Santos Medeiros

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal sepsis induces a local production of proinflammatory mediators that may trigger both septic shock and organ-system dysfunction. AIMS: The present study analyzed exudation, cell migration, and CD11a and CD18 subset cells of both local and systemic responses induced by fecal peritonitis in mice. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized and, after performing a midline incision in the abdomen, the cecum was ligated and punctured twice with a needle. Sham-operated animals were incl...

  16. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis: involvement of jasmonate and ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, A.C.M. van; Ton, J.; Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Pelt, J.A. van; Keurentjes, J. J. B.; Knoester, M.; van Loon, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of a plant to express a broad-spectrum systemic acquired resistance (SAR) after primary infection is well known and extensively studied. A relatively unknown form of induced disease resistance is triggered by nonpathogenic, root-colonizing rhizobacteria and is commonly referred to as rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR). Rhizosphere bacteria are present in large numbers on the root. Certain strains stimulate plant growth and are therefore called plant growth-p...

  17. Investigating the function of Akt by tet-off inducible ex- pression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A tet-off inducible cell line named BBT derived from BA/F3b cell line was constructed and the effect of this inducible expression system was significant when detected by tet-off responded luciferase reporter gene assay. Then tet-off responded Akt expression plasmid was transfected into BBT cells, and the stable cell lines were screened. The result of Northern blot showed that the expression of akt was signifi-cantly inducible. The clone with the best inducible effect was selected and named BBA for investigating the function of Akt. We found that Akt could significantly inhibit zinc-induced decrease of cell viability when assayed by MTT method. And the flow cytometric analysis showed that Akt could markedly repress zinc-induced apoptosis.

  18. Simulating FAS-induced apoptosis by using P systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smitha Cheruku; Andrei Pǎun; Francisco J. Romero-Campero; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Oscar H. Ibarra

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to differential equations, P systems are an unconventional model of computation which takes into consideration the discrete character of the quantity of components and the inherent randomness that exists in biological phenomena. The key feature of P systems is their compartmentalised structure which represents the heterogeneity of the structural organisation of the cells, and where one can take into account the role played by membranes in the functioning of the system, for example signalling at the cell surface, selective uptake of substances from the media, diffusion across different compartments, etc.We show here that P systems can be a reliable tool for Systems Biology and could even outperform in some cases the current simulation techniques based on differential equations. We will also use a strategy based on the well known Gillespie algorithm but running on more than one compartment called Multi-compartmental Gillespie Algorithm.

  19. Collision-induced timing jitter in dispersion-managed WDM soliton system with filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin Du(杜建新); Qihong Lou(楼祺洪)

    2004-01-01

    Taking into account the randomicity of collision positions and the arbitrary encoding of data in channel,the influences of different dispersion management on collision-induced timing jitter in a filtered wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) soliton system are obtained statistically and numerically by applying a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which are derived through variational procedure. The optimal dispersion managements which can greatly reduce the collision-induced timing jitter are found. The multi-channel collision-induced timing jitters in a filtered WDM soliton system are given with an optimal dispersion management and constant dispersion.

  20. Generation of Pig Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with a Drug-Inducible System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Jijun Chen; Jiangtao Ren; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Linjun Rao; Hui Li; Yijun Gu; Huiming Dai; Hui Zhu; Xiaokun Teng; Lu Cheng; Lei Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Domesticated ungulate pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell lines would be useful for generating precise gene-modified animals. To date, many efforts have been made to establish domesticated ungulate pluripotent ES cells from early embryos without success.Here, we report the generation of porcine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using drug-inducible expression of defined factors.We showed that porcine iPS cells expressed alkaline phosphatase, SSEA3, SSEA4, Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Rex1 and CDH1. Pig iPS cells expressed high levels of telomerase activity and showed normal karyotypes. These cells could differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. Our study reveals properties of porcine pluripotent stem cells that may facilitate the eventual establishment of porcine ES cells. Moreover, the porcine iPS cells produced may be directly useful for the generation of precise gene-modified pigs.

  1. Manipulation of multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency in a six-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Wen-Zhi; Wang Shun-Jin

    2009-01-01

    In the five-level K-type atomic system, by using another control field to couple the excited level of the coupling transition to the sixth higher excited level, a six-level atomic system is constructed. In this system, the multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency has been investigated. What is more, if choosing the parameters of the control fields properly the triple transparency window will reduce to a double one which means that the multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency can be manipulated in this system. The physical interpretation of these phenomena is given in terms of the dressed states and the dark states.

  2. Bifurcation of transition paths induced by coupled bistable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Mitarai, Namiko

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the transition paths in a coupled bistable system consisting of interacting multiple identical bistable motifs. We propose a simple model of coupled bistable gene circuits as an example and show that its transition paths are bifurcating. We then derive a criterion to predict the bifurcation of transition paths in a generalized coupled bistable system. We confirm the validity of the theory for the example system by numerical simulation. We also demonstrate in the example system that, if the steady states of individual gene circuits are not changed by the coupling, the bifurcation pattern is not dependent on the number of gene circuits. We further show that the transition rate exponentially decreases with the number of gene circuits when the transition path does not bifurcate, while a bifurcation facilitates the transition by lowering the quasi-potential energy barrier.

  3. Exact results for a noise-induced bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    A stochastic system where bistability is caused by noise has been recently investigated by Biancalani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 038101 (2014)]. They have computed the mean switching time for such a system using a continuous Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Taylor expansion of the master equation to estimate the parameter of such a system from experiment. In this article, we provide the exact solution for the full discrete system without resorting to continuous approximation and obtain the expression for the mean switching time. We further extend this investigation by solving exactly the master equation and obtaining the expression of other quantities of interests such as the dynamics of the moments and the equilibrium time. PMID:25768466

  4. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shaman Gill; Amitabh Sagar; Shankar, S.; Velu Nair

    2013-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, ...

  5. Levetiracetam Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Waseem Raja; Sofi, Najeebullah; Latief, Muzamil; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kasana, Basharat Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity drug reaction, most frequently associated with antiepileptic drugs, characterized by skin rash, fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and visceral organ involvement, typically presenting within 8 weeks of initiation of therapy. Management involves prompt withdrawal of the offending drug and use of systemic corticosteroids. We here present a rare case of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam. Only few case reports of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam have been published so far. PMID:27057042

  6. Asymmetry-induced electric current rectification in permselective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Yoav; Edri, Yaron; Yossifon, Gilad

    2015-09-01

    For a symmetric ion permselective system, in terms of geometry and bulk concentrations, the system response is also symmetric under opposite electric field polarity. In this work we derive an analytical solution for the concentration distribution, electric potential, and current-voltage response for a four-layered system comprised of two microchambers connected by two permselective regions of varying properties. It is shown that any additional asymmetry in the system, in terms of the geometry, bulk concentration, or surface charge property of the permselective regions, results in current rectification. Our work is divided into two parts: when both permselective regions have the same surface charge sign and the case of opposite signs. For the same sign case we are able to show that the system behaves as a dialytic battery while accounting for field-focusing effects. For the case of opposite signs (i.e., bipolar membrane), our system exhibits the behavior of a bipolar diode where the magnitude of the rectification can be of order 10^{2}-10^{3}.

  7. Noise-induced multistability in chemical systems: Discrete versus continuum modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Liao, Shuohao; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Erban, Radek; Grima, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The noisy dynamics of chemical systems is commonly studied using either the chemical master equation (CME) or the chemical Fokker-Planck equation (CFPE). The latter is a continuum approximation of the discrete CME approach. It has recently been shown that for a particular system, the CFPE captures noise-induced multistability predicted by the CME. This phenomenon involves the CME's marginal probability distribution changing from unimodal to multimodal as the system size decreases below a critical value. We here show that the CFPE does not always capture noise-induced multistability. In particular we find simple chemical systems for which the CME predicts noise-induced multistability, whereas the CFPE predicts monostability for all system sizes.

  8. Noise-induced multistability in chemical systems: Discrete versus continuum modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Liao, Shuohao; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Erban, Radek; Grima, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The noisy dynamics of chemical systems is commonly studied using either the chemical master equation (CME) or the chemical Fokker-Planck equation (CFPE). The latter is a continuum approximation of the discrete CME approach. It has recently been shown that for a particular system, the CFPE captures noise-induced multistability predicted by the CME. This phenomenon involves the CME's marginal probability distribution changing from unimodal to multimodal as the system size decreases below a critical value. We here show that the CFPE does not always capture noise-induced multistability. In particular we find simple chemical systems for which the CME predicts noise-induced multistability, whereas the CFPE predicts monostability for all system sizes. PMID:25974443

  9. Poly(I.C)-induced interferons enhance susceptibility of SCID mice to systemic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jensen; Vazquez-Torres, A; Balish, E

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of any demonstrable T- or B-cell responses, gnotobiotic CB-17 SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice not only show innate resistance to acute systemic (intravenous challenge) candidiasis but also manifest innate resistance to systemic candidiasis of endogenous (gastrointestinal tract) origin. Poly(I. C), a potent inducer of interferons (IFNs) in vivo, enhanced the susceptibility of CB-17 SCID mice to acute systemic candidiasis and to systemic candidiasis of endogenous orig...

  10. Noise-induced striped trajectories of Rossler systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhi-hua; Dong Ya-Li

    2007-01-01

    In the paper,the generation of striped trajectories in phase space by noise-injection is considered. With suitable amplitudes of noise,the steady-state system orbits appear in rectangular striped shape.The relationship between the shape(including the range and the number of stripes)and some parameters is discussed.The result shows that noise can also generate the striped shape effectively and simply,which is similar to the newly-discovered striped pattern generated by controlled Rossler systems.

  11. Long-term inducible expression in striatal neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors that contain the tetracycline-inducible promoter system

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qingshen; Sun, Mei; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Direct gene transfer into neurons in the brain via a virus vector system has potential for both examining neuronal physiology and for developing gene therapy treatments for neurological diseases. Many of these applications require precise control of the levels of recombinant gene expression. The preferred method for controlling the levels of expression is by use of an inducible promoter system, and the tetracycline (tet)-inducible promoter system is the preferred system. Helper virus-free Her...

  12. Policy-induced market introduction of generation IV reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost ten years ago the US Department of Energy started the Generation IV initiative with nine other national governments with a positive ground attitude towards nuclear energy. Some of these Generation IV systems, like the fast reactors, are nearing the demonstration stage. The question on how their market introduction will be implemented becomes increasingly urgent. (orig.)

  13. Diet-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, E J; Malinow, M R; Houghton, D C; McNulty, W P; Wuepper, K D; Parker, F; Pirofsky, B

    1982-05-01

    Ten adult, female cynomolgus macaques were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1) semipurified diet (SPD); and (2) SPD with 45% ground alfalfa seed (AS). Both groups were studied at monthly intervals after 5 mo on their respective diets. Control animals had a mean hematocrit (Hct) of 43 +/- 2%, negative antiglobulin (AG), antinuclear antibody (ANA) and LE cell tests. Mean values for C3 and C4 were 309 +/- 47 mg/dl and 35 +/- 7 mg/dl, respectively. Mean serum binding to radiolabeled double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) was 1.9 +/- 0.2%. Three of five animals fed AS developed signs of an SLE-like illness characterized by AG-positive anemia (lowest Hct 30%), positive ANA (highest titer greater than 1:15, 360; rim pattern) and elevated anti-dsDNA binding (highest 96%) with variable degrees of hypocomplementemia. One animal had granular deposition of immunoglobulin and complement at the dermal-epidermal junction of clinically normal skin the presence of immune complex-induced glomerulonephritis. PMID:6178289

  14. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  15. Perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiovascular system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Polák, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for basic research and regenerative medicine. They offer the same advantages as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and moreover new perspectives for personalized medicine. iPSCs can be generated from adult somatic tissues by over-expression of a few defined transcription factors, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc. For regenerative medicine in particular, the technology provides great hope for patients with incurable diseases or potentially fatal disorders such as heart failure. The endogenous regenerative potentials of adult hearts are extremely limited and insufficient to compensate for myocardial loss occurring after myocardial infarction. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that iPSCs have the potential to significantly advance future cardiovascular regenerative therapies. Moreover, iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells of patients with genetic basis for their disease. This human iPSC derivates offer tremendous potential for new disease models. This paper reviews current applications of iPSCs in cardiovascular regenerative medicine and discusses progress in modeling cardiovascular diseases using iPSCs-derived cardiac cells. PMID:25595188

  16. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee;

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women...

  17. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Noise-induced temporal dynamics in Turing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schumacher, Linus J.

    2013-04-25

    We examine the ability of intrinsic noise to produce complex temporal dynamics in Turing pattern formation systems, with particular emphasis on the Schnakenberg kinetics. Using power spectral methods, we characterize the behavior of the system using stochastic simulations at a wide range of points in parameter space and compare with analytical approximations. Specifically, we investigate whether polarity switching of stochastic patterns occurs at a defined frequency. We find that it can do so in individual realizations of a stochastic simulation, but that the frequency is not defined consistently across realizations in our samples of parameter space. Further, we examine the effect of noise on deterministically predicted traveling waves and find them increased in amplitude and decreased in speed. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. A tightly inducible riboswitch system in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Akai, Hideto; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hess, Wolfgang R; Watanabe, Satoru

    2016-07-14

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that serve as experimental model organisms for the study of photosynthesis, environmental stress responses, and the production of biofuels. Genetic tools for bioengineering have been developed as a result of such studies. However, there is still room for improvement for the tight control of experimental protein expression in these microorganisms. Here, we describe an expression system controlled by a theophylline-responsive riboswitch that we have constructed in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We demonstrate that, in response to different theophylline concentrations, this riboswitch can tightly control green fluorescence protein expression in Synechocystis. Thus, this system is useful as a tool for genetic engineering and the synthetic biology of cyanobacteria. PMID:27250662

  20. Field-induced phase transitions in antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering experiments and magnetization measurements are carried out on cobalt bromide hexahydrate, of which 48% of the water molecules are replaced by deuterium oxide molecules. Results were compared with data obtained from non-deuterated cobalt bromide hexahydrate. Neutron scattering experiments showed the importance of the deuterium fraction. Interplay exists between the crystallographic system and the magnetic system, which is influenced by changing the deuterium fraction. Neutron scattering and magnetization experiments on partially deuterated RbFeCl3.2H2O and CsFeCl3.2H2O were performed to study the magnetic phase transitions in these quasi one-dimensional Ising compounds. The observed behaviour in the various phases can be described by the nucleation theory of chain reversals. (Auth.)

  1. Investigation of induced recirculation during planned ventilation system maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, C.J.; Scott, D F; Noll, J.D.; Voss, B.; Leonis, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) investigated ways to increase mine airflow to underground metal/nonmetal (M/NM) mine working areas to improve miners’ health and safety. One of those areas is controlled recirculation. Because the quantity of mine air often cannot be increased, reusing part of the ventilating air can be an effective alternative, if implemented properly, until the capacity of the present system is improved. The additional airflow can be used to provide effe...

  2. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  3. Systemic AA amyloidosis induced by liver cell adenoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Fievet, P; Sevestre, H; Boudjelal, M; Noel, L H; Kemeny, F; D. Franco; Delamarre, J; Capron, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a rare complication of benign tumours. This report describes a patient with hepatocellular adenoma associated with reactive AA amyloidosis. He had a nephrotic syndrome with deteriorating renal function and an increase of serum concentrations of acute phase proteins, mainly C-reactive protein. Resection of the tumour was followed by improvement in renal function and a marked decrease of the serum concentrations of acute phase proteins.

  4. Phase transitions and optically induced phenomena in cooperative systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fausti, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative systems form one of the few “terra incognita” left in condensed matter science. Even though all the constituent laws are known, the interplay between lattice, orbital, spin and charge degrees of freedom gives rise to a big variety of unconventional properties of which the nature is still widely debated. The interaction between light and matter lies at the very fundament of our knowledge of nature. Absorption, scattering, or diffraction technique are extremely insightful tools to e...

  5. How fast is optically induced electron transfer in organic mixed valence systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C; Moos, M; Schmiedel, A; Holzapfel, M; Schäfer, J; Kess, M; Engel, V

    2016-07-28

    The rate of thermally induced electron transfer in organic mixed valence compounds has thoroughly been investigated by e.g. temperature dependent ESR spectroscopy. However, almost nothing is known about the dynamics of optically induced electron transfer processes in such systems. Therefore, we investigated these processes in mixed valence compounds based on triphenylamine redox centres bridged by conjugated spacers by NIR transient absorption spectroscopy with fs-time resolution. These experiments revealed an internal conversion (IC) process to be on the order of 50-200 fs which is equivalent to the back electron transfer after optical excitation into the intervalence charge transfer band. This IC is followed by ultrafast cooling to the ground state within 1 ps. Thus, in the systems investigated optically induced electron transfer is about 3-4 orders of magnitude faster than thermally induced ET. PMID:27376572

  6. Local and systemic biochemical alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carlos At; Kayano, Anderson M; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Pontes, Adriana S; Furtado, Juliana L; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Zaqueo, Kayena D; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2012-01-01

    The local and systemic alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom (BaV) injection in mice were studied. BaV induced superoxide production by migrated neutrophils, mast cell degranulation and phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, BaV caused hemorrhage in dorsum of mice after 2hr post- injection. Three hours post-injection in gastrocnemius muscle, we also observed myonecrosis, which was assessed by the determination of serum and tissue CK besides the release of urea, but not creatinine and uric acid, indicating kidney alterations. BaV also induced the release of LDH and transaminases (ALT and AST) indicating tissue and liver abnormalities. In conclusion, the data indicate that BaV induces events of local and systemic importance. PMID:23487552

  7. Numerical analysis of mixing by electrothermal induced flow in microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, J. J.; Krishnamoorthy, S; Sundaram, S.

    2007-01-01

    An electrothermal flow induced chaotic mixing in microfluidic systems is studied analytically and numerically. The flow is induced due to the Coulombic and dielectric forces arising from the variation of the dielectric properties with respect to the temperature in the presence of an electric field. The numerical model is validated using an analytical solution derived for basic flow patterns in a simplified geometry. The computational model has been used to illustrate the mixing in microcavity...

  8. Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, A; Bardana, E J

    1991-05-01

    The effects of dietary manipulations on autoimmune disease are understood poorly. In this article, we detail our experience with a human subject who developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia while participating in a research study that required the ingestion of alfalfa seeds. Subsequent experimental studies in primates ingesting alfalfa sprout seeds and L-canavanine (a prominent amino acid constituent of alfalfa) is presented. The results of these studies indicate a potential toxic and immunoregulatory role of L-canavanine in the induction of a systemic lupus-like disease in primates. PMID:1862241

  9. Gadolinium contrast agent-induced CD163+ ferroportin+ osteogenic cells in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Bose, Chhanda; Shah, Sudhir V; Hall, Kimberly A; Hiatt, Kim M

    2013-09-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are linked to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency. The pathology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is characterized by abnormal tissue repair: fibrosis and ectopic ossification. The mechanisms by which gadolinium could induce fibrosis and ossification are not known. We examined in vitro the effect of a gadolinium-based contrast agent on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for phenotype and function relevant to the pathology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and osteogenic assays. We also examined tissues from patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, using IHC to identify the presence of cells with phenotype induced by gadolinium. Gadolinium contrast induced differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into a unique cellular phenotype--CD163(+) cells expressing proteins involved in fibrosis and bone formation. These cells express fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23, osteoblast transcription factors Runt-related transcription factor 2, and osterix, and show an osteogenic phenotype in in vitro assays. We show in vivo the presence of CD163(+)/procollagen-1(+)/osteocalcin(+) cells in the fibrotic and calcified tissues of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis patients. Gadolinium contrast-induced CD163(+)/ferroportin(+)/FGF23(+) cells with osteogenic potential may play a role in systemic fibrosis and ectopic ossification in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  10. Mechanistic insight into the norepinephrine-induced fibrosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Akihito; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Perera, Buddhini; Toki, Sayaka; Ogino, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is frequently observed in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, and cold- or stress-induced norepinephrine (NE) has been speculated to be associated with vasoconstriction. Objective was to elucidate the role of NE in fibrosis in SSc. IL-6 is a potent stimulator of collagen production in fibroblasts. NE enhanced IL-6 production and proliferation more significantly in SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts. Furthermore, the production of IL-6 and phosphorylation of p38 in SSc fibroblasts was enhanced by adrenergic receptor (AR)β agonist, isoproterenol, but not ARα agonist, oxymetazoline. ARβ blocker, propranolol, inhibited NE-induced IL-6 production and phosphorylation of p38 in SSc fibroblasts. NE-induced IL-6 was significantly inhibited by p38 inhibitor, SB203580, suggesting that NE-induced phosphorylation of p38 via ARβ enhances IL-6 production in SSc fibroblasts. NE-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 via ARα inhibited IL-6 production in SSc fibroblasts. Combined treatment with NE and endothelin-1 resulted in an additive increase in IL-6 production in SSc fibroblasts. NE-induced IL-6/IL-6 receptor trans-signaling increased the production of collagen type I in SSc fibroblasts, and both propranolol and SB203580 inhibited NE-induced collagen production. These results suggest that cold exposure and/or emotional stress-induced NE might contribute to the skin fibrosis via potentiation of IL-6 production from fibroblasts in SSc. PMID:27650973

  11. Mechanistic insight into the norepinephrine-induced fibrosis in systemic sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Akihito; Motegi, Sei-ichiro; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Perera, Buddhini; Toki, Sayaka; Ogino, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Raynaud’s phenomenon is frequently observed in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, and cold- or stress-induced norepinephrine (NE) has been speculated to be associated with vasoconstriction. Objective was to elucidate the role of NE in fibrosis in SSc. IL-6 is a potent stimulator of collagen production in fibroblasts. NE enhanced IL-6 production and proliferation more significantly in SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts. Furthermore, the production of IL-6 and phosphorylation of p38 in SSc fibroblasts was enhanced by adrenergic receptor (AR)β agonist, isoproterenol, but not ARα agonist, oxymetazoline. ARβ blocker, propranolol, inhibited NE-induced IL-6 production and phosphorylation of p38 in SSc fibroblasts. NE-induced IL-6 was significantly inhibited by p38 inhibitor, SB203580, suggesting that NE-induced phosphorylation of p38 via ARβ enhances IL-6 production in SSc fibroblasts. NE-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 via ARα inhibited IL-6 production in SSc fibroblasts. Combined treatment with NE and endothelin-1 resulted in an additive increase in IL-6 production in SSc fibroblasts. NE-induced IL-6/IL-6 receptor trans-signaling increased the production of collagen type I in SSc fibroblasts, and both propranolol and SB203580 inhibited NE-induced collagen production. These results suggest that cold exposure and/or emotional stress-induced NE might contribute to the skin fibrosis via potentiation of IL-6 production from fibroblasts in SSc. PMID:27650973

  12. The generalized Weierstrass system inducing surfaces of constant and nonconstant mean curvature in Euclidean three space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The generalized Weierstrass (GW) system is introduced and its correspondence with the associated two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model is reviewed. The method of symmetry reduction is systematically applied to derive several classes of invariant solutions for the GW system. The solutions can be used to induce constant mean curvature surfaces in Euclidean three space. Some properties of the system for the case of nonconstant mean curvature are introduced as well.

  13. Research of Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection System for Micro-fluidic Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jin-yuan; WANG Xiu-hua; ZHANG Hua-feng

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics such as signal noise ratio(SNR)[1-2] and sensitivity of the fluorescence detection system for micro-fluidic chip influence the performance of the whole system extremely.The confocal laser induced fluorescence detection system is presented.Based on the debugging of optical and circuit modules, the results of detecting the samples are given and analyzed theoretically,and the improved project is put forward.

  14. Thermal Induced Processes in Laminar System of Stainless Steel - Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on investigation of the laminar system 'stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti - Be' at thermal treatment. There have been determined sequences of phase transformations along with relative amount of iron-containing phases in the samples subjected to thermal beryllization. It has been revealed that thermal beryllization of stainless steel thin foils results in γ→α transformation and formation of the beryllides NiBe and FeBe2. It has also been revealed that direct γ→α- and reverse α→γ-transformations are accompanied by, correspondingly, formation and decomposition of the beryllide NiBe. It is shown that distribution of the formed phases within sample bulk is defined by local concentration of beryllium. Based on obtained experimental data there is proposed a physical model of phase transformations in stainless steel at thermal beryllization.

  15. Tyre induced vibrations of the car-trailer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, S.; Takács, D.; Stépán, G.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral and yaw dynamics of the car-trailer combination are analysed by means of a single track model. The equations of motion are derived rigorously by means of the Appell-Gibbs equations for constant longitudinal velocity of the vehicle. The tyres are described with the help of the so-called delayed tyre model, which is based on a brush model with pure rolling contact. The lateral forces and aligning torques of the tyre/road interaction are calculated via the instantaneous lateral deformations in the contact patches. The linear stability analysis of the rectilinear motion is performed via the analytically determined characteristic function of the system. Stability charts are constructed with respect to the vehicle longitudinal velocity and the payload position on the trailer. Self-excited lateral vibrations are detected with different vibration modes at low and at high longitudinal speeds of the vehicle. The effects of the tyre parameters are also investigated.

  16. Triggered Swarms and Induced Aftershock Sequences in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Natural geothermal systems, which are used for energy generation, are usually associated with high seismic activity. This can be related to the large-scale injection and extraction of fluids to enhance geothermal recovery. This results in the changes of the pore pressure and pore-elastic stress field and can stimulate the occurrence of earthquakes. These systems are also prone to triggering of seismicity by the passage of seismic waves generated by large distant main shocks. In this study, we analyze clustering and triggering of seismicity at several geothermal fields in California. Particularly, we consider the seismicity at the Geysers, Coso, and Salton Sea geothermal fields. We analyze aftershock sequences generated by local large events with magnitudes greater than 4.0 and earthquake swarms generated by several significant long distant main shocks. We show that the rate of the aftershock sequences generated by the local large events in the two days before and two days after the reference event can be modelled reasonably well by the time dependent Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. On the other hand, the swarms of activity triggered by large distant earthquakes cannot be described by the ETAS model. To model the increase in the rate of seismicity associated with triggering by large distant main shocks we introduce an additional time-dependent triggering mechanism into the ETAS model. In almost all cases the frequency-magnitude statistics of triggered sequences follow Gutenberg-Richter scaling to a good approximation. The analysis indicates that the seismicity triggered by relatively large local events can initiate sequences similar to regular aftershock sequences. In contrast, the distant main shocks trigger swarm like activity with faster decaying rates.

  17. Policy-induced market introduction of Generation IV reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 10 years ago the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) started the Generation IV Initiative (GenIV) with 9 other national governments with a positive ground attitude towards nuclear energy. Some of these Generation IV systems, like the fast reactors, are nearing the demonstration stage. The question on how their market introduction will be implemented becomes increasingly urgent. One main topic for future reactor technologies is the treatment of radioactive waste products. Technological solutions to this issue are being developed. One possible process is the transformation of long-living radioactive nuclides into short living ones; a process known as transmutation, which can be done in a nuclear reactor only. Various Generation IV reactor concepts are suitable for this process, and of these systems most experience has been gained with the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, both these first generation SFR plants and their Generation IV successors are designed as electricity generating plants, and therefore supposed to be commercially viable in the electricity markets. Various studies indicate that the generation costs of a combined LWR-(S)FR nuclear generating park (LWR: light water reactor) will be higher than that of an LWR-only park. To investigate the effects of the deployment of the different reactors and fuel cycles on the waste produced, resources used and costs incurred as a function of time, a dynamic fuel cycle assessment is performed. This study will focus on the waste impact of the introduction of a fraction of fast reactors in the European nuclear reactor park with a cost increase as described in the previous paragraph. The nuclear fuel cycle scenario code DANESS is used for this, as well as the nuclear park model of the EU-27 used for the previous study. (orig.)

  18. Tipping points in open systems: bifurcation, noise-induced and rate-dependent examples in the climate system

    CERN Document Server

    Ashwin, Peter; Vitolo, Renato; Cox, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Tipping points associated with bifurcations (B-tipping) or induced by noise (N-tipping) are recognized mechanisms that may potentially lead to sudden climate change. We focus here a novel class of tipping points, where a sufficiently rapid change to an input or parameter of a system may cause the system to "tip" or move away from a branch of attractors. Such rate-induced tipping, or {\\em R-tipping}, need not be associated with either bifurcations or noise. We present an example exhibiting all three types of tipping in a simple global energy balance model of the climate system, illustrating the possibility of dangerous rates of change even in the absence of noise and of bifurcations in the underlying quasistatic system.

  19. A self-inducible heterologous protein expression system in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, L; Marcion, G; Kriznik, A; Heydel, J M; Artur, Y; Garrido, C; Seigneuric, R; Neiers, F

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important experimental, medical and industrial cell factory for recombinant protein production. The inducible lac promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for heterologous protein expression in E. coli. Isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) is currently the most efficient molecular inducer for regulating this promoter's transcriptional activity. However, limitations have been observed in large-scale and microplate production, including toxicity, cost and culture monitoring. Here, we report the novel SILEX (Self-InducibLe Expression) system, which is a convenient, cost-effective alternative that does not require cell density monitoring or IPTG induction. We demonstrate the broad utility of the presented self-inducible method for a panel of diverse proteins produced in large amounts. The SILEX system is compatible with all classical culture media and growth temperatures and allows protein expression modulation. Importantly, the SILEX system is proven to be efficient for protein expression screening on a microplate scale. PMID:27611846

  20. Effects of the histaminergic system on the morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takamori, K; Misawa, M; Onodera, K

    1995-03-27

    The effects of an H2 receptor antagonist, a histidine decarboxylase inhibitor and a histamine precursor on the morphine-induced place preference in mice were examined. Morphine (1-7 mg/kg) produced a place preference in a dose-dependent manner. This morphine-induced place preference was significantly antagonized by the dopamine (DA) D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. The histamine precursor, L-histidine, attenuated the morphine (7 mg/kg)-induced place preference. On the other hand, the histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (alpha-FMH), significantly potentiated the morphine (1 mg/kg)-induced place preference. This potentiation was antagonized by SCH 23390. The H2 receptor antagonist zolantidine (0.3 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the morphine-induced place preference. Surprisingly, zolantidine (1 mg/kg) alone also produced a significant place preference. The zolantidine-induced place preference was antagonized by SCH 23390. In addition, zolantidine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly increased DA turnover (DA ratio) in the limbic forebrain (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), implying that zolantidine may activate the mesolimbic DA system. Moreover, co-administration of zolantidine dose-dependently increased morphine (10 mg/kg)-induced DA turnover in the limbic forebrain. These results suggest that the activation of histaminergic neurons may attenuate the rewarding effect of morphine, while the inhibition of histaminergic neurons may potentiate the rewarding effect of morphine. Furthermore, potentiation of the morphine-induced rewarding effect by inhibition of histaminergic neurons may be mediated by D1 receptors. We also demonstrated that the H2 receptor antagonist zolantidine may activate the mesolimbic DA system, and as a result, zolantidine itself produces a rewarding effect and potentiates the morphine-induced rewarding effect.

  1. Genotoxicity induced by saponified coconut oil surfactant in prokaryote systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Tirzah Braz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2004-11-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic substances with special properties and chemical structures that allow a reduction in interfacial tension, which permits an increase in molecule solubilization. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is an important characteristic of surfactants that determines their aggregate state, which is generally related to its functional mechanism. In this work the genotoxic potential of saponified coconut oil (SCO), a surfactant obtained from Cocos nucifera, was analyzed using prokaryote systems. DNA strand breaks were not observed after treatment of a plasmid with SCO. Negative results were also obtained in the SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli strains PQ35 and PQ37. A moderate toxicity of SCO was observed after treatment of strain CC104 with a concentration above its CMC, in which micelles were found. Nevertheless, this treatment was not cytotoxic to a CC104mutMmutY strain. Furthermore, in this DNA repair-deficient strain treatment with a SCO dose below its CMC, in which only monomers were found, demonstrated the possibility of an antioxidant effect, since a reduction in spontaneous mutagenesis frequency was observed. Finally, in an Ames test without metabolic activation mutagenicity induction was observed in strains TA100 and TA104 with treatment doses below the CMC. The cytotoxic, antioxidant and mutagenic effects of SCO can be influenced by the aggregational state.

  2. A relation between electromagnetically induced absorption resonances and nonlinear magneto-optics in Lambda-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Budker, D

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on Lambda-resonances in alkali metal vapors (E. Mikhailov, I. Novikova, Yu. V. Rostovtsev, and G. R. Welch, quant-ph/0309171, and references therein) has revealed a novel type of electromagnetically induced absorption resonance that occurs in three-level systems under specific conditions normally associated with electromagnetically induced transparency. In this note, we show that these resonances have a direct analog in nonlinear magneto-optics, and support this conclusion with a calculation for a J=1->J'=0 system interacting with a single nearly circularly polarized light field in the presence of a weak longitudinal magnetic field.

  3. Photo-induced phenomena in correlated electron system with multi-degree of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, S; Kanamori, Y [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Matsueda, H, E-mail: ishihara@cmpt.phys.tohoku.ac.j [Sendai National College of Technology, Sendai, 989-3128 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of photo-induced dynamics in a correlated electron system where electronic charge couples with spin and lattice. This is motivated by the recent experiments in perovskite manganites and related compounds. The generalized double exchange model is analyzed by utilizing the two complementary methods, the exact diagonalization and inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock methods. Time evolutions of the optical absorption spectra, spin correlation, and charge correlation are calculated. It is shown that photo-induced dynamics in this system is governed by strong coupling between itinerant electrons and localized spins.

  4. Photo-induced phenomena in correlated electron system with multi-degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical study of photo-induced dynamics in a correlated electron system where electronic charge couples with spin and lattice. This is motivated by the recent experiments in perovskite manganites and related compounds. The generalized double exchange model is analyzed by utilizing the two complementary methods, the exact diagonalization and inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock methods. Time evolutions of the optical absorption spectra, spin correlation, and charge correlation are calculated. It is shown that photo-induced dynamics in this system is governed by strong coupling between itinerant electrons and localized spins.

  5. CRH engagement of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system mediates stress-induced anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jordan G.; Al-Hasani, Ream; Siuda, Edward R.; Hong, Daniel Y.; Norris, Aaron J.; Ford, Christopher P.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) system is one of the first systems engaged following a stressful event. While numerous groups have demonstrated that LC-NE neurons are activated by many different stressors, the underlying neural circuitry and the role of this activity in generating stress-induced anxiety has not been elucidated. Using a combination of in vivo chemogenetics, optogenetics, and retrograde tracing we determine that increased tonic activity of the LC-NE system is necessary and sufficient for stress-induced anxiety and aversion. Selective inhibition of LC-NE neurons during stress prevents subsequent anxiety-like behavior. Exogenously increasing tonic, but not phasic, activity of LC-NE neurons is alone sufficient for anxiety-like and aversive behavior. Furthermore, endogenous corticotropin releasing hormone+ (CRH+) LC inputs from the amygdala increase tonic LC activity, inducing anxiety-like behaviors. These studies position the LC-NE system as a critical mediator of acute stress-induced anxiety and offer a potential intervention for preventing stress-related affective disorders. PMID:26212712

  6. Observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Zeeman-Sublevel System in Rubidium Atomic Vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖峰; 郭瑞民; 陈帅; 张宇; 李路明; 陈徐宗

    2003-01-01

    We observed electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevel system using rubidium atomic vapour at the temperature of 75℃, in which the width of the EIT signal is only 0.6 MHz. Two different methods were performed to observe the EIT signal in our experiment.

  7. Delay-Induced Consensus and Quasi-Consensus in Multi-Agent Dynamical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming; Ren, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies consensus and quasi-consensus in multi-agent dynamical systems. A linear consensus protocol in the second-order dynamics is designed where both the current and delayed position information is utilized. Time delay, in a common perspective, can induce periodic oscillations or even c

  8. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the peripheral nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Mølck, A.-M.; Bøgh, I. B.;

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a common acute side effect in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, especially during intensive insulin therapy. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) depends on glucose as its primary energy source during normoglycaemia and, consequently, it may be particularly...

  9. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in a multi-V-type system in cesium atomic vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建明; 尹王保; 汪丽蓉; 肖连团; 贾锁堂

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency is observed in a three-level multi-V-type system in cesium vapour atroom temperature. The absorption property is measured and the hyperfine structures of atomic states can be determined.The results of the experiment agree with the theoretical analysis.

  10. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structure

  11. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design an

  12. Characterization of Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants that are affected in systemically induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Buchala, Anthony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r triggers jasmonate (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is effective against different pathogens. Arabidopsis genotypes unable to express rhizobacteria-mediated ISR against the bacterial pat

  13. Homology in systemic neutrophil response induced by human experimental endotoxemia and by trauma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Pillay, J.; Pickkers, P.; Leenen, L.P.H.; Koenderman, L.

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of the trauma-induced innate immune responses is hampered by the wide variability in patients, type of trauma, and environmental factors. To circumvent this heterogeneity, we examined whether the systemic innate immune response toward human experimental endotoxemia is similar to th

  14. Noise-induced synchronization in a system with a 1 / f power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    A spatially distributed system with 1/ f fluctuations at coupled nonequilibrium phase transitions have been simulated by two nonlinear stochastic equations. It is shown numerically that at sufficiently high intensity of white noise in the system there arises noise-induced synchronization, which is a nonequilibrium phase transition. To the critical point of the nonequilibrium phase transition corresponds the 1/ f power spectrum and the maximum of informational entropy.

  15. The destabilization paradox applied to friction-induced vibrations in an aircraft braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillot, Fabrice; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Mazet, Guy-Bernard; Hardouin, Nicolas; Jezequel, Louis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Mechanisms of friction are known as an important source of vibrations in a large variety of engineering systems, where the emergence of oscillations is noisy and can cause severe damage to the system. The reduction or elimination of these vibrations is then an industrial issue that requires the attention of engineers and researchers together. Friction-induced vibrations have been the matter of several investigations, considering experimental, analytical, and numerica...

  16. Systemic LPS administration induces brain inflammation but not dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-hye

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that brain inflammation is important in aggravation of brain damage and/or that inflammation causes neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, systemic inflammation has also emerged as a risk factor for PD. In the present study, we evaluated how systemic inflammation induced by intravenous (iv) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injection affected brain inflammation and neuronal damage in the rat. Interestingly, almost all brain inflammatory response...

  17. Dependence on state preparation of noise induced effects in multiqubit systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tzemos, A. C.; Ghikas, D. P. K.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of multiqubit systems by an external noise can induce various effects like decoherence, stochastic resonance and anti-resonance, and noise-shielding. We investigate how the appearance of these effects on disentanglement time depends on the initial preparation of the systems. We present results for 2, 3 and 4-qubit chains in various arrangements and observe a clear dependence on the combination of initial geometry of the state space and the placement of noise. Finally, we see ...

  18. Longitudinal migration and inducible displacement of the Mobility Total Ankle System

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Fong, Jason W; Wilson, David A.; Allan W Hennigar; Francis, Patricia A; Glazebrook, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose RSA can be used for early detection of unstable implants. We assessed the micromotion of the Mobility Total Ankle System over 2 years, to evaluate the stability of the bone-implant interface using radiostereometric analysis measurements of longitudinal migration and inducible displacement. Patients and methods 23 patients were implanted with the Mobility system. Median age was 62 (28–75) years and median BMI was 28.8 (26.0–34.5). Supine radiostereometric analysis examin...

  19. Effect of bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse of steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-qiang; Usmani, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse resistance of steel-framed structures using OpenSees. Two types of bracing systems (vertical and hat bracing) and various fire scenarios (single and multi-compartment fires) are considered. Four collapse mechanisms of steel frames in fire are found through parametric studies. General collapse is characterized by the collapse of the heated bay followed by lateral drift of adjacent cool bays. ...

  20. Flutamide-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al Maruf; Peter O’Brien

    2014-01-01

    Flutamide (FLU) is a competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor which has been reported to induce severe liver injury in some patients. Several experimental models suggested that an episode of inflammation during drug treatment predisposes animals to tissue injury. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of FLU in isolated rat hepatocytes using an in vitro oxidative stress inflammation system were investigated in this study. When a nontoxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system (glucose/...

  1. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

  2. Two electromagnetically induced transparency windows and an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level tripod atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the experimental observations and theoretical calculations of two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows and an enhanced EIT signal in a four-level tripod system of D1 line of 87Rb atoms. The two EIT dips produced by a strong coupling beam and a weak trigger beam were observed in the absorption spectrum of probe field, when the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was different from that of the coupling beam. When the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was near or equal to that of the coupling beam, the total depth of the EIT dip created by the coupling beam clearly became larger. The experimental measurements were in agreement with theoretical calculations

  3. Two electromagnetically induced transparency windows and an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level tripod atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shujing; Yang Xudong; Cao Xuemin; Xie Changde; Wang Hai [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2007-08-28

    We present the experimental observations and theoretical calculations of two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows and an enhanced EIT signal in a four-level tripod system of D1 line of {sup 87}Rb atoms. The two EIT dips produced by a strong coupling beam and a weak trigger beam were observed in the absorption spectrum of probe field, when the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was different from that of the coupling beam. When the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was near or equal to that of the coupling beam, the total depth of the EIT dip created by the coupling beam clearly became larger. The experimental measurements were in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  4. Modeling noise-induced resonance in an excitable system: an alternative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurujjaman, Md

    2010-03-01

    Recently, it has been observed [Md. Nurujjaman, Phy. Rev. E 80, 015201(R) (2009)] that in an excitable system, one can maintain noise-induced coherency in the coherence resonance by blocking the destructive effect of the noise on the system at higher noise level. This phenomenon of constant coherence resonance (CCR) cannot be explained by the existing way of simulation of the model equations of an excitable system with added noise. In this paper, we have proposed a general model which explains the noise-induced resonance phenomenon CCR as well as coherence resonance (CR) and stochastic resonance (SR). The simulation has been carried out considering the basic mechanism of noise-induced resonance phenomena: noise only perturbs the system control parameter to excite coherent oscillations, taking proper precautions so that the destructive effect of noise does not affect the system. In this approach, the CR has been obtained from the interference between the system output and noise and the SR has been obtained by adding noise and a subthreshold signal. This also explains the observation of the frequency shift of coherent oscillations in the CCR with noise level.

  5. Low-dose effect of ethanol on locomotor activity induced by activation of the mesolimbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, G V; Randall, P K; Erickson, C K

    1995-06-01

    Four experiments were designed to study the ability of 0.5 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) intraperitoneally to modify locomotor activity induced by drugs that interact with different sites in the mesolimbic system (MLS) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Locomotor activity was measured in a doughnut-shaped circular arena after various treatments. EtOH alone did not alter locomotor activity in any of the experiments. Amphetamine (AMP, intraperitoneally or intraaccumbens) increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated AMP-induced locomotor activity. Bilateral infusion of GABAA antagonist picrotoxin (PIC) into the ventral tegmental area also increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated PIC-induced locomotor activity. On the other hand, the interaction between bilateral infusion of mu-receptor agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-NMe-Phe-Gly-ol (DAGO) and EtOH on locomotor activity is complex. The highest dose of DAGO that significantly increased locomotor activity was not affected by the presence of EtOH. But, with lower doses of DAGO that either had no effect or a small increase in locomotor activity, the combination of EtOH and DAGO increased and attenuated locomotor activity, respectively. Results from this study support our hypothesis that a low dose of EtOH that does not modify behavior can interact with neurotransmitter systems in the brain and modify drug-induced locomotor activity. Modification of this drug-induced locomotor activity by a low dose of EtOH is dependent on the rate of ongoing locomotor behavior induced by drug and the neurotransmitter substrate that the drug modified to induce locomotor behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Naringin abrogated radiation induced oxidative stress through modulation of redox regulated cellular signaling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is widely used as major diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation are due to generation of reactive oxygen species. The amounts of ionizing radiation that can be given to treat malignant tumours are often limited by toxicity in the surrounding normal tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Naringin (NG), a natural flavonoid, present in many plant parts against radiation induced oxidative stress with an evidence based exploration of the mechanism involved. Isolated murine splenocyte were irradiated with γ radiation (6 Gy) along with/without different concentrations of NG (50 and 100 μM). Biochemical, immunoblot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence study was subject to be performed to observe its molecular mechanisms of action. Pretreatment with NG significantly prevented the radiation induced intracellular ROS generation, therefore prevented cellular TBARS formation and development of cellular nitrite. NG showed the significant reduction in nuclear DNA damage with respect to irradiated splenocyte through inhibition of DNA-PKcs and p-γH2AX. It recovered radiation induced reduced cell viability through modulation of redox regulated cell signaling system. It resulted in significant inhibition of radiation induced G1/S phase cell cycle arrest mediated by modulation of p53 dependent p21/WAF1 expression followed by Cyclin E and CDK2 expression. NG was involved in blocking radiation induced p38 function; reversed radiation mediated differential stress response through inhibition of NF-κB pathway. It prevented p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα, p-p65, COX2 expression. It also reversed the radiation induced p38/NF-κB guided inflammatory development. Thus it down regulated radiation induced CRP, MCP-1, and iNOS2 gene expression. This novel role of naringin provides a basis for therapeutic applications in future against radiation induced molecular and cellular functional

  7. DNA damage-induced cell death: lessons from the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena Lobo Borges; Rafael Linden; Jean YJ Wang

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage can, but does not always, induce cell death. While several pathways linking DNA damage signals to mitochondria-dependent and -independent death machineries have been elucidated, the connectivity of these pathways is subject to regulation by multiple other factors that are not well understood. We have proposed two conceptual models to explain the delayed and variable cell death response to DNA damage: integrative surveillance versus autonomous pathways. In this review, we discuss how these two models may explain the in vivo regulation of cell death induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in the developing central nervous system, where the death response is regulated by radiation dose, cell cycle status and neuronal development.

  8. Egr-1 Induces a Profibrotic Injury/Repair Gene Program Associated with Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Bhattacharyya; Sargent, Jennifer L.; Pan Du; Simon Lin; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Kazuhiko Takehara; Whitfield, Michael L.; John Varga

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. The immediate-early gene Egr-1 is an inducible transcription factor with key roles in mediating fibrotic TGF-ß responses. To elucidate Egr-1 function in SSc-associated fibrosis, we examined change in gene expression induced by Egr-1 in human fibroblasts at the genome-wide level. Using microarray expression an...

  9. Absorption-Dispersion Properties in a Four-Level Atomic System with Vacuum-Induced Coherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua; LI Jia-Hua; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; PENG Ju-Cun

    2005-01-01

    We discuss and analyze absorption-dispersion response for the probe field in a typical four-level atomic system with vacuum-induced coherence (VIC) arising from the cross coupling pathways associated with a pair of upper excited hyperfine levels. We find that VIC effect can preserve electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by using the detailed numerical simulations based on the density-matrix equations and analytical calculations in the dressed-state picture. We also show that the atomic hyperfine structure cannot be a hindrance to obtaining EIT.

  10. Absorption-Dispersion Properties in a Four-Level Atomic System with Vacuum-Induced Coherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIHua; LIJia-Hua; ZHANZhi-Ming; PENGJu-Cun

    2005-01-01

    We discuss and analyze absorption-dispersion response for the probe field in a typical four-level atomic system with vacuum-induced coherence (VIC) arising from the cross coupling pathways associated with a pair of upper excited hyperfine levels. We find that VIC effect can preserve electromagnetically induced transparency (FIT) by using the detailed numerical simulations based on the density-matrix equations and analytical calculations in the dressed-state picture. We also show that the atomic hyperfine structure cannot be a hindrance to obtaining EIT.

  11. An optically coupled system for quantitative monitoring of MRI gradient currents induced into endocardial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, E; Calcagnini, G; Triventi, M; Delogu, A; Del Guercio, M; Angeloni, A; Bartolini, P

    2013-01-01

    The time-varying gradient fields generated during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures have the potential to induce electrical current on implanted endocardial leads. Whether this current can result in undesired cardiac stimulation is unknown. This paper presents an optically coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the currents induced by the gradient fields into endocardial leads during MRI procedures. Our system is based on a microcontroller that works as analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and sends the current signal acquired from the lead to an optical high-speed light-emitting-diode transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light outside the MRI chamber, to a photodiode receiver and then to an acquisition board connected to a PC. The preliminary characterization of the performances of the system is also presented. PMID:24110209

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency and controllable group velocity in a five-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jin; Shangqing Gong; Yueping Niu; Shiqi Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The optical properties of a five-level atomic system composed of a A-type four-level atomic and a tripod four-level atomic systems are investigated. It is found that the behaviors of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and group velocity can be controlled by choosing appropriate parameters with the interacting dark resonances. In particular, when all the fields are on resonance, the slow light at the symmetric transparency windows with a much broader EIT width is obtained by tuning the intensity of the coupling field in comparison with its sub-system, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light.

  13. Noise-induced standing waves in oscillatory systems with time-delayed feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Stich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems, time-delay feedback can lead to the instability of uniform oscillations with respect to formation of standing waves. Here, we investigate how the presence of additive, Gaussian white noise can induce the appearance of standing waves. Combining analytical solutions of the model with spatio-temporal simulations, we find that noise can promote standing waves in regimes where the deterministic uniform oscillatory modes are stabilized. As the deterministic phase boundary is approached, the spatio-temporal correlations become stronger, such that even small noise can induce standing waves in this parameter regime. With larger noise strengths, standing waves could be induced at finite distances from the (deterministic) phase boundary. The overall dynamics is defined through the interplay of noisy forcing with the inherent reaction-diffusion dynamics.

  14. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system with nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the Talbot effect resulting from the repeatedly self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field under the Fresnel near-field regime. By launching the probe beam into an optically induced atomic lattice (established by interfering two coupling fields) inside a thermal rubidium vapor cell, we can obtain an electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) on probe beam in a coherent three-level $\\Lambda$-type Doppler-free atomic configuration with the assistance of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, which can modify and greatly enhance the Kerr nonlinearity near atomic resonance. The EIG patterns out of the cell can repeat the image at the output plane of the cell at integer multiples of Talbot length, which agree well with the theoretical prediction [Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 081108 (2011)]. Such first demonstrated EIT Talbot effect in a coherent atomic system may pave a lensless and nondestructive way for imaging ultracold atoms or molecules.

  15. The Arabidopsis ISR1 locus is required for rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance against different pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, non-pathogenic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria trigger an induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In contrast to SAR, WCS417r-mediated ISR is controlled by a salicylic

  16. Experiment and application of parameter-induced stochastic resonance in an over-damped random linear system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Shi-Qi; Hou Min-Jie; Jia Chun-Hua; He Ji-Rong; Gu Tian-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the parameter-induced stochastic resonance using experimental methods in an over-damped random linear system with asymmetric dichotomous noise. Non-monotonic dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on the system parameter is observed. Several potential applications of parameter-induced stochastic resonance are given in circuits.

  17. Systemic inflammation induces anxiety disorder through CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wang, M; Guo, Y Y; Sun, T; Li, Y J; Yang, Q; Zhang, K; Liu, S B; Zhao, M G; Wu, Y M

    2016-08-01

    It is evidenced that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorder, as well as the dysfunction of glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Chemokine CXCL12 has been reported taking part in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, however, the roles of CXCL12 in the development of anxiety are still unclear. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced anxiety-like behaviors in adult mice as measured by elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Astrocytes were responsible for CXCL12 induction upon LPS challenge in hippocampus and amygdala, and microinjection of CXCL12 into amygdala induced mice anxiety-like behaviors. AMD3100, which is an antagonist for CXCL12 receptor CXCR4, prevented the anxiety behaviors induced by microinjection of CXCL12 into amygdala as well as injection i.p of LPS. Knockdown of CXCR4 expression in neurons using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) significantly blocked anxiety behaviors mediated by CXCL12 i.c injection. Furthermore, AMD3100 or shCXCR4 prevented the impairment of nesting ability induced by CXCL12 in mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the neurons of basolateral amygdala (BLA) revealed that CXCL12 enhanced glutamatergic transmission by increasing sEPSC frequency in the amygdala. AMD3100 inhibited the excitatory glutamatergic neural transmission and involved in the development of anxiety through CXCR4. These findings provide direct evidence that alterations of CXCL12 in BLA play critical roles in the development of anxiety induced by systemic inflammation and that CXCR4 may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammation-induced anxiety. PMID:26952745

  18. Predictive Model for Temperature-Induced Deformation of Robot Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonyapak, Pranchalee

    The positioning accuracy and repeatability of a robot are critical for many industrial applications. Drift in repeatability can occur with changes in environmental and internal conditions, such as those seen with temperature-induced deformation. Thermal instability causes dimensional deformation, and a warm-up cycle is typically required to bring the robot to a thermally stable working condition. The elimination of warm-up cycles will ultimately enhance the positioning accuracy of the robots, their productivity, and reduce unnecessary energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to develop a robot controller algorithm that would provide, a priori, compensation for temperature-induced deformation associated with warm-up in robot mechanical systems. The research started at the fundamental stage of gaining insight into the thermal behaviour and corresponding temperature-induced deformation of simplified, i.e., one-dimensional, robot mechanical systems consisting of slender links and heat sources. The systems were studied using concomitant experimental, numerical and analytical models to provide cross-checking of the results. For the experimental model, the deformation was measured by tracking the drift of a laser diode spot across a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera chip. A non-contact measurement system consisting of an infrared camera, a CCD camera and a laser diode was developed to provide high accuracy measurement for the deformation. The numerical model was generated with a coupled thermal-mechanical finite element analysis incorporating thermal effects due to conduction and convection. The models were tested with the analytical model that was further extended using a finite difference technique. Once the three models showed excellent agreement, it was possible to develop a controller algorithm. Deformations predicted by the finite difference model were used as input for a validation experiment of the compensation algorithm. Results of the

  19. Rapid modification of proteins using a rapamycin-inducible tobacco etch virus protease system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian J Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to disrupt the function of a specific protein on a rapid time scale provides a powerful tool for biomedical research. Specific proteases provide a potential method to selectively cleave a chosen protein, but rapid control of protease activity is difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A heterologous expression system for rapid target-directed proteolysis in mammalian cells was developed. The system consists of an inducible NIa protease from the tobacco etch virus (TEVp and a chosen protein into which a TEVp substrate recognition sequence (TRS has been inserted. Inducible activity was conferred to the TEVp using rapamycin-controlled TEVp fragment complementation. TEVp activity was assayed using a FRET-based reporter construct. TEVp expression was well tolerated by mammalian cells and complete cleavage of the substrate was possible. Cleavage at 37 degrees C proceeded exponentially with a time constant of approximately 150 minutes. Attempts to improve cleavage efficiency were hampered by substantial background activity, which was attributed to inherent affinity between the TEVp fragments. A second TEVp assay, based on changes in inactivation of a modified K(V3.4 channel, showed that functional properties of a channel can be using altered using an inducible TEVp system. Similar levels of background activity and variability were observed in both electrophysiological and FRET assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that an optimum level of TEVp expression leading to sufficient inducible activity (with minimal background activity exists but the variability in expression levels between cells makes the present system rather impractical for single cell experiments. The system is likely to be more suitable for experiments in which the cell-to-cell variability is less of an issue; for example, in experiments involving large populations of cells.

  20. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions.

  1. Suggesting a possible role of CA1 histaminergic system in harmane-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Mashaghi, Elham; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2013-11-27

    A number of tremorogenic β-carboline alkaloids such as harmane are naturally present in the human food chain. They are derived from medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy. In the present study, effects of the histaminergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmane-induced amnesia were examined. One-trial step-down was used to assess memory retention in adult male mice. The results showed that pre-training intra-CA1 administration of histamine (5μg/mouse), ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist; at the doses of 0.25 and 0.5μg/mouse) and pyrilamine (H1 receptor antagonist; at the dose of 5μg/mouse) decreased memory formation. Pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12mg/kg) also decreased memory formation. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of histamine (2.5μg/mouse) could reverse harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.)-induced impairment of memory. On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold doses of ranitidine (0.0625μg/mouse) and pyrilamine (2.5μg/mouse) increased harmane-induced impairment of memory. In conclusion, the present findings suggest the involvement of the CA1 histaminergic system in harmane-induced impairment of memory formation.

  2. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. PMID:26364584

  3. Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Martina; Blattner, Ariane C; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degradation is therefore of considerable interest for controlled rapid elimination of gene function. To this end, a degradation system was developed in yeast exploiting TIR1, a plant F box protein, which can recruit proteins with an auxin-inducible degron to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but only in the presence of the phytohormone auxin. Here we demonstrate that the auxin-inducible degradation system functions efficiently also in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither auxin nor TIR1 expression have obvious toxic effects in this organism, and in combination they result in rapid degradation of a target protein fused to the auxin-inducible degron. PMID:27010248

  4. Systems and methods for locating and imaging proppant in an induced fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-02-02

    Born Scattering Inversion (BSI) systems and methods are disclosed. A BSI system may be incorporated in a well system for accessing natural gas, oil and geothermal reserves in a geologic formation beneath the surface of the Earth. The BSI system may be used to generate a three-dimensional image of a proppant-filled hydraulically-induced fracture in the geologic formation. The BSI system may include computing equipment and sensors for measuring electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the fracture before and after the fracture is generated, adjusting the parameters of a first Born approximation model of a scattered component of the surface electromagnetic fields using the measured electromagnetic fields, and generating the image of the proppant-filled fracture using the adjusted parameters.

  5. Optical Analog to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Cascaded Ring-Resonator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Hua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical methods has shown great potential in slow light and sensing applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a coupled resonator induced transparency system with three cascaded ring coupled resonators in a silicon chip. The structure was modeled by using the transfer matrix method. Influences of various parameters including coupling ratio of couplers, waveguide loss and additional loss of couplers on transmission characteristic and group index have been investigated theoretically and numerically in detail. The transmission character of the system was measured by the vertical grating coupling method. The enhanced quality factor reached 1.22 × 105. In addition, we further test the temperature performance of the device. The results provide a new method for the manipulation of light in highly integrated optical circuits and sensing applications. PMID:27463720

  6. An Efficient Light-Inducible P53 Expression System for Inhibiting Proliferation of Bladder Cancer Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan; Dong, Liang; Wang, Weiming; Liu, Yuchen; Huang, Weiren; Cai, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetic gene expression systems enable spatial-temporal modulation of gene transcription and cell behavior. Although applications in biomedicine are emerging, the utility of optogenetic gene switches remains elusive in cancer research due to the relative low gene activation efficiency. Here, we present an optimized CRISPR-Cas9-based light-inducible gene expression device that controls gene transcription in a dose-dependent manner. To prove the potential utility of this device, P53 was tested as a functional target in the bladder cancer cell models. It was illustrated that the light-induced P53 inhibited proliferation of 5637 and UMUC-3 cell effectively. The “light-on” gene expression system may demonstrate a novel therapeutic strategy for bladder cancer intervention. PMID:27766041

  7. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Täuber, M G; Kennedy, S L; Tureen, J H; Lowenstein, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined whether experimental pneumococcal meningitis induced the 72-kd heat shock protein (HSP72), a sensitive marker of neuronal stress in other models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Brain injury was characterized by vasculitis, cerebritis, and abscess formation in the cortex of infected animals. The extent of these changes correlated with the size of the inoculum (P less than 0.003) and with pathophysiologic parameters of disease severity, i.e., cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactat...

  8. Systemic but not mucosal immunity induced by AVA prevents inhalational anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Klinman, Dennis M.; Currie, Debra; Lee, Gloria; Grippe, Vanessa; Merkel, Tod

    2007-01-01

    Improved vaccines and adjuvants are being developed to reduce the threat posed by a terrorist attack involving aerosolized anthrax spores. Nevertheless, uncertainty persists concerning the relative benefits of inducing mucosal vs systemic immunity to host survival following inhalational exposure to anthrax spores. This work examines the effect of delivering the licensed human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) combined with a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant intraperitoneally or i...

  9. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  11. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Xijia Zhou; Zhigang Liu; Shan Xu; Weiwei Zhang; Jun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation ...

  12. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structures after 2013, as described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), or can be used for rapid prototyping in research applications. The key point is to combine the throughp...

  13. Pressure-induced recovery of Fourier's law in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Dye Sk

    2016-07-01

    We report the two typical models of normal heat conduction in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems. They show the Arrhenius and the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We construct the two corresponding phenomenologies, transition-state theory of thermally activated dissociation and the pressure-induced crossover between two fixed points in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Compressibility yields the ballistic fixed point, whose scaling is observed in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) β lattices. PMID:27575085

  14. Mechanotransduction-Induced Lipid Production System with High Robustness and Controllability for Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung Kwon; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability. PMID:27609701

  15. The role of the bacterial mismatch repair system in SOS-induced mutagenesis: a theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is performed of the possible role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system in the ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis of Escherichia coli bacterial cells. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the bacterial mismatch repair system is developed. Within this model, the key pathways of this type of repair are simulated on the basis of modern experimental data related to its mechanisms. Here we have modelled in detail five main pathways of DNA misincorporation removal with different DNA exonucleases. Using our calculations, we have tested the hypothesis that the bacterial mismatch repair system is responsible for the removal of the nucleotides misincorporated by DNA polymerase V (the UmuD'2C complex) during ultraviolet-induced SOS response. For the theoretical analysis of the mutation frequency, we have combined the proposed mathematical approach with the model of SOS-induced mutagenesis in the E.coli bacterial cell developed earlier. Our calculations support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair influences the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation

  16. Induced respiratory system modeling by high frequency chest compression using lumped system identification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong Wan; O'Clock, George; Zhu, Xiaoming; Parhi, Keshab K; Warwick, Warren J

    2009-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) treatment systems are used to promote mucus transport and mitigate pulmonary system clearance problems to remove sputum from the airways in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Every HFCC system consists of a pump generator, one or two hoses connected to a vest, to deliver the pulsation. There are three different waveforms in use; symmetric sine, the asymmetric sine and the trapezoid waveforms. There have been few studies that compared the efficacy of a sine waveform with the HFCC pulsations. In this study we present a model of the respiratory system for a young normal subject who is one of co-authors. The input signal is the pressure applied by the vest to chest, at a frequency of 6Hz. Using the system model simulation, the effectiveness of different source waveforms is evaluated and compared by observing the waveform response associated with air flow at the mouth. Also the study demonstrated that the ideal rectangle wave produced the maximum peak air flow, and followed by the trapezoid, triangle and sine waveform. The study suggests that a pulmonary system evaluation or modeling effort for CF patient might be useful as a method to optimize frequency and waveform structure choices for HFCC therapeutic intervention.

  17. Radiation Induced Formation of Acrylated Palm Oil Nanoparticles using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Microemulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the preparation of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) nanoparticles using aqueous Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) microemulsion system. This microemulsion system which contains the dispersed APO nano droplets was subjected to the gamma irradiation to induce the formation of the crosslinked APO nanoparticle. After irradiation at higher doses, the size of APO nanoparticles was transformed from a submicron-sized to a nano-sized of the particles. Size decreasing might be due to the intermolecular and the intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during the irradiation process. (author)

  18. System for Simulating the Embrittlement induced by Creep in Steel Weld

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, Koreaki; Suzuki, Jippei; Kondo, Takeshi; Marui, Mitsugu; 玉置, 維昭; 鈴木, 実平; 近藤, 武司; 丸井, 賦

    1990-01-01

    Welded Zones of some Cr-Mo steels are susceptible to the embrittlement when their weldments are used for high temperature services. This embrittlement appears as the phenomena of the low-ductility creep-fracture (LDCP), and the temper-embrittlement induced by creep (TEIC). A system which reproduces those phenomena in laboratory was proposed in this paper. This system was composed of the simulator of weld-thermal-cycle and the machine for creep-loading. The method and conditions for using this...

  19. A review of microbial induced corrosion in nuclear power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licina, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) relevant to nuclear power plant systems is reviewed. The long construction times associated with nuclear plants and the large number of redundant or standby systems where water is allowed to remain stagnant for long periods of time produce conditions under which MIC can occur. Carbon and low alloy steels, stainless steels, and copper alloy are all susceptible to MIC in raw water applications. Methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of MIC during construction, operation, and lay-up are discussed. Visual examination is noted to be particularly useful in performing preliminary assessments of MIC.

  20. A review of microbial induced corrosion in nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) relevant to nuclear power plant systems is reviewed. The long construction times associated with nuclear plants and the large number of redundant or standby systems where water is allowed to remain stagnant for long periods of time produce conditions under which MIC can occur. Carbon and low alloy steels, stainless steels, and copper alloy are all susceptible to MIC in raw water applications. Methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of MIC during construction, operation, and lay-up are discussed. Visual examination is noted to be particularly useful in performing preliminary assessments of MIC

  1. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Doppler-broadened five-level systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azeem B Mirza; Suneel Singh

    2014-02-01

    We study electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) of a probe field in a Dopplerbroadened five-level K-type atomic system driven by three strong laser (coupling) fields. Effect of wave-vector mismatch occurring when the coupling field frequency is higher than that of the probe field frequency ($_c < _p$) are considered. Under the influence of the coherent coupling fields, the steady-state linear susceptibility of the probe laser shows that the system can have single, double or triple EIT windows depending on the amplitude and detuning of the coupling fields.

  2. Modeling the induced mutation process in bacterial cells with defects in excision repair system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, A. N.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Parkhomenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli cells with defects in the uvrA and polA genes has been developed. The model describes in detail the reaction kinetics for the excision repair system. The number of mismatches as a result of translesion synthesis is calculated for both wild-type and mutant cells. The effect of temporal modulation of the number of single-stranded DNA during postreplication repair has been predicted. A comparison of effectiveness of different repair systems has been conducted.

  3. First Observation of Planet-Induced X-ray Emission: The System HD 179949

    OpenAIRE

    Saar, S. H.; Cuntz, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Hall, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first observation of planet-induced stellar X-ray activity, identified for the HD 179949 system, using Chandra / ACIS-S. The HD 179949 system consists of a close-in giant planet orbiting an F9V star. Previous ground-based observations already showed enhancements in Ca II K in phase with the planetary orbit. We find an ~30% increase in the X-ray flux over quiescent levels coincident with the phase of the Ca II enhancements. There is also a trend for the emission to be hotter at ...

  4. THE PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION KINETICS OF PHOTOSENSITIZED ACRYLAMIDE SYSTEM INDUCED BY He-Ne LASER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Minhui; LIANG Zhaoxi; CHEN Yonglie

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the photopolymerization of sensitized acrylamide (AM) system induced by He-Ne laser has been investigated. Using methylene blue (MB)-triethanolamine (TEOA) as the photosensitive system, the photopolymerization followed a nonsteady-state kinetic scheme in the initial period of polymerization (the monomer conversion C%<2%) and then followed a steady-state kinetic scheme (5%>C%>2%). According to the steady-state hypothesis, the mechanism of photopolymerization was proposed. The deduced kinetic equation of the photopolymerization of AM is in good coincidence with the experimental results.

  5. Coherent perfect absorption in an electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Guo, Jing; Dong, Liang; Meng, Fan-Yi; Wu, Qun

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing the coherent perfect absorption (CPA) by exploiting the moderate coupling between the electric and magnetic resonators in an electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) system. Moreover, the ideal parity-time (PT) symmetry can be established in such a passive system by precisely engineering the rate between the scattering and dissipative losses of resonators as well as their coupling. Specifically, by controlling the phase difference between two incident waves, the absorption ratio of CPA at the peak frequency can be dynamically modulated from 1 to 0. Such a scheme provides an effective route to construct absorbing devices.

  6. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. PMID:26979473

  7. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future.

  8. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  9. Optical rogue waves and W-shaped solitons in the multiple self-induced transparency system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We study localized nonlinear waves on a plane wave background in the multiple self-induced transparency (SIT) system, which describes an important enhancement of the amplification and control of optical waves compared to the single SIT system. A hierarchy of exact multiparametric rational solutions in a compact determinant representation are presented. We demonstrate that, this family of solutions contains known rogue wave solution and unusual W-shaped soliton solution, which strictly corresponds to the linear stability analysis that involves modulation instability and stability regimes in the low perturbation frequency region. State transitions between rogue waves and W-shaped solitons as well as the higher-order nonlinear superposition modes are revealed by the suitable choice for the background wavenumber of electric field component. In particular, our results show that, the multiple SIT system admits stationary and nonstationary nonlinear modes in contrast to the results in the single SIT system. Correspo...

  10. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZOU Yan-Li

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N.Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs.It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength,there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced.On the other hand,for a given intermediate system size level,there ex/sts an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum.These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network.

  11. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  12. Influence of the histaminergic system on opiate-induced neurosecretion and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, T; Hoehe, M; Doenicke, A; Stephan, U; Matussek, N

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the histaminergic system on fentanyl (Fe)-induced growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) release as well as on Fe-induced increase of noradrenaline (NA) plasma levels has been studied in male volunteers. These volunteers received, according to a randomized block design, different pretreatments: the H1-antagonist dimethindene (Di) (0.1 mg/kg i.v.), or the H2-antagonist cimetidine (Ci)(5 mg/kg i.v.), or a combination of dimethindene and cimetidine (Di + Ci), or saline. The PRL increase caused by Fe (0.2 mg/70 kg) was not altered by pretreatment with the H1-antagonist Di, the H2-antagonist Ci, or the combination of both. The increase of NA plasma levels after Fe also was not modified by the histamine antagonists. In contrast, the maximum GH increase after Fe was blunted by the combination of Ci and Di, but not by either Ci or Di alone. These results suggest an involvement of the histaminergic system in opiate-induced GH-release.

  13. Dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion in humans: involvement of the histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2000-12-01

    In rats, the hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine participates in regulation of vasopressin secretion and seems to be of physiological importance, because blockade of the histaminergic system reduces dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion. We investigated whether histamine is also involved in regulation of vasopressin secretion during dehydration in humans. We found that 40 h of dehydration gradually increased plasma osmolality by 10 mosmol/kg and induced a fourfold increase in vasopressin levels. Pretreatment with the H(2)-receptor antagonists cimetidine or ranitidine significantly reduced the dehydration-induced increase in vasopressin levels approximately 40% after 34 and 37 h of dehydration, whereas this was not the case with the H(1)-receptor antagonist mepyramine. Dehydration reduced aldosterone secretion by approximately 50%. This effect of dehydration was reduced by both H(1)- and H(2)-receptor blockade after 16 and/or 34 h of dehydration. We conclude that vasopressin secretion in response to dehydration in humans is under the regulatory influence of histamine and that the effect seems to be mediated via H(2)-receptors. In addition, the regulation of aldosterone secretion during dehydration also seems to involve the histaminergic system via H(1) and H(2) receptors.

  14. Botanical and biological pesticides elicit a similar Induced Systemic Response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretali, Luca; Bernardo, Letizia; Butterfield, Timothy S; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato. Leaf application of Bacillus subtilis fostered Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in treated plants via the Jasmonic acid pathway, and enhanced production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phytoalexins and auxins. Changes in sterols and terpenes, as well as an increase in glucosinolates were also observed. Interestingly, azadirachtin-treated tomatoes also showed an increase in ISR and our results revealed that most of the enriched metabolites are shared with a B. subtilis treatment, suggesting conserved biochemical responses. These (un)expected findings indicate that plants are not insensitive to application of natural pesticide and while Azadirachtin is applied as a direct pesticide, it also stimulates a defense response in tomatoes very similar to B. subtilis induced ISR. PMID:27251587

  15. Prevention effects of Schisandra polysaccharide on radiation-induced immune system dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lian-Mei; Jia, Yun-Long; Ma, Ming; Duan, Yu-Qing; Liu, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the efficacy of SP (Schisandra polysaccharide) in prevention of radiation-induced immune dysfunction and discussed the underlying mechanisms with a Bal/bc mouse model. The data demonstrated that SP could reverse the decreases in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In addition, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3 in blood serum were all decreased after radiation and SP could restore this radiation disorder. Furthermore, SP could reverse the deregulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell subsets in peripheral blood and thymus of mice after radiotherapy. We also performed terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate the apoptosis and underlying mechanisms of SP in thymus. Data showed that radiation-induced apoptosis of thymocytes could be reversed by SP through inducing upregulation of Bcl-2 expression and downregulation of Fas and Bax levels. Furthermore, SP has no any side-effects on immunity of normal mice. In conclusion, our results indicated that SP could effectively prevent immune injury during radiotherapy by protecting the immune system. This valuable information should be of assistance in choosing a rational design for therapeutic interventions of prevention immune system damage in the radiation treatment.

  16. Sucrose-induced analgesia in mice: Role of nitric oxide and opioid receptor-mediated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abtin Shahlaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanism of action of sweet substance-induced analgesia is thought to involve activation of the endogenous opioid system. The nitric oxide (NO pathway has a pivotal role in pain modulation of analgesic compounds such as opioids. Objectives: We investigated the role of NO and the opioid receptor-mediated system in the analgesic effect of sucrose ingestion in mice. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg of NO synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and 20 mg/kg of opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone on the tail flick response in sucrose ingesting mice. Results: Sucrose ingestion for 12 days induced a statistically significant increase in the latency of tail flick response which was unmodified by L-NAME, but partially inhibited by naltrexone administration. Conclusions: Sucrose-induced nociception may be explained by facilitating the release of endogenous opioid peptides. Contrary to some previously studied pain models, the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway had no role in thermal hyperalgesia in our study. We recommend further studies on the involvement of NO in other animals and pain models.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Induced Systemic Drought Tolerance Elicited by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Mi Cho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 induces systemic drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Microarray analysis was performed using the 22,800-gene Affymetrix GeneChips to identify differentially-expressed genes from plants colonized with or without P. chlororaphis O6 under drought stressed conditions or normal growth conditions. Root colonization in plants grown under regular irrigation condition increased transcript accumulation from genes associated with defense, response to reactive oxygen species, and auxin- and jasmonic acid-responsive genes, but decreased transcription factors associated with ethylene and abscisic acid signaling. The cluster of genes involved in plant disease resistance were up-regulated, but the set of drought signaling response genes were down-regulated in the P. chlororaphis O6-colonized under drought stress plants compared to those of the drought stressed plants without bacterial treatment. Transcripts of the jasmonic acid-marker genes, VSP1 and pdf-1.2, the salicylic acid regulated gene, PR-1, and the ethylene-response gene, HEL, also were up-regulated in plants colonized by P. chlororaphis O6, but differed in their responsiveness to drought stress. These data show how gene expression in plants lacking adequate water can be remarkably influenced by microbial colonization leading to plant protection, and the activation of the plant defense signal pathway induced by root colonization of P. chlororaphis O6 might be a key element for induced systemic tolerance by microbes.

  18. Inducible SOS Response System of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Janion

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA is exposed to continuous damage and repair. Cells contain a number of proteins and specific DNA repair systems that help maintain its correct structure. The SOS response was the first DNA repair system described in Escherichia coli induced upon treatment of bacteria with DNA damaging agents arrest DNA replication and cell division. Induction of the SOS response involves more than forty independent SOS genes, most of which encode proteins engaged in protection, repair, replication, mutagenesis and metabolism of DNA. Under normal growth conditions the SOS genes are expressed at a basal level, which increases distinctly upon induction of the SOS response. The SOS-response has been found in many bacterial species (e.g., Salmonella typhimurium, Caulobacter crescentus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but not in eukaryotic cells. However, species from all kingdoms contain some SOS-like proteins taking part in DNA repair that exhibit amino acid homology and enzymatic activities related to those found in E. coli. but are not organized in an SOS system. This paper presents a brief up-to-date review describing the discovery of the SOS system, the physiology of SOS induction, methods for its determination, and the role of some SOS-induced genes.

  19. Autophagy Genes Enhance Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Reactivation from Latency by Preventing Virus-Induced Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Buck, Michael D; Desai, Chandni; Zhang, Xin; Loginicheva, Ekaterina; Martinez, Jennifer; Freeman, Michael L; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Guan, Jun-Lin; He, You-Wen; Blackman, Marcia A; Handley, Scott A; Levine, Beth; Green, Douglas R; Reese, Tiffany A; Artyomov, Maxim N; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-01-13

    Host genes that regulate systemic inflammation upon chronic viral infection are incompletely understood. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection is characterized by latency in macrophages, and reactivation is inhibited by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Using a lysozyme-M-cre (LysMcre) expression system, we show that deletion of autophagy-related (Atg) genes Fip200, beclin 1, Atg14, Atg16l1, Atg7, Atg3, and Atg5, in the myeloid compartment, inhibited MHV68 reactivation in macrophages. Atg5 deficiency did not alter reactivation from B cells, and effects on reactivation from macrophages were not explained by alterations in productive viral replication or the establishment of latency. Rather, chronic MHV68 infection triggered increased systemic inflammation, increased T cell production of IFN-γ, and an IFN-γ-induced transcriptional signature in macrophages from Atg gene-deficient mice. The Atg5-related reactivation defect was partially reversed by neutralization of IFN-γ. Thus Atg genes in myeloid cells dampen virus-induced systemic inflammation, creating an environment that fosters efficient MHV68 reactivation from latency. PMID:26764599

  20. Inducing a Site Specific Replication Blockage in E. coli Using a Fluorescent Repressor Operator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettrick, Karla A; Lawrence, Nikki; Mason, Claire; Weaver, Georgia M; Corocher, Tayla-Ann; Grainge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles present on DNA, including tightly-bound proteins and various lesions, can severely inhibit the progression of the cell's replication machinery. The stalling of a replisome can lead to its dissociation from the chromosome, either in part or its entirety, leading to the collapse of the replication fork. The recovery from this collapse is a necessity for the cell to accurately complete chromosomal duplication and subsequently divide. Therefore, when the collapse occurs, the cell has evolved diverse mechanisms that take place to restore the DNA fork and allow replication to be completed with high fidelity. Previously, these replication repair pathways in bacteria have been studied using UV damage, which has the disadvantage of not being localized to a known site. This manuscript describes a system utilizing a Fluorescence Repressor Operator System (FROS) to create a site-specific protein block that can induce the stalling and collapse of replication forks in Escherichia coli. Protocols detail how the status of replication can be visualized in single living cells using fluorescence microscopy and DNA replication intermediates can be analyzed by 2-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis. Temperature sensitive mutants of replisome components (e.g. DnaBts) can be incorporated into the system to induce a synchronous collapse of the replication forks. Furthermore, the roles of the recombination proteins and helicases that are involved in these processes can be studied using genetic knockouts within this system. PMID:27583408

  1. Transient changes in the limbic histaminergic system after systemic kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Sallmen, Tina; Karlstedt, Kaj; Panula, Pertti

    2005-10-01

    Increased brain histamine is reported to protect against convulsions. We used systemic kainic acid (KA) administration to study possible changes of the histaminergic system in rat brain in status epilepticus (SE). Robust increases in brain histamine concentrations and numbers of histamine-immunoreactive nerve fibers were detected in the piriform cortex (Pir) and amygdala after KA injection, suggesting a reactive increase, which is opposite to other published aminergic transmitter responses. These changes, lasting several weeks, might be coupled to a mechanism unrelated to the anticonvulsive function of histamine. Transient increases in mRNA expression of H(3) receptor isoforms with a full-length third intracellular loop, coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, were detected first in the hippocampal CA3c area, followed by the Pir and amygdala and then the hippocampal CA1 area. These results suggest that histamine and H3 receptors, which also control the release of GABA and glutamate, might be involved in convulsive SE.

  2. Engineered absorption enhancement and induced transparency in coupled molecular and plasmonic resonator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, Ronen; Artar, Alp; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice

    2013-06-12

    Coupled plasmonic resonators have become the subject of significant research interest in recent years as they provide a route to dramatically enhanced light-matter interactions. Often, the design of these coupled mode systems draws intuition and inspiration from analogies to atomic and molecular physics systems. In particular, they have been shown to mimic quantum interference effects, such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Fano resonances. This analogy also been used to describe the surface-enhanced absorption effect where a plasmonic resonance is coupled to a weak molecular resonance. These important phenomena are typically described using simple driven harmonic (or linear) oscillators (i.e., mass-on-a-spring) coupled to each other. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of an essential interdependence between the rate at which the system can be driven by an external field and its damping rate through radiative loss. This link is required in systems exhibiting time-reversal symmetry and energy conservation. Not only does it ensure an accurate and physically consistent description of resonant systems but leads directly to interesting new effects. Significantly, we demonstrate this dependence to predict a transition between EIT and electromagnetically induced absorption that is solely a function of the ratio of the radiative to intrinsic loss rates in coupled resonator systems. Leveraging the temporal coupled mode theory, we introduce a unique and intuitive picture that accurately describes these effects in coupled plasmonic/molecular and fully plasmonic systems. We demonstrate our approach's key features and advantages analytically as well as experimentally through surface-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and plasmonic metamaterial applications. PMID:23647070

  3. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolja eCernak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as 1 direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and 2 via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body’s fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.

  4. Dynamic random links enhance diversity-induced coherence in strongly coupled neuronal systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Kumar Kamal; Sudeshna Sinha

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the influence of diversity on the temporal regularity of spiking in a ring of coupled model neurons. We find diversity-induced coherence in the spike events, with an optimal amount of parametric heterogeneity at the nodal level yielding the greatest regularity in the spike train. Further, we investigate the system under random spatial connections, where the links are both dynamic and quenched, and in all the cases we observe marked diversity-induced coherence. We quantitatively find the effect of coupling strength and random rewiring probability, on the optimal coherence that can be achieved under diversity. Our results indicate that the largest coherence in the spike events emerge when the coupling strength is high, and when the underlying connections are mostly random and dynamically changing.

  5. Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia impaired testicular steroidogenesis in mice through the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martos, José M; Arrazola, Marce; Mayas, María D; Carrera-González, María P; García, María J; Ramírez-Expósito, María J

    2011-08-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and low testosterone concentrations in men are associated with a high risk factor for atherosclerosis. It is known that cholesterol serves as the major precursor for the synthesis of the sex hormones. The bioactive peptides of the renin-angiotensin-system localized in the gonads play a key role in the relation between cholesterol and testosterone by modulating steroidogenesis and inhibiting testosterone production. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia on circulating testosterone levels and its relationship with the testicular RAS-regulating specific aminopeptidase activities in male mouse. A significant decrease in serum circulating levels of testosterone was observed after induced hypercholesterolemia. The changes found in aminopeptidase activities suggest a role of Ang III and Ang IV in the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  6. Induced-charge electrokinetics, bipolar current, and concentration polarization in a microchannel-Nafion-membrane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-06-01

    The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length.

  7. Boundary-induced dynamics in one-dimensional topological systems and memory effects of edge modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics induced by a change of boundary conditions reveals rate-dependent signatures associated with topological properties in one-dimensional Kitaev chain and SSH model. While the perturbation from a change of the boundary propagates into the bulk, the density of topological edge modes in the case of transforming to open boundary condition reaches steady states. The steady-state density depends on the transformation rate of the boundary and serves as an illustration of quantum memory effects in topological systems. Moreover, while a link is physically broken as the boundary condition changes, some correlation functions can remain finite across the broken link and keep a record of the initial condition. By testing those phenomena in the nontopological regimes of the two models, none of the interesting signatures of memory effects can be observed. Our results thus contrast the importance of topological properties in boundary-induced dynamics.

  8. Induced cholesteric systems based on some cyano derivatives as host phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnikova, Natalya I.; Kutulya, Lidiya A.; Vashchenko, V. V.; Fedoryako, A. P.; Lapanik, V. I.; Posledovich, N. R.

    2002-12-01

    Macroscopical properties of some induced cholesteric compositions based on 4-pentyl-4'-cyano derivatives of biphenyl and phenylcyclohexane as host phases have been investigated. The series of N-arylidene derivatives of (S)-1-phenylethylamine with varied both rigid moiety of the N-arylidene fragment and terminal substituent was used as chiral dopants. The influence of the chiral dopant molecular structure as well as of physical properties of the host phases used on the helical twisting power, the temperature dependence of the induced helical pitch and the N* mesophase thermal stability has been characterized. It has been concluded that the distinctions in properties of the LC systems containing the OCH2 and COO linking groups are caused by their different conformational states.

  9. Design concepts for simulators of EMP-induced surges in the electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nation's electric power system would be subject to induced surges in the event of a high altitude nuclear burst. The HEMP would be coupled to overhead power lines and cause severe overvoltage to components connected to the line. This paper discusses the design of pulsed power equipment needed to simulate this induced EMP. A facility is described which is capable of testing the vulnerability of components by applying appropriate voltage and current waveforms. The pulser can provide waveforms under a variety of test conditions to meet the requirements of different types of components. A 3-5 MV Marx pulser is described. It has the capability of generating a fast rising voltage followed by two distinct exponential decays. The testing of components, charged with their normal voltage is also described

  10. Plasmon induced transparency in loop-stub resonator-coupled waveguide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiulin; Wang, Faqiang; Liang, Ruisheng; Wei, Zhongchao; Meng, Hongyun; Zhong, Jiewen; Jiang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    We firstly investigate plasmon induced transparency (PIT) effect in a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide coupled to a single loop stub resonator by finite difference time domain method (FDTD). Compared with previous PIT sup based on MDM waveguide, PIT phenomena can be realized in a single plasmonic composite nanocavity without employment of additional optical elements. Plasmon induced transparency windows can be controlled by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the vertical branches or the horizontal branch in the plasmonic structure. The red-shift of PIT peak is almost linearly proportional to the refractive index of the horizontal branch. This plasmonic system takes the advantages of easy fabrication and compactness. The results may pave a way for the dynamic control of light in highly integrated optical circuits, which can realize ultrafast switching, light storage and nanosensor devices.

  11. Application of time reversal mirror technique in microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography (MITAT) is a promising technique with great potential in biomedical imaging. It has both the high contrast of the microwave imaging and the high resolution of the ultrasound imaging. In this paper, the proportional relationship between the absorbed microwave energy distribution and the induced ultrasound source distribution is derived. Further, the time reversal mirror (TRM) technique based on the pseudo-spectral time domain (PSTD) method is applied to MITAT system. The simulation results show that high contrast and resolution can be achieved by the TRM technique based on PSTD method even for the received signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the model parameter with random fluctuation.

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for remote measurement of salt in a narrow gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Shuzo; Fujii, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    We performed remotely measured, with a 5-m optical path, the chlorine concentration of a sea salt attached to stainless steel (SS) located at the side wall of a narrow gap (width ~ 50 mm) by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in two configurations. One uses mirrors for transmitting laser pulses in air, while the other uses multimode fiber. A compact optical device was developed to access the surface of SS for focusing laser pulses and collecting laser-induced plasma. With the configuration in which laser pulses pass through the fiber, the chlorine spectrum could be detected by fiber-coupled LIBS. In addition, with the configuration in which laser pulses pass through air, chlorine concentrations from 0 to 100 mg/m2 could be evaluated quantitatively by using the calibration data of chlorine emission intensity. These results show that the proposed system enables the measurement of chlorine at the surface of SS remotely, instantly, and quantitatively.

  13. Ar + induced interfacial mixing and phase formation in the Al/Cr system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. K.; Kim, S. O.; Song, J. H.; Kim, K. W.; Woo, J. J.; Whang, C. N.; Smith, R. J.

    1991-07-01

    Evaporated Al/Cr bilayer thin films were irradiated by 80 keV Ar + at doses in the range from 1 × 10 15 to 2 × 10 16 Ar +/cm 2 at room temperature in order to investigate the Ar + induced interfacial mixing behavior and the phase formation and transition by Ar + bombardment. Ion bombardment induces intermixing across the Al/Cr interface and mixing variance increases with increasing ion dose. Cascade and thermal spike models are found to be not adequate for the ion beam mixing mechanism at room temperature in this system. The Al 13Cr 2 phase is formed as an initial phase by ion beam mixing and then transforms into the Al 11Cr 2 or Al 4Cr phases at subsequent ion bombardment. This result is discussed in terms of the enhanced atomic mobility and the thermodynamical driving force by introducing the concept of an effective heat of formation.

  14. Role of opioid system in verapamil-induced antinociception in a rat model of orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, through its various channels involves in local, spinal and supra-spinal transmission of pain. In the present study, we investigated the separate and combined treatment effects of verapamil (a calcium channel blocker, morphine (an opioid agonist and naloxone (an opioid antagonist on pain in the orofacial region of rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (SC injection of formalin (50 µL, 1.5% into the left upper lip side, and the time durations spent face rubbing with epsilateral forepaw were recorded in three min blocks for a period of 45 min. Formalin induced a biphasic pattern (first phase: 0-3 min; second phase: 15-33 min of pain. Intraperitoneal (IP injections of verapamil (2 and 8 mg kg-1 and morphine (2 and 4 mg kg-1 suppressed orofacial pain. Co-administration of sub-analgesic doses of verapamil (0.5 mg kg-1 and morphine (1 mg kg-1 produced second phase analgesia. Both phases of formalin-induced pain were suppressed when an analgesic dose (2 mg kg-1 of verapamil co-administered with a sub-analgesic dose (1 mg kg-1 of morphine. The SC injection of naloxone (2 mg kg-1 alone with no effect on pain intensity, prevented the antinociceptive effects induced by morphine (2 mg kg-1, but not verapamil (2 mg kg-1. The obtained results showed antinociceptive effects for verapamli and morphine on orofacial pain. Co-administrations of verapamil and morphine produced antinociceptive effects. It seems that opioid analgesic system may not have a role in the verapamil-induced antinociception.

  15. Molecular adaptations in vasoactive systems during acute stroke in salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Nicole M; Peterson, Nichole T; Tse, M Yat; Andrew, R David; Pang, Stephen C; Jin, Albert Y

    2015-01-01

    Investigations regarding hypertension and dietary sodium, both factors that influence stroke risk, have previously been limited to using genetically disparate treatment and control groups, namely the stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive rat and Wistar-Kyoto rat. In this investigation, we have characterized and compared cerebral vasoactive system adaptations following stroke in genetically identical, salt-induced hypertensive, and normotensive control mice. Briefly, ANP(+/-) (C57BJ/6 × SV129 background) mice were fed chow containing either 0.8% NaCl (NS) or 8.0% NaCl (HS) for 7 weeks. Transient cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct volumes were measured 24-h post-reperfusion and the mRNA expression of five major vasoactive systems was characterized using qPCR. Along with previous publications, our data validate a salt-induced hypertensive state in ANP(+/-) mice fed HS chow as they displayed left ventricular hypertrophy, increased systolic blood pressure, and increased urinary sodium excretion. Following MCAO, mice fed HS exhibited larger infarct volumes than their dietary counterparts. In addition, significant up-regulation in Et-1 and Nos3 mRNA expression in response to salt and stroke suggests implications with increased cerebral damage in this group. In conclusion, our data demonstrate increased cerebral susceptibility to stroke in salt-induced hypertensive mice. More importantly, however, we have characterized a novel method of investigating hypertension and stroke with the use of genetically identical treatment and control groups. This is the first investigation in which genetic confounding variables have been eliminated. PMID:25391363

  16. Identification of a locus in Arabidopsis controlling both the expression of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) and basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Selected nonpathogenic rhizobacteria with biological disease control activity are able to elicit an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were screened for their potential

  17. Controlled Gene Expression Systems for Lactic Acid Bacteria : Transferable Nisin-Inducible Expression Cassettes for Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, Michiel; Beerthuyzen, Marke M.; Vaughan, Elaine E.; Vos, Willem M. de; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    1997-01-01

    A transferable dual-plasmid inducible gene expression system for use in lactic acid bacteria that is based on the autoregulatory properties of the antimicrobial peptide nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis was developed. Introduction of the two plasmids allowed nisin-inducible gene expression in Lac

  18. Induced systemic resistance in cucumber and Arabidopsis thaliana by the combination of Trichoderma harzianum Tr6 and Pseudomonas sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh, H.; Behboudi, K.; Amadzadeh, M.; Javan-Nikkhah, M.; Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma species and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to induce systemic resistance in plants. In this study the effectiveness of a combination of these biological control agents on the efficacy of induced resistance was investigated in cucumber and the model plant Arabidopsis thal

  19. Thermal noise induced stochastic resonance in self organizing Fe nanoparticle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural world is replete with examples of multistable systems, known to respond to periodic modulations and produce a signal that exhibits resonance with noise amplitude. This is a concept not demonstrated in pure materials, which involve a measured physical property. In a thermoremanent magnetization experiment with a common magnetic material, Fe, in the nanoparticulate form, we establish how magnetization in a system of dilute spins during dissipation of stored magnetic energy breaks up into spontaneous oscillatory behavior. Starting at 175 K and aided by temperature (stochastic noise) the oscillation amplitude goes through a maximum reminiscent of stochastic resonance. Our observation of thermal noise induced coherent resonance is due to intrinsic self-organizing magnetic dynamics of the Fe nanoparticle system without applying any external periodic force. These results yield new possibilities in the design of magnetic materials and a platform to understand stochastic interference and phase synchronization in neural activity, as models for neural communication. (paper)

  20. Collective dynamics of multimode bosonic systems induced by weak quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Mekhov, Igor B

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to strong projective measurement, which freezes the system evolution by quantum Zeno effect, weak measurement can effectively compete with standard unitary dynamics leading to nontrivial effects. Here we consider global weak measurement addressing several bosonic modes at the same time, thus preserving quantum superpositions due to the lack of which path information. While for certainty we focus on ultracold atoms, the idea can be generalized to other multimode quantum systems, including various quantum emitters, optomechanical arrays, and purely photonic systems with multiple-path interferometers. We show that light scattering from ultracold bosons in optical lattices can be used for defining macroscopically occupied spatial modes that exhibit long-range coherent dynamics. Even for constant external measurement, the quantum measurement backaction acts on the atomic ensemble quasi-periodically and induces collective oscillatory dynamics of all the atoms. We introduce an effective model for the evo...

  1. An Ontology for Identifying Cyber Intrusion Induced Faults in Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James; Guan, Jian

    This paper presents an ontological framework that permits formal representations of process control systems, including elements of the process being controlled and the control system itself. A fault diagnosis algorithm based on the ontological model is also presented. The algorithm can identify traditional process elements as well as control system elements (e.g., IP network and SCADA protocol) as fault sources. When these elements are identified as a likely fault source, the possibility exists that the process fault is induced by a cyber intrusion. A laboratory-scale distillation column is used to illustrate the model and the algorithm. Coupled with a well-defined statistical process model, this fault diagnosis approach provides cyber security enhanced fault diagnosis information to plant operators and can help identify that a cyber attack is underway before a major process failure is experienced.

  2. Sublimation-induced orbital perturbations of extrasolar active asteroids and comets: application to white dwarf systems

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri; Gaensicke, Boris T

    2015-01-01

    The metal budgets in some white dwarf (WD) atmospheres reveal that volatile-rich circumstellar bodies must both exist in extrasolar systems and survive the giant branch phases of stellar evolution. The resulting behaviour of these active asteroids or comets which orbit WDs is not well-understood, but may be be strongly influenced by sublimation due to stellar radiation. Here we develop a model, generally applicable to any extrasolar system with a main sequence or WD star, that traces sublimation-induced orbital element changes in approximately km-sized extrasolar minor planets and comets traveling within hundreds of au. We derive evolution equations on orbital timescales and for arbitrarily steep power-law sublimation dependencies on distance, and place our model in a Solar system context. We also demonstrate the importance of coupling sublimation and general relativity, and the orbital consequences of outgassing in arbitrary directions. We prove that nongravitational accelerations alone cannot result in orbi...

  3. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry J.; Brown, Jeffrey D.; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Stephen J.; Brubaker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper will document the latest improvements of the LIF system design and demonstrations of the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems.

  4. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry J.; Brown, Jeffrey D.; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Stephen J.; Brubaker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnson's arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  5. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry; Brown, Jeff; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Steve; Brubaker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnsons arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  6. Tetracycline-inducible Expression Systems: New Strategies and Practices in the Transgenic Mouse Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Xigu CHEN; Dong XIAO

    2007-01-01

    To accurately analyze the function of transgene(s) of interest in transgenic mice, and to generate credible transgenic animal models for multifarious human diseases to precisely mimic human disease states, it is critical to tightly regulate gene expression in the animals in a conditional manner. The ability to turn gene expression on or off in the restricted cells or tissues at specific time permits unprecedented flexibility in dissecting gene functions in health and disease. Pioneering studies in conditional transgene expression have brought about the development of a wide variety of controlled gene expression systems, which meet this criterion. Among them, the tetracycline-controlled expression systems (e.g. Tet-off system and Tet-on system) have been used extensively in vitro and in vivo. In recent years, some strategies derived from tetracycline-inducible system alone, as well as the combined use of Tet-based systems and Cre/lox P switching gene expression system, have been newly developed to allow more flexibility for exploring gene functions in health and disease, and produce credible transgenic animal models for various human diseases. In this review these newly developed strategies are discussed.

  7. Controlled expression of functional miR-122 with a ligand inducible expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzertzinis George

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the biological function of miRNAs, and to achieve sustained or conditional gene silencing with siRNAs, systems that allow controlled expression of these small RNAs are desirable. Methods for cell delivery of siRNAs include transient transfection of synthetic siRNAs and expression of siRNAs in the form of short hairpins using constitutive RNA polymerase III promoters. Systems employing constitutive RNA polymerase II promoters have been used to express miRNAs. However, for many experimental systems these methods do not offer sufficient control over expression. Results We present an inducible mammalian expression system that allows for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNAs that are processed in vivo to generate miRNAs or siRNAs. Using modified nuclear receptors in a two hybrid format and a synthetic ligand, the Rheoswitch system allows rapid and reversible induction of mRNA expression. We evaluated the system's properties using miR-122 as a model miRNA. A short hairpin encoding miR-122 cloned into the expression vector was correctly processed to yield mature miRNA upon induction with ligand and the amount of miRNA produced was commensurate with the concentration of ligand. miR-122 produced in this way was capable of silencing both endogenous target genes and appropriately designed reporter genes. Stable cell lines were obtained, resulting in heritable, consistent and reversible expression of miR-122, a significant advantage over transient transfection. Based on these results, obtained with a microRNA we adapted the method to produce a desired siRNA by designing short hairpins that can be accurately and efficiently processed. Conclusion We established an Inducible expression system with a miR-122 backbone that can be used for functional studies of miRNAs and their targets, in heterologous cells that do not normally express the miRNA. Additionally we demonstrate the feasibility of using the miR-122 backbone to

  8. Laser-induced disruption of systemically administered liposomes for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Larabi, Malika; Shinde, Rajesh; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M.; Guccione, Samira; Contag, Christopher H.

    2009-07-01

    Liposomal formulations of drugs have been shown to enhance drug efficacy by prolonging circulation time, increasing local concentration and reducing off-target effects. Controlled release from these formulations would increase their utility, and hyperthermia has been explored as a stimulus for targeted delivery of encapsulated drugs. Use of lasers as a thermal source could provide improved control over the release of the drug from the liposomes with minimal collateral tissue damage. Appropriate methods for assessing local release after systemic delivery would aid in testing and development of better formulations. We use in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of luciferin, used as a model small molecule, and demonstrate laser-induced release from liposomes in animal models after systemic delivery. These liposomes were tested for luciferin release between 37 and 45 °C in PBS and serum using bioluminescence measurements. In vivo studies were performed on transgenic reporter mice that express luciferase constitutively throughout the body, thus providing a noninvasive readout for controlled release following systemic delivery. An Nd:YLF laser was used (527 nm) to heat tissues and induce rupture of the intravenously delivered liposomes in target tissues. These data demonstrate laser-mediated control of small molecule delivery using thermally sensitive liposomal formulations.

  9. Systemic chemotherapy induces microsatellite instability in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic chemotherapy is an important part of treatment for breast cancer. We conducted the present study to evaluate whether systemic chemotherapy could produce microsatellite instability (MSI) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction of breast cancer patients. We studied 119 sequential blood samples from 30 previously untreated breast cancer patients before, during and after chemotherapy. For comparison, we also evaluated 20 women who had no relevant medical history (control group). In 27 out of 30 patients we observed MSI in at least one sample, and six patients had loss of heterozygosity. We found a significant correlation between the number of MSI events per sample and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (P < 0.0001). We also observed an inverse correlation between the percentage of cells positive for hMSH2 and the number of MSI events per sample (P = 0.00019) and use of alkylating agents (P = 0.019). We conclude that systemic chemotherapy may induce MSI and loss of heterozygosity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients receiving alkylating agents, possibly mediated by a chemotherapy-induced decrease in the expression of hMSH2. These effects may be related to the generation of secondary leukaemia in some patients, and may also intensify the genetic instability of tumours and increase resistance to treatment

  10. Up-regulation of the adrenomedullin system mediates hypotension and hypoaldosteronism induced by simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreis, Paola G; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Bova, Sergio; Neri, Giuliano; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Mazzocchi, Giuseppina

    2004-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that prolonged simulated microgravity (SMG) induced hypotension and hypoaldosteronism in rats, and gathered preliminary evidence for an involvement of circulating adrenomedullin (AM). Thus, we aimed to investigate whether short-term SMG elicits the same effects, and whether up-regulation of adrenal AM system plays a relevant role. Rats were exposed for 8 days to SMG in the form of hindlimb unweighting, and then, along with control animals, were given an intraperitoneal injection of AM22-52 and/or angiotensin-II (Ang-II) (100 nmoles/kg) or the saline vehicle. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff sphygmomanometry. The adrenal expression of AM was assayed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PAC) and AM, and adrenal AM content were measured by RIA. Short-term SMG induced significant decreases in SBP and PAC. Conversely, both the plasma and adrenal levels of AM, and adrenal AM mRNA were enhanced in SMG-exposed animals. The SMG-induced hypotension and hypoaldosteronism were reversed by AM22-52, an AM-receptor antagonist, thereby demonstrating a causal link between these effects and the up-regulation of AM system. SMG hampered SBP and PAC responses to Ang-II; the co-administration of AM22-52 restored these responses. These findings accord well with the known ability of AM to counteract the effects of Ang-II on both blood vessels and adrenocortical cells. Taken together, our findings allow us to conclude that up-regulation of the adrenal AM system i) occurs early and takes part in the adaptative changes occurring during SMG conditions; and ii) may account for both hypotension and hypoaldosteronism on returning to the normogravitational environment.

  11. S100A4 amplifies TGF-β-induced fibroblast activation in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomcik, Michal; Palumbo-Zerr, Katrin; Zerr, Pawel;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: S100A4 is a calcium binding protein with regulatory functions in cell homeostasis, proliferation and differentiation that has been shown to promote cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of S100A4 in fibroblast activation in systemic sclerosis...... the expression of S100A4 to stimulate the release of collagen in SSc fibroblasts and induce fibrosis. Since S100A4 is essentially required for the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β and neutralising antibodies against S100A4 are currently evaluated, S100A4 might be a candidate for novel antifibrotic therapies....

  12. Iptakalim rescues human pulmonary artery endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced nitric oxide system dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Feng; Zuo, Xiang-Rong; Wang, Qiang; ZHANG, SHI-JIANG; Xie, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hypoxia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production, and whether iptakalim may rescue human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) from hypoxia-induced NO system dysfunction. HPAECs were cultured under hypoxic conditions in the absence or presence of 0.1, 10 and 1,000 μM iptakalim or the combination of 10 μM iptakalim and 1, 10 and 100 μM glibenclamide for 24 h, and the eNOS activity and NO levels...

  13. Delay induced transitions in an asymmetry bistable system and stochastic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The delay Fokker-Planck equation is given for an asymmetry bistable system with correlated Gaussian white noises. The small delay approximation based on the probability density approach is used and the approximate stationary probability density function is obtained. The phenomenon of delay induced transitions is found. When a weak periodic signal is added, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance is investigated. Expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained by using the two-state theory. It is shown that the time delay can suppress or promote the stochastic resonance phenomenon.

  14. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Eberhard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. METHODS: 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. RESULTS: The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001. This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038, IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002 and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124 in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050 at day 21 of gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL

  15. Adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with transport measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masutomi, Ryuichi, E-mail: masutomi@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Okamoto, Tohru [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-06-22

    An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T.

  16. Radio Wave 'Messengers' of Periodic Gravitational Radiation and the Problem of Gravitationally Induced Nonlinearity in Electrodynamic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Balakin, A. B.; Murzakhanov, Z. G.; Kisun'ko, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a gravitationally induced nonlinearity in hierarchic systems. We consider the generation of extremely low-frequency radio waves with a frequency of the periodic gravitational radiation; the generation is due to an induced nonlinear self-action of electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of the gravitational-radiation source. These radio waves are a fundamentally new type of response of an electrodynamic system to gravitational radiation. That is why we here use an unconventional t...

  17. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  18. A system for measuring defect induced beam modulation on inertial confinement fusion-class laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Mike; Hawley-Fedder, Ruth; Widmayer, Clay; Williams, Wade; Weinzapfel, Carolyn; Roberts, Dave

    2005-12-01

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm2 and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO2 lasers.

  19. Flight-induced inhibition of the cerebral median peptidergic neurosecretory system in Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the effects of a 1-hr period of flight on the peptidergic pars intercerebralis (PI)-corpus cardiacum storage part (CCS) system in male Locusta migratoria, particularly the effect on material in this system stained by a histochemical method for peptidergic neurosecretory material (NSM) or labeled by in vivo incorporation of radioactive amino acid molecules. By use of an automatic image analysis system a number of parameters of the stained or radioactively labeled substances were measured to quantify the flight-induced effects and to get information on the manner in which the neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI and their axonal endings in the CCS accommodate changing amounts of NSM. The CCS of flown locusts contained distinctly more stained and radioactively labeled substances than the CCS of unflown locusts. A tendency to similar differences was observed in the cluster of neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI. The results indicate that 1 hr flight inhibited the release of NSM by the PI-CCS system. After the onset of reduced release activity by flight, some NSM continued to be synthesized and transported from the PI to the CCS, gradually filling up and expanding the entire PI-CCS system, the NSM at the same time becoming more and more densely packed. It is concluded that the peptidergic PI-CCS system is not actively involved in the control of flight metabolism or flight behavior

  20. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: carlos.leite@pucrs.br [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-003 (Brazil); Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Rosemberg, Denis Broock [Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó, Chapecó, CEP 89809-000 (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence

  1. Nicotine-induced acute hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic system in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Guo, Jing; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2016-09-22

    Short-term exposure to nicotine induces positive effects in mice, monkeys and humans, including mild euphoria, hyperactivity, and enhanced cognition. However, the underlying neural basis and molecular mechanisms for these effects remain poorly understood. Here, using a video recording system, we find that acute nicotine administration induces locomotor hyperactivity in Drosophila, similar to observations made in higher model organisms. Suppressing dopaminergic neurons or down-regulating dopamine 1-like receptor (DopR) abolishes this acute nicotine response, but surprisingly, does so only in male flies. Using a GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) approach, we show that dopaminergic neurons possess potential synaptic connections with acetylcholinergic neurons in wide regions of the brain. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurons are widely activated upon nicotine perfusion in both sexes, while the response curve differs significantly between the sexes. Moreover, knockdown of the β1 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in dopaminergic neurons abolishes the acute nicotine response only in male flies, while panneural knock-down occurs in both sexes. Taken together, our results reveal that in fruit flies, dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine-induced acute locomotor hyperactivity in a sexually dimorphic manner, and Drosophila β1 nAChR subunit plays a crucial role in this nicotine response. These findings provide important insights into the molecular and neural basis of acute nicotine effects, and the underlying mechanisms may play conserved roles across species. PMID:27365175

  2. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the mechanisms involved in the LPS-induced preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, María Victoria; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Cella, Maximiliano; Burdet, Juliana; Franchi, Ana María; Aisemberg, Julieta

    2015-12-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a strong causal relationship between infection and preterm births. Intrauterine infection elicits an immune response involving the release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and prostaglandins (PG) that trigger uterine contractions and parturition events. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Similarly to PG, endocannabinoids are implicated in different aspects of reproduction, such as maintenance of pregnancy and parturition. Little is known about the involvement of endocannabinoids on the onset of labor in an infectious milieu. Here, using a mouse model of preterm labor induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we explored changes on the expression of components of endocannabinoid system (ECS). We have also determined whether AEA and CB antagonists alter PG production that induces labor. We observed an increase in uterine N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression (NAPE-PLD, the enzyme that synthesizes AEA) upon LPS treatment. Activity of catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) did not change significantly. In addition, we also found that LPS modulated uterine cannabinoid receptors expression by downregulating Cb2 mRNA levels and upregulating CB1 protein expression. Furthermore, LPS and AEA induced PGF2a augmentation, and this was reversed by antagonizing CB1 receptor. Collectively, our results suggest that ECS may be involved in the mechanism by which infection causes preterm birth. PMID:26347521

  3. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  4. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of 14C-β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of β-lactoglobulin with casein. 14C- and 3H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of 3H to 14C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, αs2-casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment

  5. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of depletion-induced interactions for soft matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendruk, Tyler N., E-mail: tyler.shendruk@physics.ox.ac.uk [The Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Bertrand, Martin; Harden, James L.; Slater, Gary W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Haan, Hendrick W. de [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2014-12-28

    Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA)) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

  6. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS.

  7. Renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction: Potential protective role of Angiotensin (1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurta', Anna; Zambelli, Vanessa; Bellani, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is a feared complication of mechanical ventilation that adversely affects the outcome of intensive care patients. Human and animal studies demonstrate atrophy and ultrastructural alteration of diaphragmatic muscular fibers attributable to increased oxidative stress, depression of the anabolic pathway regulated by Insulin-like growing factor 1 and increased proteolysis. The renin-angiotensin system, through its main peptide Angiotensin II, plays a major role in skeletal muscle diseases, mainly increasing oxidative stress and inducing insulin resistance, atrophy and fibrosis. Conversely, its counter-regulatory peptide Angiotensin (1-7) has a protective role in these processes. Recent data on rodent models show that renin-angiotensin system is activated after mechanical ventilation and that infusion of Angiotensin II induces diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy. Given: (A) common pathways shared by ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and skeletal muscle pathology induced by renin-angiotensin system, (B) evidences of an involvement of renin-angiotensin system in diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction, we hypothesize that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, while Angiotensin (1-7) can have a protective effect on this pathological process. The activation of renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be demonstrated by quantification of its main components in the diaphragm of ventilated humans or animals. The infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) in an established rodent model of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be used to test its potential protective role, that can be further confirmed with the infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) antagonists like A-779. Verifying this hypothesis can help in understanding the processes involved in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction pathophysiology and open new possibilities for its

  8. Renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction: Potential protective role of Angiotensin (1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurta', Anna; Zambelli, Vanessa; Bellani, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is a feared complication of mechanical ventilation that adversely affects the outcome of intensive care patients. Human and animal studies demonstrate atrophy and ultrastructural alteration of diaphragmatic muscular fibers attributable to increased oxidative stress, depression of the anabolic pathway regulated by Insulin-like growing factor 1 and increased proteolysis. The renin-angiotensin system, through its main peptide Angiotensin II, plays a major role in skeletal muscle diseases, mainly increasing oxidative stress and inducing insulin resistance, atrophy and fibrosis. Conversely, its counter-regulatory peptide Angiotensin (1-7) has a protective role in these processes. Recent data on rodent models show that renin-angiotensin system is activated after mechanical ventilation and that infusion of Angiotensin II induces diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy. Given: (A) common pathways shared by ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and skeletal muscle pathology induced by renin-angiotensin system, (B) evidences of an involvement of renin-angiotensin system in diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction, we hypothesize that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, while Angiotensin (1-7) can have a protective effect on this pathological process. The activation of renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be demonstrated by quantification of its main components in the diaphragm of ventilated humans or animals. The infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) in an established rodent model of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be used to test its potential protective role, that can be further confirmed with the infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) antagonists like A-779. Verifying this hypothesis can help in understanding the processes involved in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction pathophysiology and open new possibilities for its

  9. Thermally induced distortion of a high-average-power laser system by an optical transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Robert; Ault, Linda E.; Taylor, John R.; Jedlovec, Don

    1999-11-01

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation process uses high- average power lasers that have the commercial potential to enrich uranium for the electric power utilities. The transport of the laser beam through the laser system to the separation chambers requires high performance optical components, most of which have either fused silica or Zerodur as the substrate material. One of the requirements of the optical components is to preserve the wavefront quality of the laser beam that propagate over long distances. Full aperture tests with the high power process lasers and finite element analysis (FEA) have been performed on the transport optics. The wavefront distortions of the various sections of the transport path were measured with diagnostic Hartmann sensor packages. The FEA results were derived from an in-house thermal-structural- optical code which is linked to the commercially available CodeV program. In comparing the measured and predicted results, the bulk absorptance of fused silica was estimated to about 50 ppm/cm in the visible wavelength regime. Wavefront distortions will be reported on optics made from fused silica and Zerodur substrate materials.

  10. System dynamic instabilities induced by sliding contact: A numerical analysis with experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, J.; Massi, F.; Saulot, A.; Renouf, M.; D`Ambrogio, W.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical systems present several contact surfaces between deformable bodies. The contact interface can be either static (joints) or in sliding (active interfaces). The sliding interfaces can have several roles and according to their application they can be developed either for maximizing the friction coefficient and the energy dissipation (e.g. brakes) or rather to allow the relative displacement at joints with a maximum efficiency. In both cases the coupling between system and local contact dynamics can bring to system dynamics instabilities (e.g. brake squeal or squeaking of hip prostheses). This results in unstable vibrations of the system, induced by the oscillation of the contact forces. In the literature, a large number of works deal with such kind of instabilities and are mainly focused on applied problems such as brake squeal noise. This paper shows a more general numerical analysis of a simple system constituted by two bodies in sliding contact: a rigid cylinder rotating inside a deformable one. The parametrical Complex Eigenvalue Analysis and the transient numerical simulations show how the friction forces can give rise to in-plane dynamic instabilities due to the interaction between two system modes, even for such a simple system characterized by one deformable body. Results from transient simulations highlight the key role of realistic values of the material damping to have convergence of the model and, consequently, reliable physical results. To this aim an experimental estimation of the material damping has been carried out. Moreover, the simplicity of the system allows for a deeper analysis of the contact instability and a balance of the energy flux among friction, system vibrations and damping. The numerical results have been validated by comparison with experimental ones, obtained by a specific test bench developed to reproduce and analyze the contact friction instabilities.

  11. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Jing Piao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC, a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1, which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1 and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  12. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [3H]glucose and 2-deoxy[14C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

  13. Activation of endocannabinoid system in the rat basolateral amygdala improved scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaei, Seyed Ershad; Rezayof, Ameneh; Pourmotabbed, Ali; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-15

    The current study was designed to examine the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in scopolamine-induced memory impairment in adult male Wistar rats. The animals were bilaterally implanted with the cannulas in the BLA and submitted to a step-through type passive avoidance task to measure the memory formation. The results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of different doses of scopolamine (0.5-1.5mg/kg) immediately after the training phase (post-training) impaired memory consolidation. Bilateral microinjection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 1-4ng/rat), into the BLA significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment. On the other hand, co-administration of AM251, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (0.25-1ng/rat, intra-BLA), with an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), significantly impaired memory consolidation and mimicked the response of a higher dose of scopolamine. It is important to note that post-training intra-BLA microinjections of the same doses of ACPA or AM251 alone had no effect on memory consolidation. Moreover, the blockade of the BLA CB1 receptors by 0.3ng/rat of AM251 prevented ACPA-induced improvement of the scopolamine response. In view of the known actions of the drugs used, the present data pointed to the involvement of the BLA CB1 receptors in scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment. Furthermore, it seems that a functional interaction between the BLA endocannabinoid and cholinergic muscarinic systems may be critical for memory formation. PMID:27230394

  14. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  15. Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geremew Tasew

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL.

  16. Odd-parity currents induced by dynamic deformations in graphene-like systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-11-16

    Reduced (3  +  1)-dimensional Dirac systems with inter-pseudo-spin and inter-valley scattering are employed to investigate current responses to (chiral) gauge fields in graphene-like systems. From (chiral) current-(chiral) current correlation functions, we derive the current responses. Except for electric currents induced by external gauge fields, we find the inter-valley scattering can break the topological nature of odd-parity currents. Given the proper conditions, this property can help us realize valley-polarized electric currents. Through the dynamic deformations generating the chiral gauge fields, we find the vortex-like currents while their profiles can be tuned by superposition of some deformations. In particular, we find a more manageable approach to realize the topological electric current by choosing a linear dynamic deformation. PMID:27618133

  17. Stress-induced changes in histaminergic system: effects of diazepam and amitriptyline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghi, P; Ferretti, C; Blengio, M; Portaleone, P

    1995-05-01

    The involvement of the histaminergic system in the regulation of weak stress was studied in rats. The parameters examined were the brain receptors and corticosterone (CS) plasma levels. The benzodiazepine diazepam [(2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP)] influenced neither foot-shock-induced changes in CS levels nor [3H]-histamine [(3H)-HA] binding site constants, whereas the tricyclic antidepressive amitriptyline (10 mg/kg IP) partially counteracted a plasma CS increase and prevented changes in [3H]-HA binding in the stressed rat brain. These observations are in agreement with the known activities of amitriptyline on monoaminergic metabolism and receptors. Moreover, these data provide further experimental evidence of the functional role of the central histaminergic system in organized stress response.

  18. Bacteria and microbial induced corrosion in district heating systems; Bakterier og mikrobiel betinget korrosion i fjernvarmesystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelund, B. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst., Miljoeteknik, Aarhus (Denmark); Smidt, H.D. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst., Energi, Aarhus (Denmark); Halkjaer Nielsen, P. [Aalborg Univ., Lab. for Miljoeteknik (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    Bacteria has been found in district heating systems in a number that indicate the risk of technical problems of a microbial nature. Bacteria in district heating systems can cause problems like unpleasant smell, increased roughness on the inner side of the pipes, decreased performance of the heat exchangers etc. There is also found bio film containing bacteria on the surface of the pipes. In the bio film there are often other conditions than in water, e.g. a lower pH value that improves growth of bacteria. Finally there is found sulphate-reducing bacteria. These bacteria can cause corrosion; a corrosion form called microbial induced corrosion. The report gives recommendations on how to reduce these bacteria. The bacteria can be reduced by regulating the pH value or by minimising the organic material in the water and finally by biocides that are able to kill the microorganisms. (SM) EFP-95. 12 refs.

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency in systems with degenerate autoionizing levels in \\Lambda-configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, T Bui; Long, V Cao; Peřina, J

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a \\Lambda-like model of atomic levels involving two autoionizing (AI) states of the same energy. The system is irradiated by two external electromagnetic fields (strong -- driving and weak -- probing ones). For such a system containing degenerate AI levels we derive the analytical formula describing the medium susceptibility. We show that the presence of the second AI level lead to the additional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window appearance. We show that the characteristic of this window can be manipulated by changes of the parameters describing the interactions of AI levels with other ones. This is a new mechanism which leads to additional transparency windows in EIT model, that differs from the mechanism, where a bigger number of Zeeman sublevels is taken into account.

  20. Heterogeneous delay-induced asynchrony and resonance in a small-world neuronal network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Ting; Tang, Jun; Ma, Jun; Yang, Xianqing

    2016-06-01

    A neuronal network often involves time delay caused by the finite signal propagation time in a given biological network. This time delay is not a homogenous fluctuation in a biological system. The heterogeneous delay-induced asynchrony and resonance in a noisy small-world neuronal network system are numerically studied in this work by calculating synchronization measure and spike interval distribution. We focus on three different delay conditions: double-values delay, triple-values delay, and Gaussian-distributed delay. Our results show the following: 1) the heterogeneity in delay results in asynchronous firing in the neuronal network, and 2) maximum synchronization could be achieved through resonance given that the delay values are integer or half-integer times of each other.

  1. Interaction-Induced Characteristic Length in Strongly Many-Body Localized Systems

    CERN Document Server

    He, Rong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a numerical method for explicitly constructing a complete set of local integrals of motion (LIOM) and definitely show the existence of LIOM for strongly many-body localized systems. The method starts with a complete set of maximally localized guessed LIOM, gradually deforms it into a complete set of true LIOM. By using this method we find that for strongly disordered and weakly interacting systems, there are two characteristic lengths in the LIOM. The first one is governed by disorder and is of Anderson-localization nature. The second one is induced by interaction but independent of the strength of interaction, showing a nonperturbative nature. We prove that the entanglement and correlation in any eigenstate extend not longer than twice the second length.

  2. MAGIK: a Monte Carlo system for computing induced residual activation dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon dose rate from the induced activity produced by sustained bombardment of materials by neutrons and charged particles may present a significant radiation hazard. To minimize this hazard, the material configuration must be so designed that the photon dose rate decays to an acceptable level soon after the source beam is turned off. MAGIK calculates the time-independent photon dose rates that result from activities produced by nucleon-nucleus and meson-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies. The system has been used both for high-energy accelerator studies and for fusion reactor studies. In the MAGIK system the lengthy photon transport calculations are carried out independent of time, and the time dependence is introduced in the final program, thereby permitting study of various operating scenarios with a minimum computing cost

  3. Odd-parity currents induced by dynamic deformations in graphene-like systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-11-01

    Reduced (3  +  1)-dimensional Dirac systems with inter-pseudo-spin and inter-valley scattering are employed to investigate current responses to (chiral) gauge fields in graphene-like systems. From (chiral) current—(chiral) current correlation functions, we derive the current responses. Except for electric currents induced by external gauge fields, we find the inter-valley scattering can break the topological nature of odd-parity currents. Given the proper conditions, this property can help us realize valley-polarized electric currents. Through the dynamic deformations generating the chiral gauge fields, we find the vortex-like currents while their profiles can be tuned by superposition of some deformations. In particular, we find a more manageable approach to realize the topological electric current by choosing a linear dynamic deformation.

  4. Three-body entanglement induced by spontaneous emission in a three two-level atoms system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Xiang-Ping; Fang Mao-Fa; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Cai Jian-Wu

    2006-01-01

    We study three-body entanglement induced by spontaneous emission in a three two-level atoms system by using the entanglement tensor approach. The results show that the amount of entanglement is strongly dependent on the initial state of the system and the species of atoms. The three-body entanglement is the result of the coherent superposition of the two-body entanglements. The larger the two-body entanglement is, the stronger the three-body entanglement is. On the other hand, if there exists a great difference in three two-body entanglement measures, the three-body entanglement is very weak. We also find that the maximum of the two-body entanglement obtained with nonidentical atoms is greater than that obtained with identical atoms via adjusting the difference in atomic frequency.

  5. CLIQ – Coupling-Loss Induced Quench System for Protecting Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Ravaioli, E; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed Coupling-Loss-Induced Quench (CLIQ) protection system is a new method for initiating a fast and voluminous transition to the normal state for protecting high energy density superconducting magnets. Upon quench detection, CLIQ is triggered to generate an oscillating current in the magnet coil by means of a capacitive discharge. This in turn introduces a high coupling loss in the superconductor which provokes a quick transition to the normal state of the coil windings. The system is now implemented for the protection of a two meter long superconducting quadrupole magnet and characterized in the CERN magnet test facility. Various CLIQ configurations with different current injection points are tested and the results compared to similar transients lately measured with a not optimized configuration. Test results convincingly show that the newly tested design allows for a more global quench initiation and thus a faster discharge of the magnet energy. Moreover, the performance of CLIQ for reduc...

  6. Methamphetamine-induced changes in the mice hippocampal neuropeptide Y system: implications for memory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, J; Baptista, S; Olesen, MV;

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug that causes irreversible brain damage leading to several neurological and psychiatric abnormalities, including cognitive deficits. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and has several important functions......, being involved in learning and memory processing. It has been demonstrated that METH induces significant alteration in mice striatal NPY, Y(1) and Y(2) receptor mRNA levels. However, the impact of this drug on the hippocampal NPY system and its consequences remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we...... investigated the effect of METH intoxication on mouse hippocampal NPY levels, NPY receptors function, and memory performance. Results show that METH increased NPY, Y(2) and Y(5) receptor mRNA levels, as well as total NPY binding accounted by opposite up- and down-regulation of Y(2) and Y(1) functional binding...

  7. Development of a system of measuring double-differential cross sections for proton-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Sato, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Meigo, S.

    1997-03-01

    We report the present status of a counter telescope and a data acquisition system which are being developed for the measurement of double-differential cross sections of all light-charged particles emitted from proton-induced reactions on {sup 12}C at incident energies less than 90 MeV. The counter telescope consists of an active collimator made of a plastic scintillator, two thin silicon {Delta}E-detectors and a CsI(Tl) E-detectors with photo-diode readout. Signals from each detector are processed using the data acquisition system consisting of the front-end electronics (CAMAC) and two computers connected with the ethernet LAN: a personal computer as the data collector and server, and a UNIX workstation as the monitor and analyzer. (author)

  8. Hepcidin is an antibacterial, stress-inducible peptide of the biliary system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepcidin (gene name HAMP, an IL-6-inducible acute phase peptide with antimicrobial properties, is the key negative regulator of iron metabolism. Liver is the primary source of HAMP synthesis, but it is also produced by other tissues such as kidney or heart and is found in body fluids such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid. While the role of hepcidin in biliary system is unknown, a recent study demonstrated that conditional gp130-knockout mice display diminished hepcidin levels and increased rate of biliary infections. METHODS: Expression and localization of HAMP in biliary system was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, in-situ hybridization, immunostaining and -blotting, while prohepcidin levels in human bile were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Hepcidin was detected in mouse/human gallbladder and bile duct epithelia. Biliary HAMP is stress-inducible, in that it is increased in biliary cell lines upon IL-6 stimulation and in gallbladder mucosa of patients with acute cholecystitis. Hepcidin is also present in the bile and elevated prohepcidin levels were observed in bile of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC patients with concurrent bacterial cholangitis compared to PSC subjects without bacterial infection (median values 22.3 vs. 8.9; p = 0.03. In PSC-cholangitis subjects, bile prohepcidin levels positively correlated with C-reactive protein and bilirubin levels (r = 0.48 and r = 0.71, respectively. In vitro, hepcidin enhanced the antimicrobial capacity of human bile (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Hepcidin is a stress-inducible peptide of the biliary epithelia and a potential marker of biliary stress. In the bile, hepcidin may serve local functions such as protection from bacterial infections.

  9. Egr-1 induces a profibrotic injury/repair gene program associated with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. The immediate-early gene Egr-1 is an inducible transcription factor with key roles in mediating fibrotic TGF-ß responses. To elucidate Egr-1 function in SSc-associated fibrosis, we examined change in gene expression induced by Egr-1 in human fibroblasts at the genome-wide level. Using microarray expression analysis, we derived a fibroblast "Egr-1-responsive gene signature" comprising over 600 genes involved in cell proliferation, TGF-ß signaling, wound healing, extracellular matrix synthesis and vascular development. The experimentally derived "Egr-1-responsive gene signature" was then evaluated in an expression microarray dataset comprising skin biopsies from 27 patients with localized and systemic forms of scleroderma and six healthy controls. We found that the "Egr-1 responsive gene signature" was substantially enriched in the "diffuse-proliferation" subset comprising exclusively of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc of skin biopsies. A number of Egr-1-regulated genes was also associated with the "inflammatory" intrinsic subset. Only a minority of Egr-1-regulated genes was concordantly regulated by TGF-ß. These results indicate that Egr-1 induces a distinct profibrotic/wound healing gene expression program in fibroblasts that is associated with skin biopsies from SSc patients with diffuse cutaneous disease. These observations suggest that targeting Egr-1 expression or activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy to control fibrosis in specific SSc subsets.

  10. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE- INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 余奇志; 欧和生; 佟利家; 杨军; 唐朝枢

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role d endogenous heine oxygenase ( HO )/carbon monoxide ( CO ) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amonnl of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-aximeter. Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% d the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence dIN were significantly increased by50% (P<0.05) and by83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate (heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P <0.05) after administration dZnDPBG, an inhibitor dheme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level d cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6% (P < 0.01), 40.0% (P < 0.01), 49.3% (P < 0.05) and 38.9%(P< 0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats. Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process d IN induced by LPS, and inhibition d HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  11. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role of endogenous heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats.Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amount of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-oximeter.Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% of the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence of IN were significantly increased by 50% (P<0.05) and by 83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate(heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P<0.05) after administration of ZnDPBG, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level of cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6%(P<0.01), 40.0%(P<0.01), 49.3%(P<0.05) and 38.9%(P<0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats.Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process of IN induced by LPS, and inhibition of HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  12. Development of microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography prototype system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN GuoPing; ZHAO ZhiQin; GONG Wei; NIE ZaiPing; LIU QingHuo

    2009-01-01

    Due to its advantages in both contrast and resolution compared with conventional microwave or ul-trasound imaging system, microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography (MITAT) has Received more and more concerns in biologic tissue image field. In this paper, an integrated prototype of MITAT sys-tern is presented. Using this system, some basic experiments for biologic tissue objects with high wa-ter-content imbedded in fatty material have been done. In the MITAT experiments, the signals generated by two porcine muscle tissue strips with millimeter order scale in cross-section were collected. Images with both good contrast and resolution were obtained. In order to demonstrate the advantages of MITAT, some ultrasonic experiments were studied using a commercial ultrasonic linear array system. The com-parisons of the results of both systems show the good performance of the MITAT prototype system for the detection of high water content targets, which is generally the same as the tumor in biologic tissue.

  13. Laser phase induced intensity noise in fiber-optic signal processing and sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, Ady

    1991-03-01

    The effects of random phase fluctuations in laser output on the performance of optical systems was studied. The statistical nature of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) was measured and analysed by studying its probability density function and the second and fourth moments of the optical field at the output of several multiple path systems. The properties of the semiconductor laser, including broad spectral linewidth and non-Lorentzian line shape were shown to have significant influence on the generated PIIN. The PIIN statistics was first studied via the probability density function (PDF) of the beat signal obtained from a two-beam interferometer fed by the laser. Two distinct operating regimes could be defined, according to the ratio between the interferometer delay and the laser coherence time. Analytical expressions were obtained for statistical averages of the PIIN at the output of a general multiple path system; they represent the variance and autocovariance, and the power spectral density of the PIIN at the system output. The non-Lorentzian lineshape of the semiconductor laser was taken into account and the results obtained were found to differ from the Lorentzian model predictions; power spectrum measurements by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer confirmed the theoretical model. Analysis of the PIIN for complex signal processing systems comprising several subsystems showed that the PIIN spectrum was determined by two mechanisms: noise generation and noise filtration.

  14. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  15. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant's electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant's protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well

  16. On the pertinence to Physics of random walks induced by random dynamical systems: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritis, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    Let be an abstract space and a denumerable (finite or infinite) alphabet. Suppose that is a family of functions such that for all we have and a family of transformations . The pair ((Sa)a , (pa)a ) is termed an iterated function system with place dependent probabilities. Such systems can be thought as generalisations of random dynamical systems. As a matter of fact, suppose we start from a given ; we pick then randomly, with probability pa (x), the transformation Sa and evolve to Sa (x). We are interested in the behaviour of the system when the iteration continues indefinitely. Random walks of the above type are omnipresent in both classical and quantum Physics. To give a small sample of occurrences we mention: random walks on the affine group, random walks on Penrose lattices, random walks on partially directed lattices, evolution of density matrices induced by repeated quantum measurements, quantum channels, quantum random walks, etc. In this article, we review some basic properties of such systems and provide with a pathfinder in the extensive bibliography (both on mathematical and physical sides) where the main results have been originally published.

  17. Geometry-Induced Memory Effects in Isolated Quantum Systems: Cold-Atom Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Memory effects result from the history-dependent behavior of a system, are abundant in our daily life, and have broad applications. Here, we explore the possibilities of generating memory effects in simple isolated quantum systems. By utilizing geometrical effects from a class of lattices supporting flatbands consisting of localized states, memory effects could be observed in ultracold atoms in optical lattices. As the optical lattice continuously transforms from a triangular lattice into a kagome lattice with a flatband, history-dependent density distributions manifest quantum memory effects even in noninteracting systems, including fermionic as well as bosonic systems, in the proper ranges of temperatures. Rapid growth of ultracold technology predicts a bright future for quantum memory-effect systems, and here two prototypical applications of geometry-induced quantum memory effects are proposed: A cold-atom-based accelerometer using an atomic differentiator to record the mechanical change rate of a coupled probe, and an atomic quantum memory cell for storing information with write-in and readout schemes.

  18. Parametric Studies on Buoyancy Induced Flow through Circular Pipes in Solar water heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. V. Prayagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the primary source of energy for our planet. The average solar energy reaching the earth in the tropical zone is about 1kWh/m2 giving approximately 5 to 10 kWh/m2 per day. Increased utilization of solar energy in India would result in all around benefits, both in term of cleaner environment and monetary gain.The energy from the sun can be used for various purposes such as water heating, water distillation, refrigeration, drying, power generation etc. The present work deals with solar water heating system in particular. Performance of the solar collectors can be determined using the famous Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation [1]. The analysis is simple for the forced convection situation, where the flow rate is artificially maintained constant to a desired value and the heat transfer coefficient can easily be predicted using the information available in the literature. However the natural convection situation it is very difficult to analyze as appropriate correlations for predicting the values of induced mass flow rate due to thermosiphon effect and the associated heat transfer coefficient are not available. The aim of the present investigation, therefore, is to establish correlations for heat transfer and flow characteristics for the buoyancy induced flow through inclined tubes in case of solar water heating system in particular. Considering the complexity of the problem, experimental approach is preferred. In order to produce required data, experiments were performed using inclined tubes of various lengths, diameters, inclinations, and different heat inputs.

  19. Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Deteriorates Control of Systemic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merches

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α. IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. Methods: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Bacterial titers, numbers of neutrophils and the gene-expression of liver-lysozyme-2 were determined during a 24 hours systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in wild-type and Ifnar-/- mice under the influence of LCMV or poly(I:C. Results: Virus-induced IFN-I impaired the control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was associated with neutropenia and loss of lysozyme-2-expression in the liver, which had captured P. aeruginosa. A lower release of IFN-I by poly(I:C-injection also impaired the bacterial control in the liver and reduced the expression of liver-lysozyme-2. Low concentration of IFN-I after infection with a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa alone impaired the bacterial control and reduced lysozyme-2-expression in the liver as well. Conclusion: We found that during systemic infection with P. aeruginosa Kupffer cells quickly controlled the bacteria in cooperation with neutrophils. Upon LCMV-infection this cooperation was disturbed.

  20. Growth control switch by a DNA-damage-inducible toxin-antitoxin system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Martins, Daniel; Redder, Peter; Frandi, Antonio; Mignolet, Johann; Chapalay, Julien Bortoli; Chambon, Marc; Turcatti, Gerardo; Viollier, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) are thought to respond to various stresses, often inducing growth-arrested (persistent) sub-populations of cells whose housekeeping functions are inhibited. Many such TASs induce this effect through the translation-dependent RNA cleavage (RNase) activity of their toxins, which are held in check by their cognate antitoxins in the absence of stress. However, it is not always clear whether specific mRNA targets of orthologous RNase toxins are responsible for their phenotypic effect, which has made it difficult to accurately place the multitude of TASs within cellular and adaptive regulatory networks. Here, we show that the TAS HigBA of Caulobacter crescentus can promote and inhibit bacterial growth dependent on the dosage of HigB, a toxin regulated by the DNA damage (SOS) repressor LexA in addition to its antitoxin HigA, and the target selectivity of HigB's mRNA cleavage activity. HigB reduced the expression of an efflux pump that is toxic to a polarity control mutant, cripples the growth of cells lacking LexA, and targets the cell cycle circuitry. Thus, TASs can have outcome switching activity in bacterial adaptive (stress) and systemic (cell cycle) networks. PMID:27572440

  1. Laser-induced optical spectroscopy for the speciation of f-elements in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the R + D work of this project, the aquifer system of the Gorleben site was the counterpart selected for the comparative analysis verifying the applicability of the laboratory data on the solubility and sorption of radionuclides in an aquatic system. The progress report in hand deals with spectroscopic studies of the complex-forming behaviour of trivalent Cm, Eu, and Am, and with the spectroscopic quantification of the uranyl ions in aquatic solutions and ground waters. The experiments were carried out using modern, sensitive laser spectroscopy, i.e. techniques such as time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS), which at the same time were tested and found suitable for analysing the chemical reactions of the elements under natural aquatic conditions for the concentrations ranging from 1x10-6 to 1x10-12 mol L-1. In addition, a method was developed and tested allowing a quantitative deterination of ground water colloids by means of photoacoustic measurement of light scattering (PALS). (orig.)

  2. A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Matthias; Robert, Christelle A M; Marti, Guillaume; Lu, Jing; Doyen, Gwladys R; Villard, Neil; Barrière, Yves; French, B Wade; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Turlings, Ted C J; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Indirect plant-mediated interactions between herbivores are important drivers of community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. Among the most striking examples are the strong indirect interactions between spatially separated leaf- and root-feeding insects sharing a host plant. Although leaf feeders generally reduce the performance of root herbivores, little is known about the underlying systemic changes in root physiology and the associated behavioral responses of the root feeders. We investigated the consequences of maize (Zea mays) leaf infestation by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars for the root-feeding larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of maize. D. virgifera strongly avoided leaf-infested plants by recognizing systemic changes in soluble root components. The avoidance response occurred within 12 h and was induced by real and mimicked herbivory, but not wounding alone. Roots of leaf-infested plants showed altered patterns in soluble free and soluble conjugated phenolic acids. Biochemical inhibition and genetic manipulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis led to a complete disappearance of the avoidance response of D. virgifera. Furthermore, bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed a direct link between the avoidance response of D. virgifera and changes in soluble conjugated phenolic acids in the roots of leaf-attacked plants. Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. Furthermore, it opens up the possibility to control D. virgifera in the field by genetically mimicking leaf herbivore-induced changes in root phenylpropanoid patterns.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Educated Macrophages Ameliorate LPS-Induced Systemic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoqin; Qin, Chaojin; Zheng, Guoping; Tao, Huikang; Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Guanguan; Ge, Menghua; Huang, Lanfang; Chen, Lina; Cheng, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Both bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunomodulatory effects. The goal of this study was to determine whether ASCs-educated macrophages could directly ameliorate LPS-induced systemic response in a mouse model. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cocultured with ASCs in a Transwell system for 2 days to educate macrophages. Mice were divided into 5 groups: control, LPS, LPS + ASCs, LPS + untreated macrophages, and LPS + educated macrophages. Educated macrophages decreased lung inflammation, weight loss, pulmonary edema, and inflammatory cytokine response. In vitro, ASCs increased expression of M2 macrophages independent of direct cell-to-cell contact when macrophages were treated with LPS or serum from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When macrophages were cultured with serum from ARDS patients who were treated with ASCs or placebo in our previous clinical trial, there was no difference in M2 macrophage levels before and after ASCs treatment indicating a suboptimal response to the treatment protocol. ASCs also reduced the levels of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in vitro which were mimicked by IL-10 and blocked by antibodies for IL-10 and IL-10 receptor supporting the notion that educated macrophages exert their anti-inflammatory effects via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27546994

  4. Interference of a Narrowband Biphoton with Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in an N-Type System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Peng; QIAN Jun; CHEN Dong-Yuan; HU Zheng-Feng; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    We predict the possibility of the interference of narrow-hand biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing with double electromagnetically induced transparency configuration in cold atoms. In an N-type four-level system, an auxiliary optical field Ωm can create double transparency windows for anti-Stokes photons. When the slow light effects in the double transparency windows are very strong, two four-wave mixing channels could exist due to the splitting of the phase matching condition. The biphoton generated from the two four-wave mixing channels can cause interference and shows Rabi oscillations in two-photon correlation. This interference mechanism will complement the understanding of interference at the two-photon level.%We predict the possibility of the interference of narrow-band biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing with double electromagnetically induced transparency configuration in cold atoms.In an N-type fourlevel system,an auxiliary optical field Ωm can create double transparency windows for anti-Stokes photons.When the slow light effects in the double transparency windows are very strong,two four-wave mixing channels could exist due to the splitting of the phase matching condition.The biphoton generated from the two four-wave mixing channels can cause interference and shows Rabi oscillations in two-photon correlation.This interference mechanism will complement the understanding of interference at the two-photon level.

  5. Single-Limb Irradiation Induces Local and Systemic Bone Loss in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura E; Buijs, Jeroen T; Kim, Hun-Soo; Coats, Laura E; Scheidler, Anne M; John, Sutha K; She, Yun; Murthy, Sreemala; Ma, Ning; Chin-Sinex, Helen J; Bellido, Teresita M; Bateman, Ted A; Mendonca, Marc S; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Increased fracture risk is commonly reported in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, particularly at sites within the field of treatment. The direct and systemic effects of ionizing radiation on bone at a therapeutic dose are not well-characterized in clinically relevant animal models. Using 20-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice, effects of irradiation (right hindlimb; 2 Gy) on bone volume and microarchitecture were evaluated prospectively by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry and compared to contralateral-shielded bone (left hindlimb) and non-irradiated control bone. One week postirradiation, trabecular bone volume declined in irradiated tibias (-22%; p MLO-Y4 cell apoptosis was induced as early as 48 hours postirradiation (4 Gy). In osteoclastogenesis assays, radiation exposure (8 Gy) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell differentiation, and coculture of irradiated RAW264.7 cells with MLO-Y4 or murine bone marrow cells enhanced this effect. These studies highlight the multifaceted nature of radiation-induced bone loss by demonstrating direct and systemic effects on bone and its many cell types using clinically relevant doses; they have important implications for bone health in patients treated with radiation therapy. PMID:25588731

  6. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocadello Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene

  7. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  8. Involvement of the histaminergic system in leptin-induced suppression of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, T; Yamamoto, Y; Mobarakeh, J I; Yanai, K; Watanabe, T; Watanabe, T; Yamatodani, A

    1999-11-01

    The ob gene product leptin is secreted from white adipose tissue, and may regulate food intake by acting on the hypothalamus in the central nervous system. But the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. The central histaminergic system has been suggested to participate in the control of various physiological functions, particularly in feeding behavior, as it mediates anorectic signals like leptin. Thus, we hypothesized that the central histaminergic system is a target for leptin in its control of feeding. To prove this, we first examined the effect of i.p. administration of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, on leptin-induced suppression of food intake in normal C57BL strain mice. Leptin treatment (1.3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced food intake by 60% of that of control at 6 h and by 84% at 24 h compared with control. When mice were injected with FMH (100 mg/kg, i.p.) before being given leptin, leptin-induced suppression of food intake was abolished and there was no significant difference compared with that of control. Additionally, we further examined the effects of leptin on food intake in mutant mice lacking histamine H, receptors (H1R-KO mice). Leptin injection significantly reduced food intake by 56% of that of control at 6 h and by 79% at 24 h in wild-type mice (WT mice), but not in H1R-KO mice. This finding suggests that leptin affects the feeding behavior through activation of the central histaminergic system via histamine H1 receptors.

  9. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system on the Plasma Material Interaction System (PLAMIS-II) device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, I. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y.-S.; Cho, S. G.; Bae, M. K.; Lee, D.-H.; Hong, S. H.; Lho, T.; Chung, K.-S.

    2015-12-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed for the plasma material interaction system (PLAMIS-II) device, which is equipped with a unique plasma gun composed of a LaB6 cathode and two anodes with electromagnets to generate a focused dense plasma. PLAMIS-II simulates the interactions of plasma with different materials and is to be used for the test of plasma facing components of fusion devices. The LIF system is composed of a seed laser with Littmann/Metcalf cavity and a master oscillator power amplifier to pump 3d4F7/2 metastable argon ion to 4p4D5/2 level at the wavelength of 668.61 nm, which has the following input parameters: laser power = 20 mW, line width 70 GHz. For in-situ measurement of laser wavelength, the wavelength spectrum of an iodine cell was measured by a photo-transistor during LIF measurement. To measure argon ion temperature (Ti) and drift velocity (vd) in PLAMIS-II, the fluorescence light with the wavelength of 442.72 nm, emitted from 4p4D5/2 level to 4s4P3/2 level and passing through 1 nm band-width filter, was collected by the photomultiplier tube combined with a lock-in amplifier and a chopper with frequency of 3 kHz. Initial data of Ti and vd were analysed in terms of gas flow rate and applied power.

  10. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  11. Systems Analysis of the Complement-Induced Priming Phase of Liver Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jun S; DeAngelis, Robert A; Reis, Edimara S; Gupta, Shakti; Maurya, Mano R; Evans, Charles; Das, Arun; Burant, Charles; Lambris, John D; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2016-09-15

    Liver regeneration is a well-orchestrated process in the liver that allows mature hepatocytes to reenter the cell cycle to proliferate and replace lost or damaged cells. This process is often impaired in fatty or diseased livers, leading to cirrhosis and other deleterious phenotypes. Prior research has established the role of the complement system and its effector proteins in the progression of liver regeneration; however, a detailed mechanistic understanding of the involvement of complement in regeneration is yet to be established. In this study, we have examined the role of the complement system during the priming phase of liver regeneration through a systems level analysis using a combination of transcriptomic and metabolomic measurements. More specifically, we have performed partial hepatectomy on mice with genetic deficiency in C3, the major component of the complement cascade, and collected their livers at various time points. Based on our analysis, we show that the C3 cascade activates c-fos and promotes the TNF-α signaling pathway, which then activates acute-phase genes such as serum amyloid proteins and orosomucoids. The complement activation also regulates the efflux and the metabolism of cholesterol, an important metabolite for cell cycle and proliferation. Based on our systems level analysis, we provide an integrated model for the complement-induced priming phase of liver regeneration. PMID:27511733

  12. Development of an Automated Seed Sowing and Induced Germination System for Space Flight Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Kliss, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The successful utilization of higher plants in space flight is likely to require the effective transition of plants through all phases of growth and development. A particularly sensitive and critical stage in this cycle is seed germination. The present inflight capability to manipulate seed from a state of dormancy to germination and the performance of such activity under aseptic conditions is extremely limited. An Automated Sowing Mechanism (ASM) has been designed to address this area of science and technology. The self-contained system is readily compatible with the existing Shuttle middeck locker Plant Growth Unit (PGU) and planned Plant Growth Facility (PGF), presenting an opportunity to extend the experimental capability of these systems. The ASM design encompasses the controlled transition of seed from a dry to hydrated state utilizing solid media substrate as the source of water and nutrient support. System activation has been achieved with both photo and timing mechanisms. Controlled induced germination and development of various plant species has been achieved in ground-based trials. The system is presently being prepared for a KC-135 flight test.

  13. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eMartinez-Medina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defence signalling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms (ISR. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signalling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR is believed to involve a wider variety of signalling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defence related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA and the peptide prosystemin (PS evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA and ABA signalling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defence responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against the necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development

  14. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-08-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or 'wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened 'wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact ('liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal 'hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation.

  15. Numerical modeling of an impact-induced hydrothermal system at the Sudbury crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Kring, David A.

    2004-10-01

    Large impact events, like the one that formed the Sudbury crater in Ontario, Canada, at 1.85 Ga, significantly increase the temperature of target rocks. The heat sources generated by such an impact event can drive the circulation of groundwater, establishing a hydrothermal system. We report on the results of numerical modeling of postimpact cooling with and without the presence of water at the Sudbury crater. A hydrothermal system is initiated in the annular trough between the peak ring and final crater rim, perhaps venting through faults that bound blocks of the crust in the modification zone of the crater. Although circulation through the overlying breccias may occur in the center of the crater, the central melt sheet is initially impermeable to circulating fluids. By ~105 years the central melt sheet crystallizes and partially cools, allowing fluids to flow through it. Host rock permeability is the main factor affecting fluid circulation and lifetimes of hydrothermal systems. High permeabilities lead to a rapid system cooling, while lower permeabilities allow a steady transport of hot fluids to the surface, resulting in high surface temperatures for longer periods of time than cooling by conduction alone. The simulations presented in this paper show that a hydrothermal system at a Sudbury-sized impact crater can remain active for several hundred thousand to several million years, depending on assumed permeability. These results suggest that a hydrothermal system induced by an impact event can remain active for sufficiently long periods of time to be biologically significant, supporting the idea that impact events may have played an important biological role, especially early in Earth's history.

  16. Does the histaminergic system mediate bombesin/GRP-induced suppression of food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Z; Banks, K

    1994-12-01

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian homologue, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), are potent satiety agents and have been implicated in the physiological regulation of food intake. The mechanism(s) of action of this effect remains unclear. There is a functional and anatomic overlap between histamine and BN in relationship to feeding, which led us to hypothesize that BN may mediate its satiety effects through activation of the histaminergic system. To assess this contention, we examined the effects of R-alpha-methylhistamine (alpha-MH) and Imetit, selective H3-receptor agonists that inhibit the release and synthesis of histamine, on BN- or cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced satiety. In this report we present the first evidence for the role of histamine H3 receptors in the mediation of BN-elicited satiety. During the first hour of the 4-h daily feeding session, BN reduced food intake by > 50% relative to the control condition; this suppression was blocked by prior treatment with the H3-receptor agonist, alpha-MH. This blockade of BN-induced satiety was dose related and selective to BN as alpha-MH failed to attenuate sulfated CCK-8-induced satiety. When alpha-MH was administered alone, it failed to significantly affect food intake. The specificity of this effect was further supported by the demonstration that another H3 agonist, Imetit, was also able to block the feeding-suppressant effects of BN. Furthermore, thioperamide, an H3-receptor antagonist, blocked these effects of Imetit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  18. Improved detection of induced seismicity using beamforming techniques: application to traffic light systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen; Verdon, James; Kendal, J.-Michael; Hill, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional methods of hydrocarbon extraction, such as hydraulic fracturing, have the potential to reactivate existing faults, causing induced seismicity. Traffic Light Schemes have been implemented in some regions; these systems ensure that drilling activities are paused or shut-down if seismic events larger than a given magnitude are induced. In particular, the United Kingdom has imposed a traffic light scheme based on magnitude thresholds of Ml = 0.0 and Ml = 0.5 for the amber and red limits, respectively. Therefore, an effective traffic light scheme in the UK requires monitoring arrays capable of detecting events with Ml detection thresholds can be challenging where ambient noise levels are high, such as in the UK. We have developed an algorithm capable of robustly detecting and locating small magnitude events, which are characterised by very low signal-to-noise ratios using small arrays of surface broadband seismometers. We compute STA/LTA functions for each trace, time shift them by theoretical travel-times for a given event location, and combine them via a linear stack. We test our method using a dataset from a surface array of Güralp 3T broadband seismometers that recorded hydraulic fracturing activities in the central United States. Our beamforming and stacking approach identified a total of 20 events, compared to only 4 events detected by traditional picking methods. We therefore suggest that our approach is suitable for use with low magnitude traffic light schemes, especially in noisy environments.

  19. Systemic hydrocortisone/cortisol induces allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerma, A I; Reitamo, S; Maibach, H I

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether systemic hydrocortisone can elicit allergic skin reactions in patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, we studied four patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate and two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone. Open oral provocation with 100 or 250 mg hydrocortisone in patients with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity elicited cutaneous reactions at sites of previous allergic dermatitis caused by hydrocortisone in two patients and at sites of earlier allergic patch test reactions caused by hydrocortisone in the other two patients. Provocations in two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone remained negative. To determine whether the adrenal cortical hormone cortisol, which is identical to hydrocortisone, could induce similar skin reactions, one patient with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests; as a control, one hydrocortisone-sensitive patient underwent analogous provocations with placebo. After an 8-hour infusion with the adrenocorticotropic hormone analog tetracosactide, a similar skin reaction to that seen with oral hydrocortisone was observed, whereas provocations with placebo remained negative. We conclude that both oral hydrocortisone and intrinsic cortisol are able to induce allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

  20. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D influences systemic-acquiredresistance-induced expression and histone modifications of WRKY genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijayata Singh; Shweta Roy; Deepjyoti Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2014-03-01

    A plant that is in part infected by a pathogen is more resistant throughout its whole body to subsequent infections – a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mobile signals are synthesized at the site of infection and distributed throughout the plant through vascular tissues. Mechanism of SAR development subsequent to reaching the mobile signal in the distal tissue is largely unknown. Recently we showed that FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is required in the distal tissue to activate SAR. FLD codes for a homologue of human-lysine-specific histone demethylase. Here we show that FLD function is required for priming (SAR induced elevated expression during challenge inoculation) of WRKY29 and WRKY6 genes. FLD also differentially influences basal and SAR-induced expression of WRKY38, WRKY65 and WRKY53 genes. In addition, we also show that FLD partly localizes in nucleus and influences histone modifications at the promoters of WRKY29 and WRKY6 genes. The results altogether indicate to the possibility of FLD’s involvement in epigenetic regulation of SAR.

  1. The Protective Effect of Amifostine on Radiation-Induced Proctitis: Systemic Versus Topical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Uzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of intrarectal administration of amifostine in radiation-induced proctitis compared to intraperitoneal administration.Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CONT, irradiation alone (RT, intraperitoneal amifostine plus irradiation (IPAMI, and intrarectal amifostine plus irradiation (IRAMI. The rats in the RT, IPAMI and IRAMI groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 17.5 Gy to the pelvis. Amifostine was administered by the intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg or intrarectal (2000 mg/kg route before irradiation. Histopathologic analysis of the rectum was performed 14 days after irradiation. Results: Significant radiation damage appeared in all histopathologic parameters and was reduced by amifostine. Pretreatment with IPAMI significantly reduced the inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria (p=0.021, cryptitis (p=0.002 and crypt abscess (p=0.015. However, the protective effect of IRAMI was significant for all parameters with equal or higher significance than IPAMI, including the eosinophil leucocytes count (p=0.02, and distortion of the crypts (p=0.008, and was also significant for regenerative/reparative atypia (p=0.013. Conclusion: Intrarectal high dose topical administration of amifostine is more effective in the prevention of radiation-induced proctitis compared to its intraperitoneal systemic administration.

  2. Biotransformation and nitroglycerin-induced effects on antioxidative defense system in rat erythrocytes and reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana D; Dorđević, Nataša Z; Curčić, Milena G; Stajn, Andraš S; Spasić, Mihajlo B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate - GTN) are mediated by liberated nitric oxide (NO) and formed reactive nitrogen species, which induces oxidative stress during biotransformation in red blood cells (RBCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of GTN on antioxidative defense system (AOS) in rat erythrocytes (without) and reticulocytes (with functional mitochondria). Rat erythrocyte and reticulocyte-rich RBC suspensions were aerobically incubated (2 h, 37°C) without (control) or in the presence of different concentrations of GTN (0.1-1.5 mM). After incubation, concentrations of non-enzymatic components of AOS, activities of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway activity were followed in RBC suspensions. In rat reticulocytes, GTN decreased the activity of mitochondrial MnSOD and increased the activity of CuZnSOD. In rat RBCs, GTN induced increase of Vit E concentration (at high doses), but decreased glutathione content and activities of all glutathione-dependent antioxidative enzymes; the OPP pathway activity significantly increased. GTN biotransformation and induction of oxidative stress were followed by general disbalance of antioxidative capacities in both kinds of RBCs. We suggest that oxidative stress, MnSOD inhibition and depletion of glutathione pool in response to GTN treatment lead to decreased bioavailability of NO after GTN biotransformation in rat reticulocytes.

  3. Laser-induced collisional energy transfer in Sr-Li system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen De-Ying; Lu Zhen-Zhong; Fan Rong-Wei; Xia Yuan-Qin; Zhou Zhi-Gang; Ji Yi-Qin

    2012-01-01

    A four-state model considering the relative velocity distribution function for calculating the cross section of laserinduced collisional energy transfer in a Sr-Li system is presented and profiles of laser-induced collision cross section are obtained.The resulting spectra obtained from different intermediate states are strongly asymmetrical in an opposite asymmetry.Both of the two intermediate states have contributions to the final state,and none of the intermediate states should be neglected.The peak of the laser-induced collisional energy transfer (LICET) profile shifts toward the red and the FWHM becomes narrower obviously with laser field intensity increasing.A cross section of 1.2 × 10-12 cm2 at a laser field intensity of 2.17 × 107 V/m is obtained,which indicates that this collision process can be an effective way to transfer energy selectively from a storage state to a target state.The existence of saturation for cross section with the increase of the laser intensity shows that the high-intensity redistribution of transition probabilities is an important feature of this process,which is not accounted for in a two-state treatment.

  4. Effects of fumaric acids on cuprizone induced central nervous system de- and remyelination in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Moharregh-Khiabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fumaric acid esters (FAE are a group of compounds which are currently under investigation as an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. One of the suggested modes of action is the potential of FAE to exert a neuroprotective effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the impact of monomethylfumarate (MMF and dimethylfumaric acid (DMF on de- and remyelination using the toxic cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier remains intact and only scattered T-cells and peripheral macrophages are found in the central nervous system (CNS, thus excluding the influence of immunomodulatory effects on peripheral immune cells. FAE showed marginally accelerated remyelination in the corpus callosum compared to controls. However, we found no differences for demyelination and glial reactions in vivo and no cytoprotective effect on oligodendroglial cells in vitro. In contrast, DMF had a significant inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced nitric oxide burst in microglia and induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. CONCLUSIONS: These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of action of fumaric acids. Our data suggest that fumarates have no or only little direct protective effects on oligodendrocytes in this toxic model and may act rather indirectly via the modulation of immune cells.

  5. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  6. Systems genetics reveals key genetic elements of drought induced gene regulation in diploid potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijen, Dennis; Anithakumari, A M; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard

    2016-09-01

    In plants, tolerance to drought stress is a result of numerous minor effect loci in which transcriptional regulation contributes significantly to the observed phenotypes. Under severe drought conditions, a major expression quantitative trait loci hotspot was identified on chromosome five in potato. A putative Nuclear factor y subunit C4 was identified as key candidate in the regulatory cascade in response to drought. Further investigation of the eQTL hotspots suggests a role for a putative Homeobox leucine zipper protein 12 in relation to drought in potato. Genes strongly co-expressed with Homeobox leucine zipper protein 12 were plant growth regulators responsive to water deficit stress in Arabidopsis thaliana, implying a possible conserved mechanism. Integrative analysis of genetic, genomic, phenotypic and transcriptomic data provided insights in the downstream functional components of the drought response. The abscisic acid- and environmental stress-inducible protein TAS14 was highly induced by severe drought in potato and acts as a reliable biomarker for the level of stress perceived by the plant. The systems genetics approach supported a role for multiple genes responsive to severe drought stress of Solanum tuberosum. The combination of gene regulatory networks, expression quantitative trait loci mapping and phenotypic analysis proved useful for candidate gene selection. PMID:27353051

  7. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  8. Rotenone induces degeneration of photoreceptors and impairs the dopaminergic system in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Rudd, Julián; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Lax, Pedro; De Juan, Emilio; Martín-Nieto, José; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2011-10-01

    Rotenone is a widely used pesticide and a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I (NADH-quinone reductase) that elicits the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and thereby the appearance of a parkinsonian syndrome. Here we have addressed the alterations induced by rotenone at the functional, morphological and molecular levels in the retina, including those involving both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic retinal neurons. Rotenone-treated rats showed abnormalities in equilibrium, postural instability and involuntary movements. In their outer retina we observed a loss of photoreceptors, and a reduced synaptic connectivity between those remaining and their postsynaptic neurons. A dramatic loss of mitochondria was observed in the inner segments, as well as in the axon terminals of photoreceptors. In the inner retina we observed a decrease in the expression of dopaminergic cell molecular markers, including loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, associated with a reduction of the dopaminergic plexus and cell bodies. An increase in immunoreactivity of AII amacrine cells for parvalbumin, a Ca(2+)-scavenging protein, was also detected. These abnormalities were accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of scotopic and photopic a- and b-waves and an increase in the b-wave implicit time, as well as by a lower amplitude and greater latency in oscillatory potentials. These results indicate that rotenone induces loss of vision by promoting photoreceptor cell death and impairment of the dopaminergic retinal system.

  9. Complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies distinguish drug-induced lupus from systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Teodorescu, M; Beutner, E H; Plunkett, R W

    2004-01-01

    The immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody (ANA) test has been widely used to monitor autoimmune disease, but its value for diagnostic purposes is compromised by low specificity and high prevalence in disease-free individuals. The capacity of autoantibodies to fix serum complement proteins when bound to antigen is an important effector function because this property is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. The current study evaluates the complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies (CANA) in three well-defined and clinically-related patient groups: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), drug-induced lupus (DIL) and drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA). Of 20 patients diagnosed with SLE, 90% displayed complement-fixing ANA while this feature was present in only two of 18 patients with DIL and no patients with DIA without associated disease even though the mean ANA titres were similar among these patient groups. CANA was significantly correlated with anti-Sm activity. Because SLE but not DIL or DIA can be a life-threatening disease associated with complement consumption in vivo, these results demonstrate that measurement of CANA is a diagnostically useful tool and may have immunopathologic implications.

  10. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the

  11. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system on the Plasma Material Interaction System (PLAMIS-II) device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed for the plasma material interaction system (PLAMIS-II) device, which is equipped with a unique plasma gun composed of a LaB6 cathode and two anodes with electromagnets to generate a focused dense plasma. PLAMIS-II simulates the interactions of plasma with different materials and is to be used for the test of plasma facing components of fusion devices. The LIF system is composed of a seed laser with Littmann/Metcalf cavity and a master oscillator power amplifier to pump 3d4F7/2 metastable argon ion to 4p4D5/2 level at the wavelength of 668.61 nm, which has the following input parameters: laser power = 20 mW, line width < 100 kHz, and a mode-hop free tuning range > 70 GHz. For in-situ measurement of laser wavelength, the wavelength spectrum of an iodine cell was measured by a photo-transistor during LIF measurement. To measure argon ion temperature (Ti) and drift velocity (vd) in PLAMIS-II, the fluorescence light with the wavelength of 442.72 nm, emitted from 4p4D5/2 level to 4s4P3/2 level and passing through 1 nm band-width filter, was collected by the photomultiplier tube combined with a lock-in amplifier and a chopper with frequency of 3 kHz. Initial data of Ti and vd were analysed in terms of gas flow rate and applied power

  12. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer′s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer′s disease patients. An APP swe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer′s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer′s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease.

  13. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  14. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  15. IFN-γ licenses CD11b(+) cells to induce progression of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaabani, Namir; Honke, Nadine; Dolff, Sebastian; Görg, Boris; Khairnar, Vishal; Merches, Katja; Duhan, Vikas; Metzger, Sabine; Recher, Mike; Barthuber, Carmen; Hardt, Cornelia; Proksch, Peter; Häussinger, Dieter; Witzke, Oliver; Lang, Philipp A; Lang, Karl S

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). High titers of anti-nuclear antibodies are used as surrogate marker for SLE, however their contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Using murine model of SLE and human samples, we studied the effect of immune stimulation on relapsing of SLE. Although autoantibodies bound to target cells in vivo, only additional activation of CD8(+) T cells converted this silent autoimmunity into overt disease. In mice as well as in humans CD8(+) T cells derived IFN-γ enhanced expression of Fc-receptors on CD11b(+) cells. High expression of Fc-receptors allowed CD11b(+) cells to bind to antibody covered target cells and to destroy them in vivo. We found that autoantibodies induce clinically relevant disease when adaptive immunity, specific for disease non-related antigen, is activated. PMID:26094774

  16. Effects of Detunings on Dynamically Induced Irreversibility in Coherently Driven Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiang-Ming; PENG Jin-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    Effects of detunings on dynamically induced irreversibilityis studied for coherently driven V systems in which there is no conventional source of irreversible population pumping. For atomic barium (γ1/γ2 = 400 》 1, where γ1 and γ2 are the rates of the spontaneous decay from the excited states 6s6p 1P1 and 6s6p 3p1 to the ground state 6s2 1So, espectively), the strong irreversibility is found to lead to a maximum inversion of 0.77 [only 0.1 in Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 4311]. The maximum population inversion requires relatively strong fields coupled respectively to two transitions, a disparity in two atomic decay rates, and the atom-field detunings of opposite signs. However, it is also shown that even in the cases where two detunings have the same sign, or where two decay rates are equal, population inversion takes place.

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System for Studying Drug Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard de Boer

    Full Text Available Today HIV-1 infection is recognized as a chronic disease with obligatory lifelong treatment to keep viral titers below detectable levels. The continuous intake of antiretroviral drugs however, leads to severe and even life-threatening side effects, supposedly by the deleterious impact of nucleoside-analogue type compounds on the functioning of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. For detailed investigation of the yet partially understood underlying mechanisms, the availability of a versatile model system is crucial. We therefore set out to develop the use of Caenorhabditis elegans to study drug induced mitochondrial toxicity. Using a combination of molecular-biological and functional assays, combined with a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial network morphology, we conclude that anti-retroviral drugs with similar working mechanisms can be classified into distinct groups based on their effects on mitochondrial morphology and biochemistry. Additionally we show that mitochondrial toxicity of antiretroviral drugs cannot be exclusively attributed to interference with the mitochondrial DNA polymerase.

  18. Theory of self-induced back-action optical trapping in nanophotonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Neumeier, Lukas; Chang, Darrick E

    2015-01-01

    Optical trapping is an indispensable tool in physics and the life sciences. However, there is a clear trade off between the size of a particle to be trapped, its spatial confinement, and the intensities required. This is due to the decrease in optical response of smaller particles and the diffraction limit that governs the spatial variation of optical fields. It is thus highly desirable to find techniques that surpass these bounds. Recently, a number of experiments using nanophotonic cavities have observed a qualitatively different trapping mechanism described as "self-induced back-action trapping" (SIBA). In these systems, the particle motion couples to the resonance frequency of the cavity, which results in a strong interplay between the intra-cavity field intensity and the forces exerted. Here, we provide a theoretical description that for the first time captures the remarkable range of consequences. In particular, we show that SIBA can be exploited to yield dynamic reshaping of trap potentials, strongly s...

  19. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-hui Dong; Cong Liu; Jiang-tao Bai; Wei-na Kong; Xiao-ping He; Peng Yan; Tie-mei Shao; Wen-guo Yu; Xi-qing Chai; Yan-hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade ampliifcation in Alzheimer’s dis-ease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used. The intragas-tric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. These com-pounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. A Novel Statistical Channel Model for Turbulence-Induced Fading in Free-Space Optical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aminikashani, Mohammadreza; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new probability distribution function which accurately describes turbulence-induced fading under a wide range of turbulence conditions. The proposed model, termed Double Generalized Gamma (Double GG), is based on a doubly stochastic theory of scintillation and developed via the product of two Generalized Gamma (GG) distributions. The proposed Double GG distribution generalizes many existing turbulence channel models and provides an excellent fit to the published plane and spherical waves simulation data. Using this new statistical channel model, we derive closed form expressions for the outage probability and the average bit error as well as corresponding asymptotic expressions of free-space optical communication systems over turbulence channels. We demonstrate that our derived expressions cover many existing results in the literature earlier reported for Gamma-Gamma, Double-Weibull and K channels as special cases.

  1. Concise Review: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as New Model Systems in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplane, Lucie; Beke, Allan; Vainchenker, William; Solary, Eric

    2015-10-01

    The demonstration that pluripotent stem cells could be generated by somatic cell reprogramming led to wonder if these so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells would extend our investigation capabilities in the cancer research field. The first iPS cells derived from cancer cells have now revealed the benefits and potential pitfalls of this new model. iPS cells appear to be an innovative approach to decipher the steps of cell transformation as well as to screen the activity and toxicity of anticancer drugs. A better understanding of the impact of reprogramming on cancer cell-specific features as well as improvements in culture conditions to integrate the role of the microenvironment in their behavior may strengthen the epistemic interest of iPS cells as model systems in oncology. PMID:26179060

  2. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis in skeletal muscle in obesity. The role of the sympathoadrenal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Henriksen, O;

    1987-01-01

    with the lean controls. Glucose induced a similar increase in leg noradrenaline release in both obese groups, whereas the arterial adrenaline level was lower in the LEI group compared with the HEI group and with the lean controls (P = 0.04). Among the obese subjects the degree of glucose intolerance...... was inversely correlated with the post-glucose arterial adrenaline level (r = -0.55, and P = 0.04), and positively correlated with the fractional leg adrenaline extraction (r = 0.71, and P = 0.003). The results suggest that patients who are obese in spite of a fairly low energy intake have a reduced glucose...... nervous system. It is hypothesized that the reduced arterial adrenaline level in the LEI group is caused by hyperglycaemic suppression of the adrenomedullary secretion and further that this may be a link connecting deterioration of glucose tolerance and a thermogenic defect in obesity....

  3. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes. PMID:27350073

  4. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative toxicity by modulating antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kursat Ali; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Halici, Zekai; Halici, Mesut; Cadirci, Elif; Atalay, Fadime; Aydin, Ozlem; Cakir, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    Gastroprotective effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) against oxidative gastric damage induced by indomethacin (IND) have been investigated. All doses (50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) of ALA reduced the ulcer index with 88.2% to 96.1% inhibition ratio. In biochemical analyses of stomach tissues, ALA administration decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and catalase (CAT) in gastric tissues, which were increased after IND application. ALA also increased the level of glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) that were decreased in gastric damaged stomach tissues. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of ALA could be attributed to its ameliorating effect on the antioxidant defense systems. PMID:23057764

  5. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de La Moya, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes.

  6. Laser-induced damage of high reflectors for Ti:sapphire laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianke Yao; Weiqiang Zeng; Zhengxiu Fan; Hongbo He; Jianda Shao

    2007-01-01

    A broadband (~ 176 nm, R > 98%, λ0 = 800 nm) and high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT =2.4 J/cm2) TiO2/HfO2/SiO2 high reflector (HR) for Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system is fabricated by the electron beam evaporation. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of TiO2 and HfO2 films are calculated from single-layer films' transmittance spectra. The properties of HR are mainly determined by the high refractive index material. The high refractive index leads to wide bandwidth. A low extinction coefficient indicates low absorption and high LIDT. The possible damage mechanism of HR is discussed.

  7. [Effect of diltiazem on cold-induced left ventricular dysfunction in patients with systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, R H; Marrero, G; Chwojnik, A; Martínez Martínez, J A; Maldonado Cocco, J; Rodrigué, S; Casabé, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SS) have cardiac dysfunction induced by cold exposure. We and others have demonstrated this finding after corporal chilling, suggesting a "coronary Raynaud phenomenon" mediated by intermittent vascular spasm. In this study we evaluated the effect of diltiazem (DTZ) in cardiac dysfunction induced by cold test in patients with SS without clinical evidence of heart disease. Twelve patients with SS were studied. One patient was excluded because he did not fulfill the prescribed treatment. Eleven patients (age of 49.9 +/- 3.8 years and illness duration of 9.3 +/- 4.8 years) were included. Gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography was recorded after red blood cells were labeled in vivo using an intravenous injection of stannous pirophosphate followed by 20 mc of 99 Tc (gamma camera with electrocardiographic R wave gating was used). Left ventricular injection fraction (LVEF) was calculated using computer analysis and wall motion abnormalities by visual interpretation. Patients were cooled using a thermic blanket set at 5 degrees centigrade. They were evaluated before and after a period of cooling. After corporal chilling LVEF decreased more than 10% in all of them. DTZ 270 mg a day was administered to the same patients during 48 hs. Basal and cold LVEF were repeated in all patients. The results with and without DTZ were compared by Student's t Test. The basal LVEF with and without DTZ was not different (64.8 +/- 2.6 and 63.1 +/- 1.8). After corporal chilling LVEF decreased (64.8 +/- 2.6 to 54.8 +/- 2.5 p < 0.00001) and reversible abnormalities in wall motion were noticed in patients without DTZ. When they received DTZ neither difference in LVEF (63.1 +/- 1.8 to 62.1 +/- 2.4) nor wall motion abnormalities were observed. We compared the LVEF after chilling (62.1 +/- 2.4 and 54.8 +/- 2.5) and we found an important difference with the use of DTZ (p < 0.005). It can be concluded that in patients with SS and no overt heart disease, DTZ

  8. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspha Sinnayah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana, stimulate appetite, and cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R antagonists suppress appetite and promote weight loss. Little is known about how CB1-R antagonists affect the central neurocircuitry, specifically the melanocortin system that regulates energy balance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that peripherally administered CB1-R antagonist (AM251 or agonist equally suppressed or stimulated feeding respectively in A(y , which lack a functional melanocortin system, and wildtype mice, demonstrating that cannabinoid effects on feeding do not require melanocortin circuitry. CB1-R antagonist or agonist administered into the ventral tegmental area (VTA equally suppressed or stimulated feeding respectively, in both genotypes. In addition, peripheral and central cannabinoid administration similarly induced c-Fos activation in brain sites suggesting mediation via motivational dopaminergic circuitry. Amperometry-detected increases in evoked dopamine (DA release by the CB1-R antagonist in nucleus accumbens slices indicates that AM251 modulates DA release from VTA terminals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the effects of cannabinoids on energy balance are independent of hypothalamic melanocortin circuitry and is primarily driven by the reward system.

  9. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic quantum system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Pal; M S Santhanam

    2011-11-01

    Recent experiments with Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) in traps and speckle potentials have explored the dynamical regime in which the evolving BEC clouds localize due to the influence of classical dynamics. The growth of their mean energy is effectively arrested. This is in contrast with the well-known localization phenomena that originate due to quantum interferences. We show that classically induced localization can also be obtained in a classically chaotic, non-interacting system. In this work, we study the classical and quantum dynamics of non-interacting particles in a double-barrier structure. This is essentially a non-KAM system and, depending on the parameters, can display chaotic dynamics inside the finite well between the barriers. However, for the same set of parameters, it can display nearly regular dynamics above the barriers. We exploit this combination of two qualitatively different classical dynamical features to obtain saturation of energy growth. In the semiclassical regime, this classical mechanism strongly influences the quantum behaviour of the system.

  10. Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for the specification of actinides in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy is developed for the direct speciation of transuranic elements in natural aquatic systems. Speciation sensitivities are attained to the sub-μmol range, e.g., the Am3+ ion with its molar absorption coefficient of 378 L-1 cm-1 can be detected up to 10-8 mol L-1. The first part of this monograph deals with the construction of spectrometer, the spectroscopic characterization and the sensitivity determination for transuranic elements of different oxidation states. With an introduction of differential detection system, the compensation of background effects is realized. The spectral work is automated by a special operating system including analog-digital data processing. The second part includes applications of the spectroscopy to the speciation of transuranic ions at concentrations -6 mol L-1 for their oxidation states, hydrolysis reactions, complexation, redox behaviour and colloid generation in various solutions. The third part comprises the systematic investigation of the chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in selected groundwaters in which multicomponent concurrent reactions are involved. (orig.)

  11. Observing Human-induced Linkages between Urbanization and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world s population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters atmospheric composition; impacts components of the water cycle; and modifies the carbon cycle and ecosystems. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. The goal of the 2003 AGU Union session Human-induced climate variations on urban areas: From observations to modeling was to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results on observing and modeling components of the urban environment with the intent of sampling our current stand and discussing future direction on this topic. Herein, a summary and discussion of the observations component of the session are presented.

  12. Collective dynamics of multimode bosonic systems induced by weak quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to the fully projective limit of strong quantum measurement, where the evolution is locked to a small subspace (quantum Zeno dynamics), or even frozen completely (quantum Zeno effect), the weak non-projective measurement can effectively compete with standard unitary dynamics leading to nontrivial effects. Here we consider global weak measurement addressing collective variables, thus preserving quantum superpositions due to the lack of which path information. While for certainty we focus on ultracold atoms, the idea can be generalized to other multimode quantum systems, including various quantum emitters, optomechanical arrays, and purely photonic systems with multiple-path interferometers (photonic circuits). We show that light scattering from ultracold bosons in optical lattices can be used for defining macroscopically occupied spatial modes that exhibit long-range coherent dynamics. Even if the measurement strength remains constant, the quantum measurement backaction acts on the atomic ensemble quasi-periodically and induces collective oscillatory dynamics of all the atoms. We introduce an effective model for the evolution of the spatial modes and present an analytic solution showing that the quantum jumps drive the system away from its stable point. We confirm our finding describing the atomic observables in terms of stochastic differential equations.

  13. Microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Lin, J Y; Lin, Y T

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system, aluminum alloys A356, AA 5052, AA 5083 and AA 6061 were chosen as the test alloys and Cladosporium and several fuel-oil contaminated microbes isolated in Taiwan were used as test organisms. Aluminum alloy AA 5083 in fuel-oil/aqueous system was the most susceptible material for microbial corrosion, then followed by aluminum alloys AA 5052 and A356, and AA 6061 was more resistant to microbial aggression. Mixed culture had high capability of corrosion, then followed by Penicillium sp. AM-F5, Fusarium sp. AM-F1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AM-B5, Ps. fluorescens AM-B9, C. resinae ATCC 22712, Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Candida sp. AM-Y1 and Ps. aeruginosa AM-B11. From energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, aluminum and magnesium contents decreased in the corrosion area, while chlorine and sulfur contents increased. The major organic acid produced in fuel-oil/aqueous system was acetic acid, and the total organic acids content had a positive correlation with the degree of microbial corrosion. PMID:10496152

  14. Systemic and local responses to repeated HL stress-induced retrograde signaling in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew John Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts of leaves under high light stress initiate signals to the nuclei of both exposed and distal leaves in order to acclimate against the potential threat of oxidative damage: a process known as high light systemic acquired acclimation (HL SAA. This study explores the nature of HL SAA, synergistic interactions with other environmental stresses, and the impact of repeated HL stress on the acclimation response of exposed and distal leaves. This necessitated the development of novel experimental systems to investigate the initiation, perception and response to HL SAA. These systems were used to investigate the HL SAA response by monitoring the induction of mRNA in distal leaves not exposed to the HL stress. Acclimation to HL is induced within minutes and the response is proportionally dependent on the quality and quantity of light. HL SAA treatments in conjunction with variations in temperature and humidity reveal HL SAA is influenced by fluctuations in humidity. These treatments also result in changes in auxin accumulation and auxin-responsive genes. A key question in retrograde signaling is the extent to which transient changes in light intensity result in a memory of the event leading to acclimation responses. Repeated exposure to short term HL resulted in acclimation of the exposed tissue and that of emerging and young leaves (but not older leaves to HL and oxidative stress.

  15. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  16. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of meteorites as a probe of the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a technique for gathering data relevant to Solar System geophysics. Two test cases were demonstrated: elemental analysis of chondrules in a chondrite meteorite, and space- resolved analysis of the interface between kamacite and taenite crystals in an octahedrite iron meteorite. In particular most major and minor elements (Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Cr, Mn, Ca, Fe, Ni, Co) in Sahara 98222 (chondrite) and its chondrules, as well as the profile of Ni content in Toluca (iron meteorite), were determined with the Calibration Free (CF) method. A special attention was devoted to exploring the possibilities offered by variants of the basic technique, such as the use of Fe I Boltzmann distribution as an intensity calibration method of the spectroscopic system, and the use of spatially resolved analysis. - Highlights: • LIBS of meteorites can supply data relevant to the early evolution of solar system. • CF-LIBS was applied to two different test cases. • Chemical identification of chondrules embedded in a chondrite meteorite • Experimental and theoretical profiles of Ni content in an iron meteorite

  17. Systemic provocation in doxycycline induced fixed drug eruption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Murwaningsih Rosmarini Estri Sih Hananti Niken Indrastuti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is recurrent lesions that upon repeated uptake of causative drug, always appears at the same skin and mucosal site. Determination of causal relationship in drug allergy is very important. In this case report, cases of doxycycline-induced FDE was reported. The subject of the research was a 29-year-old male, referred by dermatologist, with history of reccurent FDE. Physical examination revealed an oval well demarcated patch hyperpigmentation. Patch test was perfomed on previous involved and uninvolved site. The result of the patch test was irrelevant. Retesting patch test gave similar result. Systemic provocation test or drug provocation test (DPT  with doxcycline were done with suspected drug under ambulatory survelance and gave positive result. In this case, the DPT succeeded to identify doxycycline as the causal agent of FDE. The work-up of a suspected drug hypersensitivity includes a detailed clinical history, physical examination, skin tests, and provocation tests. The DPT is recommended to confirm drug’s hypersensitivity reactions. Systemic provocation test is considered as the gold standard for diagnosing FDE.Keywords:   fixed drug eruption - doxycycline - causal relationship - patch test - systemic provocation test

  18. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption and Transparency Spectra of Degenerate TwoLevel Systems with a Strong Coupling Field in Cs Vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵延霆; 赵建明; 肖连团; 尹王保; 贾锁堂

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency spectra of degenerate two-level systems with a strong coupling laser were observed. The frequency detuning and intensity effect of the coupling laser were demonstrated simultaneously. A dispersion-like spectrum can be obtained when the coupling laser is situated at blue-side detuning. The absorption inversion was realized when the coupling laser intensity is small. The coherent resonance has a linewidth much narrower than the natural linewidth of the optical transitions.

  19. [The auto-focusing remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-yu; Pan, Cong-yuan; An, Ning; Du, Xue-wei; Yu, Yun-si; Du, Liang-liang; Wang, Sheng-bo; Wang, Qiu-ping

    2015-02-01

    The present paper presents an auto-focus laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) remote measuring system. This system contains a Schwarzschild telescope, which consists of a convex mirror and a concave mirror. The two spherical mirrors are coaxially placed. The convex mirror is mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. With this motorized linear translation stage, the convex mirror can move along the optical axis to change the spacing between the convex mirror and the concave mirror. Therefore the focal length can be adjusted to focus the laser on samples at different distances and collect the plasma spectra. The advantages of the telescope system include, firstly, the light path of laser focusing and spectra signal collection is the same, which make it easier for mounting and collimation; secondly, the light path of the telescope uses total reflection type, which is fit for the detection in ultra-violate region; finally, the telescope consists of only two spherical mirrors which are relatively easier to manufacture. Within the translation range of the motorized linear translation stage, the focal length of the telescope in this paper can be adjusted from 1.5 to 3.6 m. The diameter of the focusing spot varies from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. Utilizing this telescope system, LIBS experiments were conducted using copper sample. And the characteristic lines of Cu element (Cu I 223.01 nm, Cu I 224.43 nm) obtained are used for the auto focusing. By investigating the relation of the area of spectral lines covered and the spacing between the mirrors, the optimal laser focusing location was obtained. The LIBS experiment results show that the system functions well, fulfilling the demand of remote ablation of sample and LIBS spectral measuring, and the telescope is able to auto-focus the laser on samples at different position to perform remote LIBS experiment. PMID:25970882

  20. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mittal

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA.In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR-adjusted p value<0.05. These genes were enriched in pathways spanning multiple systems, as would be expected during pregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256 showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA.Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data.

  1. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors.

  2. Longitudinal migration and inducible displacement of the Mobility Total Ankle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose RSA can be used for early detection of unstable implants. We assessed the micromotion of the Mobility Total Ankle System over 2 years, to evaluate the stability of the bone-implant interface using radiostereometric analysis measurements of longitudinal migration and inducible displacement. Patients and methods 23 patients were implanted with the Mobility system. Median age was 62 (28–75) years and median BMI was 28.8 (26.0–34.5). Supine radiostereometric analysis examinations were done from postoperatively to the 2-year follow-up. Standing examinations were taken from the 3-month to the 2-year follow-up. Migrations and displacements were assessed using model-based RSA software (v. 3.2). Results The median maximum total point motion (MTPM) for the implants at 2 years was 1.19 (0.39–1.95) mm for the talar component and 0.90 (0.17–2.28) mm for the spherical tip of the tibial component. The general pattern for all patients was that the slope of the migration curves decreased over time. The main direction of motion for both components was that of subsidence. The median 2-year MTPM inducible displacement for the talar component was 0.49 (0.27–1.15) mm, and it was 0.07 (0.03–0.68) mm for the tibial component tip. Interpretation The implants subside into the bone over time and under load. This corresponds to the direction of primary loading during standing or walking. This statistically significant motion may become a clinically significant finding that would correspond with premature implant failure. PMID:22880712

  3. A highly-sensitive automatic transient laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system with high temporal and spatial resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiao-Jun; S.K.Fong; Andrew Y.S.Cheng; Luo Shi-Rong; K.S.Tam; Zhu Jian-Hua; A.Viseu

    2012-01-01

    A highly-sensitive automatic transient laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system is designed and integrated.It successfully avoids the delay time selecting problem in the conventional LIBS system,and realizes the LIBS data acquisition with high spatiotemporal resolution automatically.Multiple transient spectra can be obtained in each measurement,which will provide more information for spectral research.The water-vapour and liquid-water Raman scattering spectra are captured by this system,and the comparison of experimental water-vapour Raman scattering spectrum with theoretical data verifies the reliability of the LIBS system.Based on this system,the air laser induced air breakdown spectra are captured and analysed.The system is also useful for the research on water-vapour Raman Lidar remote sensing.

  4. Influence of high carbohydrate versus high fat diet in ozone induced pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic impairment in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution has been recently linked to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been postulated that dietary risk factors might exacerbate air pollution-induced metabolic impairment. We have recently reported that ozone exposure induces acute systemic ...

  5. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole induced locomotor plasticity responsive to antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent kindling induced by PTZ is a widely used model of epileptogenesis and AED testing. Overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms may underlie epileptogenesis and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Besides epilepsy, AEDs are widely used in treating various neuropsychiatric disorders. Mechanisms of AEDs' long term action in these disorders are poorly understood. We describe here a Drosophila systems model of PTZ induced locomotor plasticity that is responsive to AEDs. Results We empirically determined a regime in which seven days of PTZ treatment and seven days of subsequent PTZ discontinuation respectively cause a decrease and an increase in climbing speed of Drosophila adults. Concomitant treatment with NaVP and LEV, not ETH, GBP and VGB, suppressed the development of locomotor deficit at the end of chronic PTZ phase. Concomitant LEV also ameliorated locomotor alteration that develops after PTZ withdrawal. Time series of microarray expression profiles of heads of flies treated with PTZ for 12 hrs (beginning phase, two days (latent phase and seven days (behaviorally expressive phase showed only down-, not up-, regulation of genes; expression of 23, 2439 and 265 genes were downregulated, in that order. GO biological process enrichment analysis showed downregulation of transcription, neuron morphogenesis during differentiation, synaptic transmission, regulation of neurotransmitter levels, neurogenesis, axonogenesis, protein modification, axon guidance, actin filament organization etc. in the latent phase and of glutamate metabolism, cell communication etc. in the expressive phase. Proteomic interactome based analysis provided further directionality to these events. Pathway overrepresentation analysis showed enrichment of Wnt signaling and other associated pathways in genes downregulated by PTZ. Mining of available transcriptomic and proteomic data pertaining to established rodent models of epilepsy and human epileptic

  6. Disruption of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase Ameliorates Diet-induced Adiposity but Exacerbates Systemic Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Response*

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Gao, Zhanguo; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason; Chen, Y. Eugene; Ye, Jianping; Chapkin, Robert S.; Wu, Chaodong

    2009-01-01

    Adiposity is commonly associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and many overnutrition-related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Much attention has been paid to reducing adiposity as a way to improve adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. PFKFB3/iPFK2 is a master regulator of adipocyte nutrient metabolism. Using PFKFB3+/− mice, the present study investigated the role of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in regulating diet-induced adiposity and systemic insulin resistance. On a high...

  7. A hybrid microfluidic system for regulation of neural differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesari, Zahra; Soleimani, Massoud; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Sharifdini, Meysam; Nadri, Samad; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Zare, Mehrak; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-06-01

    Controlling cellular orientation, proliferation, and differentiation is valuable in designing organ replacements and directing tissue regeneration. In the present study, we developed a hybrid microfluidic system to produce a dynamic microenvironment by placing aligned PDMS microgrooves on surface of biodegradable polymers as physical guidance cues for controlling the neural differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The neuronal differentiation capacity of cultured hiPSCs in the microfluidic system and other control groups was investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and immunocytochemistry. The functionally of differentiated hiPSCs inside hybrid system's scaffolds was also evaluated on the rat hemisected spinal cord in acute phase. Implanted cell's fate was examined using tissue freeze section and the functional recovery was evaluated according to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Our results confirmed the differentiation of hiPSCs to neuronal cells on the microfluidic device where the expression of neuronal-specific genes was significantly higher compared to those cultured on the other systems such as plain tissue culture dishes and scaffolds without fluidic channels. Although survival and integration of implanted hiPSCs did not lead to a significant functional recovery, we believe that combination of fluidic channels with nanofiber scaffolds provides a great microenvironment for neural tissue engineering, and can be used as a powerful tool for in situ monitoring of differentiation potential of various kinds of stem cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1534-1543, 2016. PMID:26914600

  8. Magnetic-field-induced valence transition in rare-earth systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Gangadhar Reddy; A Ramakanth; S K Ghatak

    2002-05-01

    The magnetic-field-induced valence transition in rare-earth systems has been investigated using the periodic Anderson model supplemented by the Falicov–Kimball term. This model has been solved by first decoupling the Falicov–Kimball term as proposed by Khomskii and Koharjan and then taking the limit of infinite intra-site Coulomb repulsion. The valence transition both in the absence and in the presence of magnetic field as a function of temperature is studied. It has been found that the system makes transition from non-magnetic to magnetic state when the magnetic field increases beyond a critical value c. The phase boundary defined in terms of reduced field c()/c(0) and reduced temperature /v (v being the valence transition temperature in the absence of field) is almost independent of the position of the localized level. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in Yb- and Eu-compounds.

  9. A novel inducible protein production system and neomycin resistance as selection marker for Methanosarcina mazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondorf, Sebastian; Deppenmeier, Uwe; Welte, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Methanosarcina mazei is one of the model organisms for the methanogenic order Methanosarcinales whose metabolism has been studied in detail. However, the genetic toolbox is still limited. This study was aimed at widening the scope of utilizable methods in this group of organisms. (i) Proteins specific to methanogens are oftentimes difficult to produce in E. coli. However, a protein production system is not available for methanogens. Here we present an inducible system to produce Strep-tagged proteins in Ms. mazei. The promoter p1687, which directs the transcription of methyl transferases that demethylate methylamines, was cloned into plasmid pWM321 and its activity was determined by monitoring β-glucuronidase production. The promoter was inactive during growth on methanol but was rapidly activated when trimethylamine was added to the medium. The gene encoding the β-glucuronidase from E. coli was fused to a Strep-tag and was cloned downstream of the p1687 promoter. The protein was overproduced in Ms. mazei and was purified in an active form by affinity chromatography. (ii) Puromycin is currently the only antibiotic used as a selectable marker in Ms. mazei and its relatives. We established neomycin resistance as a second selectable marker by designing a plasmid that confers neomycin resistance in Ms. mazei.

  10. A Novel Inducible Protein Production System and Neomycin Resistance as Selection Marker for Methanosarcina mazei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Mondorf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina mazei is one of the model organisms for the methanogenic order Methanosarcinales whose metabolism has been studied in detail. However, the genetic toolbox is still limited. This study was aimed at widening the scope of utilizable methods in this group of organisms. (i Proteins specific to methanogens are oftentimes difficult to produce in E. coli. However, a protein production system is not available for methanogens. Here we present an inducible system to produce Strep-tagged proteins in Ms. mazei. The promoter p1687, which directs the transcription of methyl transferases that demethylate methylamines, was cloned into plasmid pWM321 and its activity was determined by monitoring β-glucuronidase production. The promoter was inactive during growth on methanol but was rapidly activated when trimethylamine was added to the medium. The gene encoding the β-glucuronidase from E. coli was fused to a Strep-tag and was cloned downstream of the p1687 promoter. The protein was overproduced in Ms. mazei and was purified in an active form by affinity chromatography. (ii Puromycin is currently the only antibiotic used as a selectable marker in Ms. mazei and its relatives. We established neomycin resistance as a second selectable marker by designing a plasmid that confers neomycin resistance in Ms. mazei.

  11. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Methods Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk-1 of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Results Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; Pmuscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Conclusion Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy. PMID:24130904

  12. Optimization of liquid jet system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočovská, Katarína; Novotný, Jan; Prochazka, David; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    A complex optimization of geometrical and temporal parameters of a jet system (developed in Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) laboratory of Brno University of Technology) for direct elemental analysis of samples in a liquid state of matter using LIBS was carried out. First, the peristaltic pump was synchronized with the flashlamp of the ablation laser, which reduced variation of the ablated sample amount. Also, the fluctuation of the laser ray angle incident on the jet surface was diminished. Such synchronization reduced signal standard deviations and thus increased repeatability of the measurements. Then, laser energy and distance of the focusing lens from the sample were optimized. The gate delay time and the gate width were optimized for single pulse (SP) experiments; the gate delay time and the inter-pulse delay were optimized for the use of double pulse (DP) variant. Results were assessed according to the highest signal to noise ratios and the lowest relative standard deviations of the signal. The sensitivity of the single pulse and the double pulse LIBS for the detection of heavy metals traces, copper (Cu i at 324.754 nm) and lead (Pb i at 405.781 nm), in aqueous solution of copper (ii) sulfate and lead (ii) acetate, was estimated in terms of limits of detection (LODs). As a result, sensitivity improvement of DP LIBS system was observed, the LOD of Cu obtained with DP was calculated 40% lower than LOD gained from SP technique.

  13. Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Han, Soo Jung; Park, Tae Kwann; Choi, Kyoung Sub; Choi, Young-Ki; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated eyedrop vaccination (EDV) in pre-clinical development for immunological protection against influenza and for potential side effects involving ocular inflammation and the central nervous system (CNS). Live attenuated influenza EDV, CA07 (H1N1), PZ-4 (H1N2) and Uruguay (H3N2), induced both systemic and mucosal virus-specific antibody responses in ferrets. In addition, EDV resulted in a clinically significant protection against viral challenge, and suppression of viral replication in nasal secretion and lung tissue. Regarding safety, we found that administered EDV flow through the tear duct to reach the base of nasal cavity, and thus do not contact the olfactory bulb. All analyses for potential adverse effects due to EDV, including histological and functional examinations, did not reveal significant side effects. On the basis of these findings, we propose that EDV as effective, while being a safe administration route with minimum local side effects, CNS invasion, or visual function disturbance. PMID:27333331

  14. Effect of ion velocity on SHI-induced mixing in Ti/Bi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nisha; Kumar, Sarvesh; Khan, Saif Ahmad; Chauhan, R. S.

    2016-03-01

    Energetic ion beams are proving to be versatile tools for modification and depth profiling of materials. The energy and ion species are the deciding factor in the ion-beam-induced materials modification. Among the various parameters such as electronic energy loss, fluence and heat of mixing, velocity of the ions used for irradiation plays an important role in mixing at the interface. The present study is carried out to find the effect of the velocity of swift heavy ions on interface mixing of a Ti/Bi bilayer system. Ti/Bi/C was deposited on Si substrate at room temperature by an electron gun in a high-vacuum deposition system. Carbon layer is deposited on top to avoid oxidation of the samples. Eighty mega electron volts Au ions and 100 MeV Ag ions with same value of Se for Ti are used for the irradiation of samples at the fluences 1 × 1013-1 × 1014 ions/cm2. Different techniques like Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the pristine and irradiated samples. The mixing effect is explained in the framework of the thermal spike model. It has been found that the mixing rate is higher for low-velocity Au ions in comparison to high-velocity Ag ions. The result could be explained as due to less energy deposition in thermal spike by high-velocity ions.

  15. Mechanistic studies of systemic immune responses induced by laser-nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Zhou, Feifan; Henderson, Brock; Vasquez, Bailey; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2014-02-01

    With the help of the specific absorption spectrum of carbon nanotubes, we achieved selective photothermal tumor cell destruction, particularly using a near-infrared laser to reduce potential damage to untargeted tissues. Combined with immunological stimulation, using a novel adjuvant, we also observed the anti-tumor immune responses when treating animal tumors using the laser-nano treatment. In fact, the local application of laser-nano-immunotherapy appeared to result in a systemic curative effect. In our mechanistic study, we found that the laser-nano-immuno treatment can activate antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). More importantly, the uptake and presentation of antigens by these antigen presenting cells were significantly enhanced, as shown by the strong binding of tumor cells and DCs as well as the proliferation of T cells caused by the DCs after the DCs had been incubated with laser-nano-immuno treated tumors. These cellular observations provide evidence that a systemic anti-tumor immune response was induced by the combination of laser and nanotechnology.

  16. New, Coupling Loss Induced, Quench Protection System for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Giloux, C; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    Email Print Request Permissions Save to Project A new and promising method for the protection of superconducting high-field magnets is developed and tested on the so-called MQXC quadrupole magnet at the CERN magnet test facility. The method relies on a capacitive discharge system inducing, during a few periods, an oscillation of the transport current in the superconducting cable of the coil. The corresponding fast change of the local magnetic field introduces a high coupling-current loss, which, in turn, causes a fast quench of a large fraction of the coil due to enhanced temperature. Results of measured discharges at various levels of transport current are presented and compared to discharges by quenching the coils using conventional quench heaters and an energy extraction system. The hot-spot temperature in the quenching coil is deduced from the coil voltage and current. The results are compared to simulations carried out using a lumped-element dynamic electro-thermal model of the so-called MQX...

  17. Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Yoon

    Full Text Available We investigated eyedrop vaccination (EDV in pre-clinical development for immunological protection against influenza and for potential side effects involving ocular inflammation and the central nervous system (CNS. Live attenuated influenza EDV, CA07 (H1N1, PZ-4 (H1N2 and Uruguay (H3N2, induced both systemic and mucosal virus-specific antibody responses in ferrets. In addition, EDV resulted in a clinically significant protection against viral challenge, and suppression of viral replication in nasal secretion and lung tissue. Regarding safety, we found that administered EDV flow through the tear duct to reach the base of nasal cavity, and thus do not contact the olfactory bulb. All analyses for potential adverse effects due to EDV, including histological and functional examinations, did not reveal significant side effects. On the basis of these findings, we propose that EDV as effective, while being a safe administration route with minimum local side effects, CNS invasion, or visual function disturbance.

  18. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tomato Infected by Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Antonella; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lovelli, Stella; Sofo, Adriano; Valerio, Maria; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV. PMID:27777581

  19. Systems analysis of a RIG-I agonist inducing broad spectrum inhibition of virus infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Line Goulet

    Full Text Available The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5'pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5'pppRNA, and not by IFNα-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5'pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5'pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents.

  20. Alleviation of ischemia-induced brain edema by activation of the central histaminergic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Yumi; Adachi, Naoto; Liu, Keyue; Arai, Tatsuru; Nagaro, Takumi

    2008-09-01

    We have reported that facilitation of central histaminergic activity prevents the development of ischemia-induced brain injury. Since cerebral edema is a major cause of brain damage, we studied effects on brain edema of postischemic administration of L-histidine, a precursor of histamine, and thioperamide, a histamine H(3)-receptor antagonist, both of which enhance central histaminergic activity. Focal cerebral ischemia for 2 h was provoked by transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in rats, and the water content and infarct size were determined 24 h after reperfusion. Changes in the extracellular concentration of histamine were examined in the striatum by a microdialysis procedure, and effects of these compounds were evaluated. Repeated administration of L-histidine (1000 mg/kg x 2, i.p.), immediately and 6 h after reperfusion, reduced the increase in the water contents in ischemic regions. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide (5 mg/kg, s.c.) with L-histidine (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevented edema formation and alleviated brain infarction, although a single dose of L-histidine, immediately after reperfusion, showed no benefits. The striatal histamine level was gradually increased after reperfusion as well as during ischemia. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide with L-histidine markedly increased the brain histamine concentration, and the value increased up to 230% of that in the saline group 5 - 6 h after reperfusion. L-Histidine alone did not affect the increase in the histamine output after ischemia. These findings suggest that further activation of the central histaminergic system after initiation of cerebral ischemia prevents development of ischemia-induced brain edema.

  1. Arsenite treatment induces oxidative stress, upregulates antioxidant system, and causes phytochelatin synthesis in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti; Jha, A B; Dubey, R S

    2011-07-01

    The effects of arsenite treatment on generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of oxidative stress, response of antioxidative system, and synthesis of phytochelatins were investigated in two indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs. Malviya-36 and Pant-12 grown in sand cultures for a period of 5-20 days. Arsenite (As(2)O(3); 25 and 50 μM) treatment resulted in increased formation of superoxide anion (O (2) (.-) ), elevated levels of H(2)O(2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, showing enhanced lipid peroxidation. An enhanced level of ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) was observed irrespective of the variation in the level of dehydroascorbate (DHA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) which in turn influenced redox ratios AA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. With progressive arsenite treatment, synthesis of total acid soluble thiols and phytochelatins (PC) increased in the seedlings. Among antioxidative enzymes, the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), total ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.6.5.4), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) increased in arsenite treated seedlings, while dehyroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activity declined initially during 5-10 days and increased thereafter. Results suggest that arsenite treatment causes oxidative stress in rice seedlings, increases the levels of many enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and induces synthesis of thiols and PCs, which may serve as important components in mitigating arsenite-induced oxidative damage.

  2. Protective effect of crocin against apoptosis induced by subchronic exposure of the rat vascular system to diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Khoei, Alireza; Imenshahidi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    Research has suggested that natural antioxidant, crocin, an active ingredient of saffron, may protect against diazinon (DZN)-induced toxicity. Although increased production of lipid peroxidation by DZN in rat aorta has been shown previously, the effects of DZN on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vascular system have not been evaluated. In this study, the effect of crocin on DZN-induced apoptosis in rat vascular system was investigated. The rats were divided into 7 groups: corn oil (control), DZN (15 mg/kg/day, gavage), crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) + DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p., 3 days a week) + DZN, and crocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). The treatments were continued for 4 weeks. Levels of apoptotic (Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl2) were analyzed by Western blotting. Transcript levels of Bax and Bcl2 genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed DZN-induced apoptosis by activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and by increasing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio (both protein and messenger RNA levels). Crocin and vitamin E inhibited apoptosis induced by DZN. In summary, subchronic exposure to DZN induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, and crocin reduced the toxic effects of DZN by inhibiting apoptosis in aortic tissue.

  3. Protective effect of crocin against apoptosis induced by subchronic exposure of the rat vascular system to diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Khoei, Alireza; Imenshahidi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    Research has suggested that natural antioxidant, crocin, an active ingredient of saffron, may protect against diazinon (DZN)-induced toxicity. Although increased production of lipid peroxidation by DZN in rat aorta has been shown previously, the effects of DZN on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vascular system have not been evaluated. In this study, the effect of crocin on DZN-induced apoptosis in rat vascular system was investigated. The rats were divided into 7 groups: corn oil (control), DZN (15 mg/kg/day, gavage), crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) + DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p., 3 days a week) + DZN, and crocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). The treatments were continued for 4 weeks. Levels of apoptotic (Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl2) were analyzed by Western blotting. Transcript levels of Bax and Bcl2 genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed DZN-induced apoptosis by activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and by increasing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio (both protein and messenger RNA levels). Crocin and vitamin E inhibited apoptosis induced by DZN. In summary, subchronic exposure to DZN induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, and crocin reduced the toxic effects of DZN by inhibiting apoptosis in aortic tissue. PMID:27353299

  4. The interaction between ghrelin and cannabinoid systems in penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2014-12-01

    The majority of experimental and clinical studies show that ghrelin and cannabinoids are potent inhibitors of epileptic activity in various models of epilepsy. A number of studies have attempted to understand the connection between ghrelin and cannabinoid signalling in the regulation of food intake. Since no data show a functional interaction between ghrelin and cannabinoids in epilepsy, we examined the relationship between these systems via penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Doses of the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) (2.5 and 7.5 µg), the CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3 carboxamide (AM-251) (0.25 and 0.5 µg) and ghrelin (0.5 and 1 µg) were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) 30 minutes after the intracortical (i.c.) application of penicillin. In the interaction groups, the animals received either an effective dose of ACEA (7.5 µg, i.c.v.) or a non-effective dose of ACEA (2.5 µg, i.c.v.) or effective doses of AM-251 (0.25, 0.5 µg, i.c.v.) 10 minutes after ghrelin application. A 1 µg dose of ghrelin suppressed penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. The administration of a 0.25 µg dose of AM-251 increased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity by producing status epilepticus-like activity. A 7.5 µg dose of ACEA decreased the frequency of epileptiform activity, whereas a non-effective dose of ACEA (2.5 µg) did not change it. Effective doses of AM-251 (0.25, 0.5 µg) reversed the ghrelin's anticonvulsant activity. The application of non-effective doses of ACEA (2.5 µg) together with ghrelin (0.5 µg) within 10 minutes caused anticonvulsant activity, which was reversed by the administration of AM-251 (0.25 µg). The electrophysiological evidence from this study suggests a possible interaction between ghrelin and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the experimental model of epilepsy. PMID

  5. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  6. Differential effectiveness of Serratia plymuthica IC1270-induced systemic resistance against hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic leaf pathogens in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfte Monica M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant reacting to specific biotic or chemical stimuli. Over the years, several forms of induced resistance have been characterized, including systemic acquired resistance, which is induced upon localized infection by an avirulent necrotizing pathogen, and induced systemic resistance (ISR, which is elicited by selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria. However, contrary to the relative wealth of information on inducible defense responses in dicotyledoneous plants, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying induced resistance phenomena in cereal crops is still in its infancy. Using a combined cytomolecular and pharmacological approach, we analyzed the host defense mechanisms associated with the establishment of ISR in rice by the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. Results In a standardized soil-based assay, root treatment with IC1270 rendered foliar tissues more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, causal agent of the devastating rice blast disease. Analysis of the cytological and biochemical alterations associated with restriction of fungal growth in IC1270-induced plants revealed that IC1270 primes rice for enhanced attacker-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and autofluorescent phenolic compounds in and near epidermal cells displaying dense cytoplasmic granulation. Similar, yet more abundant, phenotypes of hypersensitively dying cells in the vicinity of fungal hyphae were evident in a gene-for-gene interaction with an avirulent M. oryzae strain, suggesting that IC1270-inducible ISR and R protein conditioned effector-triggered immunity (ETI target similar defense mechanisms. Yet, this IC1270-inducible ISR response seems to act as a double-edged sword within the rice defense network as induced plants displayed an increased vulnerability to the necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia

  7. Phase-slip-induced dissipation in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D; White, M; Pasienski, M; DeMarco, B

    2008-05-01

    Phase-slips control dissipation in many bosonic systems, determining the critical velocity of superfluid helium and the generation of resistance in thin superconducting wires. Technological interest has been largely motivated by applications involving nanoscale superconducting circuit elements, such as standards based on quantum phase-slip junctions. Although phase slips caused by thermal fluctuations at high temperatures are well understood, controversy remains over the role of phase slips in small-scale superconductors--in solids, problems such as uncontrolled noise sources and disorder complicate their study and application. Here we show that phase slips can lead to dissipation in a clean and well-characterized Bose-Hubbard system, by experimentally studying the transport of ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. In contrast to previous work, we explore a low-velocity regime described by the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model that is unaffected by instabilities, and we measure the effect of temperature on the dissipation strength. The damping rate of atomic motion (the analogue of electrical resistance in a solid) in the confining parabolic potential is well fitted by a model that includes finite damping at zero temperature. The low-temperature behaviour is consistent with the theory of quantum tunnelling of phase slips, whereas at higher temperatures a crossover consistent with a transition to thermal activation of phase slips is evident. Motion-induced features reminiscent of vortices and vortex rings associated with phase slips are also observed in time-of-flight imaging. These results clarify the role of phase slips in superfluid systems. They may also be of relevance in understanding the source of metallic phases observed in thin films, or serve as a test bed for theories of bosonic dissipation based upon variants of the Bose-Hubbard model. PMID:18451857

  8. Association of systemic hypertension with renal injury in dogs with induced renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Delmar R

    2004-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is hypothesized to cause renal injury to dogs. This study was performed on dogs with surgically induced renal failure to determine whether hypertension was associated with altered renal function or morphology. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were measured before and after surgery. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC) were measured at 1, 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks after surgery, and renal histology was evaluated terminally. The mean of weekly MAP, SAP, and DAP measurements for each dog over the 1st 26 weeks was used to rank dogs on the basis of MAP, SAP, or DAP values. A statistically significant association was found between systemic arterial pressure ranking and ranked measures of adverse renal responses. When dogs were divided into higher pressure and lower pressure groups on the basis of SAP, group 1 (higher pressure, n = 9) compared with group 2 (lower pressure, n = 10) had significantly lower GFR values at 36 and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, and fibrosis. When dogs were divided on MAP and DAP values, group 1 compared with group 2 had significantly lower GFR values at 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, fibrosis, and cell infiltrate. These results demonstrate an association between increased systemic arterial pressure and renal injury. Results from this study might apply to dogs with some types of naturally occurring renal failure.

  9. Phase-slip-induced dissipation in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D; White, M; Pasienski, M; DeMarco, B

    2008-05-01

    Phase-slips control dissipation in many bosonic systems, determining the critical velocity of superfluid helium and the generation of resistance in thin superconducting wires. Technological interest has been largely motivated by applications involving nanoscale superconducting circuit elements, such as standards based on quantum phase-slip junctions. Although phase slips caused by thermal fluctuations at high temperatures are well understood, controversy remains over the role of phase slips in small-scale superconductors--in solids, problems such as uncontrolled noise sources and disorder complicate their study and application. Here we show that phase slips can lead to dissipation in a clean and well-characterized Bose-Hubbard system, by experimentally studying the transport of ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. In contrast to previous work, we explore a low-velocity regime described by the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model that is unaffected by instabilities, and we measure the effect of temperature on the dissipation strength. The damping rate of atomic motion (the analogue of electrical resistance in a solid) in the confining parabolic potential is well fitted by a model that includes finite damping at zero temperature. The low-temperature behaviour is consistent with the theory of quantum tunnelling of phase slips, whereas at higher temperatures a crossover consistent with a transition to thermal activation of phase slips is evident. Motion-induced features reminiscent of vortices and vortex rings associated with phase slips are also observed in time-of-flight imaging. These results clarify the role of phase slips in superfluid systems. They may also be of relevance in understanding the source of metallic phases observed in thin films, or serve as a test bed for theories of bosonic dissipation based upon variants of the Bose-Hubbard model.

  10. Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using nanosecond pulses from a mobile lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Rasmus; Lundqvist, Mats; Svanberg, Sune

    2006-08-01

    A mobile lidar system was used in remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments. Also, computer-controlled remote ablation of a chosen area was demonstrated, relevant to cleaning of cultural heritage items. Nanosecond frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed in experiments with a stand-off distance of 60 meters using pulse energies of up to 170 mJ. By coaxial transmission and common folding of the transmission and reception optical paths using a large computer-controlled mirror, full elemental imaging capability was achieved on composite targets. Different spectral identification algorithms were compared in producing thematic data based on plasma or fluorescence light. PMID:16925920

  11. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xijia; Liu, Zhigang; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Weiwei; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation canopy SIF is designed in this study. The system, which is based on a high-resolution spectrometer and an optical multiplexer, can achieve comparative observation of multiple targets. To simultaneously measure the commonly used vegetation index and SIF in the O₂-A and O₂-B atmospheric absorption bands, the following parameters are used: a spectral range of 475.9 to 862.2 nm, a spectral resolution of approximately 0.9 nm, a spectral sampling interval of approximately 0.4 nm, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be as high as 1000:1. To obtain data for both the upward radiance of the vegetation canopy and downward irradiance data with a high SNR in relatively short time intervals, the single-step integration time optimization algorithm is proposed. To optimize the extraction accuracy of SIF, the FluorMOD model is used to simulate sets of data according to the spectral resolution, spectral sampling interval and SNR of the spectrometer in this continuous observation system. These data sets are used to determine the best parameters of Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD), Three FLD (3FLD) and the spectral fitting method (SFM), and 3FLD and SFM are confirmed to be suitable for extracting SIF from the spectral measurements. This system has been used to observe the SIF values in O₂-A and O₂-B absorption bands and some commonly used vegetation index from sweet potato and bare land, the result of which shows: (1) the daily variation trend of SIF value of sweet potato leaves is

  12. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijia Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation canopy SIF is designed in this study. The system, which is based on a high-resolution spectrometer and an optical multiplexer, can achieve comparative observation of multiple targets. To simultaneously measure the commonly used vegetation index and SIF in the O2-A and O2-B atmospheric absorption bands, the following parameters are used: a spectral range of 475.9 to 862.2 nm, a spectral resolution of approximately 0.9 nm, a spectral sampling interval of approximately 0.4 nm, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR can be as high as 1000:1. To obtain data for both the upward radiance of the vegetation canopy and downward irradiance data with a high SNR in relatively short time intervals, the single-step integration time optimization algorithm is proposed. To optimize the extraction accuracy of SIF, the FluorMOD model is used to simulate sets of data according to the spectral resolution, spectral sampling interval and SNR of the spectrometer in this continuous observation system. These data sets are used to determine the best parameters of Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD, Three FLD (3FLD and the spectral fitting method (SFM, and 3FLD and SFM are confirmed to be suitable for extracting SIF from the spectral measurements. This system has been used to observe the SIF values in O2-A and O2-B absorption bands and some commonly used vegetation index from sweet potato and bare land, the result of which shows: (1 the daily variation trend of SIF value of sweet potato leaves is

  13. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  14. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. RESULTS: Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001. Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19; however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007. There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019. CONCLUSION: Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  15. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance. (paper)

  16. Role of the vestibular system in the arterial pressure response to parabolic-flight-induced gravitational changes in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Chihiro; Abe, Chikara; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Morita, Hironobu

    2011-05-16

    Arterial pressure (AP) is known to fluctuate during parabolic-flight-induced gravitational changes in human subjects, increasing during hypergravity and decreasing during microgravity. In this study, we examined whether the vestibular system participates in the AP response to the gravitational changes induced by parabolic flight in human subjects. Eight subjects performed parabolic flights in a supine position as their AP was measured. Their vestibular inputs during the gravitational changes were reversibly masked by artificial electrical stimulation (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS). The AP responses during the parabolas were then compared between the GVS-off and GVS-on conditions. AP increased during hypergravity and decreased during microgravity. The AP responses at the onset of hypergravity and microgravity were abolished by GVS. These results indicate that the vestibular system elicits pressor and depressor responses during parabolic-flight-induced hypergravity and microgravity, respectively.

  17. Estimation of flow-induced loads on a down-scaled model of SMART reactor coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a small and medium-sized integrated reactor to produce an electric power and desalination simultaneously. SMART should be designed to withstand flow-induced loads generated by the coolant flow under both normal and transient operations during the design period. In this study, we evaluated the flow-induced loads and flow characteristics in the axial and the circumferential directions of reactor internals using a down-scaled model of SMART prototype. This paper shows that the simulated results in the axial direction are in good agreement with the experimental data in the reactor coolant system. The flow-induced loads are irregularly distributed in the circumferential direction of the reactor internals. (author)

  18. Drift-or fluctuation-induced ordering and self-organization in driven many-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to empirical observations, some pattern formation phenomena in driven many-particle systems are more pronounced in the presence of a certain noise level. We investigate this phenomenon of fluctuation-driven ordering with a cellular-automaton model of interactive motion in space and find an optimal noise strength, while order breaks down at high(er) fluctuation levels. Additionally, we discuss the phenomenon of noise- and drift-induced self-organization in systems that would show disorder in the absence of fluctuations. In the future, related studies may have applications to the control of many-particle systems such as the efficient separation of particles. The rather general formulation of our model in the spirit of game theory may allow to shed some light on several different kinds of noise-induced ordering phenomena observed in physical, chemical, biological, and socio-economic systems (e.g., attractive and repulsive agglomeration, or segregation). (authors)

  19. Digital system upset. The effects of simulated lightning-induced transients on a general-purpose microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Flight critical computer based control systems designed for advanced aircraft must exhibit ultrareliable performance in lightning charged environments. Digital system upset can occur as a result of lightning induced electrical transients, and a methodology was developed to test specific digital systems for upset susceptibility. Initial upset data indicates that there are several distinct upset modes and that the occurrence of upset is related to the relative synchronization of the transient input with the processing sate of the digital system. A large upset test data base will aid in the formulation and verification of analytical upset reliability modeling techniques which are being developed.

  20. Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis induced by biocontrol bacteria is independent of salicylic acid accumulation and pathogenesis-related gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, A.C.M. van; Hoffland, E.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van

    1996-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a pathogen-inducible defense mechanism in plants. The resistant state is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and is characterized by the activation of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Recently, selected nonpathogenic, root-col

  1. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  2. Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavaheri, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on iron-regulated metabolites. Under iron-limiting conditions, P. fluorescens WCS374r produces

  3. Effect of vacuum-induced coherence on lasing without inversion in an equispaced three-level ladder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Qian; Chengpu Liu; Shangqing Gong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vacuum-induced coherence (VIC) on the properties of the absorption and gain of the probe field in an equispaced three-level ladder atomic system are investigated. It is found that lasing without inversion (LWI) is remarkably enhanced due to the effect of VIC in the case of the small incoherent pump rate.

  4. PELATIHAN MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM SAMA DENGAN PELATIHAN CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN FUNGSIONAL ANGGOTA GERAK ATAS PASIEN STROKE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul chalik meidian; Dewa Putu Sutjana; Irfan, M

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an interruption of blood vasculature system in the brain that causes suddenly neurological dysfunction, resulted in clinically brain tissue damage in a relatively long time period, decreased physical mobility and functional ability impaired of upper limb. The purpose of this study is to know an increasing in upper limb functional ability among stroke patients after mirror neuron system exercise and constraint induced movement therapy exercise and to know the comparison of both exerc...

  5. Nonlinear transient vibrations and coexistences of multi-instabilities induced by friction in an aircraft braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillot, Fabrice; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Hardouin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    International audience Friction-induced vibration is still a cause for concern in a wide variety of mechanical systems, because it can lead to structural damage if high vibration levels are reached. Another effect is the noise produced that can be very unpleasant for end-users, thereby making it a major problem in the field of terrestrial transport. In this work the case of an aircraft braking system is examined. An analytical model with polynomial nonlinearity in the contact between rotor...

  6. The electromagnetically induced transparency in the Y-type four-level atom system at low light levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liying; LIU Zhengdong; CHEN Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a Y-type four-level atom interacting with external fields system is investigated. It is shown that increasing the control field can reduce the probe absorption, the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and gain can be obtained if the parameters are taken appropriately. An interesting phenomenon is found that the system appears to be probe gain in a large region if the external fields Rabi phases are taken appropriately, too.

  7. A system to investigate the remediation of organic vapors using microwave-induced plasma with fluidized carbon granules

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Dawson; Parkes, Gareth M. B.; Bond, Gary; Mao, Runjie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a system to investigate the parameters for the remediation of organic vapors using microwave-induced plasma on fluidized carbon granules. The system is based on a single mode microwave apparatus with a variable power (2.45 GHz) generator. Carbon granules are fluidized in a silica tube situated in the sample section of a waveguide incorporating two additional ports to allow plasma intensity monitoring using a light sensor and imaging with a digital camera. A fluoroptic p...

  8. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, V J; Merkus, D; Bender, S. B.; Tharp, D. L.; Bowles, D.K.; Duncker, D. J.; LAUGHLIN, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hyper...

  9. Control of microwave signals using bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in multimode circuit electromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Yuanshun, Cui; Xintian, Bian; Xiaowei, Li; Guibin, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the tunable delay and advancement of microwave signals based on bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in a three-mode circuit electromechanical system, where two nanomechanical resonators with closely spaced frequencies are independently coupled to a common microwave cavity. In the presence of a strong microwave pump field, we obtain two transparency windows accompanied by steep phase dispersion in the transmitted microwave probe field. The width of the transparency window and the group delay of the probe field can be controlled effectively by the power of the pump field. It is shown that the maximum group delay of 0.12 ms and the advancement of 0.27 ms can be obtained in the current experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304110 and 11174101), the Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. BK20130413 and BK2011411), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant Nos. 13KJB140002 and 15KJB460004).

  10. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  11. Low level RF systems for synchrotrons part II: High Intensity. Compensation of the beam induced effects

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    2005-01-01

    The high intensity regime is reached when the voltage induced by the beam in the RF cavities is of an amplitude comparable to the desired accelerating voltage. In steady state this beam loading can be compensated by providing extra RF power. Transient beam loading occurs at injection or in the presence of a beam intensity that is not uniform around the ring. The transients are periodic at the revolution frequency. Without correction transient beam loading can be very harmful: The stable phase and bucket area will not be equal for all bunches. Strong beam loading often goes in pair with longitudinal instabilities because the RF cavities are a large contributor to the total ring impedance. The low level systems that reduce the effect of the transient beam loading will also increase the threshold intensity of the longitudinal instability caused by the cavity impedance at the fundamental RF frequency. Four classic methods are presented here: Feedforward, RF feedback, long delay feedback and bunch by bunch feedbac...

  12. Systematic review of infliximab-induced autoantibodies and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, João Luiz Pereira; Andrade, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; Martins, Maria de Fátima M; Levy, Roger Abramino

    2013-08-01

    The present systematic review aims to discuss infliximab-induced autoantibodies and subsequent onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through the analyses of primary reports measuring autoantibodies both before and after the administration of infliximab for the treatment of several diseases - e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease. Our literature search was performed in nine databases - PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Cochrane, EMBASE, Scielo and LILACS, and the search query retrieved 998 primary reports, from which 24 articles were selected and further narrowed down to 14, based on our inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers performed the article selection and a third reviewer solved discrepancies. Our inclusion criteria comprised primary reports of phase IV clinical trials with duration of at least three months. In total, 760 patients were evaluated and the most prevalent assays performed in the studies were anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (anti-dsDNA), and antibodies to saline-extracted antigens (ENA panel). Of all patients evaluated, 10 (1.3%) showed clinical signs and laboratorial evidence of infliximabinduced SLE.

  13. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Saulo J F; Sousa, Fernanda I A B; Pereira, Domingos M S; Ferro, Thiago A F; Pereira, Ione C P; Silva, Bruna L R; Pinheiro, Aruanã J M C R; Mouchrek, Adriana Q S; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Costa, Soraia K P; Nascimento, José L M; Grisotto, Marcos A G; da Costa, Robson; Fernandes, Elizabeth S

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1 h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5 min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26922677

  14. Dynamically tunable slow light based on plasmon induced transparency in disk resonators coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast and low-power dynamically tunable single channel and multichannel slow light based on plasmon induced transparencies (PITs) in disk resonators coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide system with a nonlinear optical Kerr medium is investigated both numerically and analytically. A coupled-mode theory (CMT) is introduced to analyze this dynamically tunable single channel slow light structure. Multichannel slow light is realized in this plasmonic waveguide structure based on a bright–dark mode coupling mechanism. In order to reduce the pump intensity and obtain ultrafast response time, the traditional nonlinear Kerr material is replaced by monolayer graphene. It is found that the magnitude of the single PIT window can be controlled between 0.08 and 0.48, while the corresponding group index is controlled between 14.5 and 2.0 by dynamically decreasing pump intensity from 11.7 to 4.4 MW cm−2. Moreover, the phase shift multiplication effect is found in this structure. This work paves a new way towards the realization of highly integrated optical circuits and networks, especially for wavelength-selective, all-optical storage and nonlinear devices. (paper)

  15. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  16. Acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Baker, Jr., James R.; Balogh, Lajos P.; Milas, Susanne M.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Hollman, Kyle W.

    2008-05-06

    An acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) provides information which characterize material which is broken down, microbubbles in the material, and/or the microenvironment of the microbubbles. In one embodiment of the invention, femtosecond laser pulses are focused just inside the surface of a volume of aqueous solution which may include dendrimer nanocomposite (DNC) particles. A tightly focused, high frequency, single-element ultrasonic transducer is positioned such that its focus coincides axially and laterally with this laser focus. When optical breakdown occurs, a microbubble forms and a shock or pressure wave is emitted (i.e., acoustic emission). In addition to this acoustic signal, the microbubble may be actively probed with pulse-echo measurements from the same transducer. After the microbubble forms, received pulse-echo signals have an extra pulse, describing the microbubble location and providing a measure of axial microbubble size. Wavefield plots of successive recordings illustrate the generation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles due to optical breakdown. These same plots can also be used to quantify LIOB thresholds.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  18. L\\'evy Noise Induced Switch in the Gene Transcriptional Regulatory System

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yong; Li, JuanJuan; Zhang, Huiqing

    2013-01-01

    Gene transcriptional regulatory is an inherently noisy process. In this paper, the study of fluctuations in a gene transcriptional regulatory system is extended to the case of L\\'evy noise, a kind of non-Gaussian noises which can describe unpredictable jump changes of the random environment. The stationary probability density is given to explore the key roles of L\\'evy noise in the gene regulatory networks. The results demonstrate that the parameters of L\\'evy noise, including noise intensity, stability index and skewness parameter can induce switches between distinct gene-expression states. A further concern is the switching time (from the high concentration state to the low concentration one or from the low concentration state to the high concentration one), which is a random variable and often referred to as the mean first passage time. The effects of L\\'evy noise in expression time and degradation time is studied by computing the mean first passage time in two directions and a number of different peculiar...

  19. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices.

  20. Haloperidol induces apoptosis via the sigma2 receptor system and Bcl-XS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z; Mousseau, D D; Dai, Y; Cao, X; Li, X-M

    2006-01-01

    Toxicity of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol (HAL) comprises an apoptotic component that we link to pro-apoptotic Bcl-XS in PC12 preneuronal and N2a neuroblastoma cells. The mitochondrial translocation of Bcl-XS and its interaction with the pore-forming voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) correlates with the redistribution of cytochrome c and the cleavage of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Haloperidol-induced apoptosis is mediated by the sigma2 (sigma2) receptor system and does not involve the expected antagonism of the dopamine D(2) receptor, nor is it influenced by Vitamin E- or p53/Bax-mediated events. Pathological relevance is demonstrated by the cytotoxic synergism between HAL and the Alzheimer disease-related peptide beta-amyloid(1-40), which correlates with Bcl-XS expression and its interaction with VDAC, and with cytosolic cytochrome c translocation. These data provide for a unique apoptotic mechanism that could underscore the clinical risks associated with HAL, particularly following chronic regimens or in the elderly.

  1. Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for the speciation of transuranic elements in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (LPAS) is a new elegant instrumentation for the chemical speciation of acoustic transuranium (TRU) ions in very dilute concentrations (> 10-8 mol L-1). The paper describes the principle of LPAS and its application to the study of the chemical behaviour of TRU ions in natural aquatic systems, the knowledge of which has become increasingly in demand in connection with the safety analysis of nuclear waste disposal in the geosphere. The first part of the paper describes the principle, instrumentation and characteristics of LPAS in aqueous solution, taking particular examples from our own experience. The theoretical estimation of the speciation sensitivity is demonstrated and the result is compared with experiment. The second part deals with the spectral work in aqueous solution and then with the aplication of LPAS for the speciation of TRU ions in groundwater. Some examples demonstrated are hydrolysis reaction, complexation and colloid generation of the Am3+ ion. Speciation sensitivities of U, Np, Pu and Am of different oxidation states in a variety of aqueous solutions are summarized. The application is of course open to a broad field of microchemistry in which the conventional spectrophotometric method has difficulty with sensitivity. (orig.)

  2. Histological characterisation of the ethanol-induced microphthalmia phenotype in a chick embryo model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Kevin; Brennan, Deirdre; Chummun, Kushal; Giles, Seamus

    2011-09-01

    The eye is a sensitive indicator of the teratogenic effects of ethanol with ophthalmic defects such as microphthalmia frequently observed in FAS children. In this study, we have optimised the chick-embryo model system to investigate ethanol-induced ocular defects. Injection of 20% ethanol (125μl) directly into the yolk sac of HH-stage 7 embryos resulted in an overall 30% incidence of eye anomalies including microphthalmia. Ocular measurements showed that this treatment regime caused a significant reduction in overall globe size. Histological examination of microphthalmic specimens revealed three subgroups: (1) all ocular structures developed but were significantly retarded compared to age matched controls, (2) the bi-layered optic cup developed but with no evidence of lens induction, and (3) the optic vesicle failed to invaginate but remained as a vesicular structure comprising of a single layer of retinal pigment cells with no evidence of a neuro-retinal cell layer or lens structure. Further analysis identified clusters of apoptotic bodies in the ventral telencephalon, a region responsible for the expression of important genes in ocular specification. These results support a growing body of evidence, indicating that ethanol targets inductive signals in early eye development involving lens formation and retinal ganglion cell differentiation. The possible involvement of Shh, Fgf8, Bmp4 and Pax6 is discussed in relation to these outcomes.

  3. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  4. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  5. Leptin-induced downregulation of the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system may potentiate its anorexigenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianes-Cachero, Arancha; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Puebla-Jiménez, Lilian; Canelles, Sandra; Viveros, María Paz; Mela, Virginia; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Barrios, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    The learning and memory mechanisms in the hippocampus translate hormonal signals of energy balance into behavioral outcomes involved in the regulation of food intake. As leptin and its receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and somatostatin (SRIF), an orexigenic neuropeptide, may inhibit leptin-mediated suppression of food intake in other brain areas, we asked whether chronic leptin infusion induces changes in the hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether these modifications are involved in leptin-mediated effects. We studied 18 male Wistar rats divided into three groups: controls (C), treated intracerebroventricularly (icv) with leptin (12 μg/day) for 14 days (L) and a pair-fed group (PF) that received the same amount of food consumed by the L group. Food restriction increased whereas leptin decreased the hippocampal SRIF receptor density, due to changes in SRIF receptor 2 protein levels. These changes in the PF group were concurrent with an increase of hippocampal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 protein levels and activation of Akt and cyclic AMP response element binding protein. The inhibitory effect of SRIF on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, however, was decreased in L rats, coincident with lower G inhibitory α3 and higher AC-I levels as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 activation. In addition, 20 male Wistar rats were included to analyze whether the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A and the SRIF receptor agonist SMS 201-995 modify SRIF signaling and food intake, respectively. Administration of L39A/D40A/F41A reversed changes in SRIF signaling, whereas SMS 201-995 ameliorated food consumption in L. Altogether, these results suggest that increased somatostatinergic tone in PF rats may be a mechanism to improve the hippocampal orexigenic effects in a situation of metabolic demand, whereas down-regulation of this system in L rats may represent a mechanism to enhance the anorexigenic effects of leptin.

  6. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  7. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  8. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15-61 y; visual acuity: 20/25-20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n = 10, non-action videogame group (n = 3, and crossover control group (n = 7. Our experiments show that playing video games (both action and non-action games for a short period of time (40-80 h, 2 h/d using the amblyopic eye results in a substantial improvement in a wide range of fundamental visual functions, from low-level to high-level, including visual acuity (33%, positional acuity (16%, spatial attention (37%, and stereopsis (54%. Using a cross-over experimental design (first 20 h: occlusion therapy, and the next 40 h: videogame therapy, we can conclude that the improvement cannot be explained simply by eye patching alone. We quantified the limits and the time course of visual plasticity induced by video-game experience. The recovery in visual acuity that we observed is at least 5-fold faster than would be expected from occlusion therapy in childhood amblyopia. We used positional noise and modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying the visual improvements in terms of decreased spatial distortion (7% and increased processing efficiency (33%. Our study had several limitations: small sample size, lack of randomization, and differences in numbers between groups. A large-scale randomized clinical study is needed to confirm the therapeutic value of video-game treatment in clinical situations. Nonetheless, taken as a pilot study, this work suggests that video-game play may provide important principles for treating amblyopia

  9. Impaired glutathione redox system paradoxically suppresses angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Izawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AII plays a central role in vascular remodeling via oxidative stress. However, the interaction between AII and reduced glutathione (GSH redox status in cardiovascular remodeling remains unknown. METHODS: In vivo: The cuff-induced vascular injury model was applied to Sprague Dawley rats. Then we administered saline or a GSH inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 30 mmol/L in drinking water for a week, subsequently administered 4 more weeks by osmotic pump with saline or AII (200 ng/kg/minute to the rats. In vitro: Incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU was measured to determine DNA synthesis in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. RESULTS: BSO reduced whole blood GSH levels. Systolic blood pressure was increased up to 215 ± 4 mmHg by AII at 4 weeks (p<0.01, which was not affected by BSO. Superoxide production in vascular wall was increased by AII and BSO alone, and was markedly enhanced by AII+BSO. The left ventricular weight to body weight ratio was significantly increased in AII and AII+BSO as compared to controls (2.52 ± 0.08, 2.50 ± 0.09 and 2.10 ± 0.07 mg/g respectively, p<0.05. Surprisingly, the co-treatment of BSO totally abolished these morphological changes. Although the vascular circumferential wall stress was well compensated in AII, significantly increased in AII+BSO. The anti-single-stranded DNA staining revealed increasing apoptotic cells in the neointima of injured arteries in BSO groups. BrdU incorporation in cultured VSMCs with AII was increased dose-dependently. Furthermore it was totally abolished by BSO and was reversed by GSH monoethyl ester. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that a vast oxidative stress in impaired GSH redox system totally abolished AII-induced vascular, not cardiac remodeling via enhancement of apoptosis in the neointima and suppression of cell growth in the media. The drastic suppression of remodeling may result in fragile vasculature intolerable to mechanical

  10. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  11. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  12. Radiation-induced changes in optical transmission in vitreous semiconductors of the Gex Sb40-x S60 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the optical properties of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of the Gex Sb40-x S60 ternary system is studied. It is established that a magnitude of radiation-induced effects in the investigated glasses depends on their chemical composition. It is obtained that maximum γ-induced changes in optical transmission reveal in glasses characterized by the average coordination number Z = 2.67, that is, near the point of the so-called topological phase transition from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional glass structure

  13. Systemic rhabdomyolysis induced by venom of freshwater stingrays Plesiotrygon iwamae and Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes-Potamotrygonidae) from the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, Juliana Luiza Varjão; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi; Araújo, José de Ribamar; Caranhas, Sandra Maria Evangelista; Marques, Carlos Melquiades Almeida; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Duncan, Wallice Luiz Paxiúba

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by freshwater stingrays are characterized by intense pain and pathological changes at the lesion site, including oedema, erythema and, in most cases, necrosis. In this study, the systemic myotoxic activity induced by mucus extracts from the dorsal region and stinger of the stingrays Plesiotrygon iwamae and Potamotrygon motoro was described, analysed and quantified. Twenty-four hours after injection of 400 μg of the extracts into the gastrocnemius muscle of mice, the following effects were observed: coagulative necrosis of the muscle tissue, muscle fibre regeneration and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, including neutrophils, macrophages, and a reduced number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. These changes were also observed, although to a lesser extent, in the gastrocnemius muscles of the contralateral limbs, demonstrating that the extracts from the two species could induce systemic rhabdomyolysis. Based on morphometric analysis, it was observed that the stinger extract of P. motoro was more potent in inducing local and systemic myotoxic activity, followed by the dorsal extract from P. motoro and stinger and dorsal extracts from P. iwamae, which induced similar effects.

  14. Effect of insulating layer material on RF-induced heating for external fixation system in 1.5 T MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Kainz, Wolfgang; Qian, Songsong; Wu, Wen; Chen, Ji

    2014-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF)-induced heating is a major concern when patients with medical devices are placed inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. In this article, numerical studies are applied to investigate the potentials of using insulated materials to reduce the RF heating for external fixation devices. It is found that by changing the dielectric constant of the insulation material, the RF-induced heating at the tips of devices can be altered. This study indicates a potential technique of developing external fixation device with low MRI RF heating.

  15. Inducing enhanced immunogenic cell death with nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems for pancreatic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Yang, Keni; Zhao, Ruifang; Ji, Tianjiao; Wang, Xiuchao; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Yinlong; Cheng, Keman; Liu, Shaoli; Hao, Jihui; Ren, He; Leong, Kam W; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-09-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) occurs when apoptotic tumor cell elicits a specific immune response, which may trigger an anti-tumor effect, via the release of immunostimulatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Hypothesizing that nanomedicines may impact ICD due to their proven advantages in delivery of chemotherapeutics, we encapsulated oxaliplatin (OXA) or gemcitabine (GEM), an ICD and a non-ICD inducer respectively, into the amphiphilic diblock copolymer nanoparticles. Neither GEM nor nanoparticle-encapsulated GEM (NP-GEM) induced ICD, while both OXA and nanoparticle-encapsulated OXA (NP-OXA) induced ICD. Interestingly, NP-OXA treated tumor cells released more DAMPs and induced stronger immune responses of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes than OXA treatment in vitro. Furthermore, OXA and NP-OXA exhibited stronger therapeutic effects in immunocompetent mice than in immunodeficient mice, and the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy was significantly higher in the NP-OXA group than the OXA group. Moreover, NP-OXA treatment induced a higher proportion of tumor infiltrating activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes than OXA treatment. This general trend of enhanced ICD by nanoparticle delivery was corroborated in evaluating another pair of ICD inducer and non-ICD inducer, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In conclusion, although nanoparticle encapsulation did not endow a non-ICD inducer with ICD-mediated anti-tumor capacity, treatment with a nanoparticle-encapsulated ICD inducer led to significantly enhanced ICD and consequently improved anti-tumor effects than the free ICD inducer. The proposed nanomedicine approach may impact cancer immunotherapy via the novel cell death mechanism of ICD. PMID:27343466

  16. Dual control system - A novel scaffolding architecture of an inducible regulatory device for the precise regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbal, L; Luzhetskyy, A

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a novel scaffolding architecture of an inducible regulatory device. This dual control system is completely silent in the off stage and is coupled to the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. This system also functions as an AND gate. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the cumate-riboswitch dual control system for the control of pamamycin production in Streptomyces albus. Placing the cre recombinase gene under the control of this system permitted the construction of synthetic devices with non-volatile memory that sense the signal and respond by altering DNA at the chromosomal level, thereby producing changes that are heritable. In addition, we present a library of synthetic inducible promoters based on the previously described cumate switch. With only one inducer and different promoters, we demonstrate that simultaneous modulation of the expression of several genes to different levels in various operons is possible. Because all modules of the AND gates are functional in bacteria other than Streptomyces, we anticipate that these regulatory devices can be used to control gene expression in other Actinobacteria. The features described in this study make these systems promising tools for metabolic engineering and biotechnology in Actinobacteria. PMID:27040671

  17. Cross-polarisation discrimination-induced interference in dual-polarised high-capacity satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Sarki Karasuwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of spectrally-efficient, high-throughput satellite (HTS systems with capacity approaching one terabit per second requires operating at Ka-band frequencies and above, where there are several gigahertz of allocated radio spectrum, using multiple spot beams with dual orthogonal polarisation mode. At these high frequencies, rain attenuation poses a major obstacle to the design of high-availability satellite links which are needed for the realisation of ubiquitous broadband multimedia communication services including high-speed Internet access at rural and remote locations. Furthermore, depolarisation-induced interference in such systems could have a performance-limiting impact if a co-channel cross-polar signal combines with system noise to drive the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (CNIR below an acceptable threshold. This paper employs real measurement data to investigate the impact of depolarisation-induced interference on dual-polarised HTS systems for temperate and tropical climatic regions. Scenarios that cause significant system performance degradation are analysed, including the effects of signal frequency, antenna size, and regional rainfall rate. The impact of depolarisation on system performance is quantified by the reductions in the CNIR and link availability of a dual-polarised system when compared with those of a similarly-dimensioned single-polarised system.

  18. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  19. Development of a Stand-off Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system for the analysis of complex matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, M. M.; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, R.; Devangad, P.; Muhammed Shameem, K. M.; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we discuss the evaluation and optimization of a stand-off laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system, developed indigenously for remote analysis of heavy elements in soil. A compact Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was used for plasma generation at distances up to 6 meters. Techniques for optimal experimental results were evaluated for detection of Cd, Cr, Pb, Mo and Ni in soil. The system was evaluated with two NIST certified soil samples. The effect of working distance on the LIBS signal is also discussed briefly. Results confirm the capabilities of the system for remote monitoring.

  20. Prediction of ionizing radiation effects induced performance degradation in homodyne BPSK based inter-satellite optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Shanghong; Gong, Zizheng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xuan; Dong, Chen

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiation effects induced on-orbit performance degradation in homodyne binary phase shift keying (BPSK) based inter-satellite optical communication system is predicted in this paper. Essential optoelectronic devices involved in optical communication system were irradiated by Co60 gamma ray and ionizing radiation environment of three general orbits was analyzed. On this basis, variations of terminal performance loss and system BER degradation along with on-orbit working time were simulated. Influences of terminal location and orbit environment were further discussed. Radiation protection on laser transmitters requires more strengthening, especially for those located in MEO and GEO satellites.

  1. Hopf bifurcation and uncontrolled stochastic traffic-induced chaos in an RED-AQM congestion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Song; Yuan, Rui-Xi; Gao, Zhi-Wei; Wang, De-Jin

    2011-09-01

    We study the Hopf bifurcation and the chaos phenomena in a random early detection-based active queue management (RED-AQM) congestion control system with a communication delay. We prove that there is a critical value of the communication delay for the stability of the RED-AQM control system. Furthermore, we show that the system will lose its stability and Hopf bifurcations will occur when the delay exceeds the critical value. When the delay is close to its critical value, we demonstrate that typical chaos patterns may be induced by the uncontrolled stochastic traffic in the RED-AQM control system even if the system is still stable, which reveals a new route to the chaos besides the bifurcation in the network congestion control system. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  2. Hopf bifurcation and uncontrolled stochastic traffic-induced chaos in an RED-AQM congestion control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Rui-Xi; Gao Zhi-Wei; Wang De-Jin

    2011-01-01

    We study the Hopf bifurcation and the chaos phenomena in a random early detection-based active queue management (RED-AQM) congestion control system with a communication delay. We prove that there is a critical value of the communication delay for the stability of the RED-AQM control system. Furthermore,we show that the system will lose its stability and Hopf bifurcations will occur when the delay exceeds the critical value. When the delay is close to its critical value,we demonstrate that typical chaos patterns may be induced by the uncontrolled stochastic traffic in the RED-AQM control system even if the system is still stable,which reveals a new route to the chaos besides the bifurcation in the network congestion control system. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  3. Hopf bifurcation and uncontrolled stochastic traffic-induced chaos in an RED-AQM congestion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the Hopf bifurcation and the chaos phenomena in a random early detection-based active queue management (RED-AQM) congestion control system with a communication delay. We prove that there is a critical value of the communication delay for the stability of the RED-AQM control system. Furthermore, we show that the system will lose its stability and Hopf bifurcations will occur when the delay exceeds the critical value. When the delay is close to its critical value, we demonstrate that typical chaos patterns may be induced by the uncontrolled stochastic traffic in the RED-AQM control system even if the system is still stable, which reveals a new route to the chaos besides the bifurcation in the network congestion control system. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  4. Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Sircar, Ratna

    2016-06-15

    Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Although many of the behavioral effects of GHB at high doses have been attributed to its effects on the GABAB receptor, it is unclear which receptor mediates its relatively low-dose memory-impairing effects. The present study examined the ability of the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 to block the disrupting effects of GHB on fear memory in adolescent rat. Groups of rats received either a single dose of NCS-382 (3-10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle, followed by an injection of either GHB (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline. All rats were trained in the fear paradigm, and tested for contextual fear memory and auditory cued fear memory. NCS-382 dose-dependently reversed deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear memory induced by GHB in adolescent rats, with 5 mg/kg of NCS-382 maximally increasing freezing to the context compared with the group administered GHB alone. When animals were tested for cued fear memory, treatment groups did not differ in freezing responses to the tone. These results suggest that low-dose amnesic effects of GHB are mediated by GHB receptors. PMID:27105320

  5. Chronic Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Blockade May Not Induce Hypotension During Anaesthesia for Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Guido; Di Salvo, Claudio; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Abramo, Antonio; Fierabracci, Paola; Magno, Silvia; Piaggi, Paolo; Vitti, Paolo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2016-06-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) for the treatment of hypertensive obese patients is steadily increasing. Some studies have reported that the use of these drugs was associated with an increased risk of hypotensive episodes, during general anaesthesia. The number of bariatric procedures is also increasing worldwide, but there is a lack of studies investigating the hypotensive effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers in severely obese patients during general anaesthesia for bariatric surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate hemodynamic changes induced by general anaesthesia in obese patients chronically treated with ACE-I or ARB compared to a control group not treated with antihypertensive therapy. Fourteen obese subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 47.5 kg/m(2)) treated with ACE-I or ARB and twelve obese (mean BMI 45.7 kg/m2) controls not treated with antihypertensive therapy underwent general anaesthesia to perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored continuously and registered at different time points: T0 before induction, then at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after induction, and the last time point taken following recovery from anaesthesia. A progressive reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was observed without significant differences between the two groups. A similar trend of heart rate values was observed. In conclusion, our pilot study suggests that RAS blockers may be continued during the perioperative period in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, without increasing the risk of hypotensive episodes. PMID:26328531

  6. Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Although many of the behavioral effects of GHB at high doses have been attributed to its effects on the GABAB receptor, it is unclear which receptor mediates its relatively low-dose memory-impairing effects. The present study examined the ability of the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 to block the disrupting effects of GHB on fear memory in adolescent rat. Groups of rats received either a single dose of NCS-382 (3–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle, followed by an injection of either GHB (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline. All rats were trained in the fear paradigm, and tested for contextual fear memory and auditory cued fear memory. NCS-382 dose-dependently reversed deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear memory induced by GHB in adolescent rats, with 5 mg/kg of NCS-382 maximally increasing freezing to the context compared with the group administered GHB alone. When animals were tested for cued fear memory, treatment groups did not differ in freezing responses to the tone. These results suggest that low-dose amnesic effects of GHB are mediated by GHB receptors. PMID:27105320

  7. Improving Control of Microbially-Induced Mineral Precipitation in Flow Systems - Experiments and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.; Phillips, A. J.; Lauchnor, E.; Ebigbo, A.; Connolly, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Helmig, R.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and geologic CO2 storage-relevant pressures in our laboratories have demonstrated the ability of microbial biofilms and biofilm produced calcium carbonate precipitates to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media as well as improve the stability of unconsolidated porous media. Two overarching challenges in effectively implementing microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) are controlling (1) the spatial and temporal distribution of the formed precipitates and (2) the inactivation of microbes during the calcium carbonate precipitation process. Failure to control either one of those could result in injection well plugging or the necessity to implement costly cell-reinjection or -resuscitation strategies. Our recent work has focused on optimizing strategies for MICP in small (capillaries and micromodels), small columns (1 to 2.5 cm diameter, up to 5 cm in length), meso- (2 ft columns and 4 cm x 8 cm 2-d reactors) and large-scale (75 cm diameter, 38 cm high sandstone radial flow) systems. Results of these experiments have been modelled using two different approaches. (1) a microscale phase-field approach and (2) a large scale volume averaging approach. Close interaction between experimenters and modellers have resulted in improved injection strategies and the models are currently being used as experimental design tools. This presentation will focus on our recent efforts that combined 2 ft column experimentation with Darcy-scale modelling to calibrate and validate a model before utilizing the model for the optimization of biomineralization strategies in radial flow demonstrations in meso-scale sand stone cores at ambient and high pressures. Schematic pore-scale representation of MICP model

  8. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS; endothelial-selectin (E-selectin, cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; caspase-8-p18, and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1. Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO; plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin; fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity.

  9. Chronic Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Blockade May Not Induce Hypotension During Anaesthesia for Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Guido; Di Salvo, Claudio; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Abramo, Antonio; Fierabracci, Paola; Magno, Silvia; Piaggi, Paolo; Vitti, Paolo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2016-06-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) for the treatment of hypertensive obese patients is steadily increasing. Some studies have reported that the use of these drugs was associated with an increased risk of hypotensive episodes, during general anaesthesia. The number of bariatric procedures is also increasing worldwide, but there is a lack of studies investigating the hypotensive effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers in severely obese patients during general anaesthesia for bariatric surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate hemodynamic changes induced by general anaesthesia in obese patients chronically treated with ACE-I or ARB compared to a control group not treated with antihypertensive therapy. Fourteen obese subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 47.5 kg/m(2)) treated with ACE-I or ARB and twelve obese (mean BMI 45.7 kg/m2) controls not treated with antihypertensive therapy underwent general anaesthesia to perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored continuously and registered at different time points: T0 before induction, then at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after induction, and the last time point taken following recovery from anaesthesia. A progressive reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was observed without significant differences between the two groups. A similar trend of heart rate values was observed. In conclusion, our pilot study suggests that RAS blockers may be continued during the perioperative period in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, without increasing the risk of hypotensive episodes.

  10. A Novel Similarity Measure to Induce Semantic Classes and Its Application for Language Model Adaptation in a Dialogue System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Li; Wei-Qun Xu; Yong-Hong Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a novel co-occurrence probabilities based similarity measure for inducing semantic classes.Clustering with the new similarity measure outperforms the widely used distance based on Kullback-Leibler divergence in precision,recall and F1 evaluation.In our experiments,we induced semantic clases from unannotated in-domain corpus and then used the induced classes and structures to generate large in-domain corpus which was then used for language model adaptation.Character recognition rate was improved from 85.2% to 91%.We imply a new measure to solve the lack of domain data problem by first induction then generation for a dialogue system.

  11. Quantitative analysis of Hedgehog gradient formation using an inducible expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodsky Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hedgehog (Hh family of secreted growth factors are morphogens that act in development to direct growth and patterning. Mutations in human Hh and other Hh pathway components have been linked to human diseases. Analysis of Hh distribution during development indicates that cholesterol modification and receptor mediated endocytosis affect the range of Hh signaling and the cellular localization of Hh. Results We have used an inducible, cell type-specific expression system to characterize the three-dimensional distribution of newly synthesized, GFP-tagged Hh in the developing Drosophila wing. Following induction of Hh-GFP expression in posterior producing cells, punctate structures containing Hh-GFP were observed in the anterior target cells. The distance of these particles from the expressing cells was quantified to determine the shape of the Hh gradient at different time points following induction. The majority of cholesterol-modified Hh-GFP was found associated with cells near the anterior/posterior (A/P boundary, which express high levels of Hh target genes. Without cholesterol, the Hh gradient was flatter, with a lower percentage of particles near the source and a greater maximum distance. Inhibition of Dynamin-dependent endocytosis blocked formation of intracellular Hh particles, but did not prevent movement of newly synthesized Hh to the apical or basolateral surfaces of target cells. In the absence of both cholesterol and endocytosis, Hh particles accumulated in the extracellular space. Staining for the Hh receptor Ptc revealed four categories of Hh particles: cytoplasmic with and without Ptc, and cell surface with and without Ptc. Interestingly, mainly cholesterol-modified Hh is detected in the cytoplasmic particles lacking Ptc. Conclusion We have developed a system to quantitatively analyze Hh distribution during gradient formation. We directly demonstrate that inhibition of Dynamin-dependent endocytosis is not

  12. Interferon-γ facilitates hepatic antiviral T cell retention for the maintenance of liver-induced systemic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhutian; Li, Lu; Chen, Yongyan; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-05-30

    Persistent exposure to liver pathogens leads to systemic antigen-specific tolerance, a major cause of chronicity during hepatotropic infection. The mechanism regarding how this systemic tolerance is maintained remains poorly elucidated. In a well established mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence-induced systemic tolerance, we observed that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) deficiency led to complete loss of tolerance, resulting in robust anti-HBV responses upon peripheral vaccination. The recovery of vaccine-induced anti-HBV responses was mainly caused by the retained antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells rather than decreased functional inhibitory cells in the periphery. Mechanistically, HBV persistence induced sustained hepatic CD4(+) T cell-derived IFN-γ production. IFN-γ was found to promote CXCL9 secretion from liver-resident macrophages. This T cell chemokine facilitated the retention of antiviral CD4(+) T cells in the liver in a CXCR3-dependent manner. Hepatic sequestrated antiviral CD4(+) T cells subsequently underwent local apoptotic elimination partially via cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 ligation. These findings reveal an unexpected tolerogenic role for IFN-γ during viral persistence in the liver, providing new mechanistic insights regarding the maintenance of systemic antigen-specific tolerance during HBV persistence. PMID:27139489

  13. Pre-stimulation of the kallikrein system in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury: An approach to renoprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburto, Andrés [Program of M.Sc., Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Barría, Agustín [School of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Cárdenas, Areli [Ph.D. Program, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Carpio, Daniel; Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Burgos, Maria E. [Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Ardiles, Leopoldo, E-mail: leopoldoardiles@gmail.com [Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2014-10-15

    Antineoplastic treatment with cisplatin is frequently complicated by nephrotoxicity. Although oxidative stress may be involved, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for renal damage have not been completely clarified. In order to investigate the role of the renal kinin system in this condition, a group of rats was submitted to high potassium diet to stimulate the synthesis and excretion of tissue kallikrein 1 (rKLK1) previous to an intraperitoneal injection of 7 mg/kg cisplatin. A significant reduction in lipoperoxidation, evidenced by urinary excretion of malondialdehyde and renal immunostaining of hidroxy-nonenal, was accompanied by a decline in apoptosis. Coincident with these findings we observed a reduction in the expression of renal KIM-1 suggesting that renoprotection may be occurring. Stimulation or indemnity of the renal kinin system deserves to be evaluated as a complementary pharmacological measure to diminish cisplatin nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced-renal damage have not been completely clarified. • Cisplatin induces oxidative stress and apoptosis. • The renal kallikrein-kinin system is protective in experimental acute renal damage. • Kallikrein stimulation reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. • Protection of the kallikrein-kinin system may reduce cisplatin toxicity.

  14. Xe-Kr laser induced collisional ionization system and experimental preparation of its initial state: Four-photon resonant excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Ying; Lu Zhen-Zhong; Fan Rong-Wei; Chen De-Ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel one-colour Xe-Kr laser induced collisional ionization system. Considering the level scheme of the system, it finds that the initial state of the reaction-the four 4f levels with even J of Xe-can be prepared through method of four-photon resonant excitation by dye laser with wavelength of ~440 nm. Absorption of an additional photon (the transfer laser) of the same wavelength will complete the laser induced collisional ionization process. The resonance enhanced ionization spectrum of Xe by four laser photons at ~ 440 nm is measured through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, this aims at the preparation of the initial state of the system proposed. The Stark broadening of the measured spectrum is observed and consistent with the previous study. Analysis of the measured resonance ionization spectrum implies the feasibility of ~ 440 nm four-photon resonant excitation of the initial 4f state of the Xe-Kr system proposed in this paper, which prepares for a further experiment of laser induced collisional ionization.

  15. Pre-stimulation of the kallikrein system in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury: An approach to renoprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antineoplastic treatment with cisplatin is frequently complicated by nephrotoxicity. Although oxidative stress may be involved, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for renal damage have not been completely clarified. In order to investigate the role of the renal kinin system in this condition, a group of rats was submitted to high potassium diet to stimulate the synthesis and excretion of tissue kallikrein 1 (rKLK1) previous to an intraperitoneal injection of 7 mg/kg cisplatin. A significant reduction in lipoperoxidation, evidenced by urinary excretion of malondialdehyde and renal immunostaining of hidroxy-nonenal, was accompanied by a decline in apoptosis. Coincident with these findings we observed a reduction in the expression of renal KIM-1 suggesting that renoprotection may be occurring. Stimulation or indemnity of the renal kinin system deserves to be evaluated as a complementary pharmacological measure to diminish cisplatin nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced-renal damage have not been completely clarified. • Cisplatin induces oxidative stress and apoptosis. • The renal kallikrein-kinin system is protective in experimental acute renal damage. • Kallikrein stimulation reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. • Protection of the kallikrein-kinin system may reduce cisplatin toxicity

  16. PELATIHAN MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM SAMA DENGAN PELATIHAN CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN FUNGSIONAL ANGGOTA GERAK ATAS PASIEN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul chalik meidian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an interruption of blood vasculature system in the brain that causes suddenly neurological dysfunction, resulted in clinically brain tissue damage in a relatively long time period, decreased physical mobility and functional ability impaired of upper limb. The purpose of this study is to know an increasing in upper limb functional ability among stroke patients after mirror neuron system exercise and constraint induced movement therapy exercise and to know the comparison of both exercise. This study uses an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. Number of samples of the first group is 13 patients given mirror neuron system exercise for 30-60 minutes , while the second group 13 patients were given constraint induced movement therapy exercise for 30-60 minutes. The research was conducted in 2 month period time. Each patient is taught a variety of upper limb functional ability in accordance with the operational concept guidance and patients were asked to repeat the exercise independently at home as directed. Measuring test of upper limb functional ability is using the wolf motor function test instruments. The result is an increase the upper limb functional ability of 21.7% in the mirror neuron system exercise group and proved a significant difference (p<0.05 and an increase in the upper limb functional ability of 17.1% in the constraint induced movement therapy exercise group and proved a significant difference (p<0.05 while the difference of increasing of upper limb functional ability of the two groups showed no significant difference (p>0,05. It was concluded that the mirror neuron system exercise is similar with constraint induced movement therapy exercise in increasing the upper limb functional ability among stroke patients.

  17. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  18. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  19. Normal mitogen-induced suppression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) response and its deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-frequency suppressor-cell population in normal peripheral blood inhibits the B-cell CESS response to IL-6, following pokeweed mitogen stimulation. The suppression of IL-6 responsiveness is radiation sensitive, directed against CESS targets and not mediated by inhibition of IL-6 production, and associated with nonspecific cytotoxic activity against CESS targets. The generation of these cytolytic cells is also radiation sensitive. A correlation was found between PWM-induced cytotoxicity against CESS and the suppression of IL-6-dependent IgG production. But cytotoxicity toward CESS targets is not responsible for this suppression because IL-2 induces equivalent or greater nonspecific cytotoxicity against CESS in the total absence of suppression of CESS-derived IgG production and suppression is also induced by mitogen-activated PBL separated from CESS targets by a cell-impermeable membrane. This suppression was not mediated by TNF alpha/beta or IFN-gamma. In systemic lupus erythematosus, suppression of IL-6-dependent IgG production is impaired in patients with active disease (29.2 +/- 13.7%) compared to patients with inactive disease (70 +/- 19.5%) or normal controls (82.8 +/- 9.2%). There is also a defect in mitogen-induced nonspecific cytotoxicity in active SLE (specific lysis 15.1 +/- 3.5%, compared to 34 +/- 4% in normals). Pokeweed mitogen-activated PBL can therefore normally induce suppression of B-cell IL-6 responses and this response is deficient in lupus

  20. Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; Silva, Maria Angélica Gomes; de Aquino Neto, Manuel Rufino; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; de Sousa, Helenira Lourenço; de Lavor, Everton Paulo Homem; de Vasconcelos, Patrícia Freire; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of isopulegol, a monoterpene alcohol, in PTZ-induced convulsions and verified possible involved mechanisms. Saline, isopulegol or diazepam were intraperitonealy injected 30 min before PTZ. The latency for development of convulsions and mortality, as well as the mortality protection percentage was recorded. For investigating the involvement of GABAergic system, flumazenil was utilized. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase as well as the levels of reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation were measured in brain hippocampus. Similarly to diazepam, isopulegol significantly prolonged the latency for convulsions and mortality of mice. All animals were protected against mortality at higher dose of isopulegol. Flumazenil pretreatment decreased the prolongation of seizure latency induced by both diazepam and isopulegol, although it was not able to reverse the latency and protection percent for mortality. Isopulegol also significantly prevented PTZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidation, preserved catalase activity in normal levels, and prevented the PTZ-induced loss of GSH in hippocampus of mice. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant and bioprotective effects of isopulegol against PTZ-induced convulsions are possibly related to positive modulation of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABA(A) receptors and to antioxidant properties. PMID:19559770

  1. Dynamically induced robust phonon transport and chiral cooling in an optomechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seunghwi; Taylor, Jacob M; Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The transport of sound and heat, in the form of phonons, has a fundamental material limit: disorder-induced scattering. In electronic and optical settings, introduction of chiral transport - in which carrier propagation exhibits broken parity symmetry - provides robustness against such disorder by preventing elastic backscattering. Here we experimentally demonstrate a path for achieving robust phonon transport even in the presence of material disorder, by dynamically inducing chirality through traveling-wave optomechanical coupling. Using this approach, we demonstrate dramatic optically-induced chiral transport for clockwise and counterclockwise phonons in a symmetric resonator. This induced chirality also enhances isolation from the thermal bath and leads to gain-free reduction of the intrinsic damping of the phonons. Surprisingly, this passive mechanism is also accompanied by a chiral reduction in heat load leading to a novel optical cooling of the mechanics. This technique has the potential to improve upon...

  2. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, María E.; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Vitullo, Alfredo D.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  3. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela R González

    Full Text Available Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg, cocaine (3×10mg/kg, or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology.

  4. Composite alginate hydrogel microparticulate delivery system of zidovudine hydrochloride based on counter ion induced aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Harekrishna; Rao, P. Venkateswar; Panda, Sanjay Kumar; Biswal, Asim Kumar; Parida, Kirti Ranjan; Dash, Jharana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study deals with preparation of zidovudine loaded microparticle by counter ion induced aggregation method. During this study effect of polyacrylates and hypromellose polymers on release study were investigated. Materials and Methods: The ion induced aggregated alginate based microparticles were characterized for surface morphology, particle size analysis, drug entrapment study, in-vitro study, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimet...

  5. Development of a Synthetic Oxytetracycline-Inducible Expression System for Streptomycetes Using de Novo Characterized Genetic Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weishan; Yang, Tongjian; Li, Yihong; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Shouliang; Styles, Kathryn; Corre, Christophe; Yang, Keqian

    2016-07-15

    Precise control of gene expression using exogenous factors is of great significance. To develop ideal inducible expression systems for streptomycetes, new genetic parts, oxytetracycline responsive repressor OtrR, operator otrO, and promoter otrBp from Streptomyces rimosus, were selected de novo and characterized in vivo and in vitro. OtrR showed strong affinity to otrO (KD = 1.7 × 10(-10) M) and oxytetracycline induced dissociation of the OtrR/DNA complex in a concentration-dependent manner. On the basis of these genetic parts, a synthetic inducible expression system Potr* was optimized. Induction of Potr* with 0.01-4 μM of oxytetracycline triggered a wide-range expression level of gfp reporter gene in different Streptomyces species. Benchmarking Potr* against the widely used constitutive promoters ermE* and kasOp* revealed greatly enhanced levels of expression when Potr* was fully induced. Finally, Potr* was used as a tool to activate and optimize the expression of the silent jadomycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae. Altogether, the synthetic Potr* presents a new versatile tool for fine-tuning gene expression in streptomycetes. PMID:27100123

  6. A novel piggyBac transposon inducible expression system identifies a role for AKT signalling in primordial germ cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Glover

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe a single piggyBac transposon system containing both a tet-activator and a doxycycline-inducible expression cassette. We demonstrate that a gene product can be conditionally expressed from the integrated transposon and a second gene can be simultaneously targeted by a short hairpin RNA contained within the transposon, both in vivo and in mammalian and avian cell lines. We applied this system to stably modify chicken primordial germ cell (PGC lines in vitro and induce a reporter gene at specific developmental stages after injection of the transposon-modified germ cells into chicken embryos. We used this vector to express a constitutively-active AKT molecule during PGC migration to the forming gonad. We found that PGC migration was retarded and cells could not colonise the forming gonad. Correct levels of AKT activation are thus essential for germ cell migration during early embryonic development.

  7. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor; Carrier-Ruiz Alvaro; R Lemes Robertha M; Reis Ricardo A M; Mendez-Otero Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC), satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that s...

  8. Identification of the Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi as a New Target of the IFNγ-Inducible IRG Resistance System

    OpenAIRE

    da Fonseca Ferreira-da-Silva, Marialice; Springer-Frauenhoff, Helen Maria; Bohne, Wolfgang; Howard, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    The IRG system of IFNγ-inducible GTPases constitutes a powerful resistance mechanism in mice against Toxoplasma gondii and two Chlamydia strains but not against many other bacteria and protozoa. Why only T. gondii and Chlamydia? We hypothesized that unusual features of the entry mechanisms and intracellular replicative niches of these two organisms, neither of which resembles a phagosome, might hint at a common principle. We examined another unicellular parasitic organism of mammals, member o...

  9. IL-12-based vaccination therapy reverses liver-induced systemic tolerance in a mouse model of hepatitis B virus carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhutian; Kong, Xiaohui; Li, Fenglei; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2013-10-15

    Liver-induced systemic immune tolerance that occurs during chronic hepadnavirus infection is the biggest obstacle for effective viral clearance. Immunotherapeutic reversal of this tolerance is a promising strategy in the clinic but remains to be explored. In this study, using a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, we report that IL-12-based vaccination therapy can efficiently reverse systemic tolerance toward HBV. HBV-carrier mice lost responsiveness to hepatitis B surface Ag (HBsAg) vaccination, and IL-12 alone could not reverse this liver-induced immune tolerance. However, after IL-12-based vaccination therapy, the majority of treated mice became HBsAg(-) in serum; hepatitis B core Ag was also undetectable in hepatocytes. HBV clearance was dependent on HBsAg vaccine-induced anti-HBV immunity. Further results showed that IL-12-based vaccination therapy strongly enhanced hepatic HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, including proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Systemic HBV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were also restored in HBV-carrier mice, leading to the arousal of HBsAg-specific follicular Th-germinal center B cell responses and anti-hepatitis B surface Ag Ab production. Recovery of HBsAg-specific responses also correlated with both reduced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency and an enhanced capacity of effector T cells to overcome inhibition by regulatory T cells. In conclusion, IL-12-based vaccination therapy may reverse liver-induced immune tolerance toward HBV by restoring systemic HBV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, eliciting robust hepatic HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, and facilitating the generation of HBsAg-specific humoral immunity; thus, this therapy may become a viable approach to treating patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID:24048897

  10. Modeling of kinetics of the inducible protein complexes of the SOS system in bacteria E. coli which realize TLS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical model describing kinetics of the inducible genes of the protein complexes, formed during SOS response in bacteria Escherichia coli is developed. Within the bounds of developed approaches the auxiliary mathematical model describing changes in concentrations of the dimers, which are the components of final protein complexes, is developed. The solutions of both models are based on the experimental data concerning expression of the basic genes of the SOS system in bacteria Escherichia coli

  11. Stationary spots and stationary arcs induced by advection in a one-activator, two-inhibitor reactive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Bullara, Domenico; De Decker, Yannick

    2014-09-01

    This paper studies the spatiotemporal dynamics of a reaction-diffusion-advection system corresponding to an extension of the Oregonator model, which includes two inhibitors instead of one. We show that when the reaction-diffusion, two-dimensional problem displays stationary patterns the addition of a plug flow can induce the emergence of new types of stationary structures. These patterns take the form of spots or arcs, the size and the spacing of which can be controlled by the flow.

  12. A three-component gene expression system and its application for inducible flavonoid overproduction in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool to study and engineer genes whose overexpression could be detrimental for the host organisms. However, only limited systems have been adopted in plant biotechnology. We have developed an osmotically inducible system using three components of plant origin, RD29a (Responsive to Dehydration 29A promoter, CBF3 (C-repeat Binding Factor 3 transcription factor and cpl1-2 (CTD phosphatase-like 1 mutation. The osmotic stress responsible RD29a promoter contains the CBF3 binding sites and thus RD29A-CBF3 feedforward cassette enhances induction of RD29a promoter under stress. The cpl1-2 mutation in a host repressor CPL1 promotes stress responsible RD29a promoter expression. The efficacy of this system was tested using PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transgene, a model transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pathway in Arabidopsis. While transgenic plants with only one or two of three components did not reproducibly accumulate anthocyanin pigments above the control level, transgenic cpl1 plants containing homozygous RD29a-PAP1 and RD29a-CBF3 transgenes produced 30-fold higher level of total anthocyanins than control plants upon cold treatment. Growth retardation and phytochemical production of transgenic plants were minimum under normal conditions. The flavonoid profile in cold-induced transgenic plants was determined by LC/MS/MS, which resembled that of previously reported pap1-D plants but enriched for kaempferol derivatives. These results establish the functionality of the inducible three-component gene expression system in plant metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we show that PAP1 and environmental signals synergistically regulate the flavonoid pathway to produce a unique flavonoid blend that has not been produced by PAP1 overexpression or cold treatment alone.

  13. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is an Avid and Persistent Sodium-Retaining State

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Vitorio; Alexandre Toledo Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is triggered by many conditions in the intensive care unit, including different types of circulatory shock. One under-recognized characteristic of the SIRS-induced AKI is its avidity for sodium retention, with progressive decreases in urinary sodium concentration (NaU) and its fractional excretion (FENa). This phenomenon occurs in parallel with increases in serum creatinine, being...

  14. Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) ratsV.L. Bass1, M.C. Schladweiler2, S. Snow5, C.J. Gordon4, K.A. Jarema4, P. Phillips4, A.D. Ledbetter2, D.B. Miller3, J.E. Richards2, U.P. Kodavanti2. 1. SPH, UNC, Chapel Hill2. EPHD, NHE...

  15. Power induced by bubbles of different sizes and frequencies on to hollow fibers in submerged membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankhah, Sepideh; Bérubé, Pierre R

    2013-11-01

    To shed light onto the relationship between sparging conditions and fouling control in submerged hollow fiber membranes, the effects of bubble size and frequency on the hydrodynamic conditions induced in membrane system were studied. Two general classes of bubbles were considered: coarse (0.75-2.5 mL) and pulse (100-500 mL). The power transferred (P(trans)) onto membranes could be used to characterise the multiple effects induced under different sparging conditions. P(trans) is proportional to root mean square of shear stress (τ(rms)), the area of zone of influence (i.e. the fraction in the system where high velocity and high vorticity (turbulence) are induced by the bubble) and their rise velocity. At a given sparging rate, the power transferred onto membranes was less with coarse bubble sparging than pulse bubble sparging and increased with the size of pulse bubbles. For all cases, the power transfer efficiency was consistently higher for pulse bubble sparging than for coarse bubble sparging. The power transfer efficiency to the system was greatest for the small pulse bubbles considered when a small amount of power is required for fouling control. However, when fouling is extensive, large pulse bubbles may be required to generate the required amount of power for fouling control.

  16. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formalin-induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Alessandro; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Tambaro, Simone; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Ruiu, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extracts (WSEs) may possess therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of inflammation and pain. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive property of a WSE in the formalin test and to investigate the involvement of several neurotransmitter systems in this effect. The time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded in CD1 mice after pretreatment with increasing doses of WSE. Also, c-Fos spinal cord expression and the effects of different compounds were investigated under these experimental conditions. Finally, the efficacy of WSE was analyzed following an injection of glutamate. WSE reduced the antinociceptive response during the tonic but not the acute phase of the formalin test and decreased formalin-induced c-Fos expression in spinal neurons. These effects were antagonized by the opioid antagonist naltrexone, whereas GABA, cannabinoid, δ-opioid, and nitric oxide compounds were ineffective. The administration of WSE also reduced nociception and c-Fos expression induced by glutamate injection. These results showed that WSE is effective in assays of chemical-induced nociception, indicating that this plant has potential valuable properties for the treatment of specific painful conditions. The antinocicetive effects of WSE in the formalin test appeared to be specifically mediated by the opioidergic system, although the involvement of the glutamatergic system cannot be excluded.

  17. Serotonergic systems in the balance: CRHR1 and CRHR2 differentially control stress-induced serotonin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Nina C; Siebler, Philip H; Johnson, Danté T; Villarreal, Marcos D; Mani, Sofia; Matti, Allison J; Lowry, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and affective disorders are often associated with hypercortisolism and dysfunctional serotonergic systems, including increased expression of TPH2, the gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of neuronal serotonin synthesis. We previously reported that chronic glucocorticoid exposure is anxiogenic and increases rat Tph2 mRNA expression, but it was still unclear if this also translates to increased TPH2 protein levels and in vivo activity of the enzyme. Here, we found that adult male rats treated with corticosterone (CORT, 100 μg/ml) via the drinking water for 21 days indeed show increased TPH2 protein expression in the dorsal and ventral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD, DRV) during the light phase, abolishing the enzyme's diurnal rhythm. In a second study, we systemically blocked the conversion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to serotonin immediately before rats treated with CORT or vehicle were either exposed to 30 min acoustic startle stress or home cage control conditions. This allowed us to measure 5-HTP accumulation as a direct readout of basal versus stress-induced in vivo TPH2 activity. As expected, basal TPH2 activity was elevated in the DRD, DRV and MnR of CORT-treated rats. In response to stress, a multitude of serotonergic systems reacted with increased TPH2 activity, but the stress-, anxiety-, and learned helplessness-related dorsal and caudal DR (DRD/DRC) displayed stress-induced increases in TPH2 activity only after chronic CORT-treatment. To address the mechanisms underlying this region-specific CORT-dependent sensitization, we stereotaxically implanted CORT-treated rats with cannulae targeting the DR, and pharmacologically blocked either corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) or type 2 (CRHR2) 10 min prior to acoustic startle stress. CRHR2 blockade prevented stress-induced increases of TPH2 activity within the DRD/DRC, while blockade of CRHR1 potentiated stress-induced TPH2 activity in the entire DR. Stress-induced TPH2

  18. Live Imaging of Innate Immune and Preneoplastic Cell Interactions Using an Inducible Gal4/UAS Expression System in Larval Zebrafish Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Thomas; Laux, Derek W.; Bravo, Isabel R.; Tada, Masazumi; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a method to conditionally induce epithelial cell transformation by the use of the 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) inducible KalTA4-ERT2/UAS expression system1 in zebrafish larvae, and the subsequent live imaging of innate immune cell interaction with HRASG12V expressing skin cells. The KalTA4-ERT2/UAS system is both inducible and reversible which allows us to induce cell transformation with precise temporal/spatial resolution in vivo. This provides us with a unique opportunity to ...

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus induces systemic lymphocyte activation via TLR7-dependent IFNalpha responses by plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph G Ammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV is a natural infectious agent of mice. Like several other viruses, LDV causes widespread and very rapid but transient activation of both B cells and T cells in lymphoid tissues and the blood. The mechanism of this activation has not been fully described and is the focus of the current studies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A known inducer of early lymphocyte activation is IFNalpha, a cytokine strongly induced by LDV infection. Neutralization of IFNalpha in the plasma from infected mice ablated its ability to activate lymphocytes in vitro. Since the primary source of virus-induced IFNalpha in vivo is often plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC's, we depleted these cells prior to LDV infection and tested for lymphocyte activation. Depletion of pDC's in vivo eradicated both the LDV-induced IFNalpha response and lymphocyte activation. A primary receptor in pDC's for single stranded RNA viruses such as LDV is the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 pattern recognition receptor. Infection of TLR7-knockout mice revealed that both the IFNalpha response and lymphocyte activation were dependent on TLR7 signaling in vivo. Interestingly, virus levels in both TLR7 knockout mice and pDC-depleted mice were indistinguishable from controls indicating that LDV is largely resistant to the systemic IFNalpha response. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that LDV-induced activation of lymphocytes is due to recognition of LDV nucleic acid by TLR7 pattern recognition receptors in pDC's that respond with a lymphocyte-inducing IFNalpha response.

  20. Alcohol--Induced Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complex Coacervate Systems: Characterization and Applications in Enzyme and Protein Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati Moshtaghin, Mahboubeh

    The focus of this thesis is to achieve a better understanding of the newly discovered surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervate (SPCC) systems induced by fluoroalcohol/acid as well as short chain aliphatic alcohol; and to elucidate their applications in extraction and enrichment of proteins and enzyme. We have discovered that fluoroalcohols and --acids induce complex coacervation and phase separation in the aqueous mixtures of oppositely charged anionic polyelectrolytes; specifically, sodium salts of polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) over a broad range of concentrations of mole fractions of the oppositely charged amphiphiles. Accordingly, these new classes of coacervators will significantly broaden the scope and facilitate engineering of new coacervate phases. Toward these goals, we have inspected the formation of surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervates in the presence of fluoroalcohols namely hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and Trifluoroethanol (TFE). Furthermore, the extent of coacervation as a function of concentrations the system components, and charge ratios of the oppositely charged amphiphiles has been investigated. Polyelectrolytes are considered to be milder reagents, as compared to surfactants, regarding proteins denaturation. This highlights the importance of a detailed investigation of the efficiency of our coacervate systems for extraction and preconcentration of proteins and enzymes, especially, when the biological activity of the extracted proteins needs to be maintained based on the objectives mentioned above, the results of the investigations have been organized in four chapters. In Chapter II, the phase behavior of the FA-SPCC will be investigated. The objective is to examine the phase behavior and phase properties with respect to the extent of coacervation in different solution conditions. In particular, the effects of different solution variables such as concentration

  1. Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental observations on the simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects for probe and trigger fields (double EIT) as well as the enhanced cross-phase modulation (XPM) between the two fields in a four-level tripod EIT system of the D1 line of 87Rb atoms. The XPM coefficients (larger than 2x10-5 cm2/W) and the accompanying transmissions (higher than 60%) are measured at a slight detuning of the probe field from the exact EIT-resonance condition. The system and enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearities presented here can be applied to quantum information processes

  2. Enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level tripod atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the cross-Kerr nonlinearity generated in a four-level tripod system in the 87Rb D1 line. The system exhibits simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows for two weak (probe and trigger) fields and the enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity by EIT. The cross-Kerr nonlinear phase shifts for probe (trigger) field are measured at several different intensities of trigger (probe) field. The results show that large cross-phase modulation (XPM) coefficients can be achieved at low light intensities.

  3. Enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level tripod atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xudong; Li Shujing; Zhang Chunhong; Wang Hai [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2009-07-15

    We investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the cross-Kerr nonlinearity generated in a four-level tripod system in the {sup 87}Rb D1 line. The system exhibits simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows for two weak (probe and trigger) fields and the enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity by EIT. The cross-Kerr nonlinear phase shifts for probe (trigger) field are measured at several different intensities of trigger (probe) field. The results show that large cross-phase modulation (XPM) coefficients can be achieved at low light intensities.

  4. CH-{\\pi} interaction-induced deep orbital deformation in a benzene-methane weak binding system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianfu

    2015-01-01

    The nonbonding interaction between benzene and methane, called CH-{\\pi} interaction, plays an important role in physical, chemical, and biological fields. CH-{\\pi} interaction can decrease the system total energy and promote the formation of special geometric configurations. This work investigates systemically the orbital distribution and composition of the benzene-methane complex for the first time using ab initio calculation based on different methods and basis sets. Surprisingly, we find strong deformation in HOMO-4 and LUMO+2 induced by CH-{\\pi} interaction, extending the general view that nonbonding interaction does not cause orbital change of molecules.

  5. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks by a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks of DNA was studied in vitro using an exonuclease purified from mouse ascites sarcoma (SR-C3H/He) cells. X-ray-dose-dependent unscheduled DNA synthesis was primed by the exonuclease. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis after incubating the damaged DNA with the exonuclease, DNA polymerase (Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I or DNA polymerase β purified from SR-C3H/He cells), four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, ATP and DNA ligase (T4 DNA ligase or DNA ligase I purified from calf thymus). The present results suggested that the exonuclease is involved in the initiation of repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in removing 3' ends of X-ray-damaged DNA. (author)

  6. Characterization of radiation-induced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Sanjurjo, J. [National Board of Nuclear Regulation, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-05-01

    Prenatal exposures to ionizing radiation may cause a variety of effects on Central Nervous System (CNS) including microcephaly, severe mental retardation and lower intelligence tests score. The highest risks occur between 8 and 15 week of gestational age, simultaneously with the greatest neuroblastic proliferation and migration to cerebral cortex. It has been shown that radiation induce apoptosis in CNS, primarily in neonatal or early postnatal brain. At the same time, programmed cell death plays an important role in normal development of embrionic tissues, especially in the neuronal system. The purpose of the present study was the characterization and quantification of the apoptosis, the effectivity of different neuroprotectors, and the involvement of the caspase-3 in the programmed cellular death in our model. Evidence for apoptotic like features included: apoptotic nuclei observed by conventional and fluorescent staining, analysis of DNA fragmentation in agarosa gels and flow cytometric quantification. To gain an insight about the neuroprotective effect of different modulators of neuroprotection, it has been tested: Protein synthesis inhibitor, Compounds capable of reducing the effect of oxidative stress, Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists. Cerebrocortical micromass cultures were prepared from fetuses of Wistar rats removed between 15 and 19 embronic day (ED) and 5 postnatal day (PN). Irradiation was performed two hours after seeding, with a Co60 source and a fast beam of the research reactor RA1 with a neutron-gamma field. Conventional staining was performed with May Grunwald Giemsa. Fluorescent staining consisted in a mixture of Propidium iodide (IP), fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Hoescht 33342. Analysis of DNA fragmentation was carried out on 1,8% agarosa gel stained with ethidium bromide, visualized and photographed by UV illumination. Caspase-3 activation was performed using ApoAlert {sup TM} Kit. The quantification

  7. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects Are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Desinia B; Snow, Samantha J; Schladweiler, Mette C; Richards, Judy E; Ghio, Andrew J; Ledbetter, Allen D; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-04-01

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats underwent bilateral adrenal demedullation (DEMED), total bilateral adrenalectomy (ADREX), or sham surgery (SHAM). After a 4 day recovery, rats were exposed to air or ozone (1 ppm), 4 h/day for 1 or 2 days and responses assessed immediately postexposure. Circulating adrenaline levels dropped to nearly zero in DEMED and ADREX rats relative to SHAM. Corticosterone tended to be low in DEMED rats and dropped to nearly zero in ADREX rats. Adrenalectomy in air-exposed rats caused modest changes in metabolites and lung toxicity parameters. Ozone-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were markedly attenuated in DEMED rats with nearly complete reversal in ADREX rats. Ozone increased circulating epinephrine and corticosterone in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Free fatty acids (P = .15) and branched-chain amino acids increased after ozone exposure in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Lung minute volume was not affected by surgery or ozone but ozone-induced labored breathing was less pronounced in ADREX rats. Ozone-induced increases in lung protein leakage and neutrophilic inflammation were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats (ADREX > DEMED). Ozone-mediated decreases in circulating white blood cells in SHAM were not observed in DEMED and ADREX rats. We demonstrate that ozone-induced peripheral metabolic effects and lung injury/inflammation are mediated through adrenal-derived stress hormones likely via the activation of stress response pathway. PMID:26732886

  8. Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Mohamed; Xu, Jijun J.; Diaz, Philippe; Brown, David L.; Cogdell, David; Bie, Bihua; Hu, Jianhua; Craig, Suzanne; Hittelman, Walter N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, especially after multiple courses of paclitaxel. The development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the activation of microglia followed by the activation and proliferation of astrocytes, and the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are expressed in the microglia in neurodegenerative disease models. Methods To explore the potential of CB2 agonists for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, we designed and synthesized a novel CB2-selective agonist, namely MDA7. The effect of MDA7 in preventing paclitaxel-induced allodynia was assessed in rats and in CB2+/+ and CB2–/– mice. We hypothesize that the CB2 receptor functions in a negative-feedback loop and that early MDA7 administration can blunt the neuroinflammatory response to paclitaxel and prevent mechanical allodynia through interference with specific signaling pathways. Results We found that MDA7 prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner without compromising paclitaxel's antineoplastic effect. MDA7's neuroprotective effect was absent in CB2-/- mice and was blocked by CB2 antagonists, suggesting that MDA7's action directly involves CB2 receptor activation. MDA7 treatment was found to interfere with early events in the paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by relatively reduced Toll-like receptor and CB2 expression in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced levels of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activity, reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators in vivo and in in vitro models. Conclusions Our findings suggest an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and may permit more aggressive use of active chemotherapeutic regimens with reduced long-term sequelae

  9. Experimental observation of magnetically induced phase separation and thermodynamic assessment in the Co–V binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase equilibria of Co–V binary system were experimentally investigated, and the magnetically induced phase separation in the fcc phase was observed in a Co/V diffusion couple. Based on previous research and present work, a thermodynamic reassessment in the Co–V binary system was carried out by means of the CALPHAD method. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental data. The metastable miscibility gap of the hcp phase in the Co–V binary system was thermodynamically calculated. According to the calculation, the Co–V thin films with three concentrations were designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results prove that the metastable phase separation in the hcp phase exists in the Co–V system. The determined magnetic properties of the thin films reveal that the values of coercivity and remanence ratio are function of V content. - Highlights: • The magnetically induced phase separation of (αfCo) + (αpCo) was determined. • A thermodynamic reassessment of the Co–V binary system has been carried out. • The phase separation in the (εfCo) was observed in the Co85V15 thin film. • The coercivity and remanence ratio of the thin films are function of V content

  10. Effective moment of inertia for several fission reaction systems induced by nucleons, light particles, and heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, S.

    2011-10-01

    The effective moment of inertia of the compound nucleus is calculated for several fission reaction systems induced by nucleons, light particles, and heavy ions. The determination of this quantity for these systems is based upon the comparison between the experimental data of the fission fragment angular distributions as well as the prediction of the standard saddle-point statistical model. For the systems, the two cases, namely with and without neutron emission corrections, were considered. Afterward, our theoretical results are compared with the data obtained from the rotational liquid drop model as well as the Sierk model and satisfactory agreements were found. We also calculated the quadrupole deformation and mass asymmetry parameters of the fissioning nuclei at the saddle point by two methods, the first method is based on an ellipsoid shape assumption for the fissioning nucleus, and the other is based on dinuclear system model, since in heavy ion induced fission reactions, the compound nuclei which undergo fission can be considered as states of two touching clusters (dinuclear system). Afterward, the results of these two methods were compared and satisfactory agreements were found between them.

  11. Evaluation of a laser-induced fluorescence system for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser-induced fluorescence method for total uranium analysis of industrial process waters, waste waters, and leachates has been evaluated as a possible alternative for the normal, sodium fluoride and lithium fluoride, flame-fusion fluorescence method currently employed. Since the lower reporting limit of the laser fluorometer is on the order of 0.05 μg/L, samples for normal analysis can usually be diluted from 100 to 1000 fold which virtually eliminates interferences from quenching substances. Also, since the uranium determination is done in aqueous solution, laser-induced fluorescence entirely eliminates the need for organic extraction and the subsequent fusion process

  12. Spectrum of Glycidyl Methacrylate—induced Mutation in Plasmid—Escherichia coli System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOHui-Lan; ZuoJin; 等

    1994-01-01

    In order to characterize the spectrum of mutation induced by glycidyl methacrylate(GMA),the plasmid pBR322 was modified with this mutagen in vitro.transfected into appropriate Escherichia coli host HB101.The mutants were then screned and defined by DNA sequencing.Sequence analysis reveals that GMA induces two classes of mutations:deletion of the mono-,di-or tetra-base or the insertion of mono-or di-base.Both types of muations,with about 10% frequency,occur predominantly at C.G runs and at 5'-CNCCN-3' sequence,which are hotspots for GMA damage and may cause frameshift muation.

  13. Inducible gene expression and regulation systems in recombinant DNA technology%重组DNA技术中可诱导的基因表达调控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 王澎; 郑少鹏

    2011-01-01

    In recombinant DNA technology, inducible gene expression system can be used to regulate gene expression and achieve the purposes of research on gene function, transgenic animal, gene therapy, etc.These systems consists of four parts:inducer, inducible receptor or transcription factor, cis-acting element and the vector system.In this paper, we reviewed main 6 kinds of inducible gene expression systems, which are classified by inducers: steroid hormone receptor regulatory systems,tetracycline inducible gene expression system, hypoxia-induced gene expression system, heat-induced gene expression system,ionizing radiation-induced gene expression system and the lac gene expression system.%在重组DNA技术中,可诱导的基因表达调控系统可被用来调节目的基因的表达以达到基因功能研究、转基因动物研究、以及基因治疗研究等目的.该系统主要由诱导剂、可诱导的受体或转录因子,顾式作用元件以及载体系统四部分组成.本文以诱导荆为分类依据,叙述目前主要的6类可诱导的基因表达调控系统:类同醇激素受体诱导的基因表达调控系统、四环素诱导的基因表达调控系统、缺氧诱导的基因表达调控系统、高热诱导的基因表达调控系统、电离辐射诱导的基因表达调控系统和 l a c 基因表达调控系统.

  14. Design Improvement for Cavitation Induced Erosion at Flow Control Valve in the Nuclear Service Cooling Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Yeonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The function of nuclear service cooling water (NSCW) System is for supplying cooling water (seawater) to the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchangers, Essential Chillers and Emergency Diesel Generator Chillers. In the NSCW system, the flow control valve (FCV) is installed to prevent an overflow of the system. As metal loss damage (erosion) inside the FCV due to the cavitation and sea water corrosion occurred frequently, the material of valve disc was changed from AL-Bronze to Monel in 1996. After changing the material, the erosion by sea water corrosion was clearly improved. But the erosion induced by cavitation is still observed. Therefore, this study investigates the metal loss damage mechanisms in the FCV of NSCW system and proposes the design modification to mitigate the metal loss damage in the valve

  15. In situ extraction of polar product of whole cell microbial transformation with polyethylene glycol-induced cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhuang, Baohua; Qi, Hanshi

    2008-01-01

    A novel polyethylene glycol-induced cloud point system (PEG-CPS) was developed for in situ extraction of moderate polar product by setting a microbial transformation of benzaldehyde into L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) as a model reaction. The biocompatibility of the microorganism in PEG-CPS was comparatively studied with a series of water-organic solvent two-phase partitioning systems. The tolerance of microorganism to the toxic substrate benzaldehyde was increased and the moderate polar product L-PAC was extracted into the surfactant-rich phase in the PEG-CPS. The novel PEG-CPS fills the gap of in situ extraction of polar product in microbial transformation left by water-organic solvent two-phase partitioning system. At the same time, the application of PEG-CPS in a microbial transformation also avoids expensive solvent when compared with that of aqueous two-phase system or CPS.

  16. Systemic mesenchymal stem cell administration enhances bone formation in fracture repair but not load-induced bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Rapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC were shown to support bone regeneration, when they were locally transplanted into poorly healing fractures. The benefit of systemic MSC transplantation is currently less evident. There is consensus that systemically applied MSC are recruited to the site of injury, but it is debated whether they actually support bone formation. Furthermore, the question arises as to whether circulating MSC are recruited only in case of injury or whether they also participate in mechanically induced bone formation. To answer these questions we injected green fluorescent protein (GFP-labelled MSC into C57BL/6J mice, which were subjected either to a femur osteotomy or to non-invasive mechanical ulna loading to induce bone formation. We detected GFP-labelled MSC in the early (day 10 and late fracture callus (day 21 by immunohistochemistry. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL-12, a key chemokine for stem cell attraction, was strongly expressed by virtually all cells near the osteotomy – indicating that SDF-1 may mediate cell migration to the site of injury. We found no differences in SDF-1 expression between the groups. Micro-computed tomography (µCT revealed significantly more bone in the callus of the MSC treated mice compared to untreated controls. The bending stiffness of callus was not significantly altered after MSC-application. In contrast, we failed to detect GFP-labelled MSC in the ulna after non-invasive mechanical loading. Histomorphometry and µCT revealed a significant load-induced increase in bone formation; however, no further increase was found after MSC administration. Concluding, our results suggest that systemically administered MSC are recruited and support bone formation only in case of injury but not in mechanically induced bone formation.

  17. Splenectomy modifies hyperactive states of the dopaminergic system induced by morphine in C57BL/6J-bg(J)/bg(J) (beige-J) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funada, Masahiko; Mori, Tomohisa; Maeda, Jun; Tsuda, Yuko; Komiya, Sachiko; Shimizu, Norifumi; Kamei, Junzo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    Genetic factors affect the locomotor activity induced by morphine, which mainly depends on the activation of dopaminergic systems, and morphine has distinct pharmacological activities in C57BL/6J-bg(J)bg(J) (beige-J) mice, which have genetic deficiencies in immunological function. We previously showed that beige-J mice exhibited greater locomotor activity and dopamine turnover, whereas splenectomy reduced this hyperlocomotion and dopamine turnover, which suggests that beige-J mice could be an experimental animal model for investigating hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system, and that the spleen may contribute to the susceptibility to activation of the dopaminergic system. Furthermore, morphine can induce hyperlocomotion mediated by activation of the dopaminergic system. Therefore, we examined the effects of splenectomy on the hyperlocomotion and regulation of the dopaminergic system induced by morphine in beige-J mice. Morphine induced hyperlocomotion, which was accompanied by activation of the dopaminergic system, in beige-J mice. Furthermore, splenectomy enhanced the hyperlocomotion and activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system induced by morphine in beige-J mice. Our findings indicate that substances originating from the spleen may regulate both spontaneous activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and the µ-opioidergic system-mediated activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system by morphine through different modes of action. These results imply that beige-J mice could be a practical animal model for investigating the interactions between immune-modulation and the µ-opioidergic system and/or dopaminergic system.

  18. Selective hyper-responsiveness of the interferon system in major depressive disorders and depression induced by interferon therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg F Schlaak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though an important percentage of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV undergoing interferon (IFN therapy develop depressive symptoms, the role of the IFN system in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders is not well understood. METHODS: 50 patients with HCV infection were treated with standard combination therapy (pegylated IFN-α2a/ribavirin. IFN-induced gene expression was analyzed to identify genes which are differentially regulated in patients with or without IFN-induced depression. For validation, PBMC from 22 psychiatric patients with a severe depressive episode (SDE and 11 controls were cultivated in vitro with pegylated IFN-α2a and gene expression was analyzed. RESULTS: IFN-induced depression in HCV patients was associated with selective upregulation of 15 genes, including 6 genes that were previously described to be relevant for major depressive disorders or neuronal development. In addition, increased endogenous IFN-production and selective hyper-responsiveness of these genes to IFN stimulation were observed in SDE patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that selective hyper-responsiveness to exogenous (IFN therapy or endogenous (depressive disorders type I IFNs may lead to the development of depressive symptoms. These data could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to treat IFN-induced and major depressive disorders.

  19. Physiological mechanisms of vascular response induced by shear stress and effect of exercise in systemic and placental circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván eRodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physiological vascular function regulation is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular pathology, where the imbalance between the synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is common in the development of vascular disorders in systemic and placental circulation. In the placenta, an organ without autonomic innervations, the local control of vascular tone is critical for maintenance of fetal growth and mechanisms that underlie shear stress response induced by blood flow are essential during pregnancy. In this field, shear stress induced by moderate exercise is one of the most important mechanisms to improve vascular function through nitric oxide (NO synthesis and stimulation of mechanical response of endothelial cells triggered by ion channels, caveolae, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, among others. The demand for oxygen and nutrients by tissues and organs, especially in placentation and pregnancy, determines blood flow parameters and physiological adaptations of vascular beds for covering metabolic requirements. In this regard, moderate exercise versus sedentarism shows potential benefits for improving vascular function associated with the enhancement of molecular mechanisms induced by shear stress. In this review, we collect evidence about molecular bases of physiological response to shear stress in order to highlight the relevance of moderate exercise-training for vascular health in adult and fetal life.

  20. Silicon induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable integrated disease management for gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass may involve use of plant defense elicitors with compatible traditional fungicides to reduce disease incidence and severity. Silicon (Si) is a potential inducer or modulator of plant defenses against different pathogen...

  1. Glucocorticoid-induced effects on the growth plate and the IGF system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Jeske Johanna

    2003-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. The use of these potent drugs, however, often results in side-effects, such as growth retardation in children. For already many years, this GC-induced growth retardation is suggested to involve impaired action of

  2. Forced and Self Oscillations of Hydraulic Systems Induced by Cavitation Vortex Rope of Francis Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Alligné, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    With economical energy market strategies based on instantaneous pricings of electricity as function of the demand or the predictions, operators harness more hydroelectric facilities to off-design operating points to cover the variations of the electricity production. Under these operating conditions, Francis turbines develop a cavitating swirling flow at the runner outlet which induces pressure fluctuations propagating in the whole hydraulic sys...

  3. Punicalagin Mollifies Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Imbalance in Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Faiza; Zhai, Yiwen; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin (PU) is a known antioxidant. The present study examined PU to protect against lead-induced oxidative stress (OS) testicular damage in mice. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) after intraperitoneal injection of lead acetate (LA) indicated enormous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lead-induced OS has a direct effect on the differentiation of spermatogonial cells, showing a significant decline in sperm count. Supplementation of PU significantly changes values of LPO and glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in sperm count, a marked decrease in the abnormal sperms, and a decline in the morphologically abnormal sperm population. Moreover, the histopathological evaluation of testes and epididymides showed severe changes in mice treated with LA. PU significantly induced nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2-like 2 (Nrf2) expression and phase II enzymes, and data suggest that PU may inhibit OS through Nrf2 activation. The fertility test proved that PU might play an important role in male infertility treatment, especially in the type of infertility induced by OS. PMID:27529221

  4. Analysis of Disturbance Source Inducing by The Variable Speed Wind Turbine System Forced Power Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru;

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of forced low frequency oscillations is to analyze the disturbance source and the origin of forced oscillations. In this paper, the origin of low-frequency periodical oscillations induced by wind turbines’ mechanical power is investigated and the mechanism is studied of fluctuating...

  5. Evaluation of Azathioprine-Induced Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Maruf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Azathioprine (AZA is widely used in clinical practice for preventing graft rejection in organ transplantations and various autoimmune and dermatological diseases with documented unpredictable hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using “Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening” techniques. The concentration of AZA required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2 hrs at 37°C was found to be 400 μM. A significant increase in AZA-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation was observed when glutathione- (GSH- depleted hepatocytes were used. The addition of N-acetylcysteine decreased cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol decreased AZA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 formation and increased % mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Addition of N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol together caused nearly complete cytoprotection against AZA-induced hepatocyte death. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl, a known ROS scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimic, and antioxidants, like DPPD (N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue, and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, also decreased hepatocyte death and ROS formation. Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury.

  6. Evaluation of azathioprine-induced cytotoxicity in an in vitro rat hepatocyte system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maruf, Abdullah; Wan, Luke; O'Brien, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used in clinical practice for preventing graft rejection in organ transplantations and various autoimmune and dermatological diseases with documented unpredictable hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using "Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening" techniques. The concentration of AZA required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2 hrs at 37°C was found to be 400 μM. A significant increase in AZA-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was observed when glutathione- (GSH-) depleted hepatocytes were used. The addition of N-acetylcysteine decreased cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol decreased AZA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation and increased % mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Addition of N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol together caused nearly complete cytoprotection against AZA-induced hepatocyte death. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl), a known ROS scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimic, and antioxidants, like DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue), and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate), also decreased hepatocyte death and ROS formation. Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. PMID:25101277

  7. Neuroprotective effect of renin angiotensin system blockers on experimentally induced Alzheimer's disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa A. Hewedy

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: This study reports that candesartan and perindopril can reverse the free radical induced damages and resultant memory defects, and may suggest candesartan as worthy drugs for prevention of Abeta-P deposition in this animal model of AD. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 853-859

  8. Effect of plasmapheresis on the immune system in endotoxin-induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Schmidt, R; Broechner, A C;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that plasmapheresis is most effective when applied early in Gram-negative sepsis. We therefore studied the effect of early plasmapheresis on immunity in experimental Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced sepsis. METHODS: 20 pigs received 30 microg/kg of E. coli...... infusion, it only temporarily attenuated a part of the activated cell-mediated immunity....

  9. The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Murakami, Mariko; Node, Koichi; Matsumura, Ritsuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-07-24

    The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment.

  10. Respuesta inmune sistémica y mucosal contra Neisseria meningitidis B inducida por estrategia de vacunación simultánea mucosal y parental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available mmunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions ever. Immunization have been helping to reduce child mortality, improving maternal health and combating infectious diseases. In spite of its, undisputed past success and promising future, however, immunization remains an unfinished agenda because of them inadequate coverage. Several factors have been largely responsible of a difficulty to attain immunization coverage and have been recognized as a problems of current vaccines, such as: the number of dose, excessive use of parenteral route, a small number of adjuvants approve for use in human, higher reactogenicity and unavailability against intracellular pathogens, infected or altered cells and scanty feasibility to combined more than one antigen in the same formulation. For bacterial meningitis WHO estimates that 1.2 million cases occur annually and Neisseria meningitidis is the etiological agent in more than 40% of these cases although some meningococcal vaccines are available. To bear in mind these principals problems, a novel protocol for vaccination against N. meningitidis called Single Time Vaccination Strategy (SinTimVaS is proposed. Using female BALB/c mice, we induce systemic and mucosal immune responses against N. meningitidis with only one parenteral and one mucosal dose at the same time, employing the Finlay Adjuvants derivate from N. meningitidis, AFPL1 and AFCo1, respectively. In conclusion, SinTimVaS could increase the vaccination coverage and reduce the time-cost of vaccine campaigns, adding the possibility to increase the herd immunity by mucosal specific response induction.

  11. 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced glutathione alteration occurs via glutathione enzyme system in primary cultured astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji ZHANG; Jun HU; Jian-hua DING; Hong-hong YAO; Gang HU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes.Methods: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay.The mRNA levels ofγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR (glutathione reductase), and glutathione transferases (GST) were determined using RT-PCR.γGT activity was determined using γGT assay kits.Results: In primary cultured astrocytes, 6-OHDA induced a significant elevation of cellular GSx levels after treatment for 24 h.However, the GSx levels decreased after 24 h and the values were even lower than the value in the control group without 6-OHDA at 48 h.RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of γGCS, the ratelimiting enzyme of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of γGT after treatment for 48 h,which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of γGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h.Conclusion: The change in γGCS correlated with the increase in GSH levels induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h.GSx levels decreased because of increased γGT mRNA levels and γGT activity induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 48 h.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 activates the histaminergic system via the EP4 receptor to induce wakefulness in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Li; Sato, Yo; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Qu, Wei-Min; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

    2003-07-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)E2 promotes the wakeful state when administered into the posterior hypothalamus, in which the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) is located. To explore the neurotransmitter mechanisms responsible for PGE2-induced wakefulness in rats, we examined the effect of PGE2 on the activity of the histaminergic system and the involvement of PGE2 receptor subtypes in the response. PGE2 perfusion in the TMN at doses of 100, 200, and 400 pmol/min for 2 hr significantly increased histamine release from the medial preoptic area and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Among the agonists of the four distinct subtypes of PGE2 receptors (EP1-4) tested, only the EP4 receptor agonist (ONO-AE1-329) mimicked the excitatory effect of PGE2 on histamine release from both the medial preoptic area and frontal cortex. Perfusion of either PGE2 or the EP4 agonist into the TMN at a dose of 200 pmol/min for 1 hr increased histidine decarboxylase activity, histidine decarboxylase mRNA level, and histamine content in the hypothalamus. In situ hybridization revealed that EP4 receptor mRNA was expressed in histidine decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons of the TMN region. Furthermore, EP4 agonist perfusion into the TMN induced wakefulness. These findings indicate that PGE2 induces wakefulness through activation of the histaminergic system via EP4 receptors.

  13. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance.

  14. Dietary proanthocyanidins inhibit UV radiation-induced skin tumor development through functional activation of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is equivalent to the incidence of malignancies in all other organs combined. The main risk factor for this disease is overexposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV irradiation induces inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and suppression of the immune system in the skin, which together contribute to carcinogenesis. The use of dietary phytochemicals shows great promise as a complementary and alternative strategy for skin cancer prevention. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been tested extensively for their anti-skin cancer effect using in vivo animal models. Supplementation of an AIN76A control diet with GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) significantly inhibits UV radiation-induced skin tumor development as well as malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinoma in mice. The inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by GSPs is mediated through interrelated mechanisms of action including: (i) inhibition of inflammation, (ii) rapid repair of damaged DNA, and (iii) stimulation of immune system. Additionally, the chemopreventive effects of GSPs involve DNA repair-dependent functional activation of antigen-presenting cells and stimulation of CD8(+) effector T cells. These effects of GSPs could be useful in attenuation of the adverse effects of UV radiation and may have health benefits in humans. PMID:26991736

  15. Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dommes Jacques

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR.

  16. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Szu-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1 on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20 and Rg1 (N = 20 groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  17. How can the auditory efferent system protect our ears from noise-induced hearing loss? Let us count the ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lynne; Miller, Judi A. Lapsley

    2015-12-01

    It is a cause for some debate as to how the auditory olivocochlear (OC) efferent system could protect hearing from noise trauma. In this review, we examined physiological research to find mechanisms that could effectively attenuate the response to sound. For each purported mechanism, we indicate which part of the OC-efferent system is responsible for the function and the site of action. These mechanisms include basilar-membrane phase shifts at high stimulus levels; changes in outer-hair-cell stiffness and phase lag associated with efferent slow effects; small decreases in endocochlear potentials causing small decreases in outer- and inner-hair-cell output; low-spontaneous-rate and medium-spontaneous-rate fibers showing OC-induced decrements at high levels; auditory-nerve initial-peak reduction; OC effect increasing over minutes; cholinergic activation of anti-apoptotic pathways; and anti-excitotoxicity. There are clearly multiple opportunities for the OC-efferent system to protect the inner ear from noise trauma. From further exploration into the mechanisms outlined here, as well as to-be-discovered mechanisms, we will gain a greater understanding of the protective nature of the OC-efferent system. These findings could aid our ability to design better predictive tests for people at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.

  18. Efficient activation of gene expression using a heat-shock inducible Gal4/Vp16-UAS system in medaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittbrodt Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic interference by DNA, mRNA or morpholino injection is a widely used approach to study gene function in developmental biology. However, the lack of temporal control over the activity of interfering molecules often hampers investigation of gene function required during later stages of embryogenesis. To elucidate the roles of genes during embryogenesis a precise temporal control of transgene expression levels in the developing organism is on demand. Results We have generated a transgenic Gal4/Vp16 activator line that is heat-shock inducible, thereby providing a tool to drive the expression of specific effector genes via Gal4/Vp16. Merging the Gal4/Vp16-UAS system with the I-SceI meganuclease and the Sleeping Beauty transposon system allows inducible gene expression in an entirely uniform manner without the need to generate transgenic effector lines. Combination of this system with fluorescent protein reporters furthermore facilitates the direct visualization of transgene expressing cells in live embryos. Conclusion The combinatorial properties of this expression system provide a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during embryonic and larval development in fish by ectopic expression of gene products.

  19. Intrarenal activation of renin angiotensin system in the development of cyclosporine A induced chronic nephrotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Ming-hua; YUAN Wei-jie; ZHANG Shujian; FAN Yu; ZHANG Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between cyclosporine-induced chronic nephrotoxicity (CAN) and renin-angiotenein Ⅱ in humans is still contradictory. This study was conducted to detect the levels of renin and angiotensin Ⅱ (ANGII) both in renal tissue and plasma from kidney transplantation patients suffering from CAN.Methods Twenty-six patients with allograft biopsy-proven CsA-related chronic nephrotoxicity (CAN group) and chronic rejection (control group) were enrolled in this study. Renal tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with renin and ANGII antibodies. Renin and ANGII plasma levels were measured when the biopsy was performed. The relationship between expression of renin or ANGII and clinicopathological manifestations were also investigated. The cyclosporine plasma level was obtained 2 hours after morning dose (C2). In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and rat mesangial cells (MC) were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (0, 250, 500, 1000 μg/L) for 24 hours. Secretion and expression of renin and ANGII was measured by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical staining.Results Renal pathological scores for renin and ANGII expression were significantly higher in specimens of CAN than in controls (P<0.05). The plasma levels of renin, ANGII and C2 in the CAN group were higher than the control group, but no significant difference was found ((0.37±0.12) ng.ml-1·h-1 vs (0.20±0.10) ng.ml-1·h-1, P=0.076; (122.69±26.73) pg/ml vs(121.88±36.35) pg/ml, P=0.977; (719.04±55.89) ng/ml vs (658.80±90.78) ng/ml, P=0.196, respectively). In vitro, renin as well as ANGII expression increased significantly in both HUVEC and MC after the cells were incubated with CsA for 24 hours (P <0.05). CsA also stimulated the secretion of ANGII in HUVEC and MC in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions Renal allograft biopsy is important to differentiate chronic CsA-related nephropathy from chronic rejection. The intrarenal renin angiotensin

  20. Central Renin-Angiotensin System Activation and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat Diet Sensitize Angiotensin II-Elicited Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Thunhorst, Robert L; Yu, Yang; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Felder, Robert B; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to promote renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammation in the brain and to be accompanied by increased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. Our previous studies demonstrated that administration of a subpressor dose of angiotensin (Ang) II sensitizes subsequent Ang II-elicited hypertension. The present study tested whether high-fat diet (HFD) feeding also sensitizes the Ang II-elicited hypertensive response and whether HFD-induced sensitization is mediated by an increase in renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammatory mechanisms in the brain. HFD did not increase baseline blood pressure, but enhanced the hypertensive response to Ang II compared with a normal-fat diet. The sensitization produced by the HFD was abolished by concomitant central infusions of either a tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, or an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline. Furthermore, central pretreatment with tumor necrosis factor-α mimicked the sensitizing action of a central subpressor dose of Ang II, whereas central pentoxifylline or minocycline abolished this Ang II-induced sensitization. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of lamina terminalis tissue indicated that HFD feeding, central tumor necrosis factor-α, or a central subpressor dose of Ang II upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines, whereas inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and of inflammation reversed these changes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by upregulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system and of central proinflammatory cytokines.