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Sample records for afco1 induce systemic

  1. AFCo1, a meningococcal B-derived cochleate adjuvant, strongly enhances antibody and T-cell immunity against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst a large number of malaria antigens are being tested as candidate malaria vaccines, a major barrier to the development of an effective vaccine is the lack of a suitable human adjuvant capable of inducing a strong and long lasting immune response. In this study, the ability of AFCo1, a potent T and B cell adjuvant based on cochleate structures derived from meningococcal B outer membrane proteoliposomes (MBOMP, to boost the immune response against two Plasmodium falciparum antigens, merozoite surface protein 4 (MSP4 and 5 (MSP5, was evaluated. Methods Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, which is able to confer protection against malaria in animal MSP4/5 vaccine challenge models, was used as positive control adjuvant. MSP4 and 5-specific IgG, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production were evaluated in parallel in mice immunized three times intramuscularly with MSP4 or MSP5 incorporated into AFCo1, synthetic cochleate structures, CFA or phosphate buffered saline. Results AFCo1 significantly enhanced the IgG and T-cell response against MSP4 and MSP5, with a potency equivalent to CFA, with the response being characterized by both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, increased interferon gamma production and a strong DTH response, consistent with the ability of AFCo1 to induce Th1-like immune responses. Conclusion Given the proven safety of MBOMP, which is already in use in a licensed human vaccine, AFCo1 could assist the development of human malaria vaccines that require a potent and safe adjuvant.

  2. In vitro study of protein release from AFCo1 and implications in mucosal immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Acevedo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1 (AFCo1 is a Proteoliposome-derived cochleate obtained from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. Transformation of proteoliposomes into AFCo1 potentiates the immune response on Neisseria antigens when it is administered by intranasal or intragastric (i.g routes. However, the i.n route has been demonstrated to be more effective. The aim of this work is to evaluate in vitro the protein release from AFCo1, in simulated gastric fluid (SGF or simulated nasal fluid (SNF using a microdissolution test and to provide support for the results found when AFCo1 was administered by i.g or i.n routes in BALB/c mice. Results showed that dilution of AFCo1 in simulated gastric fluid affects the delivery of Neisseria protein antigens because they were released from cochleate structures faster than when simulated nasal fluid was used. In conclusion, conditions simulating gastric environment affect the delivery of protein antigens from AFCo1 and this result could partially explain why i.n administration is more effective in vivo than i.g immunisation.

  3. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufact...

  4. Evaluación citotóxica y genotóxica del adyuvante AFCo1 por el ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratón NMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Domínguez; Maibia Tamayo; Irela Y. Pérez; Hilario Salas; Oliver Pérez; Alexander Batista

    2016-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el potencial citogenotóxico en células espermáticas de ratón, del adyuvante AFCo1 (Adyuvante Finlay Cocleato 1), obtenido a partir del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B. El AFCo1 y su diluente se administraron por vía intranasal en una dosis de 40 µL (1 mg/mL), mientras que los controles positivo (ciclofosfamida) y negativo (agua destilada estéril), se administraron por vía oral a razón de 40 mg y 1 mL/kg, respectivamente. Se utilizaron ra...

  5. Evaluación citotóxica y genotóxica del adyuvante AFCo1 por el ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratón NMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el potencial citogenotóxico en células espermáticas de ratón, del adyuvante AFCo1 (Adyuvante Finlay Cocleato 1, obtenido a partir del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B. El AFCo1 y su diluente se administraron por vía intranasal en una dosis de 40 µL (1 mg/mL, mientras que los controles positivo (ciclofosfamida y negativo (agua destilada estéril, se administraron por vía oral a razón de 40 mg y 1 mL/kg, respectivamente. Se utilizaron ratones (NMRI de 8-12 semanas de edad, con peso corporal entre 27-30 g, a los cuales se les aplicaron cinco dosis con un intervalo de 24 h, durante los primeros cinco días del experimento. Se evaluó la toxicidad general (peso corporal e indicadores testiculares de citotoxicidad testicular (concentración espermática y genotoxicidad (morfología espermática. El AFCo1 y su diluente no provocaron toxicidad general, citotoxicidad, ni genotoxicidad. La ciclofosfamida sí produjo citotoxicidad (47,77% y genotoxicidad (534,61%. Se concluye que el AFCo1 y su diluente pueden ser considerados como no tóxicos para las células espermáticas en el nivel de dosis y para el biomodelo animal utilizado.

  6. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  7. In vitro study of protein release from AFCo1 and implications in mucosal immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Dopico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los anticuerpos aviares (IgY presentan algunas ventajas con relación a los anticuerpos IgG de mamíferos, debido a su fácil obtención y purificación y su bajo costo de producción. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la factibilidad de acoplar anticuerpos IgY a partículas de poliestireno y evaluar su desempeño en ensayos de látex-aglutinación en lámina. Para este propósito se utilizó como modelo la detección del antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B (HBsAg. Gallinas Leghorn se inmunizaron con el ingrediente farmacéutico activo que se utiliza en la elaboración de la vacuna recombinante cubana Heberbiovac-HB. Los anticuerpos obtenidos se purificaron y emplearon en la preparación de reactivos de látex-aglutinación (0,8 µm para la detección del HBsAg, los cuales se evaluaron con 50 muestras de suero frente a un reactivo comercial similar. Los resultados se evaluaron de satisfactorios. Se demostró la factibilidad de acoplar anticuerpos aviares a partículas de látex y se abre una perspectiva al empleo de este tipo de ensayo para el diagnóstico rápido de diversas enfermedades.

  8. Induced murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Zeumer, Leilani; Reeves, Westley H; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Induced mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been developed to complement the spontaneous models. This chapter describes the methods used in the pristane-induced model and the chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) model, both of which have been extensively used. We will also outline the specific mechanisms of systemic autoimmunity that can be best characterized using each of these models. PMID:24497358

  9. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA; I. A. GRINEVA; T. L. SKAKUN; L. E. SADOVSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus) is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and ...

  10. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  11. Induced Systemic Resistance and the Rhizosphere Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Zamioudis, Christos; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities that are associated with plant roots are highly diverse and harbor tens of thousands of species. This so-called microbiome controls plant health through several mechanisms including the suppression of infectious diseases, which is especially prominent in disease suppressive soils. The mechanisms implicated in disease suppression include competition for nutrients, antibiosis, and induced systemic resistance (ISR). For many biological control agents ISR has been recognized...

  12. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and poultry industries with high quality vegetable protein. It is used for biofuel production as well.Gibberellin preparation was isolated from liquid culture of strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca grown in 250 mL of M9 medium (48 h, 28 °C under darkroom conditions. Gibberellins were extracted according procedure described by Tien et al. (1979. Gibberellins concentration in the medium was determined by fluorometric method.Elicitor activity of bacterial metabolites – gibberellins – was analyzed in model system of artificial inoculation of oilseed rape germs with phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola. The elicitor action efficiency was evaluated on the 15th day of oilseed rape cultivation based on the percentage of leaf surface covered by necrotic lesions.Gibberellins were shown to induce systemic resistance resulted in decreasing of oil seed plants   vulnerability by 52.7%.It is known that under the unfavorable conditions plants synthesis the reactive oxygen intermediates   which activate destructive processes. One of the first organism reactions to stress action is the change of the lipid peroxidation level. It was shown that treatment of the soil with gibberellins resulted in decreasing of the lipid peroxidation level twofold.Gibberellins were shown to have a similar effect on permeability of cell membranes for free nucleotides. The permeability of cell membranes in leaves decreased 2.8-fold at room temperature. We suggest that gibberellins

  13. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest; Majer, Ernest L.; Baria, Roy; Stark, Mitch; Oates, Stephen; Bommer, Julian; Smith, Bill; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2006-09-26

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) offer the potential to significantly add to the world energy inventory. As with any development of new technology, some aspects of the technology has been accepted by the general public, but some have not yet been accepted and await further clarification before such acceptance is possible. One of the issues associated with EGS is the role of microseismicity during the creation of the underground reservoir and the subsequent extraction of the energy. The primary objectives of this white paper are to present an up-to-date review of the state of knowledge about induced seismicity during the creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems, and to point out the gaps in knowledge that if addressed will allow an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events as well as serve as a basis to develop successful protocols for monitoring and addressing community issues associated with such induced seismicity. The information was collected though literature searches as well as convening three workshops to gather information from a wide audience. Although microseismicity has been associated with the development of production and injection operations in a variety of geothermal regions, there have been no or few adverse physical effects on the operations or on surrounding communities. Still, there is public concern over the possible amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. It is pointed out that microseismicity has been successfully dealt with in a variety of non-geothermal as well as geothermal environments. Several case histories are also presented to illustrate a variety of technical and public acceptance issues. It is concluded that EGS Induced seismicity need not pose any threat to the development of geothermal resources if community issues are properly handled. In fact, induced seismicity provides benefits because it can be used as a monitoring tool to understand the

  14. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mark R Hutchinson; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphi...

  15. Enfoques mucosales en vacunologia de Neisseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal B strains accounts for some 72% and 28% of meningococcal diseases in infants and toddlers in Europe and the USA, respectively. Nevertheless, meningococcal diseases are rare in Cuba owing to the wide spread program on antimeningococcal vaccination in the country. Finlay Institute is one of the pioneering organizations in Neisseria Vaccinology mainly by its contribution to N. meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane-based bivalent vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC™. This vaccine was given intramuscularly in more than 60 million doses corresponding 10.7 millions of them to Cuban young adults, children, and infants. However, most dangerous or commensally Neisseria strains enter and establish in the mucosa, where the secretory (S IgA is the main specific guardian and is mainly induced by mucosal routes. However, few mucosal vaccines exist principally due to the absent of mucosal adjuvants. We develop a Finlay Adjuvant (AF platform based in outer membrane vesicles (Proteoliposome, PL and its derivate Cochleate (Co. AFPL1 derived from serogroup B N. meningitidis is a potent Th1/CTL driving parenteral adjuvant. AFCo1 is a potent mucosal adjuvant. Therefore, we sought to go deeper in the possible mucosal cross recognition between N. meningitidis serogroups and Neisseria species and explore a concurrent mucosal and parenteral immunization strategy (SinTimVaS in order to develop suitable mucosal vaccines. Experiments were conducted in Balb/c or C57Bl6 mice with mucosal and systemic immunization using AFCo1 and AFPL1. Human sera and saliva were also analyzed for cross cognition. Mucosal cross recognition at SIgA level in human saliva between N. meningitidis serogroups B, A, C, Y, and W135 were observed. This SIgA cross recognition response was also observed between pathogenic (N. meningitidis serogroup B, N. gonorrhoeae and non-pathogenic strains (N. flava, N. lactamica. The possible influence of meningococcal vaccination against Gonorrhea was also

  16. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S.; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely ex...

  17. Flow Induced Electrification of Liquid Insulated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Andrew Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The transport or motion of semi-insulating liquids has led to flow induced static electrification and catastrophic failures in several industries. While techniques for reducing the hazard have been developed, the roles of seemingly important parameters are poorly understood. The objective of this thesis was to measure and understand the fundamental parameters of the flow electrification process that, together with the laws of electroquasistatics and physicochemical hydrodynamics, can be used to predict the performance of complex flow systems, with particular attention to transformer applications. A rotating cylindrical electrode apparatus, which provided cylindrical Couette flow, was used to simulate flow electrification in an electric power transformer. The apparatus had Shell Diala A transformer oil filling the annulus between coaxial cylindrical stainless steel electrodes that were either bare metal, or covered by a thin copper sheet and/or EHV-Weidmann HiVal pressboard insulation. Extensive experiments characterized the time transient and steady state behavior of the electrification through measurements of the volume charge density, the terminal voltage, and the terminal current as the system was driven out of equilibrium by changes in the flow rate (inner cylinder rotation rates of 100-1400 rpm, Reynolds numbers of 5 times 10^3-5 times 10^5), temperature (15-70 ^circ), insulation moisture content (0.5-20 ppm in the oil), applied voltage (0-2 kV DC), and concentration of the non-ionizable anti-static additive 1,2,3 benzotriazole (BTA, 0-60 ppm). Generally, the electrification increased with flow rate and temperature but the BTA appeared to cause competing effects: it decreased the volume charge density on the liquid side of the interface (by a factor of 4), which reduces the electrification, but also decreased the oil conductivity (by a factor of 10), which enhances the electrification. A critical oil BTA concentration of 5 -8 ppm minimized the electrification

  18. Optimization of the dynamic inducer wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.; Zalay, A. D.; Hibbs, B.

    The dynamic inducer, essentially a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor with small vanes at the tips is a promising, advanced technology wind turbine concept. By adding small vanes to the tip of the conventional rotor, significant increases in power can be obtained with the dynamic inducer system. The development of the system is reviewed, including past theoretical and experimental programs. Recent tow tests and wind tunnel tests established the predicted augmentation power. A new optimization program is outlined, based on advanced theory back by extensive wind tunnel testing, aimed at developing an advanced dynamic inducer system for a state-of-the art high performance, two-bladed rotor system. It is estimated that the dynamic inducer rotor is about 20% more cost-effective than a conventional system.

  19. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  20. Inducible gene expression system by 3-hydroxypropionic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shengfang; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Seol, Eunhee; Nguyen, Trinh Thi; Park, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Background 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical that boasts a variety of industrial applications. Gene expression systems inducible by 3-HP, if available, are of great utility for optimization of the pathways of 3-HP production and excretion. Results Here we report the presence of unique inducible gene expression systems in Pseudomonas denitrificans and other microorganisms. In P. denitrificans, transcription of three genes (hpdH, mmsA and hbdH-4) involved in 3-HP ...

  1. Systemically induced changes in skeletal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of systemic designs leading the radiographically detectable bone and joint changes is legion. Some disorders (notably the arthridites), while qualifying as diseases with protean systemic manifestations are discussed elsewhere in this book. Other disorders (e.g., achondroplasia), while not representing diseases per se, are included in this chapter for the sake of completeness and due to their relative frequency and their interesting radiographic characteristics. The author focuses on a number of selected conditions, some commonly seen and some relatively infrequently encountered. They are classified into he following categories: endocrinologic; metabolic; hematologic and reticuloendothelial; and dysplastic

  2. Biological Therapy-Induced Systemic Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2016-07-01

    The use of biologics has been associated with the paradoxical development of biologics-induced autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this review was to describe the key immunopathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of these conditions, and to discuss the clinical and laboratory characteristics usually described in the medical literature, reviewing case reports as well as records on national biologic therapies (BIOGEAS, RABBIT, BSRBR-RA, BIOBADAVEN). More than 200 cases have so far been reported, all of them diagnosed on the basis of the histopathology or meeting the ACR/Chapel Hill criteria. Over 75 % of the cases were females with a mean age of 48 ± 5 years. More than 50 % had rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the biologics-associated vasculitis developed in 90 ± 31 days. Complete resolution in almost 75 % of the cases was observed upon treatment discontinuation; however, steroid therapy was indicated for all patients and one death was recorded. The use of cyclophosphamide, rituximab or plasma exchange was reserved for the most severe cases. PMID:27165496

  3. Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. It has been generally accepted that ionizing radiation induces free radical polymerization in acrylate compounds. It is also reported that, following primary ionization events, acrylates and methacrylates scavenge thermalized electrons to give rise to radical anions and radical cations, which undergo reactions producing the corresponding free radicals. Acrylates have received the most attention in radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). 2-EHA is well known for its unique pressure-sensitive adhesive properties. An understanding of its primary mechanism of polymerization is of industrial as well as fundamental interest. High entanglement and high molecular weight between crosslinks are crucial for the high shear and peel strength, required of PSAs. Such polymers may be formed using thermal and UV-initiation in solvent or emulsion. Electron beam can also provide these properties when the monomer is polymerized at moderate dose rates and at low temperature. Pulsed electron beam provides a special advantage under conditions where the dose per pulse is below the threshold for overlap (ca. 40 Gy/pulse) and the pulse rate is high enough (>1 kHz) to maintain a quasi-heterogeneous mode at high doses rates. Maintaining low temperature in the early stages of polymerization is important in achieving good properties

  4. Inducible Systemic RNA Silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Timmons, Lisa; Tabara, Hiroaki; Mello, Craig C.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can elicit a gene-specific RNA interference response in a variety of organisms and cell types. In many cases, this response has a systemic character in that silencing of gene expression is observed in cells distal from the site of dsRNA delivery. The molecular mechanisms underlying the mobile nature of RNA silencing are unknown. For example, although cellular entry of dsRNA is possible, cellular exit of dsRNA from normal anim...

  5. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  6. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely explored. Here we present the observation of the EIA analog due to constructive interference in a vertically coupled three-resonator metamaterial system that consists of two bright and one dark resonator. The absorption resonance is one of the collective modes of the tripartite unit cell. Theoretical analysis shows that the absorption arises from a magnetic resonance induced by the near-field coupling of the three resonators within the unit cell. A classical analog of EIA opens up opportunities for designing novel photonic devices for narrow-band filtering, absorptive switching, optical modulation, and absorber applications. PMID:26023061

  7. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in a composite superconducting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Hong-rong; Chen, Dong-xu; Liu, Wen-xiao; Li, Fu-li

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically propose an efficient method to realize electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the microwave regime through a coupled system consisting of a flux qubit and a superconducting LC resonator. Driven by two appropriate microwave fields, the system will be trapped in the dark states. In our proposal, the control field of EIT is played by a second-order transfer rather than by a direct strong-pump field. In particular, we obtained conditions for electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in this composite system. Both theoretical and numerical results show that this EIT system benefits from the relatively long coherent time of the resonator. Since this whole system is artificial and tunable, our scheme may have potential applications in various domains.

  8. Impedance measurement system for a microwave-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An impedance measurement system for an atmospheric microwave-induced plasma is proposed using equivalent transmission line theory and a de-embedding process of an input impedance. An argon plasma was generated by using a microwave-induced discharge. The generator consists of a 2.45 GHz solid state power oscillator (SSPO), a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a gas flow meter, and a plasma jet. The microwave source power was varied from 10 to 25 W, and the argon gas flux was varied from 1 to 5 L/min at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results for the microwave-induced plasma show the impedance behaviors of the resistance and the inductive reactance. The near unity voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) from the experiment results ensures that the proposed measurement system is valid.

  9. Impedance measurement system for a microwave-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Jong; Shin, Suk Woo; Choi, Jin Joo; Na, Young Ho [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    An impedance measurement system for an atmospheric microwave-induced plasma is proposed using equivalent transmission line theory and a de-embedding process of an input impedance. An argon plasma was generated by using a microwave-induced discharge. The generator consists of a 2.45 GHz solid state power oscillator (SSPO), a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a gas flow meter, and a plasma jet. The microwave source power was varied from 10 to 25 W, and the argon gas flux was varied from 1 to 5 L/min at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results for the microwave-induced plasma show the impedance behaviors of the resistance and the inductive reactance. The near unity voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) from the experiment results ensures that the proposed measurement system is valid.

  10. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  11. Tetracycline-inducible gene expression system in Leishmania mexicana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraeva, N.; Ishemgulova, A.; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 1 (2014), s. 11-13. ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Leishmania mexicana * Gene expression * Tet-inducible system Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  12. Data acquisition system used in radiation induced electrical degradation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) of ceramic materials has recently been reported and is the topic of much research at the present time. The object of this report is to describe the data acquisition system for an experiment designed to study RIED at the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  13. Noise-induced multimode behavior in excitable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Han, S K; Kim, W S

    Based on experiments with electronic circuits, we show how a system of coupled excitable units can possess several noise-induced oscillatory modes. We characterize the multimode organization in terms of the coherence resonance effect. Multiple gain of regularity is found to be related to different...

  14. Systemic sarcoidosis induced by etanercept: first Brazilian case report*

    OpenAIRE

    Unterstell, Natasha; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Serpa, Laura Araújo; Castro, Pérola Peres da Fonseca e; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are increasingly being used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Several adverse effects of these drugs have been reported, including the paradoxical development of sarcoidosis, especially with the use of etanercept. We present the first Brazilian case report of systemic sarcoidosis induced by etanercept and a literature review.

  15. Systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor induces cachexia in rodents.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J T; Seniuk, N A; Richardson, P.M.; Gauldie, J; Roder, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has previously been shown to promote the survival of several classes of neurons and glial. We report here that in addition to its effects on the nervous system, CNTF can induce potent effects in extra-neural tissues. Implantation of C6 glioma cells engineered to secrete CNTF either subcutaneously or into the peritoneal cavity of adult mice, or systemic injections of purified rat or human recombinant CNTF, resulted in a rapid syndrome of weight loss resulting...

  16. Inducible RNAi system and its application in novel therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Tang, Liling

    2016-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered as a cellular defense mechanism more than decade ago. It has been exploited as a powerful tool for genetic manipulation. Characterized with specifically silencing target gene expression, it has great potential application for disease treatment. Currently, there are human clinical trials in progress or planned. Despite the excitement regarding this prominent technology, there are many obstacles and concerns that prevent RNAi from being widely used in the therapeutic field. Among them, the non-spatial and non-temporal control is the most difficult challenge, as well as off-target effects and triggering type I immune responses. Inducible RNAi technology can effectively regulate target genes by inducer-mediated small hairpin RNA expression. Combination with inducible regulation systems this makes RNAi technology more sophisticated and may provide a wider application field. This review discusses approaches of inducible RNAi systems, the potential problem areas and solutions and their therapeutic applications. Given the limitations discussed herein being resolved, we believe that inducible RNAi will be a major therapeutic modality within the next several years. PMID:25697568

  17. Estimating parameters of chaotic systems under noise-induced synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim et al. introduced in 2002 [Kim CM, Rim S, Kye WH. Sequential synchronization of chaotic systems with an application to communication. Phys Rev Lett 2002;88:014103] a hierarchically structured communication scheme based on sequential synchronization, a modification of noise-induced synchronization (NIS). We propose in this paper an approach that can estimate the parameters of chaotic systems under NIS. In this approach, a dimensionally-expanded parameter estimating system is first constructed according to the original chaotic system. By feeding chaotic transmitted signal and external driving signal, the parameter estimating system can be synchronized with the original chaotic system. Consequently, parameters would be estimated. Numerical simulation shows that this approach can estimate all the parameters of chaotic systems under two feeding modes, which implies the potential weakness of the chaotic communication scheme under NIS or sequential synchronization.

  18. Estimating parameters of chaotic systems under noise-induced synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xiaogang [Institute of PR and AI, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: seanwoo@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wang Zuxi [Institute of PR and AI, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2009-01-30

    Kim et al. introduced in 2002 [Kim CM, Rim S, Kye WH. Sequential synchronization of chaotic systems with an application to communication. Phys Rev Lett 2002;88:014103] a hierarchically structured communication scheme based on sequential synchronization, a modification of noise-induced synchronization (NIS). We propose in this paper an approach that can estimate the parameters of chaotic systems under NIS. In this approach, a dimensionally-expanded parameter estimating system is first constructed according to the original chaotic system. By feeding chaotic transmitted signal and external driving signal, the parameter estimating system can be synchronized with the original chaotic system. Consequently, parameters would be estimated. Numerical simulation shows that this approach can estimate all the parameters of chaotic systems under two feeding modes, which implies the potential weakness of the chaotic communication scheme under NIS or sequential synchronization.

  19. Electromagnetically induced grating in a crystal of molecular magnets system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibing; Liu, Na; Shan, Chuanjia; Liu, Tangkun; Li, Hong; Zheng, Anshou; Xie, Xiao-Tao

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the response of the molecular system to the magnetic field modulation. Molecular magnets are subjected to a strong standing ac magnetic field and a weak probe magnetic field. The transmission and absorption of the weak probe magnetic field can be changed due to quantum coherence and the spatially modulating of the standing field. And a electromagnetically induced grating is formed in the crystal of molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The diffraction efficiency of the grating can be adjusted efficiently by tuning the intensity of the standing wave field and the single photon detuning.

  20. Effective mass sensing using optomechanically induced transparency in microresonator system

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yong-Pan; Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Yang, Daquan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and weighing the individual nanoparticles is an important approach to study the behavior and properties of single particles. Here we illustrate an effective mass sensing scheme using optomechanical resonator system. Based on the optomechanically induced transparency phenomenon, a Stokes field reference approach is used to sense the mass of the particle on the microresonator. The field intensity of the transmission field will be changed by the effect of the particle which avoids the limits of decay induced spectral width in the resonance shift detection. Exploiting the perturbation method, we theoretically evaluated the dynamical behavior of the system, and achieved the femtogram level mass sensing without the need for high cavity Q-value, and strong coupling strength in the optomechanically system.

  1. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Lu, R. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Statin Induced Myopathy a Patient with Multiple Systemic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgül Uçar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins are the most successful class of drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia. However, the popular profile of statins in terms of efficacy has been maligned by theiradverse effects. Statin induced myopathy, which can be seen at any time during the course of therapy, is a clinically important cause of statin intolerance and discontinuation. When a patient with multiple systemic diseases who use numerous medications represent with myalgia and muscle cramps, statin induced myopathy may not be remembered at first. We present a patient with multiple systemic diseases, alcohol and morphine abuse in whom myopathy developed. After exclusion of other etiologies, we concluded that myopathy was related to statin therapy.

  3. Imaging of Drug-induced Complications in the Gastrointestinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Melissa J; Menias, Christine O; Gao, Zhenqiang J; Mellnick, Vincent M; Hara, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced injury commonly affects the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems because of the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. In pill esophagitis, injury is frequently related to direct contact with the esophageal mucosa, resulting in small superficial ulcers in the mid esophagus. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lead to gastrointestinal tract ulcers and small bowel mucosal diaphragms (thin weblike strictures). Injury to the pancreatic and hepatobiliary systems can manifest as pancreatitis, acute or chronic hepatitis, cholestasis, or steatosis and steatohepatitis (which may progress to cirrhosis). Various drugs may also insult the hepatic vasculature, resulting in Budd-Chiari and sinusoidal obstructive syndromes. Focal lesions such as hepatic adenomas may develop after use of oral contraceptives or anabolic steroids. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can aid in diagnosis of drug-induced injuries and often are necessary to exclude other causes. PMID:26761532

  4. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A; Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-03-25

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis.

  5. Robust Fault Diagnosis for Systems with Electronic Induced Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Fonod, Robert; Henry, David; Bornschlegl, Eric; Charbonnel, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A problem of robust fault diagnosis of digital controlled continuous-time systems with uncertain time-varying input delay is studied in this paper. Two residual-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) schemes are proposed that are robust in terms of time-varying delays induced by the electronic devices and disturbances. The idea of both proposed methods is to transform the uncertainty caused by delays into unknown inputs and decouple them by means of eigenstructure assignment (EA) technique...

  6. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistence in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate a diverse array of defense mechanisms at the site of primary infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance. Classic systemic acquired resistance (SAR) results from infection by a necrotizing pathogen and is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). Root colonizatio...

  7. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no sign...

  8. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Shaman; Sagar, Amitabh; Shankar, S; Nair, Velu

    2013-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, dapsone, and antiretroviral agents such as abacavir and nevirapine. We describe a rare case of nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome that was successfully treated with oral steroids. PMID:24014920

  9. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaman Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, dapsone, and antiretroviral agents such as abacavir and nevirapine. We describe a rare case of nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome that was successfully treated with oral steroids.

  10. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dreger, Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heidbach, Oliver [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (Germany, German Research Center for Geosciences; Hutchings, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This DOE funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology (AIT), the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It was also part of the European research project “GEISER”, an international collaboration with 11 European partners from six countries including universities, research centers and industry, with the goal to address and mitigate the problems associated with induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The goal of the current project was to develop a combination of techniques, which evaluate the relationship between enhanced geothermal operations and the induced stress changes and associated earthquakes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. The project addressed the following questions: how enhanced geothermal activity changes the local and regional stress field; whether these activities can induce medium sized seismicity M > 3; (if so) how these events are correlated to geothermal activity in space and time; what is the largest possible event and strongest ground motion, and hence the potential hazard associated with these activities. The development of appropriate technology to thoroughly investigate and address these questions required a number of datasets to provide the different physical measurements distributed in space and time. Because such a dataset did not yet exist for an EGS system in the United State, we used current and past data from The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, which has been in operation since the 1960s. The research addressed the need to understand the causal mechanisms of induced seismicity, and demonstrated the advantage of imaging the physical properties and temporal changes of the reservoir. The work helped to model the relationship between injection and production and medium sized magnitude events that have

  11. THE INDUCED REPRESENTATION OF C*-GROUPOID DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGXIAOCHUN

    1996-01-01

    Let G be a second countable locally compact groupoid with Haar system {λuH}, H be aclosed subgroupoid containing G0 with Haar system {λuH}. T.Masuda introduced the C*-Groupoid dynamic system (G, A, α) and its reduced crossed product Crea(G, A) in [2]: where A is C*-algebra α is the komomorphism G → Aut(A). In this paper the author introduces the C*-groupoid dynamic systems (H,A, α/H) and (H\\G2,A,-α) induced by (G,A,α) and proves that C*red(H, A) and C*red(H\\G2, A) are strongly Morita equivalent Moreover the inducedrepresentation from C*red(H, A) to C*red(G,A) is got.

  12. Exercise induced modulation of immune system functional capacity .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANAGIOTIS BALTOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise can have both positive and negative effects on the immune system. Regular moderate exercise seems to reduce the incidence of infection, while prolonged intense exercise causes a temporary suppression of many parameters of immune function, depending on the intensity and duration of exercise. The functional capacity of the immune system is necessary to be determined in order to get useful information about the immune system status of athletes and its impact on performance. In order to investigate the immunological status and depending on the purpose of each study, different laboratory techniques are used. This study aims to review the exercise-induced modulation of immune system functional capacity in terms of cytokines production and WBCs differentiation, as described in the literature.

  13. Reducing Technology-Induced Errors: Organizational and Health Systems Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Senthriajah, Yalini; Kushniruk, Andre W; Palojoki, Sari; Saranto, Kaija; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Technology-induced errors are a growing concern for health care organizations. Such errors arise from the interaction between healthcare and information technology deployed in complex settings and contexts. As the number of health information technologies that are used to provide patient care rises so will the need to develop ways to improve the quality and safety of the technology that we use. The objective of the panel is to describe varying approaches to improving software safety from and organizational and health systems perspective. We define what a technology-induced error is. Then, we discuss how software design and testing can be used to improve health information technologies. This discussion is followed by work in the area of monitoring and reporting at a health district and national level. Lastly, we draw on the quality, safety and resilience literature. The target audience for this work are nursing and health informatics researchers, practitioners, administrators, policy makers and students. PMID:27332325

  14. Organ pipe resonance induced vibration in piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic-induced vibration is a fluid-structure interaction phenomenon. The feedback mechanism between the acoustic pressure pulsation and the structure movements determines the excited acoustic modes which, in turn, amplify the structure response when confidence frequency and mode shape matching occurs. The acoustic modes are not determined from the acoustic boundary conditions alone, structure feedback is as responsible for determining the acoustic modes and shaping the resulting forcing functions. Acoustic-induced piping vibration, when excited, does not attenuate much with distance. Pressure pulsation can be transmitted throughout the piping system and its branch connections. It is this property that makes vibration monitoring difficult, because vibration can surface at locations far away from the acoustic source when resonance occurs. For a large piping system with interconnected branches, the monitoring task can be formidable, particularly when there is no indication what the real source is. In organ pipe resonance induced vibration, the initiating acoustic source may be inconspicuous or unavoidable during operation. In these situations, the forcing function approach can offer an optimal tool for vibration assessment. The forcing function approach was used in the evaluation of a standby steam piping vibration problem. Monitoring locations and instrument specifications were determined from the acoustic eigenfunction profiles. Measured data confirmed the presence of coherent vibrations in the large bore piping. The developed forcing function permits design evaluation of the piping system, which leads to remedial actions and enables fatigue life determination, thus providing confidence to system operation. The forcing function approach is shown to be useful in finding potential vibration area and verifying the integrity of weak structure links. Application is to steam lines at BWR plants

  15. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Chen, Ce-belle; Tao, Ye; Watt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (system and a fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique.

  16. Rank-3 root systems induce root systems of rank 4 via a new Clifford spinor construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we show that via a novel construction every rank-3 root system induces a root system of rank 4. Via the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem, an even number of successive Coxeter reflections yields rotations that in a Clifford algebra framework are described by spinors. In three dimensions these spinors themselves have a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure, and discrete spinor groups can therefore be interpreted as 4D polytopes. In fact, we show that these polytopes have to be root systems, thereby inducing Coxeter groups of rank 4, and that their automorphism groups include two factors of the respective discrete spinor groups trivially acting on the left and on the right by spinor multiplication. Special cases of this general theorem include the exceptional 4D groups D4, F4 and H4, which therefore opens up a new understanding of applications of these structures in terms of spinorial geometry. In particular, 4D groups are ubiquitous in high energy physics. For the corresponding case in two dimensions, the groups I2(n) are shown to be self-dual, whilst via a similar construction in terms of octonions each rank-3 root system induces a root system in dimension 8; this root system is in fact the direct sum of two copies of the corresponding induced 4D root system.

  17. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  18. The redox homeostasis system in radiation-induced genome instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The participation of the redox homeostasis system in the formation of the radiation-induced genome instability and new data of literature, that give a direct evidence the presence of this instability in vivo, is considered. The O2- radical, H2O2 and NO radical role as signal molecules, that trigger the cascade of active responses to change of redox status of the cells, are discussed. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) reorganize the membrane physico-chemical system of cell metabolism regulation. The data about changes in ROS generation system, including NO, that lead to genome instability after ionizing irradiation even in low doses, are analyzed. It is noted, that the radiation-induced genome instability and ROS production increase may be observed both in direct irradiated cells and their progeny and in the cells, that are not find oneself in ionization tracks, and their progeny. There evidences that the genome instability of irradiated cell progeny is maintained by the increases ROS production

  19. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  20. Tourniquet-induced systemic inflammatory response in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury in animals produces significant systemic inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether a biologic response occurs in a clinically relevant model of tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were prospectively randomized into controls (no tourniquet) and subjects (tourniquet-controlled). The effects of tourniquet-induced reperfusion on monocyte activation state, neutrophil activation state, and transendothelial migration (TEM) were studied. Changes in the cytokines implicated in reperfusion injury, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-10 were also determined. RESULTS: After 15 minutes of reperfusion, neutrophil and monocyte activation were significantly increased. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pooled subject (ischemia-primed) plasma significantly increased TEM. In contrast, TEM was not significantly altered by ischemia-primed plasma pretreatment of the endothelial monolayer. Significant elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta were observed in subjects compared with controls after 15 minutes of reperfusion. There was no significant difference in serum IL-10 levels between the groups at all the time points studied. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a transient neutrophil and monocyte activation after tourniquet-ischemia that translates into enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration with potential for tissue injury.

  1. Lightning-induced overvoltages in low-voltage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeidalen, Hans Kristian

    1997-12-31

    Lightning-induced overvoltages (LIOs) are a main source of failures in low-voltage overhead line systems. This thesis deals mainly with calculations of LIOs aiming to enable the design of a proper voltage protection. Models for calculation of LIOs are adapted from the literature or developed based on measurements. The models used are believed to be fairly accurate for the first few microseconds, which is usually sufficient for predicting the maximum induced voltage in the system. The lightning channel is modelled by the Modified Transmission Line (MTL) model with the Transmission Line (TL) model as a special case. The coupling between the electrical fields from a lightning channel and an overhead line is modelled by Agrawal`s model. The attenuation of electrical fields over a lossy ground is modelled by Norton`s- or the Surface Impedance methods. The validity of all the applied models is analysed. In addition, measurements have been performed in order to develop models of distribution transformers and low-voltage power installation (LVPI) networks. Simple models of typical transformers and LVPIs are developed for calculations when specific data are unavailable. The practical range of values and its influence on the LIOs in a system is investigated. The main frequency range of interest related to LIOs is 10 kHz - 1 MHz in which all the models are accurate. The adapted or developed models are used to calculate LIOs in low-voltage systems. The influence of various key parameters in the system is investigated. Most important are the return stroke amplitude and rise time, the overhead line height and location, the termination of overhead line segments, neutral grounding, and the ground conductivity. 135 refs., 136 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Role of the sympathetic nervous system in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is widely used as an animal model of hepatotoxicity and the mechanisms have been arduously studied, however, the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity remains controversial. It is also known that either CCl4 or SNS can affect systemic inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in a mouse model of CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammatory response. Mice exposed to CCl4 or vehicle were pretreated with 6-OHDA or saline. The serum levels of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in the CCl4-poisoning mice with sympathetic denervation were significantly lower than those without sympathetic denervation. With sympathetic denervation, hepatocellular necrosis and fat infiltration induced by CCl4 were greatly decreased. Sympathetic denervation significantly attenuated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and serum. Acute CCl4 intoxication showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [eotaxin-2/CCL24, Fas ligand, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α], as well as decreased expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The overexpressed levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, MCP-1/CCL2, and TNF-α were attenuated by sympathetic denervation. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the SNS plays an important role in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation and the effect may be connected with chemical- or drug-induced hepatotoxicity and circulating immune response.

  3. Interaction-induced localization of mobile impurities in ultracold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; An, Jin; Ting, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    The impurities, introduced intentionally or accidentally into certain materials, can significantly modify their characteristics or reveal their intrinsic physical properties, and thus play an important role in solid-state physics. Different from those static impurities in a solid, the impurities realized in cold atomic systems are naturally mobile. Here we propose an effective theory for treating some unique behaviors exhibited by ultracold mobile impurities. Our theory reveals the interaction-induced transition between the extended and localized impurity states, and also explains the essential features obtained from several previous models in a unified way. Based on our theory, we predict many intriguing phenomena in ultracold systems associated with the extended and localized impurities, including the formation of the impurity-molecules and impurity-lattices. We hope this investigation can open up a new avenue for the future studies on ultracold mobile impurities.

  4. Documentation of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Scoring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radiation therapy of tumors in the head and neck region is frequently associated with severe side effects in the oral mucosa which often necessitate interruption of the prescribed treatment protocol. In order to compare therapeutic strategies and, more important, in order to perform multicenter studies, generally accepted scoring systems have to be applied for uniform documentation of the oral mucosal response. Methods: Different scoring protocols are found in the literature. The scoring protocols most widely accepted are the CTC classification and the RTOG/EORTC classification. These are compared with more detailed systems. Results: In the CTC classification, grading of stomatitis is included in the responses of the gastrointestinal tract and emphasizes dietary effects. For effects of radiation alone or of radiochemotherapy, the RTOG/EORTC system, focusing on therapeutic interventions, has been established. However, there are only minor differences in the grading of mucositis between these 2 protocols. Based on the RTOG/EORTC classification, Maciejewski et al. introduced a classification system with inclusion of the area affected, but also changed the sensitivity of the scores. The latter may be confusing if the source of the system used is not cited in a report. An alternative system was proposed by Dische, which in addition to objective morphologic criteria also includes the symptoms induced by the mucosal response, and hence includes some subjective aspects reported by the patient. Conclusions: For routine documentation of acute radiation side effects in the oral cavity, the German version of the RTOG/EORTC classification can be recommended. In studies with particular interest in oral mucositis, a more sensitive scoring system may be applied. In any publication concerning mucositis, a table or a detailed description of the system used should be included. (orig.)

  5. Genetic improvement of Trichoderma ability to induce systemic resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ciliento R; Mach R L; Lorito M; Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Ruocco M; Scala F; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Brunner K; Zeilinger S

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beneficial applications of Trichoderma spp. in agriculture include not only the control of plant pathogens, but also the improvement of plant growth, micronutrient availability, and plant tolerance to abiotic stress. In addition, it has been suggested that these fungi are able to increase plant disease resistance by activating induced systemic resistance (ISR) . The mode of action of these beneficial fungi in the Trichoderma -plant-pathogen interaction are many, complex and not completely understood. Numerous lytic enzymes have been characterized, the encoding genes (ech42 gluc78,nag1 from T. atroviride strain P1) cloned, and their role in biocontrol demonstrated. The corresponding biocontrol-related inducible promoters have been used in a reporter system based on the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene (goxA) to monitor biocontrol activity. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1, 5-lactone and hydrogen peroxide; this latter compound is known to have an antifungal effect and activate the plant defence cascade, thus increasing resistance to pathogen attack. T. atroviride P1 transformants with various promoters gox were tested as seed coating treatments on bean seeds planted in soil infested with a soilborne fungal pathogen. Successively, the emergent leaves were inoculated with a foliar pathogen to determine the effect of the GOX transformants on biocontrol and resistance to pathogen attack.Inoculations with the P1-GOX transformants not only reduced disease symptoms caused by a soil pathogen, but also the lesions of various foliar pathogens applied far from the Trichoderma colonization, thus activating ISR. A similar approach is being use to genetically improve T.harzianum T22, a rhizosphere competent and commercially marketed strain not transformed yet, by using four different gox gene constructs under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters.Plasmids have been introduced in Trichoderma by

  6. Exercise-Induced Systemic Venous Hypertension in the Fontan Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, Devaraj; Fitzsimmons, Samantha; Grocott, Michael; Rossiter, Harry B; Emmanuel, Yaso; Diller, Gerard-Paul; Gordon-Walker, Timothy; Jack, Sandy; Sheron, Nick; Pappachan, John; Pratap, Jayant Nick; Vettukattil, Joseph J; Veldtman, Gruschen

    2016-05-15

    Increasingly end-organ injury is being demonstrated late after institution of the Fontan circulation, particularly liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The exact mechanisms for these late phenomena remain largely elusive. Hypothesizing that exercise induces precipitous systemic venous hypertension and insufficient cardiac output for the exercise demand, that is, a possible mechanism for end-organ injury, we sought to demonstrate the dynamic exercise responses in systemic venous perfusion (SVP) and concurrent end-organ perfusion. Ten stable Fontan patients and 9 control subjects underwent incremental cycle ergometry-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing. SVP was monitored in the right upper limb, and regional tissue oxygen saturation was monitored in the brain and kidney using near-infrared spectroscopy. SVP rose profoundly in concert with workload in the Fontan group, described by the regression equation 15.97 + 0.073 watts per mm Hg. In contrast, SVP did not change in healthy controls. Regional renal (p systemic venous hypertension and reduced systemic oxygen delivery. This physiological substrate has the potential to contribute to end-organ injury. PMID:27032711

  7. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SudinBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, “Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy”. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular “virtual tissue” model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  8. Triple optomechanical induced transparency in a two-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Chao, Wu; Li-Guo, Qin; Jun, Jing; Guo-Hong, Yang; Zhong-Yang, Wang

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical induced transparency (OMIT) phenomenon in a two-cavity system which is composed of two optomechanical cavities. Both of the cavities consist of a fixed mirror and a high-Q mechanical resonator, and they couple to each other via a common waveguide. We show that in the presence of a strong pump field applied to one cavity and a weak probe field applied to the other, a triple-OMIT can be observed in the output field at the probe frequency. The two mechanical resonators in the two cavities are identical, but they lead to different quantum interference pathways. The transparency windows are induced by the coupling of the two cavities and the optical pressure radiated to the mechanical resonators, which can be controlled via the power of the pump field and the coupling strength of the two cavities. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program, China (Grant No. XDB01010200), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y321311401), and the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11347147 and 1547035).

  9. First experience with the new Coupling Loss Induced Quench system

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Dudarev, A V; Kirby, G; Sperin, K A; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A new protection system called Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ) was recently, developed and tested at CERN. This method provokes a fast change in the magnet transport current by means of a capacitive discharge. The resulting change in the local magnetic field induces inter-filament and inter-strand coupling losses which heat up the superconductor and eventually initiate a quench in a large fraction of the coil winding pack. The method is extensively tested on a Nb-Ti single-wire test solenoid magnet in the CERN Cryogenic Laboratory in order to assess its performance, optimize its operating parameters, and study new electrical configurations. Each parameter is thoroughly analyzed and its impact on the quench effi...

  10. Systemic progesterone for modulating electrocautery-induced secondary brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Ka Chun; Wang, Yue Chun; Wu, Wutian; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar electrocautery is an effective and commonly used haemostatic technique but it may also cause iatrogenic brain trauma due to thermal injury and secondary inflammatory reactions. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions in traumatic brain injury. However, its potential use in preventing iatrogenic brain trauma has not been explored. We conducted a pilot animal study to investigate the effect of systemic progesterone on brain cellular responses to electrocautery-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received standardized bipolar electrocautery (40 W for 2 seconds) over the right cerebral cortex. The treatment group received progesterone intraperitoneally 2 hours prior to surgery; the control group received the drug vehicle only. Immunohistochemical studies showed that progesterone could significantly reduce astrocytic hypertrophy on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7, as well as macrophage infiltration on day 3. The number of astrocytes, however, was unaffected. Our findings suggest that progesterone should be further explored as a neuroprotective agent against electrocautery-induced or other forms of iatrogenic trauma during routine neurosurgical procedures. Future studies may focus on different dosing regimens, neuronal survival, functional outcome, and to compare progesterone with other agents such as dexamethasone. PMID:23830688

  11. Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reichenbach, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1993-07-01

    Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.

  12. Methodology for simulation of geomagnetically induced currents in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteler David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the geomagnetic hazard to power systems it is useful to be able to simulate the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC that are produced during major geomagnetic disturbances. This paper examines the methodology used in power system analysis and shows how it can be applied to modelling GIC. Electric fields in the area of the power network are used to determine the voltage sources or equivalent current sources in the transmission lines. The power network can be described by a mesh impedance matrix which is combined with the voltage sources to calculate the GIC in each loop. Alternatively the power network can be described by a nodal admittance matrix which is combined with the sum of current sources into each node to calculate the nodal voltages which are then used to calculate the GIC in the transmission lines and GIC flowing to ground at each substation. Practical calculations can be made by superposition of results calculated separately for northward and eastward electric fields. This can be done using magnetic data from a single observatory to calculate an electric field that is a uniform approximation of the field over the area of the power system. It is also shown how the superposition of results can be extended to use data from two observatories: approximating the electric field by a linear variation between the two observatory locations. These calculations provide an efficient method for simulating the GIC that would be produced by historically significant geomagnetic storm events.

  13. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (<100 nm), a sensitive detection system and a fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique

  14. Transcriptomics and knockout mutant analysis of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, B.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A classic example of induced resistance is triggered after infection by a necrotizing pathogen, rendering uninfected,distal parts more resistant to subsequent pathogen attack, and is often referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). A phenotypically comparable type of induced resistance is triggered after root colonization of plants by selected strains of non-pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., and is often called induced systemic resistance (ISR). In contrast to pathogen-induced SAR, rhizoba...

  15. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    literature ɛN values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

  16. An integrated system for rainfall induced shallow landslides modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Rigon, Riccardo; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides (RISL) cause significant damages involving loss of life and properties. Predict susceptible locations for RISL is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, statistic. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. In this work an open source (OS), 3-D, fully distributed hydrological model was integrated in an OS modeling framework (Object Modeling System). The chain is closed by linking the system to a component for safety factor computation with infinite slope approximation able to take into account layered soils and suction contribution to hillslope stability. The model composition was tested for a case study in Calabria (Italy) in order to simulate the triggering of a landslide happened in the Cosenza Province. The integration in OMS allows the use of other components such as a GIS to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. Finally, model performances were quantified by comparing modelled and simulated trigger time. This research is supported by Ambito/Settore AMBIENTE E SICUREZZA (PON01_01503) project.

  17. The General ElectroN Induced Emission (GENIE) System

    CERN Document Server

    Epps, Michael A; Kazimi, Reza

    2005-01-01

    A real time beam diagnostic system is proposed for the Jefferson Lab injector region. The General ElectroN Induced Emission System (GENIE) is a package that includes both hardware (beam monitoring devices) and software (for 3D or 4D visualization of the beam transport). This beam diagnostic tool relies primarily on the use of (very small) scintillating fibers placed in different planes to extract the beam profile, beam position, beam current and beam emittance in real time. Accuracies in position and angle could be at the sub- μm and μrad levels, respectively. The beam current could be reconstructed within a few percent. A combined Geant4/Parmela simulation will be developed for beam optic studies. While Parmela offers the power of beam transport with phase matching capabilities (among others), Geant4 provides the power for tracking secondary particles, as well as 3D & 4D visualization. A phase I investigation of GENIE using a 100 keV beam line is discussed in this document.

  18. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  19. Inducing sex reversal of the urogenital system of marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Marsupials differ from eutherian mammals in their reproductive strategy of delivering a highly altricial young after a short gestation. The young, with its undeveloped organ systems completes its development post-natally, usually within a pouch. The young is dependent on milk with a composition that varies through lactation to support its growth and changing needs as it matures over a lengthy period. Gonadal differentiation occurs after birth, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of hormonal manipulations on its sexual differentiation of the highly accessible young. In marsupials a difference in the migration of the urinary ducts around the genital ducts from eutherian mammals results in the unique tammar reproductive tract which has three vaginae and two cervices, and two distinctly separate uteri. In the tammar wallaby, a small member of the kangaroo family, we showed that virilisation of the Wolffian duct, prostate and phallus depends on an alternate androgen pathway, which has now been shown to be important for virilisation in humans. Through hormonal manipulations over differing time periods we have achieved sex reversal of both ovaries and testes, germ cells, genital ducts, prostate and phallus. Whilst we understand many of the mechanisms behind sexual differentiation there are still many lessons to be learned from understanding how sex reversal is achieved by using a model such as the tammar wallaby. This will help guide investigations into the major questions of how and why sex determination is achieved in other species. This review discusses the control and development of the marsupial urogenital system, largely drawn from our studies in the tammar wallaby and our ability to manipulate this system to induce sex reversal. PMID:24433705

  20. Amorphous silica nanoparticles impair vascular homeostasis and induce systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemmar A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Sulayma Albarwani,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,1 Javed Yasin,3 Samir Attoub,4 Badreldin H Ali5 1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman; 3Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 4Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs are being used in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and many other industrial applications entailing human exposure. However, their potential vascular and systemic pathophysiologic effects are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the acute (24 hours systemic toxicity of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm and 500 nm SiNPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg. Both sizes of SiNPs induced a platelet proaggregatory effect in pial venules and increased plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen and a decrease in the number of circulating platelets were only seen following the administration of 50 nm SiNPs. The direct addition of SiNPs to untreated mouse blood significantly induced in vitro platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent fashion, and these effects were more pronounced with 50 nm SiNPs. Both sizes of SiNPs increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and interleukin 1β concentration. However, tumor necrosis factor α concentration was only increased after the administration of 50 nm SiNPs. Nevertheless, plasma markers of oxidative stress, including 8-isoprostane

  1. Confinement-induced resonances in ultracold atom-ion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melezhik, V. S.; Negretti, A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate confinement-induced resonances in a system composed of a tightly trapped ion and a moving atom in a waveguide. We determine the conditions for the appearance of such resonances in a broad region—from the "long-wavelength" limit to the opposite case when the typical length scale of the atom-ion polarization potential essentially exceeds the transverse waveguide width. We find considerable dependence of the resonance position on the atomic mass which, however, disappears in the "long-wavelength and zero-energy" limit, where the known result for the confined atom-atom scattering is reproduced. We also derive an analytic and a semianalytic formula for the resonance position in the long-wavelength and zero-energy limit and we investigate numerically the dependence of the resonance condition on the finite atomic colliding energy. Our results, which can be investigated experimentally in the near future, could be used to determine the atom-ion scattering length, to determine the temperature of the atomic ensemble in the presence of an ion impurity, and to control the atom-phonon coupling in a linear ion crystal in interaction with a quasi-one-dimensional atomic quantum gas.

  2. Confinement-Induced Resonances in Ultracold Atom-Ion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melezhik, Vladimir S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate confinement-induced resonances in a system composed by a tightly trapped ion and a moving atom in a waveguide. We determine the conditions for the appearance of such resonances in a broad region -- from the "long-wavelength" limit to the opposite case when the typical length scale of the atom-ion interaction essentially exceeds the transverse waveguide width. We find considerable dependence of the resonance position on the atomic mass which, however, disappears in the "long-wavelength" limit, where the result for the confined atom-atom scattering is reproduced. We also derive an analytic formula for the resonance position in the "long-wavelength zero-energy" limit. Our results, which can be investigated in current experiments, indicate a strategy to determine the atom-ion scattering length, the temperature of the atomic ensemble in the presence of an ion impurity, and a pathway to control the atom-phonon coupling in a one dimensional ion crystal in interaction with an atomic quantum gas.

  3. Acrolein consumption induces systemic dyslipidemia and lipoprotein modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldehydes such as acrolein are ubiquitous pollutants present in automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. Such aldehydes are also constituents of several food substances and are present in drinking water, irrigation canals, and effluents from manufacturing plants. Oral intake represents the most significant source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. To study the effects of short-term oral exposure to acrolein on lipoprotein levels and metabolism, adult mice were gavage-fed 0.1 to 5 mg acrolein/kg bwt and changes in plasma lipoproteins were assessed. Changes in hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism and cytokines were examined by qRT-PCR analysis. Acrolein feeding did not affect body weight, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, electrolytes, cytokines or liver enzymes, but increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Similar results were obtained with apoE-null mice. Plasma lipoproteins from acrolein-fed mice showed altered electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels. Chromatographic analysis revealed elevated VLDL cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides levels with little change in LDL or HDL. NMR analysis indicated shifts from small to large VLDL and from large to medium-small LDL with no change in the size of HDL particles. Increased plasma VLDL was associated with a significant decrease in post-heparin plasma hepatic lipase activity and a decrease in hepatic expression of hepatic lipase. These observations suggest that oral exposure to acrolein could induce or exacerbate systemic dyslipidemia and thereby contribute to cardiovascular disease risk.

  4. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS. PMID:25157984

  5. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.

  6. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  7. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  8. Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.

  9. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, James [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Savy, Jean [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Wong, Ivan [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  10. Construction of a doxycycline inducible adipogenic lentiviral expression system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.; Hill, P J; Karamitri, Angeliki; Ryan, K.J.P.; Chen, H. Y.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    To provide a tool for research on regulating adipocyte differentiation, tetracycline inducible (Tet on) lentiviral expression vectors under the control of an adipose-specific promoter were constructed. The lowest basal expression in the absence of doxycycline and most efficient dose-dependent, doxycycline-induced transient overexpression was observed using vectors constructed with a combination of Tetracycline Responsive Element (TRE) and reverse tetracycline-controlled TransActivator advance...

  11. Inducible viral inoculation system with cultured plant cells facilitates a biochemical approach for virus-induced RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Atsushi; Dohi, Koji; Mori, Masasi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2010-03-01

    An inducible virus infection system was demonstrated to be an efficient protein expression system for inducing synchronous virus vector multiplication in suspension-cultured plant cells. A GFP-tagged tomato mosaic virus (ToMV-GFP) derivative that has a defect in its 130 K protein, a silencing suppressor of ToMV, was synchronously infected to tobacco BY2 cultured cells using this system. In the infection-induced cells, viral RNA was degraded rapidly, and a cytosol extract prepared from the infected cells showed RNA degradation activity specific for ToMV- or GFP-related sequences. In lysate prepared from cells infected by ToMV-GFP carrying the wild-type 130 K protein, sequence-specific RNA degradation activity was suppressed, although siRNA derived from the virus was generated. Furthermore, the 130 K protein interfered with 3'-end methylation of siRNA. The inducible virus infection system may provide a method for biochemical analysis of antiviral RNA silencing and silencing suppression by ToMV. PMID:20035436

  12. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    IboljaCernak

    2010-01-01

    Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. I...

  13. The Importance of Systemic Response in the Pathobiology of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    Cernak, Ibolja

    2010-01-01

    Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body parallel, blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine–immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. I...

  14. Condensate induced water hammer in a steam distribution system results in fatality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water hammer event s in steam distribution piping interrupt service and have the potential to cause serious injury and property damage. Conditions of condensation induced water hammer are discussed and recommendations aimed to improve safety of steam systems are presented. Condensate induced water hammer events at Hanford, a DOE facility, are examined

  15. Condensate induced water hammer in a steam distribution system results in fatality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debban, H.L.; Eyre, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Water hammer event s in steam distribution piping interrupt service and have the potential to cause serious injury and property damage. Conditions of condensation induced water hammer are discussed and recommendations aimed to improve safety of steam systems are presented. Condensate induced water hammer events at Hanford, a DOE facility, are examined.

  16. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  17. Views of Health System Experts on Macro Factors of Induced Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Khorasani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this research present a framework for analyzing the major causes of induced demand. The causes identified here include complexity of medicine, information mismatch between service providers and consumers, clinical uncertainty, false beliefs, advertisements, insufficient supervision, scarcity of clinical guidelines, weakness of education system, and ignorance of medical ethics. These findings help policymakers to investigate the induced demand phenomenon clear-sighted.

  18. Induced magnetism in transition metal intercalated graphitic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2011-10-26

    We investigate the structure, chemical bonding, electronic properties, and magnetic behavior of a three-dimensional graphitic network in aba and aaa stacking with intercalated transition metal atoms (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu). Using density functional theory, we find induced spin-polarization of the C atoms both when the graphene sheets are aba stacked (forming graphite) and aaa stacked (resembling bi-layer graphene). The magnetic moment induced by Mn, Fe, and Co turns out to vary from 1.38 μB to 4.10 μB, whereas intercalation of Ni and Cu does not lead to a magnetic state. The selective induction of spin-polarization can be utilized in spintronic and nanoelectronic applications.

  19. Radiation-induced effects and the immune system in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    AlexzanderAsea

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are standard therapeutic modalities for patients with cancers, and could induce various tumor cell death modalities, releasing tumor derived antigens as well as danger signals that could either be captured for triggering antitumor immune response. Historic studies examining tissue and cellular responses to radiation therapy have predominantly focused on damage caused to proliferating malignant cells leading to their death. However, there is increasing eviden...

  20. Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Mat Easa

    1996-01-01

    Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

  1. Noise-induced resonance in delayed feedback systems

    OpenAIRE

    Masoller Alonso, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    We study the influence of noise in the dynamics of a laser with optical feedback. For appropriate choices of the feedback parameters, several attractors coexist, and large enough noise induces jumps among the attractors. Based on the residence times probability density, it is shown that with increasing noise the dynamics of attractor jumping exhibits a resonant behavior, which is due to the interplay of noise and delayed feedback. It is also shown that this type of resonance is not specific t...

  2. Analysis of local and systemic inflammatory responses induced by polymicrobial peritonitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Silvia Fröde; Silvia Ines Alejandra Cordoba Pires Ferreira; Yara Santos Medeiros

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal sepsis induces a local production of proinflammatory mediators that may trigger both septic shock and organ-system dysfunction. AIMS: The present study analyzed exudation, cell migration, and CD11a and CD18 subset cells of both local and systemic responses induced by fecal peritonitis in mice. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized and, after performing a midline incision in the abdomen, the cecum was ligated and punctured twice with a needle. Sham-operated animals were incl...

  3. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis: involvement of jasmonate and ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, A.C.M. van; Ton, J.; Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Pelt, J.A. van; Keurentjes, J. J. B.; Knoester, M.; van Loon, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of a plant to express a broad-spectrum systemic acquired resistance (SAR) after primary infection is well known and extensively studied. A relatively unknown form of induced disease resistance is triggered by nonpathogenic, root-colonizing rhizobacteria and is commonly referred to as rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR). Rhizosphere bacteria are present in large numbers on the root. Certain strains stimulate plant growth and are therefore called plant growth-p...

  4. Nonlinear stochastic systems with network-induced phenomena recursive filtering and sliding-mode design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jun; Gao, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces methods for handling filtering and control problems in nonlinear stochastic systems arising from network-induced phenomena consequent on limited communication capacity. Such phenomena include communication delay, packet dropout, signal quantization or saturation, randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring uncertainties.The text is self-contained, beginning with an introduction to nonlinear stochastic systems, network-induced phenomena and filtering and control, moving through a collection of the latest research results which focuses on the three aspects

  5. Instability induced pressure isotropization in a longitudinally expanding system

    CERN Document Server

    Dusling, Kevin; Gelis, François; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-01-01

    In two previous works [arXiv:1009.4363,arXiv:1107.0668], we studied the time evolution of a system of real scalar fields with quartic coupling which shares important features with the Color Glass Condensate description of heavy ion collisions. Our primary objective was to understand how such a system, when initialized with a non-perturbatively large classical field configuration, reaches thermal equilibrium. An essential goal of these works was to highlight the role played by the quantum fluctuations. However, these studies considered only a system confined within a box of fixed volume. In the present paper, we extend this work to a system that expands in the longitudinal direction thereby more closely mimicking a heavy ion collision. We conclude that the microscopic processes that drive the system towards equilibrium are able to keep up with the expansion of the system; the pressure tensor becomes isotropic despite the anisotropic expansion.

  6. Temperature Induced Instabilities in Macro-bend Fiber Based Wavelength Measurement Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of temperature-induced instabilities in a wavelength measurement system based on macro-bend fiber filter used in the ratiometric scheme are presented. Two wavelength measurement systems based on macro-bend fiber, a standard low bend loss single-mode fiber filter based system and a high bend loss fiber filter based system are considered. In the case of a low bend loss fiber filter based system, the oscillatory variation in the ratio response with temperature and the difference...

  7. Tunable double optomechanically induced transparency in an optoelectromechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Yin; Feng, Mang; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a driven optomechanical cavity coupled to a charged nanomechanical resonator via Coulomb interaction, in which the tunable double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) can be observed from the output field at the probe frequency by controlling the strength of the Coulomb interaction. We calculate the splitting of the two transparency windows, which varies near linearly with the Coulomb coupling strength in a robust way against the cavity decay. Our double-OMIT is much different from previously mentioned double-EIT and can be applied to measure Coulomb coupling strength.

  8. Investigating the function of Akt by tet-off inducible ex- pression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A tet-off inducible cell line named BBT derived from BA/F3b cell line was constructed and the effect of this inducible expression system was significant when detected by tet-off responded luciferase reporter gene assay. Then tet-off responded Akt expression plasmid was transfected into BBT cells, and the stable cell lines were screened. The result of Northern blot showed that the expression of akt was signifi-cantly inducible. The clone with the best inducible effect was selected and named BBA for investigating the function of Akt. We found that Akt could significantly inhibit zinc-induced decrease of cell viability when assayed by MTT method. And the flow cytometric analysis showed that Akt could markedly repress zinc-induced apoptosis.

  9. Collision-induced timing jitter in dispersion-managed WDM soliton system with filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin Du(杜建新); Qihong Lou(楼祺洪)

    2004-01-01

    Taking into account the randomicity of collision positions and the arbitrary encoding of data in channel,the influences of different dispersion management on collision-induced timing jitter in a filtered wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) soliton system are obtained statistically and numerically by applying a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which are derived through variational procedure. The optimal dispersion managements which can greatly reduce the collision-induced timing jitter are found. The multi-channel collision-induced timing jitters in a filtered WDM soliton system are given with an optimal dispersion management and constant dispersion.

  10. Generation of Pig Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with a Drug-Inducible System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Jijun Chen; Jiangtao Ren; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Linjun Rao; Hui Li; Yijun Gu; Huiming Dai; Hui Zhu; Xiaokun Teng; Lu Cheng; Lei Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Domesticated ungulate pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell lines would be useful for generating precise gene-modified animals. To date, many efforts have been made to establish domesticated ungulate pluripotent ES cells from early embryos without success.Here, we report the generation of porcine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using drug-inducible expression of defined factors.We showed that porcine iPS cells expressed alkaline phosphatase, SSEA3, SSEA4, Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Rex1 and CDH1. Pig iPS cells expressed high levels of telomerase activity and showed normal karyotypes. These cells could differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. Our study reveals properties of porcine pluripotent stem cells that may facilitate the eventual establishment of porcine ES cells. Moreover, the porcine iPS cells produced may be directly useful for the generation of precise gene-modified pigs.

  11. Phonon-induced hopping rate enhancement in the Pd-D system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that an exact calculation for transition probability can make some systems deviate seriously from Fermi's golden rule. The paper also shows that the corresponding exact calculation of the phonon-induced hopping rate for a deuteron in the Pd-D system plus many-body electron screening, proposed by Ichimaru, can explain experimental factors observed in the Pd-D system. It also predicts that the perfect and low dimensional forms of the Pd lattice are very important factors for the phonon-induced hopping rate enhancement of deuterons in the Pd-D system

  12. Manipulation of multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency in a six-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Wen-Zhi; Wang Shun-Jin

    2009-01-01

    In the five-level K-type atomic system, by using another control field to couple the excited level of the coupling transition to the sixth higher excited level, a six-level atomic system is constructed. In this system, the multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency has been investigated. What is more, if choosing the parameters of the control fields properly the triple transparency window will reduce to a double one which means that the multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency can be manipulated in this system. The physical interpretation of these phenomena is given in terms of the dressed states and the dark states.

  13. Exact results for a noise-induced bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    A stochastic system where bistability is caused by noise has been recently investigated by Biancalani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 038101 (2014)]. They have computed the mean switching time for such a system using a continuous Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Taylor expansion of the master equation to estimate the parameter of such a system from experiment. In this article, we provide the exact solution for the full discrete system without resorting to continuous approximation and obtain the expression for the mean switching time. We further extend this investigation by solving exactly the master equation and obtaining the expression of other quantities of interests such as the dynamics of the moments and the equilibrium time. PMID:25768466

  14. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shaman Gill; Amitabh Sagar; Shankar, S.; Velu Nair

    2013-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, ...

  15. Levetiracetam Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Waseem Raja; Sofi, Najeebullah; Latief, Muzamil; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kasana, Basharat Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity drug reaction, most frequently associated with antiepileptic drugs, characterized by skin rash, fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and visceral organ involvement, typically presenting within 8 weeks of initiation of therapy. Management involves prompt withdrawal of the offending drug and use of systemic corticosteroids. We here present a rare case of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam. Only few case reports of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam have been published so far. PMID:27057042

  16. Noise-induced multistability in chemical systems: Discrete versus continuum modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Liao, Shuohao; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Erban, Radek; Grima, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The noisy dynamics of chemical systems is commonly studied using either the chemical master equation (CME) or the chemical Fokker-Planck equation (CFPE). The latter is a continuum approximation of the discrete CME approach. It has recently been shown that for a particular system, the CFPE captures noise-induced multistability predicted by the CME. This phenomenon involves the CME's marginal probability distribution changing from unimodal to multimodal as the system size decreases below a critical value. We here show that the CFPE does not always capture noise-induced multistability. In particular we find simple chemical systems for which the CME predicts noise-induced multistability, whereas the CFPE predicts monostability for all system sizes. PMID:25974443

  17. UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression: role of mast cells and histamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: UVB radiation (290-320 nm) is immunosuppressive by multiple mechanisms allowing the outgrowth of UV-induced tumours in both mouse and man. Furthermore, patients with non-melanoma skin cancers have a higher risk of death from other cancers which could be explained by UV-induced immunomodulation. The mechanism(s) of suppression by UVB depend on whether the sensitising antigen is applied to the irradiated site ('local') or to non-irradiated sites ('systemic'). In the former, the activity of UV-induced TNFα is important as it affects the migration of Langerhans cells to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, histamine from dermal mast cells is critical to the early events by which UVB can suppress systemic immune responses. The prevalence of dermal mast cells in 7 strains and substrains of mice correlates directly with their susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. Furthermore, mast cell depleted mice (Wf/Wf) are resistant to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. However, they become susceptible after reconstitution of the site to be irradiated with bone marrow derived mast cell precursors. The mice also gain susceptibility to cis-urocanic acid-induced systemic immunomodulation. There is considerable evidence that histamine is the mast cell product critical to downstream immunosuppressive events. Firstly, physiological concentrations of histamine suppress contact hypersensitivity responses. Secondly, histamine receptor antagonists halve UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. Thirdly, mice with different UVB-susceptibilities are equally susceptible to histamine-induced immunosuppression, and finally, histamine can suppress contact hypersensitivity responses in Wf/Wf mice. We suggest that histamine may be immunomodulatory by multiple pathways. Histamine can induce the production of immunosuppressive prostanoids from keratinocytes. A lymphocyte-derived, histamine-induced suppressor factor was reported in the 1970's. More recently histamine has

  18. Poly(I.C)-induced interferons enhance susceptibility of SCID mice to systemic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jensen; Vazquez-Torres, A; Balish, E

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of any demonstrable T- or B-cell responses, gnotobiotic CB-17 SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice not only show innate resistance to acute systemic (intravenous challenge) candidiasis but also manifest innate resistance to systemic candidiasis of endogenous (gastrointestinal tract) origin. Poly(I. C), a potent inducer of interferons (IFNs) in vivo, enhanced the susceptibility of CB-17 SCID mice to acute systemic candidiasis and to systemic candidiasis of endogenous orig...

  19. Flow induced vibrations in a PWR piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a recurring bench test of an operating system, high amplitude vibrations have been observed on a safety piping system of a nuclear power plant. Due to the source of the pumps, these vibrations lead to wear damage and it is therefore necessary to estimate the life time of the piping system. This paper describes the methodology used to study the dynamic behaviour and to analyze the damage of a piping system submitted to internal flow. Starting from an experimental modal analysis of the piping system when not i service, we analyse the main parameters of the mechanical behaviour. Following this analysis, we obtain a mechanical model fitting the first experimental modes. On this basis, we build a vibro-acoustical model. This model takes into account the influence of the acoustical pipe length, both above and below the mechanical part, the modelling of acoustical components, the speed of sound. We did not experimentally characterize the pumps. Therefore, we use a numerical model in order to simulate the behaviour of the pumps. This model is based on the theory of the transfer matrix and takes into account the geometric and the hydraulic characteristics of the pump.The modelling of both sources (suction and discharge) connected to the pump is formed by contributions from a source corresponding to the turbulent noise at low frequency, a source at blade passage frequency. This model has been experimentally validated in a laboratory. The final results of the modelling of the complete piping system are in a complete accord with experimental measurements. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs

  20. Long-term inducible expression in striatal neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors that contain the tetracycline-inducible promoter system

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qingshen; Sun, Mei; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Direct gene transfer into neurons in the brain via a virus vector system has potential for both examining neuronal physiology and for developing gene therapy treatments for neurological diseases. Many of these applications require precise control of the levels of recombinant gene expression. The preferred method for controlling the levels of expression is by use of an inducible promoter system, and the tetracycline (tet)-inducible promoter system is the preferred system. Helper virus-free Her...

  1. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. PMID:27016700

  2. Policy-induced market introduction of generation IV reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost ten years ago the US Department of Energy started the Generation IV initiative with nine other national governments with a positive ground attitude towards nuclear energy. Some of these Generation IV systems, like the fast reactors, are nearing the demonstration stage. The question on how their market introduction will be implemented becomes increasingly urgent. (orig.)

  3. Radiation induced structural changes in an epoxide resin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural changes which occur on irradiation of an aromatic amine cured epoxide resin have been examined using UV and IR spectroscopy. The production of stable diphenyl ethylene and carbonyl groups, diphenyl cations and phenyl, phenoxyl and diphenyl radicals have been identified. Modifications to the resin system by the use of additives produces changes in the relative proportions of the species produced. (author)

  4. Diet-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, E J; Malinow, M R; Houghton, D C; McNulty, W P; Wuepper, K D; Parker, F; Pirofsky, B

    1982-05-01

    Ten adult, female cynomolgus macaques were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1) semipurified diet (SPD); and (2) SPD with 45% ground alfalfa seed (AS). Both groups were studied at monthly intervals after 5 mo on their respective diets. Control animals had a mean hematocrit (Hct) of 43 +/- 2%, negative antiglobulin (AG), antinuclear antibody (ANA) and LE cell tests. Mean values for C3 and C4 were 309 +/- 47 mg/dl and 35 +/- 7 mg/dl, respectively. Mean serum binding to radiolabeled double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) was 1.9 +/- 0.2%. Three of five animals fed AS developed signs of an SLE-like illness characterized by AG-positive anemia (lowest Hct 30%), positive ANA (highest titer greater than 1:15, 360; rim pattern) and elevated anti-dsDNA binding (highest 96%) with variable degrees of hypocomplementemia. One animal had granular deposition of immunoglobulin and complement at the dermal-epidermal junction of clinically normal skin the presence of immune complex-induced glomerulonephritis. PMID:6178289

  5. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  6. Miniaturized test system for soil respiration induced by volatile pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniaturized method based on 96-well microtitre plates was developed and used to study respiration in pristine and contaminated soils following addition of volatile substrates. Small soil samples were exposed to fuel components, which were volatilized from spatially separate reservoirs of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as an organic carrier. Respiration was determined as CO2 production by means of a pH-indicator and bicarbonate-containing agar, or as 14CO2 evolution from 14C-labelled substrates. Substrate concentrations inducing maximum microbial activity or inhibition were determined and CO2 production profiles examined by multivariate analysis. When high concentrations of fuel components were applied, distinction of hydrocarbon exposed soils from unexposed soil was achieved within 6 h of incubation. With low concentrations, adequate distinction was achieved after 24 h, probably as a result of community adaptation. Nutrient limitation was identified with the 14C method for toluene, and the optimal N and P amendment determined. Further potential applications of this rapid and inexpensive method are outlined. - A new method to study soil respiration is used when volatile organic contaminants are added

  7. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25805601

  8. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee;

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with...

  9. Noise-induced temporal dynamics in Turing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schumacher, Linus J.

    2013-04-25

    We examine the ability of intrinsic noise to produce complex temporal dynamics in Turing pattern formation systems, with particular emphasis on the Schnakenberg kinetics. Using power spectral methods, we characterize the behavior of the system using stochastic simulations at a wide range of points in parameter space and compare with analytical approximations. Specifically, we investigate whether polarity switching of stochastic patterns occurs at a defined frequency. We find that it can do so in individual realizations of a stochastic simulation, but that the frequency is not defined consistently across realizations in our samples of parameter space. Further, we examine the effect of noise on deterministically predicted traveling waves and find them increased in amplitude and decreased in speed. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  10. A tightly inducible riboswitch system in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Akai, Hideto; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hess, Wolfgang R; Watanabe, Satoru

    2016-07-14

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that serve as experimental model organisms for the study of photosynthesis, environmental stress responses, and the production of biofuels. Genetic tools for bioengineering have been developed as a result of such studies. However, there is still room for improvement for the tight control of experimental protein expression in these microorganisms. Here, we describe an expression system controlled by a theophylline-responsive riboswitch that we have constructed in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We demonstrate that, in response to different theophylline concentrations, this riboswitch can tightly control green fluorescence protein expression in Synechocystis. Thus, this system is useful as a tool for genetic engineering and the synthetic biology of cyanobacteria. PMID:27250662

  11. Field-induced phase transitions in antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering experiments and magnetization measurements are carried out on cobalt bromide hexahydrate, of which 48% of the water molecules are replaced by deuterium oxide molecules. Results were compared with data obtained from non-deuterated cobalt bromide hexahydrate. Neutron scattering experiments showed the importance of the deuterium fraction. Interplay exists between the crystallographic system and the magnetic system, which is influenced by changing the deuterium fraction. Neutron scattering and magnetization experiments on partially deuterated RbFeCl3.2H2O and CsFeCl3.2H2O were performed to study the magnetic phase transitions in these quasi one-dimensional Ising compounds. The observed behaviour in the various phases can be described by the nucleation theory of chain reversals. (Auth.)

  12. How fast is optically induced electron transfer in organic mixed valence systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C; Moos, M; Schmiedel, A; Holzapfel, M; Schäfer, J; Kess, M; Engel, V

    2016-07-28

    The rate of thermally induced electron transfer in organic mixed valence compounds has thoroughly been investigated by e.g. temperature dependent ESR spectroscopy. However, almost nothing is known about the dynamics of optically induced electron transfer processes in such systems. Therefore, we investigated these processes in mixed valence compounds based on triphenylamine redox centres bridged by conjugated spacers by NIR transient absorption spectroscopy with fs-time resolution. These experiments revealed an internal conversion (IC) process to be on the order of 50-200 fs which is equivalent to the back electron transfer after optical excitation into the intervalence charge transfer band. This IC is followed by ultrafast cooling to the ground state within 1 ps. Thus, in the systems investigated optically induced electron transfer is about 3-4 orders of magnitude faster than thermally induced ET. PMID:27376572

  13. Investigation of induced recirculation during planned ventilation system maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, C.J.; Scott, D F; Noll, J.D.; Voss, B.; Leonis, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) investigated ways to increase mine airflow to underground metal/nonmetal (M/NM) mine working areas to improve miners’ health and safety. One of those areas is controlled recirculation. Because the quantity of mine air often cannot be increased, reusing part of the ventilating air can be an effective alternative, if implemented properly, until the capacity of the present system is improved. The additional airflow can be used to provide effe...

  14. Identifying root system genes using induced mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root systems play an important role in plant growth and development. They absorb water and nutrients, anchor plant in the soil and affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Despite their importance, the progress in understanding the molecular processes underlying root development has been achieved only in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was accomplished through detailed analysis of root mutants with the use of advanced molecular, genomic and bioinformatic tools. Recently, similar studies performed with rice and maize root mutants have led to the identification of homologous and novel genes controlling root system formation in monocots. The collection of barley mutants with changes in root system development and morphology has been developed in our Department after mutagenic treatments of spring barley varieties with N-methyl N-nitosourea (MNU) and sodium azide. Among these mutants, the majority was characterized by seminal roots significantly shorter than roots of a parent variety throughout a whole vegetation period. Additionally, several mutants with root hairs impaired at different stages of development have been identified. These mutants have become the material of studies aimed at genetic and molecular dissection of seminal root and root hair formation in barley. The studies included the molecular mapping of genes responsible for mutant phenotype using DNA markers and root transcriptome analysis in the mutant/parent variety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we have identified the HvEXPB1 gene encoding root specific beta expansin related to the root hair initiation in barley. We have also initiated the database search for barley sequences homologous to the known Arabodopsis, maize and rice genes. The identified homologous ESTs are now used for isolation of the complete coding sequences and gene function will be validated through identification of mutations related to the altered phenotype. This work was supported by the IAEA Research Contracts 12611 and 12849

  15. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation. PMID:20365620

  16. Systemic AA amyloidosis induced by liver cell adenoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Fievet, P; Sevestre, H; Boudjelal, M; Noel, L H; Kemeny, F; D. Franco; Delamarre, J; Capron, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a rare complication of benign tumours. This report describes a patient with hepatocellular adenoma associated with reactive AA amyloidosis. He had a nephrotic syndrome with deteriorating renal function and an increase of serum concentrations of acute phase proteins, mainly C-reactive protein. Resection of the tumour was followed by improvement in renal function and a marked decrease of the serum concentrations of acute phase proteins.

  17. Phase transitions and optically induced phenomena in cooperative systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fausti, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative systems form one of the few “terra incognita” left in condensed matter science. Even though all the constituent laws are known, the interplay between lattice, orbital, spin and charge degrees of freedom gives rise to a big variety of unconventional properties of which the nature is still widely debated. The interaction between light and matter lies at the very fundament of our knowledge of nature. Absorption, scattering, or diffraction technique are extremely insightful tools to e...

  18. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  19. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Jaswant; Huanca Wilfredo; Ratto Marcelo H; Adams Gregg P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per gro...

  20. Bistability of the naturally induced lactose utilization system of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajic, Jelena; Wall, Michael

    2006-03-01

    In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.

  1. Detrimental Effect of the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib in Bacterial Superantigen- and Lipopolysaccharide-induced Systemic Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; Theuer, Jayne E; Patel, Robin; David, Chella S.; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial superantigen (BSAg)–induced toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced shock are characterized by severe systemic inflammation. As nuclear factor κB (NFκB) plays an important role in inflammation and bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor widely used in cancer chemotherapy, is a potent inhibitor of NFκB activation, we evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic use of bortezomib in these conditions using murine models. Bortezomib prophylaxis significantly r...

  2. Numerical analysis of mixing by electrothermal induced flow in microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, J. J.; Krishnamoorthy, S; Sundaram, S.

    2007-01-01

    An electrothermal flow induced chaotic mixing in microfluidic systems is studied analytically and numerically. The flow is induced due to the Coulombic and dielectric forces arising from the variation of the dielectric properties with respect to the temperature in the presence of an electric field. The numerical model is validated using an analytical solution derived for basic flow patterns in a simplified geometry. The computational model has been used to illustrate the mixing in microcavity...

  3. Gut Microbiota-Induced Immunoglobulin G Controls Systemic Infection by Symbiotic Bacteria and Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Melody Y; Cisalpino, Daniel; Varadarajan, Saranyaraajan; Hellman, Judith; Warren, H Shaw; Cascalho, Marilia; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-03-15

    The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, which primarily targeted gram-negative bacterial antigens and conferred protection against systemic infections by E. coli and Salmonella by directly coating bacteria to promote killing by phagocytes. T cells and Toll-like receptor 4 on B cells were important in the generation of microbiota-specific IgG. We identified murein lipoprotein (MLP), a highly conserved gram-negative outer membrane protein, as a major antigen that induced systemic IgG homeostatically in both mice and humans. Administration of anti-MLP IgG conferred crucial protection against systemic Salmonella infection. Thus, our findings reveal an important function for the gut microbiota in combating systemic infection through the induction of protective IgG. PMID:26944199

  4. Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, A; Bardana, E J

    1991-05-01

    The effects of dietary manipulations on autoimmune disease are understood poorly. In this article, we detail our experience with a human subject who developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia while participating in a research study that required the ingestion of alfalfa seeds. Subsequent experimental studies in primates ingesting alfalfa sprout seeds and L-canavanine (a prominent amino acid constituent of alfalfa) is presented. The results of these studies indicate a potential toxic and immunoregulatory role of L-canavanine in the induction of a systemic lupus-like disease in primates. PMID:1862241

  5. Beta induced reaction study on T2-CO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the reaction products and process in the reaction of T2-CO 1:1 mixed system, infrared adsorption spectroscopy was applied. From the results of spectral measurements of the reaction products, aldehydes (RCTO), alcohol (ROT) and carboxylic acids (RCOOT) were found in solid phase and tritiated water and methane in gas phase. From rapid resume of absorption band intensities of CO and CO2 following intentional extraction of the sample gas, it was revealed that 'quasi-equilibrium states' existed by balancing consumption and reproduction of CO and CO2. The ratio -ΔCO/+ΔCO2 was much higher than that reported for the CO transformation by α irradiation and in proportion to tritium concentration in the gas phase. Tritium was accumulated in the condensed reaction products and estimated to move into the condensed phase from the gas phase about 5% per day without any hygroscopic substance. The solid products of this system, which remained for a long time, would be carboxylic acids

  6. The generalized Weierstrass system inducing surfaces of constant and nonconstant mean curvature in Euclidean three space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The generalized Weierstrass (GW) system is introduced and its correspondence with the associated two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model is reviewed. The method of symmetry reduction is systematically applied to derive several classes of invariant solutions for the GW system. The solutions can be used to induce constant mean curvature surfaces in Euclidean three space. Some properties of the system for the case of nonconstant mean curvature are introduced as well.

  7. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system

  8. Research of Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection System for Micro-fluidic Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jin-yuan; WANG Xiu-hua; ZHANG Hua-feng

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics such as signal noise ratio(SNR)[1-2] and sensitivity of the fluorescence detection system for micro-fluidic chip influence the performance of the whole system extremely.The confocal laser induced fluorescence detection system is presented.Based on the debugging of optical and circuit modules, the results of detecting the samples are given and analyzed theoretically,and the improved project is put forward.

  9. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J.; Jung, Sabine C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Pozo, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Tric...

  10. Thermal Induced Processes in Laminar System of Stainless Steel - Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on investigation of the laminar system 'stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti - Be' at thermal treatment. There have been determined sequences of phase transformations along with relative amount of iron-containing phases in the samples subjected to thermal beryllization. It has been revealed that thermal beryllization of stainless steel thin foils results in γ→α transformation and formation of the beryllides NiBe and FeBe2. It has also been revealed that direct γ→α- and reverse α→γ-transformations are accompanied by, correspondingly, formation and decomposition of the beryllide NiBe. It is shown that distribution of the formed phases within sample bulk is defined by local concentration of beryllium. Based on obtained experimental data there is proposed a physical model of phase transformations in stainless steel at thermal beryllization.

  11. Tyre induced vibrations of the car-trailer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, S.; Takács, D.; Stépán, G.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral and yaw dynamics of the car-trailer combination are analysed by means of a single track model. The equations of motion are derived rigorously by means of the Appell-Gibbs equations for constant longitudinal velocity of the vehicle. The tyres are described with the help of the so-called delayed tyre model, which is based on a brush model with pure rolling contact. The lateral forces and aligning torques of the tyre/road interaction are calculated via the instantaneous lateral deformations in the contact patches. The linear stability analysis of the rectilinear motion is performed via the analytically determined characteristic function of the system. Stability charts are constructed with respect to the vehicle longitudinal velocity and the payload position on the trailer. Self-excited lateral vibrations are detected with different vibration modes at low and at high longitudinal speeds of the vehicle. The effects of the tyre parameters are also investigated.

  12. Policy-induced market introduction of Generation IV reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 10 years ago the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) started the Generation IV Initiative (GenIV) with 9 other national governments with a positive ground attitude towards nuclear energy. Some of these Generation IV systems, like the fast reactors, are nearing the demonstration stage. The question on how their market introduction will be implemented becomes increasingly urgent. One main topic for future reactor technologies is the treatment of radioactive waste products. Technological solutions to this issue are being developed. One possible process is the transformation of long-living radioactive nuclides into short living ones; a process known as transmutation, which can be done in a nuclear reactor only. Various Generation IV reactor concepts are suitable for this process, and of these systems most experience has been gained with the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, both these first generation SFR plants and their Generation IV successors are designed as electricity generating plants, and therefore supposed to be commercially viable in the electricity markets. Various studies indicate that the generation costs of a combined LWR-(S)FR nuclear generating park (LWR: light water reactor) will be higher than that of an LWR-only park. To investigate the effects of the deployment of the different reactors and fuel cycles on the waste produced, resources used and costs incurred as a function of time, a dynamic fuel cycle assessment is performed. This study will focus on the waste impact of the introduction of a fraction of fast reactors in the European nuclear reactor park with a cost increase as described in the previous paragraph. The nuclear fuel cycle scenario code DANESS is used for this, as well as the nuclear park model of the EU-27 used for the previous study. (orig.)

  13. Genotoxicity induced by saponified coconut oil surfactant in prokaryote systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Tirzah Braz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2004-11-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic substances with special properties and chemical structures that allow a reduction in interfacial tension, which permits an increase in molecule solubilization. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is an important characteristic of surfactants that determines their aggregate state, which is generally related to its functional mechanism. In this work the genotoxic potential of saponified coconut oil (SCO), a surfactant obtained from Cocos nucifera, was analyzed using prokaryote systems. DNA strand breaks were not observed after treatment of a plasmid with SCO. Negative results were also obtained in the SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli strains PQ35 and PQ37. A moderate toxicity of SCO was observed after treatment of strain CC104 with a concentration above its CMC, in which micelles were found. Nevertheless, this treatment was not cytotoxic to a CC104mutMmutY strain. Furthermore, in this DNA repair-deficient strain treatment with a SCO dose below its CMC, in which only monomers were found, demonstrated the possibility of an antioxidant effect, since a reduction in spontaneous mutagenesis frequency was observed. Finally, in an Ames test without metabolic activation mutagenicity induction was observed in strains TA100 and TA104 with treatment doses below the CMC. The cytotoxic, antioxidant and mutagenic effects of SCO can be influenced by the aggregational state. PMID:15548754

  14. Advanced and innovative wind energy concept development: Dynamic inducer system, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.; Zalay, A. D.; Hibbs, B. H.

    1981-05-01

    Concepts to improve the technical and economic performance of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) were examined. One technique for improving the cost-effectiveness of WECS is the use of tip vanes. Tip vanes are small airfoils attached approximately at right angles to the rotor tips with their span oriented approximately parallel to the local freestream. The performance benefits of the dynamic inducer tip vane system were demonstrated Tow-tests conducted on a three-bladed, 3.6-meter diameter rotor show that a dynamic inducer can achieve a power coefficient of 0.5, which exceeds that of a plain rotor by about 35%.

  15. Photo-induced phenomena in correlated electron system with multi-degree of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, S; Kanamori, Y [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Matsueda, H, E-mail: ishihara@cmpt.phys.tohoku.ac.j [Sendai National College of Technology, Sendai, 989-3128 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of photo-induced dynamics in a correlated electron system where electronic charge couples with spin and lattice. This is motivated by the recent experiments in perovskite manganites and related compounds. The generalized double exchange model is analyzed by utilizing the two complementary methods, the exact diagonalization and inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock methods. Time evolutions of the optical absorption spectra, spin correlation, and charge correlation are calculated. It is shown that photo-induced dynamics in this system is governed by strong coupling between itinerant electrons and localized spins.

  16. Photo-induced phenomena in correlated electron system with multi-degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical study of photo-induced dynamics in a correlated electron system where electronic charge couples with spin and lattice. This is motivated by the recent experiments in perovskite manganites and related compounds. The generalized double exchange model is analyzed by utilizing the two complementary methods, the exact diagonalization and inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock methods. Time evolutions of the optical absorption spectra, spin correlation, and charge correlation are calculated. It is shown that photo-induced dynamics in this system is governed by strong coupling between itinerant electrons and localized spins.

  17. Dependence of noise induced effects on state preparation in multiqubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perturbation of multiqubit systems by an external noise can induce various effects like decoherence, stochastic resonance and anti-resonance, and noise-shielding. We investigate how the appearance of these effects on disentanglement time depends on the initial preparation of the systems. We present results for 2-, 3- and 4-qubit chains in various arrangements and observe a clear dependence on the combination of initial geometry of the state space and the placement of noise. Finally, we see that temperature can play a constructive role for the control of these noise induced effects.

  18. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis in skeletal muscle in obesity. The role of the sympathoadrenal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Henriksen, O;

    1987-01-01

    -induced facultative thermogenesis, and that the defect is at least in part located in skeletal muscle. Since the sympathetic nervous system is partly responsible for the glucose-induced thermogenesis, the reduced thermogenic response in the obese patients may be due to an impaired activation of the sympathetic...... nervous system. It is hypothesized that the reduced arterial adrenaline level in the LEI group is caused by hyperglycaemic suppression of the adrenomedullary secretion and further that this may be a link connecting deterioration of glucose tolerance and a thermogenic defect in obesity....

  19. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced nervous system disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation-Induced Nervous System Disease has been issued and implemented by the Ministry of health. This standard contained three independent criteria of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These three kinds of disease often go together in clinic,therefore,the three diagnostic criteria were merged into radioactive nervous system disease diagnostic criteria for entirety and maneuverability of the standard. This standard was formulated based on collection of the clinical practice experience, extensive research of relevant literature and foreign relevant publications. It is mainly applied to diagnosis and treatment of occupational radiation-induced nervous system diseases, and to nervous system diseases caused by medical radiation exposure as well. In order to properly implement this standard, also to correctly deal with radioactive nervous system injury, the main contents of this standard including dose threshold, clinical manifestation, indexing standard and treatment principle were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  20. Radiation-induced effects in organic systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project, which is of twenty-seven years duration, has been devoted to furthering our basic understanding of the processes involved in the absorption and distribution of high-energy radiation in organic molecules. The early phases of the work were concerned with the gross chemical effects of radiation and included studies in a number of important classes of organic compounds including alcohols, aliphatic acids, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Basic information was acquired through these studies that has led to a better understanding of the effects of high-energy radiation on condensed media. During this period the so-called protective effect of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons was also studied. A contribution of lasting significance at this time was the development of a technique for the post-radiolysis analysis of trapped free radicals by photochemical means. A comprehensive series of papers on the reactions of thermal hydrogen atoms with frozen organic substrates represented the beginning of a new phase in the approach to the problems of radiation chemistry in this laboratory. Since that time the general philosophy guided the research has been to single out events or processes suspected of contributing to the gross-radiation effect and study them in isolation. Thus from 1970 on efforts were devoted to charge-exchange processes, ionization efficiencies (w-values), radical decay process in solids and ion-dissociation reactions. The first by means of a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the second utilizing an ionization chamber constructed in the FSU shops, the third using electron spin resonance detection, and the last involving the use of a dual mass spectrometer, solid target system invented in our laboratory. The most productive of these efforts has been the radical decay work

  1. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  2. IRACM : A code system to calculate induced radioactivity produced by ions and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to estimate of radioactivity induced in accelerator components and samples bombarded by energetic ion beams and the secondary neutrons of high-energy accelerator facilities in order to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. A computer code system IRACM has been developed to estimate product nuclides and induced radioactivity in various radiation environments of accelerator facilities. Nuclide transmutation with incident particles of neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne and 40Ar can be computed for arbitrary multi-layer target system in a one-dimensional geometry. The code system consists of calculation modules and libraries including activation cross sections, decay data and photon emission data. The system can be executed in both FACOM-M780 mainframe and DEC workstations. (author)

  3. Homology in systemic neutrophil response induced by human experimental endotoxemia and by trauma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Pillay, J.; Pickkers, P.; Leenen, L.P.H.; Koenderman, L.

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of the trauma-induced innate immune responses is hampered by the wide variability in patients, type of trauma, and environmental factors. To circumvent this heterogeneity, we examined whether the systemic innate immune response toward human experimental endotoxemia is similar to th

  4. Delay-Induced Consensus and Quasi-Consensus in Multi-Agent Dynamical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming; Ren, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies consensus and quasi-consensus in multi-agent dynamical systems. A linear consensus protocol in the second-order dynamics is designed where both the current and delayed position information is utilized. Time delay, in a common perspective, can induce periodic oscillations or even c

  5. Effect of bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse of steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-qiang; Usmani, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse resistance of steel-framed structures using OpenSees. Two types of bracing systems (vertical and hat bracing) and various fire scenarios (single and multi-compartment fires) are considered. Four collapse mechanisms of steel frames in fire are found through parametric studies. General collapse is characterized by the collapse of the heated bay followed by lateral drift of adjacent cool bays. ...

  6. Systemic LPS administration induces brain inflammation but not dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-hye

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that brain inflammation is important in aggravation of brain damage and/or that inflammation causes neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, systemic inflammation has also emerged as a risk factor for PD. In the present study, we evaluated how systemic inflammation induced by intravenous (iv) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injection affected brain inflammation and neuronal damage in the rat. Interestingly, almost all brain inflammatory response...

  7. Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle John; Haigler Candace H; Robertson Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We previously developed a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for cotton from the bipartite geminivirusCotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV). The original CLCrV VIGS vector was designed for biolistic delivery by a gene gun. This prerequisite limited the use of the system to labs with access to biolistic equipment. Here we describe the adaptation of this system for delivery by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). We also describe the construction of two low-cost pa...

  8. Gadolinium Contrast Agent-Induced CD163+ Ferroportin+ Osteogenic Cells in Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Bose, Chhanda; Shah, Sudhir V.; Hall, Kimberly A.; Hiatt, Kim M.

    2013-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are linked to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency. The pathology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is characterized by abnormal tissue repair: fibrosis and ectopic ossification. The mechanisms by which gadolinium could induce fibrosis and ossification are not known. We examined in vitro the effect of a gadolinium-based contrast agent on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for phenotype and function relevant to the pathology o...

  9. Longitudinal migration and inducible displacement of the Mobility Total Ankle System

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Fong, Jason W; Wilson, David A.; Allan W Hennigar; Francis, Patricia A; Glazebrook, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose RSA can be used for early detection of unstable implants. We assessed the micromotion of the Mobility Total Ankle System over 2 years, to evaluate the stability of the bone-implant interface using radiostereometric analysis measurements of longitudinal migration and inducible displacement. Patients and methods 23 patients were implanted with the Mobility system. Median age was 62 (28–75) years and median BMI was 28.8 (26.0–34.5). Supine radiostereometric analysis examin...

  10. Flutamide-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al Maruf; Peter O’Brien

    2014-01-01

    Flutamide (FLU) is a competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor which has been reported to induce severe liver injury in some patients. Several experimental models suggested that an episode of inflammation during drug treatment predisposes animals to tissue injury. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of FLU in isolated rat hepatocytes using an in vitro oxidative stress inflammation system were investigated in this study. When a nontoxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system (glucose/...

  11. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

  12. Dependence on state preparation of noise induced effects in multiqubit systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tzemos, A. C.; Ghikas, D. P. K.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of multiqubit systems by an external noise can induce various effects like decoherence, stochastic resonance and anti-resonance, and noise-shielding. We investigate how the appearance of these effects on disentanglement time depends on the initial preparation of the systems. We present results for 2, 3 and 4-qubit chains in various arrangements and observe a clear dependence on the combination of initial geometry of the state space and the placement of noise. Finally, we see ...

  13. The destabilization paradox applied to friction-induced vibrations in an aircraft braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillot, Fabrice; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Mazet, Guy-Bernard; Hardouin, Nicolas; Jezequel, Louis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Mechanisms of friction are known as an important source of vibrations in a large variety of engineering systems, where the emergence of oscillations is noisy and can cause severe damage to the system. The reduction or elimination of these vibrations is then an industrial issue that requires the attention of engineers and researchers together. Friction-induced vibrations have been the matter of several investigations, considering experimental, analytical, and numerica...

  14. Noise-induced synchronization in a system with a 1 / f power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    A spatially distributed system with 1/ f fluctuations at coupled nonequilibrium phase transitions have been simulated by two nonlinear stochastic equations. It is shown numerically that at sufficiently high intensity of white noise in the system there arises noise-induced synchronization, which is a nonequilibrium phase transition. To the critical point of the nonequilibrium phase transition corresponds the 1/ f power spectrum and the maximum of informational entropy.

  15. Two electromagnetically induced transparency windows and an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level tripod atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the experimental observations and theoretical calculations of two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows and an enhanced EIT signal in a four-level tripod system of D1 line of 87Rb atoms. The two EIT dips produced by a strong coupling beam and a weak trigger beam were observed in the absorption spectrum of probe field, when the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was different from that of the coupling beam. When the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was near or equal to that of the coupling beam, the total depth of the EIT dip created by the coupling beam clearly became larger. The experimental measurements were in agreement with theoretical calculations

  16. Two electromagnetically induced transparency windows and an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level tripod atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shujing; Yang Xudong; Cao Xuemin; Xie Changde; Wang Hai [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2007-08-28

    We present the experimental observations and theoretical calculations of two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows and an enhanced EIT signal in a four-level tripod system of D1 line of {sup 87}Rb atoms. The two EIT dips produced by a strong coupling beam and a weak trigger beam were observed in the absorption spectrum of probe field, when the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was different from that of the coupling beam. When the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was near or equal to that of the coupling beam, the total depth of the EIT dip created by the coupling beam clearly became larger. The experimental measurements were in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  17. Naringin abrogated radiation induced oxidative stress through modulation of redox regulated cellular signaling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is widely used as major diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation are due to generation of reactive oxygen species. The amounts of ionizing radiation that can be given to treat malignant tumours are often limited by toxicity in the surrounding normal tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Naringin (NG), a natural flavonoid, present in many plant parts against radiation induced oxidative stress with an evidence based exploration of the mechanism involved. Isolated murine splenocyte were irradiated with γ radiation (6 Gy) along with/without different concentrations of NG (50 and 100 μM). Biochemical, immunoblot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence study was subject to be performed to observe its molecular mechanisms of action. Pretreatment with NG significantly prevented the radiation induced intracellular ROS generation, therefore prevented cellular TBARS formation and development of cellular nitrite. NG showed the significant reduction in nuclear DNA damage with respect to irradiated splenocyte through inhibition of DNA-PKcs and p-γH2AX. It recovered radiation induced reduced cell viability through modulation of redox regulated cell signaling system. It resulted in significant inhibition of radiation induced G1/S phase cell cycle arrest mediated by modulation of p53 dependent p21/WAF1 expression followed by Cyclin E and CDK2 expression. NG was involved in blocking radiation induced p38 function; reversed radiation mediated differential stress response through inhibition of NF-κB pathway. It prevented p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα, p-p65, COX2 expression. It also reversed the radiation induced p38/NF-κB guided inflammatory development. Thus it down regulated radiation induced CRP, MCP-1, and iNOS2 gene expression. This novel role of naringin provides a basis for therapeutic applications in future against radiation induced molecular and cellular functional

  18. Egr-1 Induces a Profibrotic Injury/Repair Gene Program Associated with Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Bhattacharyya; Sargent, Jennifer L.; Pan Du; Simon Lin; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Kazuhiko Takehara; Whitfield, Michael L.; John Varga

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. The immediate-early gene Egr-1 is an inducible transcription factor with key roles in mediating fibrotic TGF-ß responses. To elucidate Egr-1 function in SSc-associated fibrosis, we examined change in gene expression induced by Egr-1 in human fibroblasts at the genome-wide level. Using microarray expression an...

  19. DNA damage-induced cell death: lessons from the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena Lobo Borges; Rafael Linden; Jean YJ Wang

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage can, but does not always, induce cell death. While several pathways linking DNA damage signals to mitochondria-dependent and -independent death machineries have been elucidated, the connectivity of these pathways is subject to regulation by multiple other factors that are not well understood. We have proposed two conceptual models to explain the delayed and variable cell death response to DNA damage: integrative surveillance versus autonomous pathways. In this review, we discuss how these two models may explain the in vivo regulation of cell death induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in the developing central nervous system, where the death response is regulated by radiation dose, cell cycle status and neuronal development.

  20. A Safeguard System for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Rejuvenated T Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Ando

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has created promising new avenues for therapies in regenerative medicine. However, the tumorigenic potential of undifferentiated iPSCs is a major safety concern for clinical translation. To address this issue, we demonstrated the efficacy of suicide gene therapy by introducing inducible caspase-9 (iC9 into iPSCs. Activation of iC9 with a specific chemical inducer of dimerization (CID initiates a caspase cascade that eliminates iPSCs and tumors originated from iPSCs. We introduced this iC9/CID safeguard system into a previously reported iPSC-derived, rejuvenated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (rejCTL therapy model and confirmed that we can generate rejCTLs from iPSCs expressing high levels of iC9 without disturbing antigen-specific killing activity. iC9-expressing rejCTLs exert antitumor effects in vivo. The system efficiently and safely induces apoptosis in these rejCTLs. These results unite to suggest that the iC9/CID safeguard system is a promising tool for future iPSC-mediated approaches to clinical therapy.

  1. Sensitivity for set-valued maps induced by M-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consider a continuous map f:X→X and the continuous map f-bar of K(X) into itself induced by f, where X is a compact metric space without isolated points and K(X) is the space of all non-empty compact subsets of X endowed with a Hausdorff metric. In this paper, we discuss the sensitivity of the set valued maps induced by M-systems. In fact, we prove that if (X,f) is a non-minimal M-system, then f-bar is sensitive; and give an example to show the possibility that f-bar is sensitive when (X,f) is a, minimal but not weakly mixing, M-system

  2. An optically coupled system for quantitative monitoring of MRI gradient currents induced into endocardial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, E; Calcagnini, G; Triventi, M; Delogu, A; Del Guercio, M; Angeloni, A; Bartolini, P

    2013-01-01

    The time-varying gradient fields generated during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures have the potential to induce electrical current on implanted endocardial leads. Whether this current can result in undesired cardiac stimulation is unknown. This paper presents an optically coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the currents induced by the gradient fields into endocardial leads during MRI procedures. Our system is based on a microcontroller that works as analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and sends the current signal acquired from the lead to an optical high-speed light-emitting-diode transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light outside the MRI chamber, to a photodiode receiver and then to an acquisition board connected to a PC. The preliminary characterization of the performances of the system is also presented. PMID:24110209

  3. Synchronization of uncoupled excitable systems induced by white and coloured noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study, both numerically and experimentally, the synchronization of uncoupled excitable systems due to a common noise. We consider two identical FitzHugh-Nagumo systems, which display both spiking and non-spiking behaviours in chaotic or periodic regimes. An electronic circuit provides a laboratory implementation of these dynamics. Synchronization is tested with both white and coloured noise, showing that coloured noise is more effective in inducing synchronization of the systems. We also study the effects on the synchronization of parameter mismatch and of the presence of intrinsic (not common) noise, and we conclude that the best performance of coloured noise is robust under these distortions.

  4. Electromagnetically induced transparency and controllable group velocity in a five-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jin; Shangqing Gong; Yueping Niu; Shiqi Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The optical properties of a five-level atomic system composed of a A-type four-level atomic and a tripod four-level atomic systems are investigated. It is found that the behaviors of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and group velocity can be controlled by choosing appropriate parameters with the interacting dark resonances. In particular, when all the fields are on resonance, the slow light at the symmetric transparency windows with a much broader EIT width is obtained by tuning the intensity of the coupling field in comparison with its sub-system, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light.

  5. Comparison of surrogate reporter systems for enrichment of cells with mutations induced by genome editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuyong; Shi, Xuan; Liu, Meirui; Sun, Guangjie; Proudfoot, Chris; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Lillico, Simon G; Chen, Yaosheng

    2016-03-10

    Genome editors are powerful tools that allow modification of the nuclear DNA in eukaryotic cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro modified cells are often phenotypically indistinguishable from unmodified cells, hampering their isolation for analysis. Episomal reporters encoding fluorescent proteins can be used for enrichment of modified cells by flow cytometry. Here we compare two surrogate reporters, RGS and SSA, for the enrichment of porcine embryonic fibroblasts containing mutations induced by ZFNs or CRISPR/Cas9. Both systems were effective for enrichment of edited porcine cells with the RGS reporter proving more effective than the SSA reporter. We noted a higher-fold enrichment when editing events were induced by Cas9 compared to those induced by ZFNs, allowing selection at frequencies as high as 70%. PMID:26778541

  6. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system with nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the Talbot effect resulting from the repeatedly self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field under the Fresnel near-field regime. By launching the probe beam into an optically induced atomic lattice (established by interfering two coupling fields) inside a thermal rubidium vapor cell, we can obtain an electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) on probe beam in a coherent three-level $\\Lambda$-type Doppler-free atomic configuration with the assistance of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, which can modify and greatly enhance the Kerr nonlinearity near atomic resonance. The EIG patterns out of the cell can repeat the image at the output plane of the cell at integer multiples of Talbot length, which agree well with the theoretical prediction [Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 081108 (2011)]. Such first demonstrated EIT Talbot effect in a coherent atomic system may pave a lensless and nondestructive way for imaging ultracold atoms or molecules.

  7. Noise-induced standing waves in oscillatory systems with time-delayed feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Stich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems, time-delay feedback can lead to the instability of uniform oscillations with respect to formation of standing waves. Here, we investigate how the presence of additive, Gaussian white noise can induce the appearance of standing waves. Combining analytical solutions of the model with spatio-temporal simulations, we find that noise can promote standing waves in regimes where the deterministic uniform oscillatory modes are stabilized. As the deterministic phase boundary is approached, the spatio-temporal correlations become stronger, such that even small noise can induce standing waves in this parameter regime. With larger noise strengths, standing waves could be induced at finite distances from the (deterministic) phase boundary. The overall dynamics is defined through the interplay of noisy forcing with the inherent reaction-diffusion dynamics.

  8. The Arabidopsis ISR1 locus is required for rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance against different pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, non-pathogenic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria trigger an induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In contrast to SAR, WCS417r-mediated ISR is controlled by a salicylic

  9. Systemic inflammation induces anxiety disorder through CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wang, M; Guo, Y Y; Sun, T; Li, Y J; Yang, Q; Zhang, K; Liu, S B; Zhao, M G; Wu, Y M

    2016-08-01

    It is evidenced that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorder, as well as the dysfunction of glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Chemokine CXCL12 has been reported taking part in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, however, the roles of CXCL12 in the development of anxiety are still unclear. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced anxiety-like behaviors in adult mice as measured by elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Astrocytes were responsible for CXCL12 induction upon LPS challenge in hippocampus and amygdala, and microinjection of CXCL12 into amygdala induced mice anxiety-like behaviors. AMD3100, which is an antagonist for CXCL12 receptor CXCR4, prevented the anxiety behaviors induced by microinjection of CXCL12 into amygdala as well as injection i.p of LPS. Knockdown of CXCR4 expression in neurons using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) significantly blocked anxiety behaviors mediated by CXCL12 i.c injection. Furthermore, AMD3100 or shCXCR4 prevented the impairment of nesting ability induced by CXCL12 in mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the neurons of basolateral amygdala (BLA) revealed that CXCL12 enhanced glutamatergic transmission by increasing sEPSC frequency in the amygdala. AMD3100 inhibited the excitatory glutamatergic neural transmission and involved in the development of anxiety through CXCR4. These findings provide direct evidence that alterations of CXCL12 in BLA play critical roles in the development of anxiety induced by systemic inflammation and that CXCR4 may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammation-induced anxiety. PMID:26952745

  10. Finite-element-based system reliability analysis of fatigue-induced sequential failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a structural system is subjected to repeated loadings, local fatigue-induced failures may initiate sequential failures and disproportionally large damage in the system. In order to quantify the likelihood of fatigue-induced sequential failures and identify critical failure sequences, a branch-and-bound method employing system reliability bounds (termed the B3 method) was recently developed and successfully demonstrated by a three-dimensional truss example. The B3 method identifies critical sequences of fatigue-induced failures in the decreasing order of their likelihood. Since the identified sequences are disjoint to each other, both lower and upper bounds on system failure probability are easily updated without performing additional system reliability analysis. The updated bounds provide reasonable criteria for terminating the branch-and-bound search without missing critical sequences or estimating the system-level risk inaccurately. Since the B3 method was originally developed for reliability analysis of discrete structures such as truss, however, the method is not applicable to continuum structures, which are often represented by finite element (FE) models. In particular, the method has limitations in describing general stress distributions in limit-state formulations, evaluating stress intensity range based on crack length, and in dealing with slow convergence of the upper and lower bounds for structures with high redundancy. In this paper, the B3 method is further developed for FE-based system reliability analysis of continuum structures by modifying the limit-state formulations, incorporating crack-growth analysis by external software, and introducing an additional search termination criterion. The proposed method is demonstrated by numerical examples including a continuum multi-layer Daniels system and an aircraft longeron structure.

  11. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  12. Predictive Model for Temperature-Induced Deformation of Robot Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonyapak, Pranchalee

    The positioning accuracy and repeatability of a robot are critical for many industrial applications. Drift in repeatability can occur with changes in environmental and internal conditions, such as those seen with temperature-induced deformation. Thermal instability causes dimensional deformation, and a warm-up cycle is typically required to bring the robot to a thermally stable working condition. The elimination of warm-up cycles will ultimately enhance the positioning accuracy of the robots, their productivity, and reduce unnecessary energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to develop a robot controller algorithm that would provide, a priori, compensation for temperature-induced deformation associated with warm-up in robot mechanical systems. The research started at the fundamental stage of gaining insight into the thermal behaviour and corresponding temperature-induced deformation of simplified, i.e., one-dimensional, robot mechanical systems consisting of slender links and heat sources. The systems were studied using concomitant experimental, numerical and analytical models to provide cross-checking of the results. For the experimental model, the deformation was measured by tracking the drift of a laser diode spot across a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera chip. A non-contact measurement system consisting of an infrared camera, a CCD camera and a laser diode was developed to provide high accuracy measurement for the deformation. The numerical model was generated with a coupled thermal-mechanical finite element analysis incorporating thermal effects due to conduction and convection. The models were tested with the analytical model that was further extended using a finite difference technique. Once the three models showed excellent agreement, it was possible to develop a controller algorithm. Deformations predicted by the finite difference model were used as input for a validation experiment of the compensation algorithm. Results of the

  13. Rapid modification of proteins using a rapamycin-inducible tobacco etch virus protease system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian J Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to disrupt the function of a specific protein on a rapid time scale provides a powerful tool for biomedical research. Specific proteases provide a potential method to selectively cleave a chosen protein, but rapid control of protease activity is difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A heterologous expression system for rapid target-directed proteolysis in mammalian cells was developed. The system consists of an inducible NIa protease from the tobacco etch virus (TEVp and a chosen protein into which a TEVp substrate recognition sequence (TRS has been inserted. Inducible activity was conferred to the TEVp using rapamycin-controlled TEVp fragment complementation. TEVp activity was assayed using a FRET-based reporter construct. TEVp expression was well tolerated by mammalian cells and complete cleavage of the substrate was possible. Cleavage at 37 degrees C proceeded exponentially with a time constant of approximately 150 minutes. Attempts to improve cleavage efficiency were hampered by substantial background activity, which was attributed to inherent affinity between the TEVp fragments. A second TEVp assay, based on changes in inactivation of a modified K(V3.4 channel, showed that functional properties of a channel can be using altered using an inducible TEVp system. Similar levels of background activity and variability were observed in both electrophysiological and FRET assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that an optimum level of TEVp expression leading to sufficient inducible activity (with minimal background activity exists but the variability in expression levels between cells makes the present system rather impractical for single cell experiments. The system is likely to be more suitable for experiments in which the cell-to-cell variability is less of an issue; for example, in experiments involving large populations of cells.

  14. Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Martina; Blattner, Ariane C; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degradation is therefore of considerable interest for controlled rapid elimination of gene function. To this end, a degradation system was developed in yeast exploiting TIR1, a plant F box protein, which can recruit proteins with an auxin-inducible degron to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but only in the presence of the phytohormone auxin. Here we demonstrate that the auxin-inducible degradation system functions efficiently also in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither auxin nor TIR1 expression have obvious toxic effects in this organism, and in combination they result in rapid degradation of a target protein fused to the auxin-inducible degron. PMID:27010248

  15. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. PMID:26364584

  16. Selectivity of radiation-induced processes in hydrocarbons, related polymers and organized polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental aspects of the selectivity of radiation-induced events in polymers and polymeric systems were considered: (1) The grounds of selectivity of the primary events were analyzed on the basis of the results of studies of model compounds (molecular aspect). Basic results were obtained for hydrocarbon molecules irradiated in low-temperature matrices. The effects of selective localization of the primary events on the radical formation were examined for several polymers irradiated at low and superlow temperatures (77 and 15 K). A remarkable correlation between the properties of prototype ionized molecules (radical cations) and selectivity of the primary bond rupture in the corresponding polymers were found for polyethylene, polystyrene and some other hydrocarbon polymers. The first direct indication of selective localization of primary events at conformational defects was obtained for oriented high-crystalline polyethylene irradiated at 15 K. The significance of dimeric ring association was proved for the radiation chemistry of polystyrene. Specific mechanisms of low-temperature radiation-induced degradation were also analyzed for polycarbonate and poly(alkylene terephthalates). (2) Specific features of the localization of primary radiation-induced events in microheterogeneous polymeric systems were investigated (microstructural aspect). It was found that the interphase processes played an important role in the radiation chemistry of such systems. The interphase electron migration may result in both positive and negative non-additive effects in the formation of radiolysis products. The effects of component diffusion and chemical reactions on the radiation-induced processes in microheterogeneous polymeric systems were studied with the example of polycarbonate - poly(alkylene terephthalate) blends. (3) The effects of restricted molecular motion on the development of the radiation-chemical processes in polymers were investigated (dynamic aspect). In particular, it

  17. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neurogenic hypertension induced by systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kay LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation in the brain, which enhances sympathetic drive, plays a significant role in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM that augments sympathetic outflow to blood vessels is involved in neural mechanism of hypertension. We investigated whether neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in RVLM contribute to hypertension following chronic systemic inflammation. Methods In normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, systemic inflammation was induced by infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the peritoneal cavity via an osmotic minipump. Systemic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured under conscious conditions by the non-invasive tail-cuff method. The level of the inflammatory markers in plasma or RVLM was analyzed by ELISA. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. Tissue level of superoxide anion (O2·- in RVLM was determined using the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe dihydroethidium. Pharmacological agents were delivered either via infusion into the cisterna magna with an osmotic minipump or microinjection bilaterally into RVLM. Results Intraperitoneal infusion of LPS (1.2 mg/kg/day for 14 days promoted sustained hypertension and induced a significant increase in plasma level of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, or interleukin-1β (IL-1β. This LPS-induced systemic inflammation was accompanied by activation of microglia, augmentation of IL-1β, IL-6, or TNF-α protein expression, and O2·- production in RVLM, all of which were blunted by intracisternal infusion of a cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor, NS398; an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline; or a cytokine synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline. Neuroinflammation in RVLM was also associated with a COX-2-dependent downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an

  18. A detection system to measure muon-induced neutrons for direct dark matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon-induced neutrons constitute a prominent background component in a number of low count rate experiments, namely direct searches for dark matter. In this work we describe a neutron detector to measure this background in an underground laboratory, the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane. The system is based on 1 m3 of Gd-loaded scintillator and it is linked with the muon veto of the EDELWEISS-II experiment for coincident muon detection. The system was installed in autumn 2008 and passed since then a number of commissioning tests proving its full functionality. The data-taking is continuously ongoing and a count rate of the order of 1 muon-induced neutron per day has been achieved. (authors)

  19. Development of an inducible transposon system for efficient random mutagenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Shu; Chai, Changsheng; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Minton, Nigel P; Gu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an industrially important Gram-positive organism, which is capable of producing economically important chemicals in the ABE (Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol) fermentation process. Renewed interests in the ABE process necessitate the availability of additional genetics tools to facilitate the derivation of a greater understanding of the underlying metabolic and regulatory control processes in operation through forward genetic strategies. In this study, a xylose inducible, mariner-based, transposon system was developed and shown to allow high-efficient random mutagenesis in the model strain ATCC 824. Of the thiamphenicol resistant colonies obtained, 91.9% were shown to be due to successful transposition of the catP-based mini-transposon element. Phenotypic screening of 200 transposon clones revealed a sporulation-defective clone with an insertion in spo0A, thereby demonstrating that this inducible transposon system can be used for forward genetic studies in C. acetobutylicum. PMID:27001972

  20. Independently tunable double electromagenetically induced transparency-like resonances in asymmetric plasmonic waveguide resonator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Da-Ming; Wang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Qi; Zhai, Xiang; Li, Hong-Ju; Xia, Sheng-Xuan

    2016-05-01

    Double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like resonances are numerically achieved by detuning and bright-dark coupling in an asymmetric plasmonic waveguide resonator system. The transmission properties of the system are simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Just because double EIT-like resonances originate from different mechanisms, a single EIT-like resonance can be well tuned independently, namely, one induced transparency window can be tuned in the horizontal direction while the other one is nearly invariable. The present design idea will be applicable in highly integrated optical circuits. Moreover, the formation of double EIT-like resonances may play a guiding role when designing plasmonic devices.

  1. Systems and methods for locating and imaging proppant in an induced fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, David F.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-02-02

    Born Scattering Inversion (BSI) systems and methods are disclosed. A BSI system may be incorporated in a well system for accessing natural gas, oil and geothermal reserves in a geologic formation beneath the surface of the Earth. The BSI system may be used to generate a three-dimensional image of a proppant-filled hydraulically-induced fracture in the geologic formation. The BSI system may include computing equipment and sensors for measuring electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the fracture before and after the fracture is generated, adjusting the parameters of a first Born approximation model of a scattered component of the surface electromagnetic fields using the measured electromagnetic fields, and generating the image of the proppant-filled fracture using the adjusted parameters.

  2. Systemic but not mucosal immunity induced by AVA prevents inhalational anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Klinman, Dennis M.; Currie, Debra; Lee, Gloria; Grippe, Vanessa; Merkel, Tod

    2007-01-01

    Improved vaccines and adjuvants are being developed to reduce the threat posed by a terrorist attack involving aerosolized anthrax spores. Nevertheless, uncertainty persists concerning the relative benefits of inducing mucosal vs systemic immunity to host survival following inhalational exposure to anthrax spores. This work examines the effect of delivering the licensed human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) combined with a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant intraperitoneally or i...

  3. Complement system activation contributes to the ependymal damage induced by microbial neuraminidase

    OpenAIRE

    Granados-Durán, Pablo; López-Ávalos, María Dolores; Hughes, Timothy R.; Johnson, Krista; Morgan, B. Paul; Tamburini, Paul P.; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; Grondona, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rat brain, a single intracerebroventricular injection of neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens induces ependymal detachment and death. This injury occurs before the infiltration of inflammatory blood cells; some reports implicate the complement system as a cause of these injuries. Here, we set out to test the role of complement. Methods The assembly of the complement membrane attack complex on the ependymal epithelium of rats injected with neuraminidase was analyzed by ...

  4. Combined system for the compensation of the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmatov, S. I.; Mordvinkin, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The problem is considered of determining the shape and dimensions of the passive component in a combined system for offsetting the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for geostationary spacecraft with asymmetrical solar arrays. The problem statement, numerical solution algorithm, and calculated results are presented. The resulting shape, the study suggests, not only has the required compensation properties but is also the most efficient from the standpoint of manufacture and functional reliability.

  5. Local and systemic responses induced by aphids in Solanum tuberosum plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dugravot, S.; Brunissen, L.; Létocart, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Vincent, C; Giordanengo, Ph.; Cherqui, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) are serious pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Solanaceae), notably in transmitting several plant viruses. Heterospecific interactions may occur between these two species as they are often seen at the same time on the same potato plant in the field. As aphid infestation is known to induce both local and systemic changes, we conducted experiments to determine the effect of previous infestation on...

  6. Acute Systemic Infusion of Bupropion Decrease Formalin Induced Pain Behavior in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi, Somayyeh; Ghaderi Pakdel, Firouz; Ashrafi Osalou, Mostafa; Cankurt, Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Background The chronic pain can disturb physical, psychological, and social performances. Analgesic agents are widely used but some antidepressants (ADs) showed analgesia also. Bupropion is using for smoke cessation but it can change morphine withdrawal signs such as pain. This study tested the acute systemic effect of bupropion on formalin induced pain behavior in rats. Methods Wistar male healthy rats were divided into 7 groups (control, sham, and 5 treated groups with 10, 30, 90, 120, and ...

  7. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, B.; Siretanu, Igor; Maestro, M.A.; Duits, M.H.G.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Ende, van den, A.; Mugele, F.; Collins, I

    2015-01-01

    The relative wettability of oil and water on solid surfaces is generally governed by a complex competition of molecular interaction forces acting in such three-phase systems. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate how the adsorption of in nature abundant divalent Ca2+ cations to solid-liquid interfaces induces a macroscopic wetting transition from finite contact angles (≈10°) with to near-zero contact angles without divalent cations. We developed a quantitative model based on DLVO theory to de...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  9. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structures after 2013, as described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), or can be used for rapid prototyping in research applications. The key point is to combine the throughp...

  10. A cost-effective system for differentiation of intestinal epithelium from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Ogaki; Mayu Morooka; Kaito Otera; Shoen Kume

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is a useful model for pharmacological studies of absorption, metabolism, drug interactions, and toxicology, as well as for studies of developmental biology. We established a rapid and cost effective system for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells. In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a low concentration of Activin at 6.25 ng/ml is sufficient to give a similar differentiation efficiency with t...

  11. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  12. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Xijia Zhou; Zhigang Liu; Shan Xu; Weiwei Zhang; Jun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation ...

  13. Induced Systemic Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in Response to Root Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0

    OpenAIRE

    Iavicoli, Annalisa; Boutet, Emmanuel; Buchala, Antony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Root inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r partially protected leaves from the oomycete Peronospora parasitica. The molecular determinants of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r for this induced systemic resistance (ISR) were investigated, using mutants derived from strain CHA0: CHA400 (pyoverdine deficient), CHA805 (exoprotease deficient), CHA77 (HCN deficient), CHA660 (pyoluteorin deficient), CHA631 (2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol [DAPG] deficient), a...

  14. Video-Game Play Induces Plasticity in the Visual System of Adults with Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Roger W. Li; Ngo, Charlie; Nguyen, Jennie; Levi, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15–61 y; visual acuity: 20/25–20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus) were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n...

  15. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Täuber, M G; Kennedy, S L; Tureen, J H; Lowenstein, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined whether experimental pneumococcal meningitis induced the 72-kd heat shock protein (HSP72), a sensitive marker of neuronal stress in other models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Brain injury was characterized by vasculitis, cerebritis, and abscess formation in the cortex of infected animals. The extent of these changes correlated with the size of the inoculum (P less than 0.003) and with pathophysiologic parameters of disease severity, i.e., cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactat...

  16. Residual Doppler Effect on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Zeeman Sublevel System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the residual Doppler effect on the linewidth of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman sublevel system where a careful experimental design ensures the smallest measurement error. The overall measurement error of the EIT linewidth is estimated to be less than 5%. We present the linear dependence of EIT resonance broadening at small angular deviation in detail. The theoretical analysis exploits the dependence of this feature and shows the qualitative agreement between numerical results and experimental results

  17. Predictions of buoyancy-induced flow in asymmetrical heated rotating cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the finite difference solutions for buoyancy-induced flow in the asymmetrical heated rotating cavity system for the range of rotational Reynolds numbers Re =6.13x10/sup 5/< Re/sub theta/=4.4*10/sup 6/ and the mass flow rates C/sub w/ <28000< C/sub w/ <3000. All the simulations have been carried out through the CFD (computational Fluid Dynamics) commercial code, ANSYS Fluent 12.0, by adopting axisymmetric, steady-state and elliptic technique. Two well know models namely k-epsilon and the Reynolds stress models have been employed. The simulated results illustrate the important aspects of the heated rotating cavity flow system. The noteworthy influence of buoyancy-induced flow have been observed on the predicted stream line, static temperature contours and the local Nusselt numbers for the rotating cavity flow system. The noteworthy influence of buoyancy-induced flow have been observed on the predicted stream lines, static temperature contours and the local Nusselt numbers for the rotating cavity space. A comparison of the predicted local nusselt numbers for the hot and cold discs showed a good level of agreement with the measurement. (author)

  18. The role of the bacterial mismatch repair system in SOS-induced mutagenesis: a theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is performed of the possible role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system in the ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis of Escherichia coli bacterial cells. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the bacterial mismatch repair system is developed. Within this model, the key pathways of this type of repair are simulated on the basis of modern experimental data related to its mechanisms. Here we have modelled in detail five main pathways of DNA misincorporation removal with different DNA exonucleases. Using our calculations, we have tested the hypothesis that the bacterial mismatch repair system is responsible for the removal of the nucleotides misincorporated by DNA polymerase V (the UmuD'2C complex) during ultraviolet-induced SOS response. For the theoretical analysis of the mutation frequency, we have combined the proposed mathematical approach with the model of SOS-induced mutagenesis in the E.coli bacterial cell developed earlier. Our calculations support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair influences the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation

  19. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels. PMID:24148812

  20. Mechanotransduction-Induced Lipid Production System with High Robustness and Controllability for Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung Kwon; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability. PMID:27609701

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence reader with a turbidimetric system for sandwich-type immunoassay using nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H.; Lim, H.B., E-mail: plasma@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-07-09

    Graphical abstract: Laser-induced fluorescence reader with ratiometric correction for sandwich-type immunoassay using nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Laser-induced fluorescence system with ratiometric correction was developed. • The system reduced experimental error caused by particle loss and aggregation. • The detection limit of about 39 pg mL{sup −1} for salinomycin was obtained. • Calibration linearity and sensitivity were also significantly improved. • The system has the potential for bioanalysis using various nanoparticles. - Abstract: A unique laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) reader equipped with a turbidimetric system was developed for a sandwich-type immunoassay using nanoparticles. The system was specifically designed to reduce experimental error caused by particle loss, aggregation and sinking, and to improve analytical performance through ratiometric measurement of the fluorescence with respect to the turbidimetric absorbance. For application to determine the concentration of salinomycin, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and FITC-doped silica nanoparticles (colored balls) immobilized with antibody were synthesized for magnetic extraction and for tagging as a fluorescence probe, respectively. The detection limit of about 39 pg mL{sup −1} was obtained, which was an improvement of about 2-fold compared to that obtained without employment of the turbidimetric system. Calibration linearity and sensitivity were also improved, with increase from 0.8601 to 0.9905 in the R{sup 2}-coefficient and by 1.92-fold for the curve slope, respectively. The developed LIF reader has the potential to be used for fluorescence measurements using various nanomaterials, such as quantum dots.

  2. Endogenous interleukin (IL)-17A promotes pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity and lupus nephritis induced by pristane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, S A; Odobasic, D; Khouri, M B; Steinmetz, O M; Yang, Y; Holdsworth, S R; Kitching, A R

    2014-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A is increased both in serum and in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis, but direct evidence of pathogenicity is less well established. Administration of pristane to genetically intact mice results in the production of autoantibodies and proliferative glomerulonephritis, resembling human lupus nephritis. These studies sought to define the role of IL-17A in experimental lupus induced by pristane administration. Pristane was administered to wild-type (WT) and IL-17A(-/-) mice. Local and systemic immune responses were assessed after 6 days and 8 weeks, and autoimmunity, glomerular inflammation and renal injury were measured at 7 months. IL-17A production increased significantly 6 days after pristane injection, with innate immune cells, neutrophils (Ly6G(+)) and macrophages (F4/80(+)) being the predominant source of IL-17A. After 8 weeks, while systemic IL-17A was still readily detected in WT mice, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were diminished in the absence of endogenous IL-17A. Seven months after pristane treatment humoral autoimmunity was diminished in the absence of IL-17A, with decreased levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Renal inflammation and injury was less in the absence of IL-17A. Compared to WT mice, glomerular IgG, complement deposition, glomerular CD4(+) T cells and intrarenal expression of T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated proinflammatory mediators were decreased in IL-17A(-/-) mice. WT mice developed progressive proteinuria, but functional and histological renal injury was attenuated in the absence of IL-17A. Therefore, IL-17A is required for the full development of autoimmunity and lupus nephritis in experimental SLE, and early in the development of autoimmunity, innate immune cells produce IL-17A. PMID:24528105

  3. Radiation Induced Formation of Acrylated Palm Oil Nanoparticles using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Microemulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the preparation of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) nanoparticles using aqueous Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) microemulsion system. This microemulsion system which contains the dispersed APO nano droplets was subjected to the gamma irradiation to induce the formation of the crosslinked APO nanoparticle. After irradiation at higher doses, the size of APO nanoparticles was transformed from a submicron-sized to a nano-sized of the particles. Size decreasing might be due to the intermolecular and the intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during the irradiation process. (author)

  4. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Doppler-broadened five-level systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azeem B Mirza; Suneel Singh

    2014-02-01

    We study electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) of a probe field in a Dopplerbroadened five-level K-type atomic system driven by three strong laser (coupling) fields. Effect of wave-vector mismatch occurring when the coupling field frequency is higher than that of the probe field frequency ($_c < _p$) are considered. Under the influence of the coherent coupling fields, the steady-state linear susceptibility of the probe laser shows that the system can have single, double or triple EIT windows depending on the amplitude and detuning of the coupling fields.

  5. A systemic resistance inducing antiviral protein with N-glycosidase activity from Bougainvillea xbuttiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, S; Balasubrahmanyam, A; Sadhna, P; Kapoor, H; Lodha, M L

    2001-06-01

    An antiviral protein from Bougainvillea xbuttiana leaves induced systemic resistance in host plants N. glutinosa and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba against TMV and SRV, respectively which was reversed by actinomycin D, when applied immediately or shortly after antiviral protein treatment. When the inhibitor was applied to the host plant leaves post inoculation, it was effective if applied upto 4 h after virus infection. It also delayed the expression of symptoms in systemic hosts of TMV. The inhibitor showed characteristic N-glycosidase activity on 25S rRNA of tobacco ribosomes, suggesting that it could also be interfering with virus multiplication through ribosome-inactivation process. PMID:12562026

  6. System for Simulating the Embrittlement induced by Creep in Steel Weld

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, Koreaki; Suzuki, Jippei; Kondo, Takeshi; Marui, Mitsugu; 玉置, 維昭; 鈴木, 実平; 近藤, 武司; 丸井, 賦

    1990-01-01

    Welded Zones of some Cr-Mo steels are susceptible to the embrittlement when their weldments are used for high temperature services. This embrittlement appears as the phenomena of the low-ductility creep-fracture (LDCP), and the temper-embrittlement induced by creep (TEIC). A system which reproduces those phenomena in laboratory was proposed in this paper. This system was composed of the simulator of weld-thermal-cycle and the machine for creep-loading. The method and conditions for using this...

  7. A review of microbial induced corrosion in nuclear power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licina, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) relevant to nuclear power plant systems is reviewed. The long construction times associated with nuclear plants and the large number of redundant or standby systems where water is allowed to remain stagnant for long periods of time produce conditions under which MIC can occur. Carbon and low alloy steels, stainless steels, and copper alloy are all susceptible to MIC in raw water applications. Methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of MIC during construction, operation, and lay-up are discussed. Visual examination is noted to be particularly useful in performing preliminary assessments of MIC.

  8. A review of microbial induced corrosion in nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) relevant to nuclear power plant systems is reviewed. The long construction times associated with nuclear plants and the large number of redundant or standby systems where water is allowed to remain stagnant for long periods of time produce conditions under which MIC can occur. Carbon and low alloy steels, stainless steels, and copper alloy are all susceptible to MIC in raw water applications. Methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of MIC during construction, operation, and lay-up are discussed. Visual examination is noted to be particularly useful in performing preliminary assessments of MIC

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a cascade-type quantum well subband system under intense picosecond excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, S.; Eichenberg, B.; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Ustinov, V. M.; Seilmeier, A.

    2016-01-01

    The coherent light-matter interaction in a 4-level cascade-type subband system of an asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structure is studied in pump-probe transmission experiments with picosecond (ps) time resolution. Coupling two excited subbands by an intense mid-infrared laser pulse at low sample temperatures is found to result in a substantially increased transparency of the fundamental e1-e2 transition. We find a reduction of the absorption coefficient by ~80%, which is one of the most pronounced electromagnetically induced transparency in solid state systems observed so far.

  10. First Observation of Planet-Induced X-ray Emission: The System HD 179949

    OpenAIRE

    Saar, S. H.; Cuntz, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Hall, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first observation of planet-induced stellar X-ray activity, identified for the HD 179949 system, using Chandra / ACIS-S. The HD 179949 system consists of a close-in giant planet orbiting an F9V star. Previous ground-based observations already showed enhancements in Ca II K in phase with the planetary orbit. We find an ~30% increase in the X-ray flux over quiescent levels coincident with the phase of the Ca II enhancements. There is also a trend for the emission to be hotter at ...

  11. Modeling of induced mutation process in bacterial cells with defects in excision repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli bacteria cells with defects in uvrA and polA genes has been developed. The model describes in detail the reaction kinetics for excision repair system. The number of mismatches as results from translesion-synthesis is calculated for both wild-type and mutant cells. An effect of temporal modulation for amount of single-stranded DNA during post-replication repair is predicted. A comparison of repair system efficiency is conducted

  12. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. PMID:26979473

  13. The Numerical Analysis of Transmission Tower-Line System Wind-Induced Collapsed Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation of transmission tower-line systems' progressive collapse performance is considered as a major research hotspot and significant project, due to the increasing number of wind-induced collapse accidents recently. In this study, the finite element models for single tower and transmission tower-line system were established to simulate wind-induced progressive collapse by birth-to-death element technique in ABAQUS/Explicit. The wind field, based on the Kaimal fluctuating wind power spectrum and harmonic superposition method, was constructed by MATLAB commercial software. The current research focuses on the dynamic behaviour and the mechanism of a typical transmission tower-line system progressive collapse under wind action with clear step-by-step description. The numerical simulation results demonstrated that transmission tower-line system collapse mechanism depended on the number, position and last deformation of damage elements. Since the gallop effect of conductor and ground lines were ignored in the single tower model, the transmission tower-line system model, which has higher computational precision than the single tower model, is relatively accurate and recommended strongly in the design.

  14. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  15. Optical rogue waves and W-shaped solitons in the multiple self-induced transparency system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We study localized nonlinear waves on a plane wave background in the multiple self-induced transparency (SIT) system, which describes an important enhancement of the amplification and control of optical waves compared to the single SIT system. A hierarchy of exact multiparametric rational solutions in a compact determinant representation are presented. We demonstrate that, this family of solutions contains known rogue wave solution and unusual W-shaped soliton solution, which strictly corresponds to the linear stability analysis that involves modulation instability and stability regimes in the low perturbation frequency region. State transitions between rogue waves and W-shaped solitons as well as the higher-order nonlinear superposition modes are revealed by the suitable choice for the background wavenumber of electric field component. In particular, our results show that, the multiple SIT system admits stationary and nonstationary nonlinear modes in contrast to the results in the single SIT system. Correspo...

  16. Measurement-induced disturbance near Anderson localization in one-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the localization transition in several typical one-dimensional single-particle systems by means of measurement-induced disturbance (MID). The results show that the MID presents a rapid drop around the boundary between the localized state and extended ones, and the corresponding first-order derivative exhibits a behavior of divergence around the critical point for deterministic on-site potential systems (e.g. the quasi-periodic model). These characteristics can capture a phase diagram as well as the traditional method. For the non-deterministic on-site systems (e.g. the random dimer model), the states around the resonant energies possess relatively large values for MID, which means that they are extended. In addition, as the random potential ϵ b exceeds the critical value, the states possessing a large MID vanish completely. These results show that MID can be useful in detecting localization transition in these typical one-dimensional systems. (paper)

  17. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZOU Yan-Li

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N.Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs.It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength,there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced.On the other hand,for a given intermediate system size level,there ex/sts an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum.These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network.

  18. An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbingphys@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Li, Yong [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Z. [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, C.-P. [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-09-15

    We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.

  19. Detrimental effect of the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib in bacterial superantigen- and lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; Theuer, Jayne E; Patel, Robin; David, Chella S; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial superantigen (BSAg)-induced toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock are characterized by severe systemic inflammation. As nuclear factor kappaB (NF kappaB) plays an important role in inflammation and bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor widely used in cancer chemotherapy, is a potent inhibitor of NF kappaB activation, we evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic use of bortezomib in these conditions using murine models. Bortezomib prophylaxis significantly reduced serum levels of many cytokines and chemokines induced by BSAg. However, at 3 hours, serum level of TNF-a, an important cytokine implicated in TSS, was significantly reduced but not abolished. At 6 hours, there was no difference in the serum TNF-a levels between bortezomib treated and untreated mice challenged with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Paradoxically, all mice treated with bortezomib either before or after BSAg challenge succumbed to TSS. Neither bortezomib nor BSAg was lethal if given alone. Serum biochemical parameters and histopathological findings suggested acute liver failure as the possible cause of mortality. Liver tissue from SEB-challenged mice treated with bortezomib showed a significant reduction in NF kappaB activation. Because NF kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic pathways protect hepatocytes from TNF-alpha-induced cell death, inhibition of NF kappaB brought forth by bortezomib in the face of elevated TNF-alpha levels caused by BSAg or LPS is detrimental. PMID:20372109

  20. Iron modulates neuroleptic-induced effects related to the dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, D; Livne, E; Spanier, I; Zuk, R; Youdim, M B

    1993-09-01

    Long-term neuroleptic medication to schizophrenic patients is often associated with extrapyramidal side effects, of which tardive dyskinesia is the most severe. The mechanism by which neuroleptics induce these side effects is unclear. The dopaminergic system is the main target with which the neuroleptics interact in the brain. Intact dopaminergic function is dependent on normal iron metabolism. Thus, the relationship between iron and the neuroleptics may elucidate some new aspects of their mechanism of action. Indeed, peripheral iron status plays a crucial role in neuroleptic-induced dopamine supersensitivity. Moreover, neuroleptics such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine, alter the blood brain barrier (BBB) of the rat and enhance the normally restricted iron transport into the brain. Increased brain iron levels may be related to the toxic effects of these drugs since clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic with a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects, prohibits iron uptake into the brain but causes sedimentation of iron in brain blood vessels. The demonstration that peripheral iron concentrations affect neuroleptic-induced dopamine receptor supersensitivity as well as iron transport into the brain may have therapeutic significance. In addition, the different potentials of typical and atypical neuroleptics to increase iron transport into the brain may be related to the severity of the side effects they induce and to the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia. PMID:7901181

  1. Sucrose-induced analgesia in mice: Role of nitric oxide and opioid receptor-mediated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abtin Shahlaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanism of action of sweet substance-induced analgesia is thought to involve activation of the endogenous opioid system. The nitric oxide (NO pathway has a pivotal role in pain modulation of analgesic compounds such as opioids. Objectives: We investigated the role of NO and the opioid receptor-mediated system in the analgesic effect of sucrose ingestion in mice. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg of NO synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and 20 mg/kg of opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone on the tail flick response in sucrose ingesting mice. Results: Sucrose ingestion for 12 days induced a statistically significant increase in the latency of tail flick response which was unmodified by L-NAME, but partially inhibited by naltrexone administration. Conclusions: Sucrose-induced nociception may be explained by facilitating the release of endogenous opioid peptides. Contrary to some previously studied pain models, the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway had no role in thermal hyperalgesia in our study. We recommend further studies on the involvement of NO in other animals and pain models.

  2. Botanical and biological pesticides elicit a similar Induced Systemic Response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretali, Luca; Bernardo, Letizia; Butterfield, Timothy S; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato. Leaf application of Bacillus subtilis fostered Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in treated plants via the Jasmonic acid pathway, and enhanced production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phytoalexins and auxins. Changes in sterols and terpenes, as well as an increase in glucosinolates were also observed. Interestingly, azadirachtin-treated tomatoes also showed an increase in ISR and our results revealed that most of the enriched metabolites are shared with a B. subtilis treatment, suggesting conserved biochemical responses. These (un)expected findings indicate that plants are not insensitive to application of natural pesticide and while Azadirachtin is applied as a direct pesticide, it also stimulates a defense response in tomatoes very similar to B. subtilis induced ISR. PMID:27251587

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Induced Systemic Drought Tolerance Elicited by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Mi Cho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 induces systemic drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Microarray analysis was performed using the 22,800-gene Affymetrix GeneChips to identify differentially-expressed genes from plants colonized with or without P. chlororaphis O6 under drought stressed conditions or normal growth conditions. Root colonization in plants grown under regular irrigation condition increased transcript accumulation from genes associated with defense, response to reactive oxygen species, and auxin- and jasmonic acid-responsive genes, but decreased transcription factors associated with ethylene and abscisic acid signaling. The cluster of genes involved in plant disease resistance were up-regulated, but the set of drought signaling response genes were down-regulated in the P. chlororaphis O6-colonized under drought stress plants compared to those of the drought stressed plants without bacterial treatment. Transcripts of the jasmonic acid-marker genes, VSP1 and pdf-1.2, the salicylic acid regulated gene, PR-1, and the ethylene-response gene, HEL, also were up-regulated in plants colonized by P. chlororaphis O6, but differed in their responsiveness to drought stress. These data show how gene expression in plants lacking adequate water can be remarkably influenced by microbial colonization leading to plant protection, and the activation of the plant defense signal pathway induced by root colonization of P. chlororaphis O6 might be a key element for induced systemic tolerance by microbes.

  4. High-Pressure Induced New Phases and Properties in Typical Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tian

    2013-06-01

    High pressure introduces new phases by the rearrangement of atoms and reconfigurations of electronic states in materials, often with new physical and chemical phenomena. Study of the new phases in typical molecular systems under high pressure is an interesting subject, such as energy storage materials of solid hydrogen and polymeric nitrogen, hydrogen-rich compound with high-Tc superconductivity under high pressure, high pressure induced metallization of hydrogen, etc. High-pressure structures and pressure-induced phase transitions in the typical molecular solids, such as solid iodine, CHBr3, N2/CN, HBr/HCl, hydrogen-rich compounds (H2S, ZrH2, AsH3, BaReH9, etc.), and group IVA hydrides (Si2H6, Ge2H6, Sn2H6, etc.) are investigated extensively by means of first-principles density functional theory and extensive prediction strategies (molecular dynamics simulation, simulated annealing, soft mode phase transition, random structure-searching method and evolutionary methodology etc.). The new structures and new properties derived from pressure-induced phase transitions in these typical molecular systems have been observed. It is showed that high pressure provides a path for producing new materials with new properties.

  5. Inducing a Site Specific Replication Blockage in E. coli Using a Fluorescent Repressor Operator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettrick, Karla A; Lawrence, Nikki; Mason, Claire; Weaver, Georgia M; Corocher, Tayla-Ann; Grainge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles present on DNA, including tightly-bound proteins and various lesions, can severely inhibit the progression of the cell's replication machinery. The stalling of a replisome can lead to its dissociation from the chromosome, either in part or its entirety, leading to the collapse of the replication fork. The recovery from this collapse is a necessity for the cell to accurately complete chromosomal duplication and subsequently divide. Therefore, when the collapse occurs, the cell has evolved diverse mechanisms that take place to restore the DNA fork and allow replication to be completed with high fidelity. Previously, these replication repair pathways in bacteria have been studied using UV damage, which has the disadvantage of not being localized to a known site. This manuscript describes a system utilizing a Fluorescence Repressor Operator System (FROS) to create a site-specific protein block that can induce the stalling and collapse of replication forks in Escherichia coli. Protocols detail how the status of replication can be visualized in single living cells using fluorescence microscopy and DNA replication intermediates can be analyzed by 2-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis. Temperature sensitive mutants of replisome components (e.g. DnaBts) can be incorporated into the system to induce a synchronous collapse of the replication forks. Furthermore, the roles of the recombination proteins and helicases that are involved in these processes can be studied using genetic knockouts within this system. PMID:27583408

  6. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence measurements: Considerations when using Nd:YAG based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasovic, Maja S.; Sevic, Dragutin; Terzic, Mira; Marinkovic, Bratislav P.

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) and the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) have been shown to be methods which are fast and sensitive to provide information about the constituents in analyzed samples. TR-LIF and LIBS have similar hardware requirements. In this paper, we analyze some characteristics of TR-LIF/LIBS system implemented in our laboratory, considering the fact that the excitation part of the system is based on Nd:YAG laser and Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The laser is more than powerful enough (365 mJ at 1064 nm, variable OPO output >5 mJ) for LIBS, but somehow slow (the length of fundamental laser harmonic output pulse is about 5 ns) for fluorescence measurements in our present area of interest, namely plants and food products. Fortunately, the pulse length of tunable OPO output (320-475 nm) is less then 1 ns, so by means of a correct deconvolution procedure it is possible to measure the fluorescence lifetimes in the range as small as a few nanoseconds. The fluorescence detection part of our system is based on picosecond streak camera. Using the fluorescent dyes (Rhodamine B and Fluorescein) ethanol solutions we verified the analyzing capabilities of our TR-LIF system.

  7. Autophagy Genes Enhance Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Reactivation from Latency by Preventing Virus-Induced Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Buck, Michael D; Desai, Chandni; Zhang, Xin; Loginicheva, Ekaterina; Martinez, Jennifer; Freeman, Michael L; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Guan, Jun-Lin; He, You-Wen; Blackman, Marcia A; Handley, Scott A; Levine, Beth; Green, Douglas R; Reese, Tiffany A; Artyomov, Maxim N; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-01-13

    Host genes that regulate systemic inflammation upon chronic viral infection are incompletely understood. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection is characterized by latency in macrophages, and reactivation is inhibited by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Using a lysozyme-M-cre (LysMcre) expression system, we show that deletion of autophagy-related (Atg) genes Fip200, beclin 1, Atg14, Atg16l1, Atg7, Atg3, and Atg5, in the myeloid compartment, inhibited MHV68 reactivation in macrophages. Atg5 deficiency did not alter reactivation from B cells, and effects on reactivation from macrophages were not explained by alterations in productive viral replication or the establishment of latency. Rather, chronic MHV68 infection triggered increased systemic inflammation, increased T cell production of IFN-γ, and an IFN-γ-induced transcriptional signature in macrophages from Atg gene-deficient mice. The Atg5-related reactivation defect was partially reversed by neutralization of IFN-γ. Thus Atg genes in myeloid cells dampen virus-induced systemic inflammation, creating an environment that fosters efficient MHV68 reactivation from latency. PMID:26764599

  8. Engineered absorption enhancement and induced transparency in coupled molecular and plasmonic resonator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, Ronen; Artar, Alp; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice

    2013-06-12

    Coupled plasmonic resonators have become the subject of significant research interest in recent years as they provide a route to dramatically enhanced light-matter interactions. Often, the design of these coupled mode systems draws intuition and inspiration from analogies to atomic and molecular physics systems. In particular, they have been shown to mimic quantum interference effects, such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Fano resonances. This analogy also been used to describe the surface-enhanced absorption effect where a plasmonic resonance is coupled to a weak molecular resonance. These important phenomena are typically described using simple driven harmonic (or linear) oscillators (i.e., mass-on-a-spring) coupled to each other. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of an essential interdependence between the rate at which the system can be driven by an external field and its damping rate through radiative loss. This link is required in systems exhibiting time-reversal symmetry and energy conservation. Not only does it ensure an accurate and physically consistent description of resonant systems but leads directly to interesting new effects. Significantly, we demonstrate this dependence to predict a transition between EIT and electromagnetically induced absorption that is solely a function of the ratio of the radiative to intrinsic loss rates in coupled resonator systems. Leveraging the temporal coupled mode theory, we introduce a unique and intuitive picture that accurately describes these effects in coupled plasmonic/molecular and fully plasmonic systems. We demonstrate our approach's key features and advantages analytically as well as experimentally through surface-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and plasmonic metamaterial applications. PMID:23647070

  9. Development of assay method for radiological effects using radiation inducible gene expression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Michiaki; Ojima, Nobuhiko [National Research Inst. of Fisheries Science, Yokohama (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The purposes of this research project was to evaluate the effects of low-dose radiation on expression of genes, such as stress response genes, DNA repair enzyme genes, of which expression were inducible with radiation. Early embryo of zebra fish, Danio rerio was used as the subject to investigate radiation effects on its embryonic development and various adult tissues. In this year, screening and isolation of irradiation-induced gene were made with the fish and three new genes named as A31, A32 and A33 were identified from the fish embryo exposed to {gamma}-ray (60-Co). By retrieving the database, FASTA program it was found that there were no gene of which sequence was homologous to those of the three among the previously reported sequences. When undifferentiated early embryo was exposed to {gamma}-ray at 3 Gy, the expression of stress protein HSP70 was induced and its spot was detected on 2-dimensional electrophoresis for the sample after incubation with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that some {gamma}-ray-inducible phosphorylation would have occurred in an early embryo. Next, apoptosis in the fish embryo was examined using mount TUNEL staining method. After {gamma}-ray exposure at 5-20 Gy, apoptosis was observed all over the whole embryo, especially it was very distinctive on the brain-nervous system and membrane fins. This indicated that these tissues are much sensitive to radiation and the sensitivity is different among various tissues of the embryo. Moreover, time-course changes of the caspase activity were monitored and the caspase activity was found to increase depending on the dose of {gamma}-ray exposure. These results suggested that {gamma}-ray exposure might cause gene activation involved in the stress-inducible apoptosis. (M.N.)

  10. Development of assay method for radiological effects using radiation inducible gene expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this research project was to evaluate the effects of low-dose radiation on expression of genes, such as stress response genes, DNA repair enzyme genes, of which expression were inducible with radiation. Early embryo of zebra fish, Danio rerio was used as the subject to investigate radiation effects on its embryonic development and various adult tissues. In this year, screening and isolation of irradiation-induced gene were made with the fish and three new genes named as A31, A32 and A33 were identified from the fish embryo exposed to γ-ray (60-Co). By retrieving the database, FASTA program it was found that there were no gene of which sequence was homologous to those of the three among the previously reported sequences. When undifferentiated early embryo was exposed to γ-ray at 3 Gy, the expression of stress protein HSP70 was induced and its spot was detected on 2-dimensional electrophoresis for the sample after incubation with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that some γ-ray-inducible phosphorylation would have occurred in an early embryo. Next, apoptosis in the fish embryo was examined using mount TUNEL staining method. After γ-ray exposure at 5-20 Gy, apoptosis was observed all over the whole embryo, especially it was very distinctive on the brain-nervous system and membrane fins. This indicated that these tissues are much sensitive to radiation and the sensitivity is different among various tissues of the embryo. Moreover, time-course changes of the caspase activity were monitored and the caspase activity was found to increase depending on the dose of γ-ray exposure. These results suggested that γ-ray exposure might cause gene activation involved in the stress-inducible apoptosis. (M.N.)

  11. Dynamic random links enhance diversity-induced coherence in strongly coupled neuronal systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Kumar Kamal; Sudeshna Sinha

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the influence of diversity on the temporal regularity of spiking in a ring of coupled model neurons. We find diversity-induced coherence in the spike events, with an optimal amount of parametric heterogeneity at the nodal level yielding the greatest regularity in the spike train. Further, we investigate the system under random spatial connections, where the links are both dynamic and quenched, and in all the cases we observe marked diversity-induced coherence. We quantitatively find the effect of coupling strength and random rewiring probability, on the optimal coherence that can be achieved under diversity. Our results indicate that the largest coherence in the spike events emerge when the coupling strength is high, and when the underlying connections are mostly random and dynamically changing.

  12. Data collection and examinations supporting assessment of factors inducing cracking in pressurized components of LWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of the project is to bring up to date and further verify existing information and knowledge of factors and conditions inducing cracking (strain-induced crack corrosion, stress crack corrosion, fatigue). For this purpose, systematic examinations have been carried out, and available results of inspections and in-service performance data of components of relevance to nuclear power plant safety have been reviewed. With respect to stress crack corrosion sensitivity and safety of reactor pressure vessel steels used in BWR systems, a major task was to evaluate and comment on an existing VGB report dealing with these aspects. The results of this review show unrestricted agreement with the general statement of the VGB report. (orig./CB)

  13. Prediction of solar induced currents and effects on power transmission systems in central Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, W. R.; Boerner, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    The auroral-electrojet zone covers three quarters of Manitoba and consequently, solar storms strongly affect transmission lines. Harmonics are generated at transformers due to the saturation of their cores by induced currents, and the level of harmonics produced may cause malfunction of control relays, and yield unacceptable distortions in normal ac waveforms. The expected effects of long ac transmission systems were studied with emphasis on a 500 kv line to be built from Winnipeg to Minneapolis-St. Paul. Spectral analysis of induced current records from Manitoba Hydro's LaVerendrye station and magnetograms from IMS stations in Manitoba were used along with results of Campbell's work on the Alaskan pipeline induction problem (1978) in order to predict periodic and surge currents. It is concluded that the surge currents will produce significant levels of harmonics and corresponding operating problems during magnetic storms.

  14. Plasmon induced transparency in loop-stub resonator-coupled waveguide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiulin; Wang, Faqiang; Liang, Ruisheng; Wei, Zhongchao; Meng, Hongyun; Zhong, Jiewen; Jiang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    We firstly investigate plasmon induced transparency (PIT) effect in a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide coupled to a single loop stub resonator by finite difference time domain method (FDTD). Compared with previous PIT sup based on MDM waveguide, PIT phenomena can be realized in a single plasmonic composite nanocavity without employment of additional optical elements. Plasmon induced transparency windows can be controlled by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the vertical branches or the horizontal branch in the plasmonic structure. The red-shift of PIT peak is almost linearly proportional to the refractive index of the horizontal branch. This plasmonic system takes the advantages of easy fabrication and compactness. The results may pave a way for the dynamic control of light in highly integrated optical circuits, which can realize ultrafast switching, light storage and nanosensor devices.

  15. Design concepts for simulators of EMP-induced surges in the electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nation's electric power system would be subject to induced surges in the event of a high altitude nuclear burst. The HEMP would be coupled to overhead power lines and cause severe overvoltage to components connected to the line. This paper discusses the design of pulsed power equipment needed to simulate this induced EMP. A facility is described which is capable of testing the vulnerability of components by applying appropriate voltage and current waveforms. The pulser can provide waveforms under a variety of test conditions to meet the requirements of different types of components. A 3-5 MV Marx pulser is described. It has the capability of generating a fast rising voltage followed by two distinct exponential decays. The testing of components, charged with their normal voltage is also described

  16. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolja eCernak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as 1 direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and 2 via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body’s fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.

  17. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J; Jung, Sabine C; Pascual, Jose A; Pozo, María J

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development. PMID:23805146

  18. Identification of a locus in Arabidopsis controlling both the expression of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) and basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Selected nonpathogenic rhizobacteria with biological disease control activity are able to elicit an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were screened for their potential

  19. An Ontology for Identifying Cyber Intrusion Induced Faults in Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James; Guan, Jian

    This paper presents an ontological framework that permits formal representations of process control systems, including elements of the process being controlled and the control system itself. A fault diagnosis algorithm based on the ontological model is also presented. The algorithm can identify traditional process elements as well as control system elements (e.g., IP network and SCADA protocol) as fault sources. When these elements are identified as a likely fault source, the possibility exists that the process fault is induced by a cyber intrusion. A laboratory-scale distillation column is used to illustrate the model and the algorithm. Coupled with a well-defined statistical process model, this fault diagnosis approach provides cyber security enhanced fault diagnosis information to plant operators and can help identify that a cyber attack is underway before a major process failure is experienced.

  20. Effect of bentonite on radiation induced dissolution of UO{sub 2} in an aqueous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro Fidalgo, Alexandre, E-mail: alebf@kth.se; Sundin, Sara, E-mail: saramara@kth.se; Jonsson, Mats, E-mail: matsj@kth.se

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the impact of bentonite on the process of radiation induced oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2} in an aqueous system, the dissolution of U(VI) and consumption of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} over time has been studied. In addition, γ-irradiation experiments were performed to study a more relevant and complex system, serving as a comparison with the previously stated system. In both cases, the experiments revealed that the presence of bentonite in water could either delay or prevent in part the release of uranium to the environment. The cause is mainly attributed to the scavenging of radiolytic oxidants rather than to the adsorption of uranium onto bentonite.

  1. Sublimation-induced orbital perturbations of extrasolar active asteroids and comets: application to white dwarf systems

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri; Gaensicke, Boris T

    2015-01-01

    The metal budgets in some white dwarf (WD) atmospheres reveal that volatile-rich circumstellar bodies must both exist in extrasolar systems and survive the giant branch phases of stellar evolution. The resulting behaviour of these active asteroids or comets which orbit WDs is not well-understood, but may be be strongly influenced by sublimation due to stellar radiation. Here we develop a model, generally applicable to any extrasolar system with a main sequence or WD star, that traces sublimation-induced orbital element changes in approximately km-sized extrasolar minor planets and comets traveling within hundreds of au. We derive evolution equations on orbital timescales and for arbitrarily steep power-law sublimation dependencies on distance, and place our model in a Solar system context. We also demonstrate the importance of coupling sublimation and general relativity, and the orbital consequences of outgassing in arbitrary directions. We prove that nongravitational accelerations alone cannot result in orbi...

  2. Collective dynamics of multimode bosonic systems induced by weak quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Mekhov, Igor B

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to strong projective measurement, which freezes the system evolution by quantum Zeno effect, weak measurement can effectively compete with standard unitary dynamics leading to nontrivial effects. Here we consider global weak measurement addressing several bosonic modes at the same time, thus preserving quantum superpositions due to the lack of which path information. While for certainty we focus on ultracold atoms, the idea can be generalized to other multimode quantum systems, including various quantum emitters, optomechanical arrays, and purely photonic systems with multiple-path interferometers. We show that light scattering from ultracold bosons in optical lattices can be used for defining macroscopically occupied spatial modes that exhibit long-range coherent dynamics. Even for constant external measurement, the quantum measurement backaction acts on the atomic ensemble quasi-periodically and induces collective oscillatory dynamics of all the atoms. We introduce an effective model for the evo...

  3. Thermal noise induced stochastic resonance in self organizing Fe nanoparticle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural world is replete with examples of multistable systems, known to respond to periodic modulations and produce a signal that exhibits resonance with noise amplitude. This is a concept not demonstrated in pure materials, which involve a measured physical property. In a thermoremanent magnetization experiment with a common magnetic material, Fe, in the nanoparticulate form, we establish how magnetization in a system of dilute spins during dissipation of stored magnetic energy breaks up into spontaneous oscillatory behavior. Starting at 175 K and aided by temperature (stochastic noise) the oscillation amplitude goes through a maximum reminiscent of stochastic resonance. Our observation of thermal noise induced coherent resonance is due to intrinsic self-organizing magnetic dynamics of the Fe nanoparticle system without applying any external periodic force. These results yield new possibilities in the design of magnetic materials and a platform to understand stochastic interference and phase synchronization in neural activity, as models for neural communication. (paper)

  4. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry J.; Brown, Jeffrey D.; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Stephen J.; Brubaker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnson's arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  5. Tetracycline-inducible Expression Systems: New Strategies and Practices in the Transgenic Mouse Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Xigu CHEN; Dong XIAO

    2007-01-01

    To accurately analyze the function of transgene(s) of interest in transgenic mice, and to generate credible transgenic animal models for multifarious human diseases to precisely mimic human disease states, it is critical to tightly regulate gene expression in the animals in a conditional manner. The ability to turn gene expression on or off in the restricted cells or tissues at specific time permits unprecedented flexibility in dissecting gene functions in health and disease. Pioneering studies in conditional transgene expression have brought about the development of a wide variety of controlled gene expression systems, which meet this criterion. Among them, the tetracycline-controlled expression systems (e.g. Tet-off system and Tet-on system) have been used extensively in vitro and in vivo. In recent years, some strategies derived from tetracycline-inducible system alone, as well as the combined use of Tet-based systems and Cre/lox P switching gene expression system, have been newly developed to allow more flexibility for exploring gene functions in health and disease, and produce credible transgenic animal models for various human diseases. In this review these newly developed strategies are discussed.

  6. Transient changes in the limbic histaminergic system after systemic kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Sallmen, Tina; Karlstedt, Kaj; Panula, Pertti

    2005-10-01

    Increased brain histamine is reported to protect against convulsions. We used systemic kainic acid (KA) administration to study possible changes of the histaminergic system in rat brain in status epilepticus (SE). Robust increases in brain histamine concentrations and numbers of histamine-immunoreactive nerve fibers were detected in the piriform cortex (Pir) and amygdala after KA injection, suggesting a reactive increase, which is opposite to other published aminergic transmitter responses. These changes, lasting several weeks, might be coupled to a mechanism unrelated to the anticonvulsive function of histamine. Transient increases in mRNA expression of H(3) receptor isoforms with a full-length third intracellular loop, coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, were detected first in the hippocampal CA3c area, followed by the Pir and amygdala and then the hippocampal CA1 area. These results suggest that histamine and H3 receptors, which also control the release of GABA and glutamate, might be involved in convulsive SE. PMID:16137576

  7. Controlled expression of functional miR-122 with a ligand inducible expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzertzinis George

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the biological function of miRNAs, and to achieve sustained or conditional gene silencing with siRNAs, systems that allow controlled expression of these small RNAs are desirable. Methods for cell delivery of siRNAs include transient transfection of synthetic siRNAs and expression of siRNAs in the form of short hairpins using constitutive RNA polymerase III promoters. Systems employing constitutive RNA polymerase II promoters have been used to express miRNAs. However, for many experimental systems these methods do not offer sufficient control over expression. Results We present an inducible mammalian expression system that allows for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNAs that are processed in vivo to generate miRNAs or siRNAs. Using modified nuclear receptors in a two hybrid format and a synthetic ligand, the Rheoswitch system allows rapid and reversible induction of mRNA expression. We evaluated the system's properties using miR-122 as a model miRNA. A short hairpin encoding miR-122 cloned into the expression vector was correctly processed to yield mature miRNA upon induction with ligand and the amount of miRNA produced was commensurate with the concentration of ligand. miR-122 produced in this way was capable of silencing both endogenous target genes and appropriately designed reporter genes. Stable cell lines were obtained, resulting in heritable, consistent and reversible expression of miR-122, a significant advantage over transient transfection. Based on these results, obtained with a microRNA we adapted the method to produce a desired siRNA by designing short hairpins that can be accurately and efficiently processed. Conclusion We established an Inducible expression system with a miR-122 backbone that can be used for functional studies of miRNAs and their targets, in heterologous cells that do not normally express the miRNA. Additionally we demonstrate the feasibility of using the miR-122 backbone to

  8. Laser-induced disruption of systemically administered liposomes for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Larabi, Malika; Shinde, Rajesh; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M.; Guccione, Samira; Contag, Christopher H.

    2009-07-01

    Liposomal formulations of drugs have been shown to enhance drug efficacy by prolonging circulation time, increasing local concentration and reducing off-target effects. Controlled release from these formulations would increase their utility, and hyperthermia has been explored as a stimulus for targeted delivery of encapsulated drugs. Use of lasers as a thermal source could provide improved control over the release of the drug from the liposomes with minimal collateral tissue damage. Appropriate methods for assessing local release after systemic delivery would aid in testing and development of better formulations. We use in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of luciferin, used as a model small molecule, and demonstrate laser-induced release from liposomes in animal models after systemic delivery. These liposomes were tested for luciferin release between 37 and 45 °C in PBS and serum using bioluminescence measurements. In vivo studies were performed on transgenic reporter mice that express luciferase constitutively throughout the body, thus providing a noninvasive readout for controlled release following systemic delivery. An Nd:YLF laser was used (527 nm) to heat tissues and induce rupture of the intravenously delivered liposomes in target tissues. These data demonstrate laser-mediated control of small molecule delivery using thermally sensitive liposomal formulations.

  9. Flavonoids are systemically induced by UV-B in Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonoid concentration is increased by UV-B irradiation, but it is unknown if this is a local or systemic response. Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible molecule involved in the UV-B response. NO regulates the expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of flavonoids. The aim of this work was to determine if maize flavonoids are local or systemically induced by UV-B, and what is the participation of NO in this response. We have used maize seedlings where the second leaf was sprayed with H2O or cPTIO (a NO scavenger), and then completely covered (C), partially covered (P) or uncovered (U) before to be UV-B irradiated. The results show a 60% increase in the NO concentration of U, 42% in P and 35% in C respectively. Flavonoid concentration increased 90% in C, 70% in P and 40% in U. Flavonoid concentration was reduced when leaves were pretreated with cPTIO before the UV-B irradiation. RT-PCR shows that CHS was up-regulated by UV-B in U, P and C, but downregulated with cPTIO. We have analyzed the subcellular localization of flavonoid and NO in UV-B irradiated plants. Flavonoid localization was coincident with the NO presence in the irradiated surface of the leaves and flavonoids were detected in vesicles. These results indicate that flavonoids are systemically induced by UV-B in a NO-related mechanism. (authors)

  10. Systemic chemotherapy induces microsatellite instability in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic chemotherapy is an important part of treatment for breast cancer. We conducted the present study to evaluate whether systemic chemotherapy could produce microsatellite instability (MSI) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction of breast cancer patients. We studied 119 sequential blood samples from 30 previously untreated breast cancer patients before, during and after chemotherapy. For comparison, we also evaluated 20 women who had no relevant medical history (control group). In 27 out of 30 patients we observed MSI in at least one sample, and six patients had loss of heterozygosity. We found a significant correlation between the number of MSI events per sample and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (P < 0.0001). We also observed an inverse correlation between the percentage of cells positive for hMSH2 and the number of MSI events per sample (P = 0.00019) and use of alkylating agents (P = 0.019). We conclude that systemic chemotherapy may induce MSI and loss of heterozygosity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients receiving alkylating agents, possibly mediated by a chemotherapy-induced decrease in the expression of hMSH2. These effects may be related to the generation of secondary leukaemia in some patients, and may also intensify the genetic instability of tumours and increase resistance to treatment

  11. Neonatal Systemic AAV Induces Tolerance to CNS Gene Therapy in MPS I Dogs and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Lin, Gloria; Choa, Ruth; Gurda, Brittney L; Bagel, Jessica; O'Donnell, Patricia; Sikora, Tracey; Ruane, Therese; Wang, Ping; Tarantal, Alice F; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Wilson, James M

    2015-08-01

    The potential host immune response to a nonself protein poses a fundamental challenge for gene therapies targeting recessive diseases. We demonstrate in both dogs and nonhuman primates that liver-directed gene transfer using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in neonates induces a persistent state of immunological tolerance to the transgene product, substantially improving the efficacy of subsequent vector administration targeting the central nervous system (CNS). We applied this approach to a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a progressive neuropathic lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). MPS I dogs treated systemically in the first week of life with a vector expressing canine IDUA did not develop antibodies against the enzyme and exhibited robust expression in the CNS upon intrathecal AAV delivery at 1 month of age, resulting in complete correction of brain storage lesions. Newborn rhesus monkeys treated systemically with AAV vector expressing human IDUA developed tolerance to the transgene, resulting in high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IDUA expression and no antibody induction after subsequent CNS gene therapy. These findings suggest that inducing tolerance to the transgene product during a critical period in immunological development can improve the efficacy and safety of gene therapy. PMID:26022732

  12. Receptor-Induced Dilatation in the Systemic and Intrarenal Adaptation to Pregnancy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Gomes, Thiago S.; Reis, Luciana A.; Ferreira, Alice T.; Razvickas, Clara V.; Schor, Nestor; Boim, Mirian A.

    2009-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with systemic and intrarenal vasodilatation resulting in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This adaptive response occurs in spite of elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, we evaluated the potential mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. The reactivity of the mesangial cells (MCs) cultured from 14-day-pregnant rats to Ang II was measured through changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Cai]). The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the Ang II-induced vasodilatation receptor AT2, and the relaxin (LGR7) receptor were evaluated in cultured MCs and in the aorta, renal artery and kidney cortex by real time-PCR. The intrarenal distribution of LGR7 was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The MCs displayed a relative insensitivity to Ang II, which was paralleled by an impressive increase in the expression level of iNOS, AT2 and LGR7. These results suggest that the MCs also adapt to the pregnancy, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the glomerular surface area even in the presence of high levels of Ang II. The mRNA expression levels of AT2 and LGR7 also increased in the aorta, renal artery and kidney of the pregnant animals, whereas the expression of the AT1 did not significantly change. This further suggests a role of these vasodilatation-induced receptors in the systemic and intrarenal adaptation during pregnancy. LGR7 was localized in the glomeruli and on the apical membrane of the tubular cells, with stronger labeling in the kidneys of pregnant rats. These results suggest a role of iNOS, AT2, and LGR7 in the systemic vasodilatation and intrarenal adaptation to pregnancy and also suggest a pivotal role for relaxin in the tubular function during gestation. PMID:19287481

  13. Targeting ALCAM in the cryo-treated tumour microenvironment successfully induces systemic anti-tumour immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo-Saito, Chie; Fuwa, Takafumi; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Cryoablative treatment has been widely used for treating cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacies are still controversial. The molecular mechanisms of the cryo-induced immune responses, particularly underlying the ineffectiveness, remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified a new molecular mechanism involved in the cryo failure. We used cryo-ineffective metastatic tumour models that murine melanoma B16-F10 cells were subcutaneously and intravenously implanted into C57BL/6 mice. When the subcutaneous tumours were treated cryoablation on day 7 after tumour implantation, cells expressing activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) were significantly expanded not only locally in the treated tumours but also systemically in spleen and bone marrow of the mice. The cryo-induced ALCAM(+) cells including CD45(-) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells significantly suppressed interferon γ production and cytotoxicity of tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells via ALCAM expressed in these cells. This suggests that systemic expansion of the ALCAM(+) cells negatively switches host-immune directivity to the tumour-supportive mode. Intratumoural injection with anti-ALCAM blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) following the cryo treatment systemically induced tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells with higher cytotoxic activities, resulting in suppression of tumour growth and metastasis in the cryo-resistant tumour models. These suggest that expansion of ALCAM(+) cells is a determinant of limiting the cryo efficacy. Further combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-CTLA4 mAb optimized the anti-tumour efficacy of the dual-combination therapy. Targeting ALCAM may be a promising strategy for overcoming the cryo ineffectiveness leading to the better practical use of cryoablation in clinical treatment of cancer. PMID:27208904

  14. Delay induced transitions in an asymmetry bistable system and stochastic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The delay Fokker-Planck equation is given for an asymmetry bistable system with correlated Gaussian white noises. The small delay approximation based on the probability density approach is used and the approximate stationary probability density function is obtained. The phenomenon of delay induced transitions is found. When a weak periodic signal is added, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance is investigated. Expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained by using the two-state theory. It is shown that the time delay can suppress or promote the stochastic resonance phenomenon.

  15. Iptakalim rescues human pulmonary artery endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced nitric oxide system dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Feng; Zuo, Xiang-Rong; Wang, Qiang; ZHANG, SHI-JIANG; Xie, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hypoxia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production, and whether iptakalim may rescue human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) from hypoxia-induced NO system dysfunction. HPAECs were cultured under hypoxic conditions in the absence or presence of 0.1, 10 and 1,000 μM iptakalim or the combination of 10 μM iptakalim and 1, 10 and 100 μM glibenclamide for 24 h, and the eNOS activity and NO levels...

  16. Quantum phase transition in field-induced ordering phases of anisotropic Haldane systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being motivated by the novel phase transition found in the Haldane compound, Ni(C5H14N2)2N3(PF6), we have investigated the field-induced quantum phase transitions in the anisotropic S=1 Haldane system by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. With increasing magnetic fields, in addition to the Haldane to ordered phase transition, the spin-reorientation transition between the ordered phases is predicted to occur in the case where the magnetic field is inclined from the principal axes of the anisotropy. Physical consequences of this transition are discussed in connection with the experimental result

  17. Absorption Changes Induced by Off-Resonance Driving a Degenerate Two-Level System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alteration of atomic absorption via quantum coherence is observed in the degenerate two-level atomic system. It is shown that when the detuning of coupling field equals to that of probe light, i.e. two-photon resonance, the reduction of atomic absorption via electromagnetically induced transparency occurs. However, when we tune the coupling field to two-photon off-resonance, the enhancement of absorption is obtained for the probe field. The influences of one-photon detuning and intensity of coupling field on absorption are also experimentally demonstrated. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  18. Adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with transport measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T

  19. Phenobarbitone induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navreet K. Natt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS is a life threatening cutaneous drug reaction with visceral involvement and hematological abnormalities. Being a rare side effect, it is often under-reported and misdiagnosed. The fatal adverse drug reaction is associated most commonly with aromatic anti-epileptics phenytoin, carbamazepine and less frequently with phenobarbitone. Here, we report a case of phenobarbitone induced DRESS in a 1 year old male child. He succumbed to fulminant hepatic failure inspite of being put on steroids, hepatoprotectives, antibiotics and ventilatory support. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 333-335

  20. An Inducible System for Rapid Degradation of Specific Cellular Proteins Using Proteasome Adaptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmington, Shameika R.; Matouschek, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A common way to study protein function is to deplete the protein of interest from cells and observe the response. Traditional methods involve disrupting gene expression but these techniques are only effective against newly synthesized proteins and leave previously existing and stable proteins untouched. Here, we introduce a technique that induces the rapid degradation of specific proteins in mammalian cells by shuttling the proteins to the proteasome for degradation in a ubiquitin-independent manner. We present two implementations of the system in human culture cells that can be used individually to control protein concentration. Our study presents a simple, robust, and flexible technology platform for manipulating intracellular protein levels. PMID:27043013

  1. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Eberhard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. METHODS: 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. RESULTS: The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001. This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038, IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002 and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124 in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050 at day 21 of gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL

  2. Macroscopic effects in electromagnetically-induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) in a Doppler-broadened cascaded three-level system. We decompose the susceptibility responsible for the EIT resonance into a linear and a nonlinear part, and the EIT resonance reflects mainly the characteristics of the nonlinear susceptibility. It is found that the macroscopic polarization interference effect plays a crucial role in determining the EIT resonance spectrum. To obtain a Doppler-free spectrum there must be polarization interference between atoms of different velocities. A dressed-state model, which analyzes the velocities at which the atoms are in resonance with the dressed states through Doppler frequency shifting, is employed to explain the results. (paper)

  3. Radio Wave 'Messengers' of Periodic Gravitational Radiation and the Problem of Gravitationally Induced Nonlinearity in Electrodynamic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Balakin, A. B.; Murzakhanov, Z. G.; Kisun'ko, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a gravitationally induced nonlinearity in hierarchic systems. We consider the generation of extremely low-frequency radio waves with a frequency of the periodic gravitational radiation; the generation is due to an induced nonlinear self-action of electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of the gravitational-radiation source. These radio waves are a fundamentally new type of response of an electrodynamic system to gravitational radiation. That is why we here use an unconventional t...

  4. An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID:27194587

  5. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  6. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the mechanisms involved in the LPS-induced preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, María Victoria; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Cella, Maximiliano; Burdet, Juliana; Franchi, Ana María; Aisemberg, Julieta

    2015-12-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a strong causal relationship between infection and preterm births. Intrauterine infection elicits an immune response involving the release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and prostaglandins (PG) that trigger uterine contractions and parturition events. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Similarly to PG, endocannabinoids are implicated in different aspects of reproduction, such as maintenance of pregnancy and parturition. Little is known about the involvement of endocannabinoids on the onset of labor in an infectious milieu. Here, using a mouse model of preterm labor induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we explored changes on the expression of components of endocannabinoid system (ECS). We have also determined whether AEA and CB antagonists alter PG production that induces labor. We observed an increase in uterine N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression (NAPE-PLD, the enzyme that synthesizes AEA) upon LPS treatment. Activity of catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) did not change significantly. In addition, we also found that LPS modulated uterine cannabinoid receptors expression by downregulating Cb2 mRNA levels and upregulating CB1 protein expression. Furthermore, LPS and AEA induced PGF2a augmentation, and this was reversed by antagonizing CB1 receptor. Collectively, our results suggest that ECS may be involved in the mechanism by which infection causes preterm birth. PMID:26347521

  7. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI

  8. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of 14C-β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of β-lactoglobulin with casein. 14C- and 3H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of 3H to 14C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, αs2-casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment

  9. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE2. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE2 occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence of

  10. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: carlos.leite@pucrs.br [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-003 (Brazil); Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Rosemberg, Denis Broock [Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó, Chapecó, CEP 89809-000 (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence

  11. A system for measuring defect induced beam modulation on inertial confinement fusion-class laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Mike; Hawley-Fedder, Ruth; Widmayer, Clay; Williams, Wade; Weinzapfel, Carolyn; Roberts, Dave

    2005-12-01

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm2 and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO2 lasers.

  12. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  13. Flight-induced inhibition of the cerebral median peptidergic neurosecretory system in Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the effects of a 1-hr period of flight on the peptidergic pars intercerebralis (PI)-corpus cardiacum storage part (CCS) system in male Locusta migratoria, particularly the effect on material in this system stained by a histochemical method for peptidergic neurosecretory material (NSM) or labeled by in vivo incorporation of radioactive amino acid molecules. By use of an automatic image analysis system a number of parameters of the stained or radioactively labeled substances were measured to quantify the flight-induced effects and to get information on the manner in which the neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI and their axonal endings in the CCS accommodate changing amounts of NSM. The CCS of flown locusts contained distinctly more stained and radioactively labeled substances than the CCS of unflown locusts. A tendency to similar differences was observed in the cluster of neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI. The results indicate that 1 hr flight inhibited the release of NSM by the PI-CCS system. After the onset of reduced release activity by flight, some NSM continued to be synthesized and transported from the PI to the CCS, gradually filling up and expanding the entire PI-CCS system, the NSM at the same time becoming more and more densely packed. It is concluded that the peptidergic PI-CCS system is not actively involved in the control of flight metabolism or flight behavior

  14. Renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction: Potential protective role of Angiotensin (1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurta', Anna; Zambelli, Vanessa; Bellani, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is a feared complication of mechanical ventilation that adversely affects the outcome of intensive care patients. Human and animal studies demonstrate atrophy and ultrastructural alteration of diaphragmatic muscular fibers attributable to increased oxidative stress, depression of the anabolic pathway regulated by Insulin-like growing factor 1 and increased proteolysis. The renin-angiotensin system, through its main peptide Angiotensin II, plays a major role in skeletal muscle diseases, mainly increasing oxidative stress and inducing insulin resistance, atrophy and fibrosis. Conversely, its counter-regulatory peptide Angiotensin (1-7) has a protective role in these processes. Recent data on rodent models show that renin-angiotensin system is activated after mechanical ventilation and that infusion of Angiotensin II induces diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy. Given: (A) common pathways shared by ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and skeletal muscle pathology induced by renin-angiotensin system, (B) evidences of an involvement of renin-angiotensin system in diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction, we hypothesize that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, while Angiotensin (1-7) can have a protective effect on this pathological process. The activation of renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be demonstrated by quantification of its main components in the diaphragm of ventilated humans or animals. The infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) in an established rodent model of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be used to test its potential protective role, that can be further confirmed with the infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) antagonists like A-779. Verifying this hypothesis can help in understanding the processes involved in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction pathophysiology and open new possibilities for its

  15. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of depletion-induced interactions for soft matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendruk, Tyler N., E-mail: tyler.shendruk@physics.ox.ac.uk [The Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Bertrand, Martin; Harden, James L.; Slater, Gary W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Haan, Hendrick W. de [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2014-12-28

    Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA)) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

  16. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation. PMID

  17. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Jing Piao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC, a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1, which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1 and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  18. System dynamic instabilities induced by sliding contact: A numerical analysis with experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, J.; Massi, F.; Saulot, A.; Renouf, M.; D`Ambrogio, W.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical systems present several contact surfaces between deformable bodies. The contact interface can be either static (joints) or in sliding (active interfaces). The sliding interfaces can have several roles and according to their application they can be developed either for maximizing the friction coefficient and the energy dissipation (e.g. brakes) or rather to allow the relative displacement at joints with a maximum efficiency. In both cases the coupling between system and local contact dynamics can bring to system dynamics instabilities (e.g. brake squeal or squeaking of hip prostheses). This results in unstable vibrations of the system, induced by the oscillation of the contact forces. In the literature, a large number of works deal with such kind of instabilities and are mainly focused on applied problems such as brake squeal noise. This paper shows a more general numerical analysis of a simple system constituted by two bodies in sliding contact: a rigid cylinder rotating inside a deformable one. The parametrical Complex Eigenvalue Analysis and the transient numerical simulations show how the friction forces can give rise to in-plane dynamic instabilities due to the interaction between two system modes, even for such a simple system characterized by one deformable body. Results from transient simulations highlight the key role of realistic values of the material damping to have convergence of the model and, consequently, reliable physical results. To this aim an experimental estimation of the material damping has been carried out. Moreover, the simplicity of the system allows for a deeper analysis of the contact instability and a balance of the energy flux among friction, system vibrations and damping. The numerical results have been validated by comparison with experimental ones, obtained by a specific test bench developed to reproduce and analyze the contact friction instabilities.

  19. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [3H]glucose and 2-deoxy[14C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

  20. Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geremew Tasew

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL.

  1. Activation of endocannabinoid system in the rat basolateral amygdala improved scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaei, Seyed Ershad; Rezayof, Ameneh; Pourmotabbed, Ali; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-15

    The current study was designed to examine the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in scopolamine-induced memory impairment in adult male Wistar rats. The animals were bilaterally implanted with the cannulas in the BLA and submitted to a step-through type passive avoidance task to measure the memory formation. The results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of different doses of scopolamine (0.5-1.5mg/kg) immediately after the training phase (post-training) impaired memory consolidation. Bilateral microinjection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 1-4ng/rat), into the BLA significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment. On the other hand, co-administration of AM251, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (0.25-1ng/rat, intra-BLA), with an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), significantly impaired memory consolidation and mimicked the response of a higher dose of scopolamine. It is important to note that post-training intra-BLA microinjections of the same doses of ACPA or AM251 alone had no effect on memory consolidation. Moreover, the blockade of the BLA CB1 receptors by 0.3ng/rat of AM251 prevented ACPA-induced improvement of the scopolamine response. In view of the known actions of the drugs used, the present data pointed to the involvement of the BLA CB1 receptors in scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment. Furthermore, it seems that a functional interaction between the BLA endocannabinoid and cholinergic muscarinic systems may be critical for memory formation. PMID:27230394

  2. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  3. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  4. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO2 therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. → Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO2 infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. → These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO2 alone. → NaNO2-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO2 with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO2 on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO2, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO2 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  5. Interaction-Induced Characteristic Length in Strongly Many-Body Localized Systems

    CERN Document Server

    He, Rong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a numerical method for explicitly constructing a complete set of local integrals of motion (LIOM) and definitely show the existence of LIOM for strongly many-body localized systems. The method starts with a complete set of maximally localized guessed LIOM, gradually deforms it into a complete set of true LIOM. By using this method we find that for strongly disordered and weakly interacting systems, there are two characteristic lengths in the LIOM. The first one is governed by disorder and is of Anderson-localization nature. The second one is induced by interaction but independent of the strength of interaction, showing a nonperturbative nature. We prove that the entanglement and correlation in any eigenstate extend not longer than twice the second length.

  6. CLIQ – Coupling-Loss Induced Quench System for Protecting Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Ravaioli, E; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed Coupling-Loss-Induced Quench (CLIQ) protection system is a new method for initiating a fast and voluminous transition to the normal state for protecting high energy density superconducting magnets. Upon quench detection, CLIQ is triggered to generate an oscillating current in the magnet coil by means of a capacitive discharge. This in turn introduces a high coupling loss in the superconductor which provokes a quick transition to the normal state of the coil windings. The system is now implemented for the protection of a two meter long superconducting quadrupole magnet and characterized in the CERN magnet test facility. Various CLIQ configurations with different current injection points are tested and the results compared to similar transients lately measured with a not optimized configuration. Test results convincingly show that the newly tested design allows for a more global quench initiation and thus a faster discharge of the magnet energy. Moreover, the performance of CLIQ for reduc...

  7. Metabolic mapping of the oculomotor system in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, V W; Porrino, L J; Crane, A M; Burns, R S; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1988-01-01

    The quantitative autoradiographic 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method was used to map the distribution of alterations of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (lCMRGlc) in the oculomotor system of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP)-induced parkinsonian monkeys. The lCMRGlc was decreased in the frontal eye fields and in the paralamellar mediodorsal thalamus in the parkinsonian monkeys as compared to normal controls. No changes in lCMRGlc were observed in other areas of the oculomotor system. L-Dopa therapy reversed the oculomotor symptoms in these monkeys, as well as the decrease of lCMRGlc in the frontal eye fields and the paralamellar mediodorsal thalamus. Because the frontal eye fields are known to be involved in the initiation of voluntary saccades, these findings suggest a functional anatomical basis for the oculomotor deficits in Parkinson's disease. PMID:3257855

  8. MAGIK: a Monte Carlo system for computing induced residual activation dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon dose rate from the induced activity produced by sustained bombardment of materials by neutrons and charged particles may present a significant radiation hazard. To minimize this hazard, the material configuration must be so designed that the photon dose rate decays to an acceptable level soon after the source beam is turned off. MAGIK calculates the time-independent photon dose rates that result from activities produced by nucleon-nucleus and meson-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies. The system has been used both for high-energy accelerator studies and for fusion reactor studies. In the MAGIK system the lengthy photon transport calculations are carried out independent of time, and the time dependence is introduced in the final program, thereby permitting study of various operating scenarios with a minimum computing cost

  9. Bacteria and microbial induced corrosion in district heating systems; Bakterier og mikrobiel betinget korrosion i fjernvarmesystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelund, B. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst., Miljoeteknik, Aarhus (Denmark); Smidt, H.D. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst., Energi, Aarhus (Denmark); Halkjaer Nielsen, P. [Aalborg Univ., Lab. for Miljoeteknik (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    Bacteria has been found in district heating systems in a number that indicate the risk of technical problems of a microbial nature. Bacteria in district heating systems can cause problems like unpleasant smell, increased roughness on the inner side of the pipes, decreased performance of the heat exchangers etc. There is also found bio film containing bacteria on the surface of the pipes. In the bio film there are often other conditions than in water, e.g. a lower pH value that improves growth of bacteria. Finally there is found sulphate-reducing bacteria. These bacteria can cause corrosion; a corrosion form called microbial induced corrosion. The report gives recommendations on how to reduce these bacteria. The bacteria can be reduced by regulating the pH value or by minimising the organic material in the water and finally by biocides that are able to kill the microorganisms. (SM) EFP-95. 12 refs.

  10. Ionization induced by strong electromagnetic field in low dimensional systems bound by short range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization processes for a two dimensional quantum dot subjected to combined electrostatic and alternating electric fields of the same direction are studied using quantum mechanical methods. We derive analytical equations for the ionization probability in dependence on characteristic parameters of the system for both extreme cases of a constant electric field and of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The ionization probabilities for a superposition of dc and low frequency ac electric fields of the same direction are calculated. The impulse distribution of ionization probability for a system bound by short range forces is found for a superposition of constant and alternating fields. The total probability for this process per unit of time is derived within exponential accuracy. For the first time the influence of alternating electric field on electron tunneling probability induced by an electrostatic field is studied taking into account the pre-exponential term

  11. Heterogeneous delay-induced asynchrony and resonance in a small-world neuronal network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Ting; Tang, Jun; Ma, Jun; Yang, Xianqing

    2016-06-01

    A neuronal network often involves time delay caused by the finite signal propagation time in a given biological network. This time delay is not a homogenous fluctuation in a biological system. The heterogeneous delay-induced asynchrony and resonance in a noisy small-world neuronal network system are numerically studied in this work by calculating synchronization measure and spike interval distribution. We focus on three different delay conditions: double-values delay, triple-values delay, and Gaussian-distributed delay. Our results show the following: 1) the heterogeneity in delay results in asynchronous firing in the neuronal network, and 2) maximum synchronization could be achieved through resonance given that the delay values are integer or half-integer times of each other.

  12. Design of a novel Cherenkov detectors system for machine induced background monitoring in the CMS cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Styliani; Giunta, Marina; Stickland, David P; Ambrose, Mitchell J; Rusack, Roger; Finkel, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    A novel detector system has been designed for an efficient online measurement of the machineinduced background in the CMS experimental cavern. The suppression of the CMS cavern background originating from pp collision products and the 25 ns bunch spacing have set the requirements for the detector design. Each detector unit will be a radiation hard, cylindrical Cherenkov radiator optically coupled to an ultra-fast UV-sensitive photomultiplier tube, providing a prompt, directionally sensitive measurement. Simulation and test beam measurements have shown the achievability of the goals that have driven the baseline design. The system will consist of 20 azimuthally distributed detectors per end, installed at a radius of r ~ 180 cm and a distance 20.6 m away from the CMS interaction region. The detector units will enable a measurement of the transverse distribution of the bunchby- bunch machine induced background flux. This will provide important feedback from the CMS on the beam conditions during the LHC machine s...

  13. Comparative study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement using two slurry circulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental conditions associated with slurry measurements to achieve good precision by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are examined. LIBS analysis was applied to a special waste slurry sample that contains 85.4% water, 2.5% ferric oxide Fe2O3, 1.7% alumina Al2O3, and small quantities of oxides of boron and chromium. While liquids add challenge to LIBS measurements, the analysis was successfully performed on iron and aluminum. Two slurry circulation systems were devised to overcome the major technical problems associated with LIBS measurements of slurry samples, namely, sedimentation and change in the lens-to-sample distance during measurement. LIBS slurry measurements using both circulation systems are compared. The results show that the experimental configuration plays a crucial role for online slurry analysis

  14. Development of a system of measuring double-differential cross sections for proton-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Sato, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Meigo, S.

    1997-03-01

    We report the present status of a counter telescope and a data acquisition system which are being developed for the measurement of double-differential cross sections of all light-charged particles emitted from proton-induced reactions on {sup 12}C at incident energies less than 90 MeV. The counter telescope consists of an active collimator made of a plastic scintillator, two thin silicon {Delta}E-detectors and a CsI(Tl) E-detectors with photo-diode readout. Signals from each detector are processed using the data acquisition system consisting of the front-end electronics (CAMAC) and two computers connected with the ethernet LAN: a personal computer as the data collector and server, and a UNIX workstation as the monitor and analyzer. (author)

  15. Egr-1 induces a profibrotic injury/repair gene program associated with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. The immediate-early gene Egr-1 is an inducible transcription factor with key roles in mediating fibrotic TGF-ß responses. To elucidate Egr-1 function in SSc-associated fibrosis, we examined change in gene expression induced by Egr-1 in human fibroblasts at the genome-wide level. Using microarray expression analysis, we derived a fibroblast "Egr-1-responsive gene signature" comprising over 600 genes involved in cell proliferation, TGF-ß signaling, wound healing, extracellular matrix synthesis and vascular development. The experimentally derived "Egr-1-responsive gene signature" was then evaluated in an expression microarray dataset comprising skin biopsies from 27 patients with localized and systemic forms of scleroderma and six healthy controls. We found that the "Egr-1 responsive gene signature" was substantially enriched in the "diffuse-proliferation" subset comprising exclusively of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc of skin biopsies. A number of Egr-1-regulated genes was also associated with the "inflammatory" intrinsic subset. Only a minority of Egr-1-regulated genes was concordantly regulated by TGF-ß. These results indicate that Egr-1 induces a distinct profibrotic/wound healing gene expression program in fibroblasts that is associated with skin biopsies from SSc patients with diffuse cutaneous disease. These observations suggest that targeting Egr-1 expression or activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy to control fibrosis in specific SSc subsets.

  16. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role of endogenous heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats.Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amount of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-oximeter.Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% of the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence of IN were significantly increased by 50% (P<0.05) and by 83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate(heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P<0.05) after administration of ZnDPBG, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level of cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6%(P<0.01), 40.0%(P<0.01), 49.3%(P<0.05) and 38.9%(P<0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats.Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process of IN induced by LPS, and inhibition of HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  17. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE- INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 余奇志; 欧和生; 佟利家; 杨军; 唐朝枢

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role d endogenous heine oxygenase ( HO )/carbon monoxide ( CO ) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amonnl of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-aximeter. Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% d the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence dIN were significantly increased by50% (P<0.05) and by83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate (heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P <0.05) after administration dZnDPBG, an inhibitor dheme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level d cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6% (P < 0.01), 40.0% (P < 0.01), 49.3% (P < 0.05) and 38.9%(P< 0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats. Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process d IN induced by LPS, and inhibition d HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  18. Hepcidin is an antibacterial, stress-inducible peptide of the biliary system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepcidin (gene name HAMP, an IL-6-inducible acute phase peptide with antimicrobial properties, is the key negative regulator of iron metabolism. Liver is the primary source of HAMP synthesis, but it is also produced by other tissues such as kidney or heart and is found in body fluids such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid. While the role of hepcidin in biliary system is unknown, a recent study demonstrated that conditional gp130-knockout mice display diminished hepcidin levels and increased rate of biliary infections. METHODS: Expression and localization of HAMP in biliary system was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, in-situ hybridization, immunostaining and -blotting, while prohepcidin levels in human bile were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Hepcidin was detected in mouse/human gallbladder and bile duct epithelia. Biliary HAMP is stress-inducible, in that it is increased in biliary cell lines upon IL-6 stimulation and in gallbladder mucosa of patients with acute cholecystitis. Hepcidin is also present in the bile and elevated prohepcidin levels were observed in bile of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC patients with concurrent bacterial cholangitis compared to PSC subjects without bacterial infection (median values 22.3 vs. 8.9; p = 0.03. In PSC-cholangitis subjects, bile prohepcidin levels positively correlated with C-reactive protein and bilirubin levels (r = 0.48 and r = 0.71, respectively. In vitro, hepcidin enhanced the antimicrobial capacity of human bile (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Hepcidin is a stress-inducible peptide of the biliary epithelia and a potential marker of biliary stress. In the bile, hepcidin may serve local functions such as protection from bacterial infections.

  19. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocadello Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene

  20. Parametric Studies on Buoyancy Induced Flow through Circular Pipes in Solar water heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. V. Prayagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the primary source of energy for our planet. The average solar energy reaching the earth in the tropical zone is about 1kWh/m2 giving approximately 5 to 10 kWh/m2 per day. Increased utilization of solar energy in India would result in all around benefits, both in term of cleaner environment and monetary gain.The energy from the sun can be used for various purposes such as water heating, water distillation, refrigeration, drying, power generation etc. The present work deals with solar water heating system in particular. Performance of the solar collectors can be determined using the famous Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation [1]. The analysis is simple for the forced convection situation, where the flow rate is artificially maintained constant to a desired value and the heat transfer coefficient can easily be predicted using the information available in the literature. However the natural convection situation it is very difficult to analyze as appropriate correlations for predicting the values of induced mass flow rate due to thermosiphon effect and the associated heat transfer coefficient are not available. The aim of the present investigation, therefore, is to establish correlations for heat transfer and flow characteristics for the buoyancy induced flow through inclined tubes in case of solar water heating system in particular. Considering the complexity of the problem, experimental approach is preferred. In order to produce required data, experiments were performed using inclined tubes of various lengths, diameters, inclinations, and different heat inputs.

  1. Chromothripsis-like chromosomal rearrangements induced by ionizing radiation using proton microbeam irradiation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Maki; Muramatsu, Tomoki; Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Konishi, Teruaki; Hayashi, Shin; Shigemizu, Daichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Moriyama, Keiji; Inazawa, Johji

    2016-03-01

    Chromothripsis is the massive but highly localized chromosomal rearrangement in response to a one-step catastrophic event, rather than an accumulation of a series of subsequent and random alterations. Chromothripsis occurs commonly in various human cancers and is thought to be associated with increased malignancy and carcinogenesis. However, the causes and consequences of chromothripsis remain unclear. Therefore, to identify the mechanism underlying the generation of chromothripsis, we investigated whether chromothripsis could be artificially induced by ionizing radiation. We first elicited DNA double-strand breaks in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HOC313-P and its highly metastatic subline HOC313-LM, using Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE), a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate a spot within the nuclei of adhesive cells, and then established irradiated monoclonal sublines from them, respectively. SNP array analysis detected a number of chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in these sublines, and one HOC313-LM-derived monoclonal subline irradiated with 200 protons by the microbeam displayed multiple CNAs involved locally in chromosome 7. Multi-color FISH showed a complex translocation of chromosome 7 involving chromosomes 11 and 12. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing analysis revealed multiple de novo complex chromosomal rearrangements localized in chromosomes 2, 5, 7, and 20, resembling chromothripsis. These findings suggested that localized ionizing irradiation within the nucleus may induce chromothripsis-like complex chromosomal alterations via local DNA damage in the nucleus. PMID:26862731

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Educated Macrophages Ameliorate LPS-Induced Systemic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoqin; Qin, Chaojin; Zheng, Guoping; Tao, Huikang; Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Guanguan; Ge, Menghua; Huang, Lanfang; Chen, Lina; Cheng, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Both bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunomodulatory effects. The goal of this study was to determine whether ASCs-educated macrophages could directly ameliorate LPS-induced systemic response in a mouse model. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cocultured with ASCs in a Transwell system for 2 days to educate macrophages. Mice were divided into 5 groups: control, LPS, LPS + ASCs, LPS + untreated macrophages, and LPS + educated macrophages. Educated macrophages decreased lung inflammation, weight loss, pulmonary edema, and inflammatory cytokine response. In vitro, ASCs increased expression of M2 macrophages independent of direct cell-to-cell contact when macrophages were treated with LPS or serum from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When macrophages were cultured with serum from ARDS patients who were treated with ASCs or placebo in our previous clinical trial, there was no difference in M2 macrophage levels before and after ASCs treatment indicating a suboptimal response to the treatment protocol. ASCs also reduced the levels of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in vitro which were mimicked by IL-10 and blocked by antibodies for IL-10 and IL-10 receptor supporting the notion that educated macrophages exert their anti-inflammatory effects via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27546994

  3. Predictions of Buoyancy-induced Flow in Asymmetrical Heated Rotating Cavity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah Abbassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the finite difference solutions for buoyancy-induced flow in the asymmetrical heated rotating cavity system for the range of rotational Reynolds numbers Reθ =6.13x10^5 system. The noteworthy influence of buoyancy-induced flow have been observed on the predicted stream lines, static temperature contours and the local Nusselt numbers for the rotating cavity space. A comparison of the predicted local Nusselt numbers for the hot and cold discs showed a good level of agreement with the measurements.

  4. Laser-induced optical spectroscopy for the speciation of f-elements in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the R + D work of this project, the aquifer system of the Gorleben site was the counterpart selected for the comparative analysis verifying the applicability of the laboratory data on the solubility and sorption of radionuclides in an aquatic system. The progress report in hand deals with spectroscopic studies of the complex-forming behaviour of trivalent Cm, Eu, and Am, and with the spectroscopic quantification of the uranyl ions in aquatic solutions and ground waters. The experiments were carried out using modern, sensitive laser spectroscopy, i.e. techniques such as time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS), which at the same time were tested and found suitable for analysing the chemical reactions of the elements under natural aquatic conditions for the concentrations ranging from 1x10-6 to 1x10-12 mol L-1. In addition, a method was developed and tested allowing a quantitative deterination of ground water colloids by means of photoacoustic measurement of light scattering (PALS). (orig.)

  5. Polyoxyethylene/styrene - a model system for studying reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reaction-induced, phase-separation has been studied in polymer blends. A model crystalline-amorphous system consisted of semi-crystalline polyoxyethylene (POE) dissolved in the monomer styrene, which was employed as a reactive solvent to ease processing. When the styrene was polymerised to polystyrene (PS) in the mould, phase-separation and phase-inversion are induced, and a polymer blend was formed. POE was selected with a molar mass, Mn = 8578 g mol-1 and a polydispersity of 1.19 as determined using GPC. The polymerisation of styrene was initiated using 1 wt-% benzoin methyl ether (BME) and 0.2 wt-% 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) under ultra-violet (UV) light. The polymerisation kinetics were determined by monitoring the reduction in the intensity of the C=C stretching vibration band at 1631 cm -1 in the Raman spectrum of styrene. The onset times for the liquid-solid (L-S) phase-separation and crystallisation of POE from styrene/PS were observed using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Onset times for L-S phase-separation determined from the SAXS data were combined with the styrene polymerisation kinetics to plot the L-S phase-separation data onto a ternary phase diagram for the reactive system POE/styrene/PS at 45 and 50 deg C

  6. Interference of a Narrowband Biphoton with Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in an N-Type System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Peng; QIAN Jun; CHEN Dong-Yuan; HU Zheng-Feng; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    We predict the possibility of the interference of narrow-hand biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing with double electromagnetically induced transparency configuration in cold atoms. In an N-type four-level system, an auxiliary optical field Ωm can create double transparency windows for anti-Stokes photons. When the slow light effects in the double transparency windows are very strong, two four-wave mixing channels could exist due to the splitting of the phase matching condition. The biphoton generated from the two four-wave mixing channels can cause interference and shows Rabi oscillations in two-photon correlation. This interference mechanism will complement the understanding of interference at the two-photon level.%We predict the possibility of the interference of narrow-band biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing with double electromagnetically induced transparency configuration in cold atoms.In an N-type fourlevel system,an auxiliary optical field Ωm can create double transparency windows for anti-Stokes photons.When the slow light effects in the double transparency windows are very strong,two four-wave mixing channels could exist due to the splitting of the phase matching condition.The biphoton generated from the two four-wave mixing channels can cause interference and shows Rabi oscillations in two-photon correlation.This interference mechanism will complement the understanding of interference at the two-photon level.

  7. Single-Limb Irradiation Induces Local and Systemic Bone Loss in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura E; Buijs, Jeroen T; Kim, Hun-Soo; Coats, Laura E; Scheidler, Anne M; John, Sutha K; She, Yun; Murthy, Sreemala; Ma, Ning; Chin-Sinex, Helen J; Bellido, Teresita M; Bateman, Ted A; Mendonca, Marc S; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Increased fracture risk is commonly reported in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, particularly at sites within the field of treatment. The direct and systemic effects of ionizing radiation on bone at a therapeutic dose are not well-characterized in clinically relevant animal models. Using 20-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice, effects of irradiation (right hindlimb; 2 Gy) on bone volume and microarchitecture were evaluated prospectively by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry and compared to contralateral-shielded bone (left hindlimb) and non-irradiated control bone. One week postirradiation, trabecular bone volume declined in irradiated tibias (-22%; p MLO-Y4 cell apoptosis was induced as early as 48 hours postirradiation (4 Gy). In osteoclastogenesis assays, radiation exposure (8 Gy) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell differentiation, and coculture of irradiated RAW264.7 cells with MLO-Y4 or murine bone marrow cells enhanced this effect. These studies highlight the multifaceted nature of radiation-induced bone loss by demonstrating direct and systemic effects on bone and its many cell types using clinically relevant doses; they have important implications for bone health in patients treated with radiation therapy. PMID:25588731

  8. Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Deteriorates Control of Systemic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merches

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α. IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. Methods: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Bacterial titers, numbers of neutrophils and the gene-expression of liver-lysozyme-2 were determined during a 24 hours systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in wild-type and Ifnar-/- mice under the influence of LCMV or poly(I:C. Results: Virus-induced IFN-I impaired the control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was associated with neutropenia and loss of lysozyme-2-expression in the liver, which had captured P. aeruginosa. A lower release of IFN-I by poly(I:C-injection also impaired the bacterial control in the liver and reduced the expression of liver-lysozyme-2. Low concentration of IFN-I after infection with a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa alone impaired the bacterial control and reduced lysozyme-2-expression in the liver as well. Conclusion: We found that during systemic infection with P. aeruginosa Kupffer cells quickly controlled the bacteria in cooperation with neutrophils. Upon LCMV-infection this cooperation was disturbed.

  9. A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Matthias; Robert, Christelle A M; Marti, Guillaume; Lu, Jing; Doyen, Gwladys R; Villard, Neil; Barrière, Yves; French, B Wade; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Turlings, Ted C J; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Indirect plant-mediated interactions between herbivores are important drivers of community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. Among the most striking examples are the strong indirect interactions between spatially separated leaf- and root-feeding insects sharing a host plant. Although leaf feeders generally reduce the performance of root herbivores, little is known about the underlying systemic changes in root physiology and the associated behavioral responses of the root feeders. We investigated the consequences of maize (Zea mays) leaf infestation by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars for the root-feeding larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of maize. D. virgifera strongly avoided leaf-infested plants by recognizing systemic changes in soluble root components. The avoidance response occurred within 12 h and was induced by real and mimicked herbivory, but not wounding alone. Roots of leaf-infested plants showed altered patterns in soluble free and soluble conjugated phenolic acids. Biochemical inhibition and genetic manipulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis led to a complete disappearance of the avoidance response of D. virgifera. Furthermore, bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed a direct link between the avoidance response of D. virgifera and changes in soluble conjugated phenolic acids in the roots of leaf-attacked plants. Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. Furthermore, it opens up the possibility to control D. virgifera in the field by genetically mimicking leaf herbivore-induced changes in root phenylpropanoid patterns. PMID:26430225

  10. Growth control switch by a DNA-damage-inducible toxin-antitoxin system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Martins, Daniel; Redder, Peter; Frandi, Antonio; Mignolet, Johann; Chapalay, Julien Bortoli; Chambon, Marc; Turcatti, Gerardo; Viollier, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) are thought to respond to various stresses, often inducing growth-arrested (persistent) sub-populations of cells whose housekeeping functions are inhibited. Many such TASs induce this effect through the translation-dependent RNA cleavage (RNase) activity of their toxins, which are held in check by their cognate antitoxins in the absence of stress. However, it is not always clear whether specific mRNA targets of orthologous RNase toxins are responsible for their phenotypic effect, which has made it difficult to accurately place the multitude of TASs within cellular and adaptive regulatory networks. Here, we show that the TAS HigBA of Caulobacter crescentus can promote and inhibit bacterial growth dependent on the dosage of HigB, a toxin regulated by the DNA damage (SOS) repressor LexA in addition to its antitoxin HigA, and the target selectivity of HigB's mRNA cleavage activity. HigB reduced the expression of an efflux pump that is toxic to a polarity control mutant, cripples the growth of cells lacking LexA, and targets the cell cycle circuitry. Thus, TASs can have outcome switching activity in bacterial adaptive (stress) and systemic (cell cycle) networks. PMID:27572440

  11. Laser phase induced intensity noise in fiber-optic signal processing and sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, Ady

    1991-03-01

    The effects of random phase fluctuations in laser output on the performance of optical systems was studied. The statistical nature of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) was measured and analysed by studying its probability density function and the second and fourth moments of the optical field at the output of several multiple path systems. The properties of the semiconductor laser, including broad spectral linewidth and non-Lorentzian line shape were shown to have significant influence on the generated PIIN. The PIIN statistics was first studied via the probability density function (PDF) of the beat signal obtained from a two-beam interferometer fed by the laser. Two distinct operating regimes could be defined, according to the ratio between the interferometer delay and the laser coherence time. Analytical expressions were obtained for statistical averages of the PIIN at the output of a general multiple path system; they represent the variance and autocovariance, and the power spectral density of the PIIN at the system output. The non-Lorentzian lineshape of the semiconductor laser was taken into account and the results obtained were found to differ from the Lorentzian model predictions; power spectrum measurements by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer confirmed the theoretical model. Analysis of the PIIN for complex signal processing systems comprising several subsystems showed that the PIIN spectrum was determined by two mechanisms: noise generation and noise filtration.

  12. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  13. Analysis of an innovative solar water desalination system using gravity induced vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the theoretical analysis, design and appropriate models of a new desalination system using gravity induced vacuum. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures with less energy than conventional techniques. This technique is developed to overcome water storage, in the areas where good solar radiation (or waste heat sources) and sea water (or waste water sources). The developed system consists of an evaporator connected to condenser by means of a vacuum tank. The vapour produced in the evaporator is driven to condenser through the vacuum tank, where it condenses and collected as a product. Vacuum equivalent to 7 kPa (abs) or less can be created depending on ambient temperature of Bahrain climatic conditions. The effect of various operating conditions, namely water levels in condensation and evaporating columns on the system performance were studied. The theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results show that the performance of this system depends on the condensation temperature

  14. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant's electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant's protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well

  15. Geometry-Induced Memory Effects in Isolated Quantum Systems: Cold-Atom Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Memory effects result from the history-dependent behavior of a system, are abundant in our daily life, and have broad applications. Here, we explore the possibilities of generating memory effects in simple isolated quantum systems. By utilizing geometrical effects from a class of lattices supporting flatbands consisting of localized states, memory effects could be observed in ultracold atoms in optical lattices. As the optical lattice continuously transforms from a triangular lattice into a kagome lattice with a flatband, history-dependent density distributions manifest quantum memory effects even in noninteracting systems, including fermionic as well as bosonic systems, in the proper ranges of temperatures. Rapid growth of ultracold technology predicts a bright future for quantum memory-effect systems, and here two prototypical applications of geometry-induced quantum memory effects are proposed: A cold-atom-based accelerometer using an atomic differentiator to record the mechanical change rate of a coupled probe, and an atomic quantum memory cell for storing information with write-in and readout schemes.

  16. Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced Pneumonia using Different Lung Lesion Scoring Systems: a Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, B; Segalés, J; Fraile, L; Pérez de Rozas, A; Maiti, H; Coll, T; Sibila, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary aetiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and one of the major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Gross lung lesions in pigs affected by EP consist of cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC), usually distributed bilaterally in the apical, intermediate, accessory and cranial parts of the diaphragmatic lobes. Several lung scoring methods are currently in place for the evaluation of CVPC. The aims of this study were (1) to review the lung lesion scoring systems used to assess pneumonia associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection, and (2) to evaluate eight of these scoring systems by applying them to the lungs of 76 pigs with experimentally-induced M. hyopneumoniae pneumonia. A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was observed and the coefficients of determination in a regression analysis were very high between each pair-wise comparison, except for a unique scoring system based on image analysis. A formula of equivalence between lung scoring methods was developed in order to compare the results obtained with these methods. The present review provides a basis for comparison (even retrospectively) of lesions evaluated using different lung scoring systems. PMID:26774274

  17. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  18. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system on the Plasma Material Interaction System (PLAMIS-II) device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, I. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y.-S.; Cho, S. G.; Bae, M. K.; Lee, D.-H.; Hong, S. H.; Lho, T.; Chung, K.-S.

    2015-12-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed for the plasma material interaction system (PLAMIS-II) device, which is equipped with a unique plasma gun composed of a LaB6 cathode and two anodes with electromagnets to generate a focused dense plasma. PLAMIS-II simulates the interactions of plasma with different materials and is to be used for the test of plasma facing components of fusion devices. The LIF system is composed of a seed laser with Littmann/Metcalf cavity and a master oscillator power amplifier to pump 3d4F7/2 metastable argon ion to 4p4D5/2 level at the wavelength of 668.61 nm, which has the following input parameters: laser power = 20 mW, line width 70 GHz. For in-situ measurement of laser wavelength, the wavelength spectrum of an iodine cell was measured by a photo-transistor during LIF measurement. To measure argon ion temperature (Ti) and drift velocity (vd) in PLAMIS-II, the fluorescence light with the wavelength of 442.72 nm, emitted from 4p4D5/2 level to 4s4P3/2 level and passing through 1 nm band-width filter, was collected by the photomultiplier tube combined with a lock-in amplifier and a chopper with frequency of 3 kHz. Initial data of Ti and vd were analysed in terms of gas flow rate and applied power.

  19. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  20. Development of an Automated Seed Sowing and Induced Germination System for Space Flight Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Kliss, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The successful utilization of higher plants in space flight is likely to require the effective transition of plants through all phases of growth and development. A particularly sensitive and critical stage in this cycle is seed germination. The present inflight capability to manipulate seed from a state of dormancy to germination and the performance of such activity under aseptic conditions is extremely limited. An Automated Sowing Mechanism (ASM) has been designed to address this area of science and technology. The self-contained system is readily compatible with the existing Shuttle middeck locker Plant Growth Unit (PGU) and planned Plant Growth Facility (PGF), presenting an opportunity to extend the experimental capability of these systems. The ASM design encompasses the controlled transition of seed from a dry to hydrated state utilizing solid media substrate as the source of water and nutrient support. System activation has been achieved with both photo and timing mechanisms. Controlled induced germination and development of various plant species has been achieved in ground-based trials. The system is presently being prepared for a KC-135 flight test.

  1. Establishment of automated culture system for murine induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can differentiate into any cell type, which makes them an attractive resource in fields such as regenerative medicine, drug screening, or in vitro toxicology. The most important prerequisite for these industrial applications is stable supply and uniform quality of iPS cells. Variation in quality largely results from differences in handling skills between operators in laboratories. To minimize these differences, establishment of an automated iPS cell culture system is necessary. Results We developed a standardized mouse iPS cell maintenance culture, using an automated cell culture system housed in a CO2 incubator commonly used in many laboratories. The iPS cells propagated in a chamber uniquely designed for automated culture and showed specific colony morphology, as for manual culture. A cell detachment device in the system passaged iPS cells automatically by dispersing colonies to single cells. In addition, iPS cells were passaged without any change in colony morphology or expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers during the 4 weeks of automated culture. Conclusions Our results show that use of this compact, automated cell culture system facilitates stable iPS cell culture without obvious effects on iPS cell pluripotency or colony-forming ability. The feasibility of iPS cell culture automation may greatly facilitate the use of this versatile cell source for a variety of biomedical applications.

  2. Quantum coherence establishment of Bose-Einstein condensates induced by random system dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a weak imaginary random potential to simulate the random system dissipation and considering the quantum many-body effect, the role of random system dissipation in the quantum coherence establishment of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is studied. It is found that even very weak random system dissipation may induce an obvious interference pattern between two initially independent BECs after the overlapping. Moreover, the random system dissipation has no effect on the spatial period of the interference fringes, which is identical to that observed in the current interference experiments. Under the assumption of weak dissipation, increasing the dissipation strength may accelerate the construction of the observable relative phase. Other behaviours of the interference are also investigated. The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation show good consistency. This sort of interference has an observable effect, which significantly differs from other quantum interference mechanisms. The work may provide further theoretical basis for the future interference experiment of molecular BECs (Kohstall et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 065027), considering the possible dissipation of the molecular BECs (e.g. the destruction of the weakly bound Feshbach molecules and the dissipation of the condensate fraction). (paper)

  3. Sublimation-induced orbital perturbations of extrasolar active asteroids and comets: application to white dwarf systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Eggl, Siegfried; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2015-09-01

    The metal budgets in some white dwarf (WD) atmospheres reveal that volatile-rich circumstellar bodies must both exist in extrasolar systems and survive the giant branch phases of stellar evolution. The resulting behaviour of these active asteroids or comets which orbit WDs is not well-understood, but may be strongly influenced by sublimation due to stellar radiation. Here we develop a model, generally applicable to any extrasolar system with a main-sequence or WD star, that traces sublimation-induced orbital element changes in approximately km-sized extrasolar minor planets and comets travelling within hundreds of au. We derive evolution equations on orbital time-scales and for arbitrarily steep power-law sublimation dependences on distance, and place our model in a Solar system context. We also demonstrate the importance of coupling sublimation and general relativity, and the orbital consequences of outgassing in arbitrary directions. We prove that non-gravitational accelerations alone cannot result in orbit crossing with the WD disruption radius, but may shrink or expand the orbit by up to several au after a single pericentre passage, potentially affecting subsequent interactions with remnant debris and planets. Our analysis suggests that extant planets must exist in polluted WD systems.

  4. Resolution of Pulmonary Hypertension Complication During Veno-Venous Perfusion-Induced Systemic Hyperthermia Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Wang, Jingkun; Pollock, Robert; Jubak, Bob; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system for advanced cancer treatment. The vv-PISH system consistently delivered hyperthermia to adult healthy swine, but significant pulmonary hypertension developed during the heating phase. The goal of this study was to develop a method to prevent pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension results from decreased priming solution air solubility which causes pulmonary gas embolism. Healthy adult sheep (n=3) were used to establish a standard vv-PISH sheep model without priming solution preheating. In subsequent sheep (n=7), the priming solution was preheated (42–46°C) and the hyperthermia circuit flushed with CO2. All sheep survived the experiment and achieved 2 hrs of 42 °C hyperthermia. In the group lacking priming solution preheating, significant pulmonary hypertension (35–44 mm Hg) developed. In the sheep with priming solution preheating, pulmonary artery pressure was very stable without pulmonary hypertension. Blood electrolytes were in physiological range, and complete blood counts were unaffected by hyperthermia. Blood chemistries revealed no significant liver or kidney damage. Our simple strategy of priming solution preheating completely resolved the problem of pulmonary hypertension as a milestone toward developing a safe and easy to use vv-PISH system for cancer treatment. PMID:23820278

  5. Blind Multiuser Detection for Long-Code CDMA Systems with Transmission-Induced Cyclostationarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider blind channel identification and signal separation in long-code CDMA systems. First, by modeling the received signals as cyclostationary processes with modulation-induced cyclostationarity, long-code CDMA system is characterized using a time-invariant system model. Secondly, based on the time-invariant model, multistep linear prediction method is used to reduce the intersymbol interference introduced by multipath propagation, and channel estimation then follows by utilizing the nonconstant modulus precoding technique with or without the matrix-pencil approach. The channel estimation algorithm without the matrix-pencil approach relies on the Fourier transform, and requires additional constraint on the code sequences other than being nonconstant modulus. It is found that by introducing a random linear transform, the matrix-pencil approach can remove (with probability one the extra constraint on the code sequences. Thirdly, after channel estimation, equalization is carried out using a cyclic Wiener filter. Finally, since chip-level equalization is performed, the proposed approach can readily be extended to multirate cases, either with multicode or variable spreading factor. Simulation results show that compared with the approach using the Fourier transform, the matrix-pencil-based approach can significantly improve the accuracy of channel estimation, therefore the overall system performance.

  6. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  7. A bidimensional fluid system with competing interactions: spontaneous and induced pattern formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a study of pattern formation in bidimensional systems with competing short-range attractive and long-range repulsive interactions. The interaction parameters are chosen in such a way as to allow us to analyse two different situations: the spontaneous pattern formation due to the presence of strong competing interactions on different length scales and the pattern formation as a response to an external modulating potential when the system is close to its Lifshitz point. We compare different Monte Carlo techniques showing that the parallel tempering technique represents a promising approach for the study of such systems and we present detailed results for the specific heat and the structural properties. We also present random phase approximation predictions concerning spontaneous pattern formation (or microphase separation), as well as linear response theory predictions concerning the induced pattern formation due to the presence of an external modulating field. In particular we observe that the response of our systems to external fields is much stronger than the response of a Lennard-Jones fluid

  8. Participation of the cholinergic system in the ethanol-induced suppression of paradoxical sleep in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Papale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is among the many consequences of ethanol abuse in both humans and rodents. Ethanol consumption can reduce REM or paradoxical sleep (PS in humans and rats, respectively. The first aim of this study was to develop an animal model of ethanol-induced PS suppression. This model administered intragastrically (by gavage to male Wistar rats (3 months old, 200-250 g 0.5 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol. The 3.5 g/kg dose of ethanol suppressed the PS stage compared with the vehicle group (distilled water during the first 2-h interval (0-2 h; 1.3 vs 10.2; P < 0.001. The second aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol suppresses PS. We examined the effects of cholinergic drug pretreatment. The cholinergic system was chosen because of the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmitters in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. A second set of animals was pretreated with 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg pilocarpine (cholinergic agonist or atropine (cholinergic antagonist. These drugs were administered 1 h prior to ethanol (3.5 g/kg or vehicle. Treatment with atropine prior to vehicle or ethanol produced a statistically significant decrease in PS, whereas pilocarpine had no effect on minutes of PS. Although the mechanism by which ethanol induces PS suppression is not fully understood, these data suggest that the cholinergic system is not the only system involved in this interaction.

  9. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-08-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or 'wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened 'wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact ('liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal 'hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation. PMID:25761571

  10. Endotoxin-induced and vaccine-induced systemic inflammation both impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not pulse wave reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lars Lind,1 Johannes Hulthe,2,3 Annika Johansson,3 Ewa Hedner31Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, 2Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, 3AstraZeneca Research and Development, Mölndal, SwedenBackground: Inflammation induced by either endotoxin or vaccination has previously been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV in healthy young individuals. However, the vascular effects of these two mechanisms of inducing inflammation have not been compared in the same individuals.Methods: Twelve young healthy males were studied at the same time of the day on three occasions in a random order; on one occasion 4 hours following an endotoxin injection (Escherichia coli endotoxin, 20 IU/kg, on another occasion 8 hours following vaccination against Salmonella typhi, and on a third occasion 4 hours following a saline control injection. EDV and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIDV were evaluated by local infusions of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in the brachial artery, and forearm blood flow was measured with venous occlusion plethysmography. The augmentation index was determined by pulse wave analysis as an index of pulse wave reflection.Results: Both endotoxin and vaccination impaired EDV to a similar degree compared with the saline control (P = 0.005 and P = 0.014, respectively. EIDV was not significantly affected by inflammation. Endotoxin, but not vaccination, increased body temperature and circulating levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6. Augmentation index was not affected by the interventions.Conclusion: Despite the fact that endotoxin induced a more pronounced degree of inflammation than vaccination, both inflammatory challenges impaired EDV to a similar degree, supporting the view that different inflammatory stimuli could induce harmful effects on the vasculature.Keywords: endothelium, endotoxin, vaccination, vasodilation, inflammation

  11. Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukaemia and lymphoma. In bone marrow-selective radioimmunotherapy, beta-irradiation is applied using iodine-131, yttrium-90 or rhenium-188 labelled radioimmunoconjugates. However, the mechanisms by which beta-irradiation induces cell death are not understood at the molecular level. Here, we report that beta-irradiation induced apoptosis and activated apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells depending on doses, time points and dose rates. After beta-irradiation, upregulation of CD95 ligand and CD95 receptor was detected and activation of caspases resulting in apoptosis was found. These effects were completely blocked by the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In addition, irradiation-mediated mitochondrial damage resulted in perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation and cytochrome c release. Bax, a death-promoting protein, was upregulated and Bcl-xL, a death-inhibiting protein, was downregulated. We also found higher apoptosis rates and earlier activation of apoptosis pathways after gamma-irradiation in comparison to beta-irradiation at the same dose rate. Furthermore, irradiation-resistant cells were cross-resistant to CD95 and CD95-resistant cells were cross-resistant to irradiation, indicating that CD95 and irradiation used, at least in part, identical effector pathways. These findings demonstrate that beta-irradiation induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells using both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Understanding the timing, sequence and molecular pathways of beta-irradiation-mediated apoptosis may allow rational adjustment of chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  13. Improved detection of induced seismicity using beamforming techniques: application to traffic light systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen; Verdon, James; Kendal, J.-Michael; Hill, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional methods of hydrocarbon extraction, such as hydraulic fracturing, have the potential to reactivate existing faults, causing induced seismicity. Traffic Light Schemes have been implemented in some regions; these systems ensure that drilling activities are paused or shut-down if seismic events larger than a given magnitude are induced. In particular, the United Kingdom has imposed a traffic light scheme based on magnitude thresholds of Ml = 0.0 and Ml = 0.5 for the amber and red limits, respectively. Therefore, an effective traffic light scheme in the UK requires monitoring arrays capable of detecting events with Ml detection thresholds can be challenging where ambient noise levels are high, such as in the UK. We have developed an algorithm capable of robustly detecting and locating small magnitude events, which are characterised by very low signal-to-noise ratios using small arrays of surface broadband seismometers. We compute STA/LTA functions for each trace, time shift them by theoretical travel-times for a given event location, and combine them via a linear stack. We test our method using a dataset from a surface array of Güralp 3T broadband seismometers that recorded hydraulic fracturing activities in the central United States. Our beamforming and stacking approach identified a total of 20 events, compared to only 4 events detected by traditional picking methods. We therefore suggest that our approach is suitable for use with low magnitude traffic light schemes, especially in noisy environments.

  14. Systems genetics reveals key genetic elements of drought induced gene regulation in diploid potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijen, Dennis; Anithakumari, A M; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard

    2016-09-01

    In plants, tolerance to drought stress is a result of numerous minor effect loci in which transcriptional regulation contributes significantly to the observed phenotypes. Under severe drought conditions, a major expression quantitative trait loci hotspot was identified on chromosome five in potato. A putative Nuclear factor y subunit C4 was identified as key candidate in the regulatory cascade in response to drought. Further investigation of the eQTL hotspots suggests a role for a putative Homeobox leucine zipper protein 12 in relation to drought in potato. Genes strongly co-expressed with Homeobox leucine zipper protein 12 were plant growth regulators responsive to water deficit stress in Arabidopsis thaliana, implying a possible conserved mechanism. Integrative analysis of genetic, genomic, phenotypic and transcriptomic data provided insights in the downstream functional components of the drought response. The abscisic acid- and environmental stress-inducible protein TAS14 was highly induced by severe drought in potato and acts as a reliable biomarker for the level of stress perceived by the plant. The systems genetics approach supported a role for multiple genes responsive to severe drought stress of Solanum tuberosum. The combination of gene regulatory networks, expression quantitative trait loci mapping and phenotypic analysis proved useful for candidate gene selection. PMID:27353051

  15. Force-induced bone growth and adaptation: A system theoretical approach to understanding bone mechanotransduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.

  16. The Protective Effect of Amifostine on Radiation-Induced Proctitis: Systemic Versus Topical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Uzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of intrarectal administration of amifostine in radiation-induced proctitis compared to intraperitoneal administration.Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CONT, irradiation alone (RT, intraperitoneal amifostine plus irradiation (IPAMI, and intrarectal amifostine plus irradiation (IRAMI. The rats in the RT, IPAMI and IRAMI groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 17.5 Gy to the pelvis. Amifostine was administered by the intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg or intrarectal (2000 mg/kg route before irradiation. Histopathologic analysis of the rectum was performed 14 days after irradiation. Results: Significant radiation damage appeared in all histopathologic parameters and was reduced by amifostine. Pretreatment with IPAMI significantly reduced the inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria (p=0.021, cryptitis (p=0.002 and crypt abscess (p=0.015. However, the protective effect of IRAMI was significant for all parameters with equal or higher significance than IPAMI, including the eosinophil leucocytes count (p=0.02, and distortion of the crypts (p=0.008, and was also significant for regenerative/reparative atypia (p=0.013. Conclusion: Intrarectal high dose topical administration of amifostine is more effective in the prevention of radiation-induced proctitis compared to its intraperitoneal systemic administration.

  17. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  18. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D influences systemic-acquiredresistance-induced expression and histone modifications of WRKY genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijayata Singh; Shweta Roy; Deepjyoti Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2014-03-01

    A plant that is in part infected by a pathogen is more resistant throughout its whole body to subsequent infections – a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mobile signals are synthesized at the site of infection and distributed throughout the plant through vascular tissues. Mechanism of SAR development subsequent to reaching the mobile signal in the distal tissue is largely unknown. Recently we showed that FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is required in the distal tissue to activate SAR. FLD codes for a homologue of human-lysine-specific histone demethylase. Here we show that FLD function is required for priming (SAR induced elevated expression during challenge inoculation) of WRKY29 and WRKY6 genes. FLD also differentially influences basal and SAR-induced expression of WRKY38, WRKY65 and WRKY53 genes. In addition, we also show that FLD partly localizes in nucleus and influences histone modifications at the promoters of WRKY29 and WRKY6 genes. The results altogether indicate to the possibility of FLD’s involvement in epigenetic regulation of SAR.

  19. Effects of fumaric acids on cuprizone induced central nervous system de- and remyelination in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Moharregh-Khiabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fumaric acid esters (FAE are a group of compounds which are currently under investigation as an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. One of the suggested modes of action is the potential of FAE to exert a neuroprotective effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the impact of monomethylfumarate (MMF and dimethylfumaric acid (DMF on de- and remyelination using the toxic cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier remains intact and only scattered T-cells and peripheral macrophages are found in the central nervous system (CNS, thus excluding the influence of immunomodulatory effects on peripheral immune cells. FAE showed marginally accelerated remyelination in the corpus callosum compared to controls. However, we found no differences for demyelination and glial reactions in vivo and no cytoprotective effect on oligodendroglial cells in vitro. In contrast, DMF had a significant inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced nitric oxide burst in microglia and induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. CONCLUSIONS: These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of action of fumaric acids. Our data suggest that fumarates have no or only little direct protective effects on oligodendrocytes in this toxic model and may act rather indirectly via the modulation of immune cells.

  20. Colored Noises-Induced Regime Shifts in a Vegetation Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing-Lin; Zeng, Jia-Kui; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chun; Long, Fei; Fu, Yun-Chang; Zeng, Chun-Hua

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stationary probability distribution and mean first passage time in a vegetation ecological system, which is driven by cross-correlation between intrinsic and extrinsic colored noises as well as the nonzero cross-correlation in between. The impacts of the self-correlation time τ1 and τ2, the cross-correlation time τ3 and intensity k on the stationary probability distribution and mean first passage time are discussed, respectively. Our main results show that: (i) the self-correlation time τ1 can induce regime shifts from the desert state to the sustainable vegetation state, while the self-correlation time τ2, cross-correlation time τ3 and intensity k can induce regime shifts from the sustainable vegetation state to the desert state; and (ii) the self-correlation time τ1 or τ2 can enhance the stability of the sustainable vegetation biomass, while the cross-correlation time τ3 or strength k weakens the stability of the sustainable vegetation biomass. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11305079, and the Introduction of Talent Capital Group Fund Project of Kunming University of Science and Technology under Grant No. KKZ3201407030

  1. Solar system constraints on planetary Coriolis-type effects induced by rotation of distant masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-08-01

    We phenomenologically put local constraints on the rotation of distant masses by using the planets of the solar system. First, we analytically compute the orbital secular precessions induced on the motion of a test particle about a massive primary by a Coriolis-like force, treated as a small perturbation, in the case of a constant angular velocity vector Ψ directed along a generic direction in space. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e of the test particle do not secularly change, contrary to the inclination I, the longitude of the ascending node Ω, the longitude of the pericenter varpi and the mean anomaly Script M. Then, we compare our prediction for langledot varpirangle with the corrections Δdot varpi to the usual perihelion precessions of the inner planets recently estimated by fitting long data sets with different versions of the EPM ephemerides. We obtain as preliminary upper bounds |Ψz| shell inducing Coriolis-type forces inside yields unphysical results for its putative rotation.

  2. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  3. A novel elicitor protein from Phytophthora parasitica induces plant basal immunity and systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsuan; Yan, Hao-Zhi; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between Phytophthora pathogens and host plants involves the exchange of complex molecular signals from both sides. Recent studies of Phytophthora have led to the identification of various apoplastic elicitors known to trigger plant immunity. Here, we provide evidence that the protein encoded by OPEL of Phytophthora parasitica is a novel elicitor. Homologues of OPEL were identified only in oomycetes, but not in fungi and other organisms. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that OPEL is expressed throughout the development of P. parasitica and is especially highly induced after plant infection. Infiltration of OPEL recombinant protein from Escherichia coli into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Samsun NN) resulted in cell death, callose deposition, the production of reactive oxygen species and induced expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity markers and salicylic acid-responsive defence genes. Moreover, the infiltration conferred systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including Tobacco mosaic virus, the bacteria wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and P. parasitica. In addition to the signal peptide, OPEL contains three conserved domains: a thaumatin-like domain, a glycine-rich protein domain and a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) domain. Intriguingly, mutation of a putative laminarinase active site motif in the predicted GH domain abolished its elicitor activity, which suggests enzymatic activity of OPEL in triggering the defence response. PMID:24965864

  4. Laser-induced collisional energy transfer in Sr-Li system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen De-Ying; Lu Zhen-Zhong; Fan Rong-Wei; Xia Yuan-Qin; Zhou Zhi-Gang; Ji Yi-Qin

    2012-01-01

    A four-state model considering the relative velocity distribution function for calculating the cross section of laserinduced collisional energy transfer in a Sr-Li system is presented and profiles of laser-induced collision cross section are obtained.The resulting spectra obtained from different intermediate states are strongly asymmetrical in an opposite asymmetry.Both of the two intermediate states have contributions to the final state,and none of the intermediate states should be neglected.The peak of the laser-induced collisional energy transfer (LICET) profile shifts toward the red and the FWHM becomes narrower obviously with laser field intensity increasing.A cross section of 1.2 × 10-12 cm2 at a laser field intensity of 2.17 × 107 V/m is obtained,which indicates that this collision process can be an effective way to transfer energy selectively from a storage state to a target state.The existence of saturation for cross section with the increase of the laser intensity shows that the high-intensity redistribution of transition probabilities is an important feature of this process,which is not accounted for in a two-state treatment.

  5. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the

  6. Laser-induced damage of high reflectors for Ti:sapphire laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianke Yao; Weiqiang Zeng; Zhengxiu Fan; Hongbo He; Jianda Shao

    2007-01-01

    A broadband (~ 176 nm, R > 98%, λ0 = 800 nm) and high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT =2.4 J/cm2) TiO2/HfO2/SiO2 high reflector (HR) for Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system is fabricated by the electron beam evaporation. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of TiO2 and HfO2 films are calculated from single-layer films' transmittance spectra. The properties of HR are mainly determined by the high refractive index material. The high refractive index leads to wide bandwidth. A low extinction coefficient indicates low absorption and high LIDT. The possible damage mechanism of HR is discussed.

  7. Flow induced vibrations of piping system (Vibration sources - Mechanical response of the pipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to design the supports of piping system, an estimation of the vibration induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary. To evaluate the power spectra of all the main sources generated by the flow. These sources are located at the singular points of the circuit (enlargements, bends, valves, etc. ...). To calculate the modal parameters of fluid containing pipes. This paper presents: a methodical study of the most current singularities. Inter-correlation spectra of local pressure fluctuation downstream from the singularity and correlation spectra of associated acoustical sources have been measured. A theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics has been developed. All these results are very useful for evaluating the source characteristics in most practical pipes. A comparison between the calculation and the results of an experimental test has shown a good agreement

  8. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  9. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system: evidence from experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F H; Bøgh, I B; Lykkesfeldt, J

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a major acute complication in type 1 as well as in type 2 diabetes, particularly during intensive insulin therapy. The brain plays a central role in the counter-regulatory response by eliciting parasympathetic and sympathetic hormone responses to restore normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous system glycogen as a glucose reserve. However, during sustained hypoglycaemia, the brain cannot maintain a sufficient glucose influx and, as the cerebral hypoglycaemia becomes severe, electroencephalogram changes, oxidative stress and regional neuronal death ensues. With particular focus on evidence from experimental studies on nondiabetic IIH, this review outlines the central mechanisms behind the counter-regulatory response to IIH, as well as cerebral adaption to avoid sequelae of cerebral neuroglycopaenia, including seizures and coma. PMID:24428753

  10. Inducing Planar Orientation in Side‐Chain Liquid‐Crystalline Polymer Systems via Interfacial Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For efficient photoresponses of liquid‐crystal (LC) azobenzene (Az) polymer systems, planar LC orientation of the Az mesogenic group is required because the light irradiation process usually occurs with normal incidence to the film surface. However, LC molecules with a rodlike shape tend to orient perpendicularly to the film surface according to the excluded volume effect theory. This review introduces new approaches for inducing planar orientation in side‐chain LC Az polymer films via interface and surface molecular designs. The planar orientation offers efficient in‐plane photoalignment and photoswitching to hierarchical LC architectures from molecular LC mesogens and LC phases to mesoscopic microphase‐separated structures. These approaches are expected to provide new concepts and possibilities in new LC polymer devices. PMID:26775770

  11. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative toxicity by modulating antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kursat Ali; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Halici, Zekai; Halici, Mesut; Cadirci, Elif; Atalay, Fadime; Aydin, Ozlem; Cakir, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    Gastroprotective effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) against oxidative gastric damage induced by indomethacin (IND) have been investigated. All doses (50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) of ALA reduced the ulcer index with 88.2% to 96.1% inhibition ratio. In biochemical analyses of stomach tissues, ALA administration decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and catalase (CAT) in gastric tissues, which were increased after IND application. ALA also increased the level of glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) that were decreased in gastric damaged stomach tissues. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of ALA could be attributed to its ameliorating effect on the antioxidant defense systems. PMID:23057764

  12. Theory of self-induced back-action optical trapping in nanophotonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Neumeier, Lukas; Chang, Darrick E

    2015-01-01

    Optical trapping is an indispensable tool in physics and the life sciences. However, there is a clear trade off between the size of a particle to be trapped, its spatial confinement, and the intensities required. This is due to the decrease in optical response of smaller particles and the diffraction limit that governs the spatial variation of optical fields. It is thus highly desirable to find techniques that surpass these bounds. Recently, a number of experiments using nanophotonic cavities have observed a qualitatively different trapping mechanism described as "self-induced back-action trapping" (SIBA). In these systems, the particle motion couples to the resonance frequency of the cavity, which results in a strong interplay between the intra-cavity field intensity and the forces exerted. Here, we provide a theoretical description that for the first time captures the remarkable range of consequences. In particular, we show that SIBA can be exploited to yield dynamic reshaping of trap potentials, strongly s...

  13. Testing Spatial Noncommutativity via Magnetic Hyperfine Structure Induced by Fractional Angular Momentum of Rydberg System

    CERN Document Server

    Jian-Zu, Zhang; Wei, Cao; Ke-Lin, Gao

    2012-01-01

    An approach to solve the critical problem of testing quantum effects of spatial noncommutativity is proposed. Magnetic hyperfine structures in a Rydberg system induced by fractional angular momentum originated from spatial noncommutativity are discussed. The orders of the corresponding magnetic hyperfine splitting of spectrum $\\sim 10^{-7} - 10^{-8} eV$ lie within the limits of accuracy of current experimental measurements. Experimental tests of physics beyond the standard model are the focus of broad interest. We note that the present approach is reasonable achievable with current technology. The proof is based on very general arguments involving only the deformed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra and the fundamental property of angular momentum. Its experimental verification would constitute an advance in understanding of fundamental significance, and would be a key step towards a decisive test of spatial noncommutativity.

  14. Quantum random walks in a coherent atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme to realize the quantum random walk in a coherent five-level atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). From optical Bloch equations describing the dynamics of the electromagnetic field and atomic population and coherence, we show that two circular-polarized components of a probe field display different dispersion properties and hence acquire different phase-shift modifications when passing through atomic cells. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence and interference owing to the EIT effect result in a low absorption of the probe field and hence provide a possibility of realizing a many-step phase-shift quantum random walk. The scheme may be used to experimentally highlight the characteristics of quantum random walk and lead to a promising application for quantum computation

  15. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes. PMID:27350073

  16. Effects of Detunings on Dynamically Induced Irreversibility in Coherently Driven Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiang-Ming; PENG Jin-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    Effects of detunings on dynamically induced irreversibilityis studied for coherently driven V systems in which there is no conventional source of irreversible population pumping. For atomic barium (γ1/γ2 = 400 》 1, where γ1 and γ2 are the rates of the spontaneous decay from the excited states 6s6p 1P1 and 6s6p 3p1 to the ground state 6s2 1So, espectively), the strong irreversibility is found to lead to a maximum inversion of 0.77 [only 0.1 in Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 4311]. The maximum population inversion requires relatively strong fields coupled respectively to two transitions, a disparity in two atomic decay rates, and the atom-field detunings of opposite signs. However, it is also shown that even in the cases where two detunings have the same sign, or where two decay rates are equal, population inversion takes place.

  17. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  18. IFN-γ licenses CD11b(+) cells to induce progression of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaabani, Namir; Honke, Nadine; Dolff, Sebastian; Görg, Boris; Khairnar, Vishal; Merches, Katja; Duhan, Vikas; Metzger, Sabine; Recher, Mike; Barthuber, Carmen; Hardt, Cornelia; Proksch, Peter; Häussinger, Dieter; Witzke, Oliver; Lang, Philipp A; Lang, Karl S

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). High titers of anti-nuclear antibodies are used as surrogate marker for SLE, however their contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Using murine model of SLE and human samples, we studied the effect of immune stimulation on relapsing of SLE. Although autoantibodies bound to target cells in vivo, only additional activation of CD8(+) T cells converted this silent autoimmunity into overt disease. In mice as well as in humans CD8(+) T cells derived IFN-γ enhanced expression of Fc-receptors on CD11b(+) cells. High expression of Fc-receptors allowed CD11b(+) cells to bind to antibody covered target cells and to destroy them in vivo. We found that autoantibodies induce clinically relevant disease when adaptive immunity, specific for disease non-related antigen, is activated. PMID:26094774

  19. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-hui Dong; Cong Liu; Jiang-tao Bai; Wei-na Kong; Xiao-ping He; Peng Yan; Tie-mei Shao; Wen-guo Yu; Xi-qing Chai; Yan-hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade ampliifcation in Alzheimer’s dis-ease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used. The intragas-tric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. These com-pounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. A Novel Statistical Channel Model for Turbulence-Induced Fading in Free-Space Optical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aminikashani, Mohammadreza; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new probability distribution function which accurately describes turbulence-induced fading under a wide range of turbulence conditions. The proposed model, termed Double Generalized Gamma (Double GG), is based on a doubly stochastic theory of scintillation and developed via the product of two Generalized Gamma (GG) distributions. The proposed Double GG distribution generalizes many existing turbulence channel models and provides an excellent fit to the published plane and spherical waves simulation data. Using this new statistical channel model, we derive closed form expressions for the outage probability and the average bit error as well as corresponding asymptotic expressions of free-space optical communication systems over turbulence channels. We demonstrate that our derived expressions cover many existing results in the literature earlier reported for Gamma-Gamma, Double-Weibull and K channels as special cases.

  1. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer′s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer′s disease patients. An APP swe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer′s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer′s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease.

  2. Effect of Methomyl on the Phenobarbital and Benzo [a] Pyrene Induced Hepatic Microsomal Mixed Function Oxidase System in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna A. Patil1, Arun J. Patil1*, Ajit V. Sontakke1, Satish D. Kalme2 and Sanjay P. Govindwar3

    2011-01-01

    Methomyl (Lannate) is a pesticide widely used to control of insects in grape gardens. Methomyl treatment induces significant alteration in mixed function oxidase system. The present work was designed to study the inhibitory effect of methomyl on different forms of cytochrome P450 induced by phenobarbital (CYP 2B1, 2B2 and 3A) and benzo[a]pyrene induced (CYP 1A1). Adult male rats were divided into 8 groups of 6 animals each. Microsomes were isolated by calcium precipitation. The levels of elec...

  3. [Effect of diltiazem on cold-induced left ventricular dysfunction in patients with systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, R H; Marrero, G; Chwojnik, A; Martínez Martínez, J A; Maldonado Cocco, J; Rodrigué, S; Casabé, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SS) have cardiac dysfunction induced by cold exposure. We and others have demonstrated this finding after corporal chilling, suggesting a "coronary Raynaud phenomenon" mediated by intermittent vascular spasm. In this study we evaluated the effect of diltiazem (DTZ) in cardiac dysfunction induced by cold test in patients with SS without clinical evidence of heart disease. Twelve patients with SS were studied. One patient was excluded because he did not fulfill the prescribed treatment. Eleven patients (age of 49.9 +/- 3.8 years and illness duration of 9.3 +/- 4.8 years) were included. Gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography was recorded after red blood cells were labeled in vivo using an intravenous injection of stannous pirophosphate followed by 20 mc of 99 Tc (gamma camera with electrocardiographic R wave gating was used). Left ventricular injection fraction (LVEF) was calculated using computer analysis and wall motion abnormalities by visual interpretation. Patients were cooled using a thermic blanket set at 5 degrees centigrade. They were evaluated before and after a period of cooling. After corporal chilling LVEF decreased more than 10% in all of them. DTZ 270 mg a day was administered to the same patients during 48 hs. Basal and cold LVEF were repeated in all patients. The results with and without DTZ were compared by Student's t Test. The basal LVEF with and without DTZ was not different (64.8 +/- 2.6 and 63.1 +/- 1.8). After corporal chilling LVEF decreased (64.8 +/- 2.6 to 54.8 +/- 2.5 p < 0.00001) and reversible abnormalities in wall motion were noticed in patients without DTZ. When they received DTZ neither difference in LVEF (63.1 +/- 1.8 to 62.1 +/- 2.4) nor wall motion abnormalities were observed. We compared the LVEF after chilling (62.1 +/- 2.4 and 54.8 +/- 2.5) and we found an important difference with the use of DTZ (p < 0.005). It can be concluded that in patients with SS and no overt heart disease, DTZ

  4. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system on the Plasma Material Interaction System (PLAMIS-II) device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed for the plasma material interaction system (PLAMIS-II) device, which is equipped with a unique plasma gun composed of a LaB6 cathode and two anodes with electromagnets to generate a focused dense plasma. PLAMIS-II simulates the interactions of plasma with different materials and is to be used for the test of plasma facing components of fusion devices. The LIF system is composed of a seed laser with Littmann/Metcalf cavity and a master oscillator power amplifier to pump 3d4F7/2 metastable argon ion to 4p4D5/2 level at the wavelength of 668.61 nm, which has the following input parameters: laser power = 20 mW, line width < 100 kHz, and a mode-hop free tuning range > 70 GHz. For in-situ measurement of laser wavelength, the wavelength spectrum of an iodine cell was measured by a photo-transistor during LIF measurement. To measure argon ion temperature (Ti) and drift velocity (vd) in PLAMIS-II, the fluorescence light with the wavelength of 442.72 nm, emitted from 4p4D5/2 level to 4s4P3/2 level and passing through 1 nm band-width filter, was collected by the photomultiplier tube combined with a lock-in amplifier and a chopper with frequency of 3 kHz. Initial data of Ti and vd were analysed in terms of gas flow rate and applied power

  5. Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for the specification of actinides in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy is developed for the direct speciation of transuranic elements in natural aquatic systems. Speciation sensitivities are attained to the sub-μmol range, e.g., the Am3+ ion with its molar absorption coefficient of 378 L-1 cm-1 can be detected up to 10-8 mol L-1. The first part of this monograph deals with the construction of spectrometer, the spectroscopic characterization and the sensitivity determination for transuranic elements of different oxidation states. With an introduction of differential detection system, the compensation of background effects is realized. The spectral work is automated by a special operating system including analog-digital data processing. The second part includes applications of the spectroscopy to the speciation of transuranic ions at concentrations -6 mol L-1 for their oxidation states, hydrolysis reactions, complexation, redox behaviour and colloid generation in various solutions. The third part comprises the systematic investigation of the chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in selected groundwaters in which multicomponent concurrent reactions are involved. (orig.)

  6. Observing Human-induced Linkages between Urbanization and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world s population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters atmospheric composition; impacts components of the water cycle; and modifies the carbon cycle and ecosystems. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. The goal of the 2003 AGU Union session Human-induced climate variations on urban areas: From observations to modeling was to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results on observing and modeling components of the urban environment with the intent of sampling our current stand and discussing future direction on this topic. Herein, a summary and discussion of the observations component of the session are presented.

  7. Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkasem, Nadta; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Tatiya-aphiradee, Nitima; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) or PI (20, 200, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) consecutively for 14 days. Hepatic histomorphology was examined. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined. Results: Plumbagin and PI concentration-dependently induced hepatic injury based on histopathological changes via imbalance of antioxidative system. Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin. Conclusion: Plumbagin and PI caused hepatotoxic effects in the mice by unbalancing of the redox defense system. Therefore, plumbagin and PI-containing supplements should be used cautiously, especially when consumed in high quantities or for long periods. PMID:27104034

  8. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  9. Microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Lin, J Y; Lin, Y T

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system, aluminum alloys A356, AA 5052, AA 5083 and AA 6061 were chosen as the test alloys and Cladosporium and several fuel-oil contaminated microbes isolated in Taiwan were used as test organisms. Aluminum alloy AA 5083 in fuel-oil/aqueous system was the most susceptible material for microbial corrosion, then followed by aluminum alloys AA 5052 and A356, and AA 6061 was more resistant to microbial aggression. Mixed culture had high capability of corrosion, then followed by Penicillium sp. AM-F5, Fusarium sp. AM-F1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AM-B5, Ps. fluorescens AM-B9, C. resinae ATCC 22712, Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Candida sp. AM-Y1 and Ps. aeruginosa AM-B11. From energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, aluminum and magnesium contents decreased in the corrosion area, while chlorine and sulfur contents increased. The major organic acid produced in fuel-oil/aqueous system was acetic acid, and the total organic acids content had a positive correlation with the degree of microbial corrosion. PMID:10496152

  10. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspha Sinnayah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana, stimulate appetite, and cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R antagonists suppress appetite and promote weight loss. Little is known about how CB1-R antagonists affect the central neurocircuitry, specifically the melanocortin system that regulates energy balance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that peripherally administered CB1-R antagonist (AM251 or agonist equally suppressed or stimulated feeding respectively in A(y , which lack a functional melanocortin system, and wildtype mice, demonstrating that cannabinoid effects on feeding do not require melanocortin circuitry. CB1-R antagonist or agonist administered into the ventral tegmental area (VTA equally suppressed or stimulated feeding respectively, in both genotypes. In addition, peripheral and central cannabinoid administration similarly induced c-Fos activation in brain sites suggesting mediation via motivational dopaminergic circuitry. Amperometry-detected increases in evoked dopamine (DA release by the CB1-R antagonist in nucleus accumbens slices indicates that AM251 modulates DA release from VTA terminals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the effects of cannabinoids on energy balance are independent of hypothalamic melanocortin circuitry and is primarily driven by the reward system.

  11. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of meteorites as a probe of the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a technique for gathering data relevant to Solar System geophysics. Two test cases were demonstrated: elemental analysis of chondrules in a chondrite meteorite, and space- resolved analysis of the interface between kamacite and taenite crystals in an octahedrite iron meteorite. In particular most major and minor elements (Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Cr, Mn, Ca, Fe, Ni, Co) in Sahara 98222 (chondrite) and its chondrules, as well as the profile of Ni content in Toluca (iron meteorite), were determined with the Calibration Free (CF) method. A special attention was devoted to exploring the possibilities offered by variants of the basic technique, such as the use of Fe I Boltzmann distribution as an intensity calibration method of the spectroscopic system, and the use of spatially resolved analysis. - Highlights: • LIBS of meteorites can supply data relevant to the early evolution of solar system. • CF-LIBS was applied to two different test cases. • Chemical identification of chondrules embedded in a chondrite meteorite • Experimental and theoretical profiles of Ni content in an iron meteorite

  12. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic quantum system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Pal; M S Santhanam

    2011-11-01

    Recent experiments with Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) in traps and speckle potentials have explored the dynamical regime in which the evolving BEC clouds localize due to the influence of classical dynamics. The growth of their mean energy is effectively arrested. This is in contrast with the well-known localization phenomena that originate due to quantum interferences. We show that classically induced localization can also be obtained in a classically chaotic, non-interacting system. In this work, we study the classical and quantum dynamics of non-interacting particles in a double-barrier structure. This is essentially a non-KAM system and, depending on the parameters, can display chaotic dynamics inside the finite well between the barriers. However, for the same set of parameters, it can display nearly regular dynamics above the barriers. We exploit this combination of two qualitatively different classical dynamical features to obtain saturation of energy growth. In the semiclassical regime, this classical mechanism strongly influences the quantum behaviour of the system.

  13. Collective dynamics of multimode bosonic systems induced by weak quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to the fully projective limit of strong quantum measurement, where the evolution is locked to a small subspace (quantum Zeno dynamics), or even frozen completely (quantum Zeno effect), the weak non-projective measurement can effectively compete with standard unitary dynamics leading to nontrivial effects. Here we consider global weak measurement addressing collective variables, thus preserving quantum superpositions due to the lack of which path information. While for certainty we focus on ultracold atoms, the idea can be generalized to other multimode quantum systems, including various quantum emitters, optomechanical arrays, and purely photonic systems with multiple-path interferometers (photonic circuits). We show that light scattering from ultracold bosons in optical lattices can be used for defining macroscopically occupied spatial modes that exhibit long-range coherent dynamics. Even if the measurement strength remains constant, the quantum measurement backaction acts on the atomic ensemble quasi-periodically and induces collective oscillatory dynamics of all the atoms. We introduce an effective model for the evolution of the spatial modes and present an analytic solution showing that the quantum jumps drive the system away from its stable point. We confirm our finding describing the atomic observables in terms of stochastic differential equations.

  14. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of meteorites as a probe of the early solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Aglio, M., E-mail: marcella.dellaglio@ba.imip.cnr.it [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); De Giacomo, A. [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Chemistry Department, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R.; De Pascale, O. [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Longo, S. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, Firenze (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a technique for gathering data relevant to Solar System geophysics. Two test cases were demonstrated: elemental analysis of chondrules in a chondrite meteorite, and space- resolved analysis of the interface between kamacite and taenite crystals in an octahedrite iron meteorite. In particular most major and minor elements (Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Cr, Mn, Ca, Fe, Ni, Co) in Sahara 98222 (chondrite) and its chondrules, as well as the profile of Ni content in Toluca (iron meteorite), were determined with the Calibration Free (CF) method. A special attention was devoted to exploring the possibilities offered by variants of the basic technique, such as the use of Fe I Boltzmann distribution as an intensity calibration method of the spectroscopic system, and the use of spatially resolved analysis. - Highlights: • LIBS of meteorites can supply data relevant to the early evolution of solar system. • CF-LIBS was applied to two different test cases. • Chemical identification of chondrules embedded in a chondrite meteorite • Experimental and theoretical profiles of Ni content in an iron meteorite.

  15. Systemic provocation in doxycycline induced fixed drug eruption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Murwaningsih Rosmarini Estri Sih Hananti Niken Indrastuti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is recurrent lesions that upon repeated uptake of causative drug, always appears at the same skin and mucosal site. Determination of causal relationship in drug allergy is very important. In this case report, cases of doxycycline-induced FDE was reported. The subject of the research was a 29-year-old male, referred by dermatologist, with history of reccurent FDE. Physical examination revealed an oval well demarcated patch hyperpigmentation. Patch test was perfomed on previous involved and uninvolved site. The result of the patch test was irrelevant. Retesting patch test gave similar result. Systemic provocation test or drug provocation test (DPT  with doxcycline were done with suspected drug under ambulatory survelance and gave positive result. In this case, the DPT succeeded to identify doxycycline as the causal agent of FDE. The work-up of a suspected drug hypersensitivity includes a detailed clinical history, physical examination, skin tests, and provocation tests. The DPT is recommended to confirm drug’s hypersensitivity reactions. Systemic provocation test is considered as the gold standard for diagnosing FDE.Keywords:   fixed drug eruption - doxycycline - causal relationship - patch test - systemic provocation test

  16. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jaswant

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group, 3 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group, 5 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group. The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P Conclusion We conclude that 1 OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2 disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3 ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4 the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF.

  17. Aphid-induced accumulation of trehalose in Arabidopsis thaliana is systemic and dependent upon aphid density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Simon; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Bennett, Mark; Mansfield, John W; Powell, Glen

    2013-04-01

    Trehalose is a disaccharide sugar that is now considered to be widely distributed among higher plants. Trehalose has been attributed a number of roles, including control of basic plant processes, such as photosynthesis, and conferring tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as desiccation and high salinity. Trehalose is also a common storage sugar used by insects. In this study, we used laboratory investigations to examine various aspects of trehalose dynamics in an aphid-host plant system (Arabidopsis and the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae). Trehalose concentrations were measured by [1-H]-NMR. Myzus persicae reared on Arabidopsis, but not on black mustard or spring cabbage, contained considerable quantities of trehalose (5 % w/w dry matter). In Arabidopsis foliage, feeding by aphids induced a density-dependent accumulation of trehalose up to 5 mg g(-1) dry weight. Leaves that were not challenged directly by aphids also exhibited increased trehalose concentrations, indicating that this accumulation was systemic. Trehalose was measured at high concentrations in the phloem sap of plants challenged by aphids, suggesting that aphid feeding induced the plant to produce significant quantities of trehalose, which moved through the plant and into the aphids via the phloem sap. Trehalose was also excreted in the aphid honeydew. Further work is required to clarify whether this trehalose accumulation in Arabidopsis has a direct role or a signalling function in plant tolerance of, or resistance to, aphid feeding, and if a similar accumulation of this sugar occurs when other species or genotypes of aphids are reared on this host plant. PMID:23242075

  18. Solar system constraints on planetary Coriolis-type effects induced by rotation of distant masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We phenomenologically put local constraints on the rotation of distant masses by using the planets of the solar system. First, we analytically compute the orbital secular precessions induced on the motion of a test particle about a massive primary by a Coriolis-like force, treated as a small perturbation, in the case of a constant angular velocity vector Ψ directed along a generic direction in space. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e of the test particle do not secularly change, contrary to the inclination I, the longitude of the ascending node Ω, the longitude of the pericenter varpi and the mean anomaly M. Then, we compare our prediction for (dot varpi) with the corrections Δdot varpi to the usual perihelion precessions of the inner planets recently estimated by fitting long data sets with different versions of the EPM ephemerides. We obtain as preliminary upper bounds |Ψz| ≤ 0.0006−0.013 arcsec cty−1, |Ψx| ≤ 0.1−2.7 arcsec cty−1, |Ψy| ≤ 0.3−2.3 arcsec cty−1. Interpreted in terms of models of space-time involving cosmic rotation, our results are able to yield constraints on cosmological parameters like the cosmological constant Λ and the Hubble parameter H0 not too far from their values determined with cosmological observations and, in some cases, several orders of magnitude better than the constraints usually obtained so far from space-time models not involving rotation. In the case of the rotation of the solar system throughout the Galaxy, occurring clockwise about the North Galactic Pole, our results for Ψz are in disagreement with the expected value of it at more than 3−σ level. Modeling the Oort cloud as an Einstein-Thirring slowly rotating massive shell inducing Coriolis-type forces inside yields unphysical results for its putative rotation

  19. [The auto-focusing remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-yu; Pan, Cong-yuan; An, Ning; Du, Xue-wei; Yu, Yun-si; Du, Liang-liang; Wang, Sheng-bo; Wang, Qiu-ping

    2015-02-01

    The present paper presents an auto-focus laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) remote measuring system. This system contains a Schwarzschild telescope, which consists of a convex mirror and a concave mirror. The two spherical mirrors are coaxially placed. The convex mirror is mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. With this motorized linear translation stage, the convex mirror can move along the optical axis to change the spacing between the convex mirror and the concave mirror. Therefore the focal length can be adjusted to focus the laser on samples at different distances and collect the plasma spectra. The advantages of the telescope system include, firstly, the light path of laser focusing and spectra signal collection is the same, which make it easier for mounting and collimation; secondly, the light path of the telescope uses total reflection type, which is fit for the detection in ultra-violate region; finally, the telescope consists of only two spherical mirrors which are relatively easier to manufacture. Within the translation range of the motorized linear translation stage, the focal length of the telescope in this paper can be adjusted from 1.5 to 3.6 m. The diameter of the focusing spot varies from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. Utilizing this telescope system, LIBS experiments were conducted using copper sample. And the characteristic lines of Cu element (Cu I 223.01 nm, Cu I 224.43 nm) obtained are used for the auto focusing. By investigating the relation of the area of spectral lines covered and the spacing between the mirrors, the optimal laser focusing location was obtained. The LIBS experiment results show that the system functions well, fulfilling the demand of remote ablation of sample and LIBS spectral measuring, and the telescope is able to auto-focus the laser on samples at different position to perform remote LIBS experiment. PMID:25970882

  20. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mittal

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA.In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR-adjusted p value<0.05. These genes were enriched in pathways spanning multiple systems, as would be expected during pregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256 showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA.Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data.

  1. Influence of high carbohydrate versus high fat diet in ozone induced pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic impairment in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution has been recently linked to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been postulated that dietary risk factors might exacerbate air pollution-induced metabolic impairment. We have recently reported that ozone exposure induces acute systemic ...

  2. A highly-sensitive automatic transient laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system with high temporal and spatial resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiao-Jun; S.K.Fong; Andrew Y.S.Cheng; Luo Shi-Rong; K.S.Tam; Zhu Jian-Hua; A.Viseu

    2012-01-01

    A highly-sensitive automatic transient laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system is designed and integrated.It successfully avoids the delay time selecting problem in the conventional LIBS system,and realizes the LIBS data acquisition with high spatiotemporal resolution automatically.Multiple transient spectra can be obtained in each measurement,which will provide more information for spectral research.The water-vapour and liquid-water Raman scattering spectra are captured by this system,and the comparison of experimental water-vapour Raman scattering spectrum with theoretical data verifies the reliability of the LIBS system.Based on this system,the air laser induced air breakdown spectra are captured and analysed.The system is also useful for the research on water-vapour Raman Lidar remote sensing.

  3. Disruption of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase Ameliorates Diet-induced Adiposity but Exacerbates Systemic Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Response*

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Gao, Zhanguo; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason; Chen, Y. Eugene; Ye, Jianping; Chapkin, Robert S.; Wu, Chaodong

    2009-01-01

    Adiposity is commonly associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and many overnutrition-related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Much attention has been paid to reducing adiposity as a way to improve adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. PFKFB3/iPFK2 is a master regulator of adipocyte nutrient metabolism. Using PFKFB3+/− mice, the present study investigated the role of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in regulating diet-induced adiposity and systemic insulin resistance. On a high...

  4. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole induced locomotor plasticity responsive to antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent kindling induced by PTZ is a widely used model of epileptogenesis and AED testing. Overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms may underlie epileptogenesis and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Besides epilepsy, AEDs are widely used in treating various neuropsychiatric disorders. Mechanisms of AEDs' long term action in these disorders are poorly understood. We describe here a Drosophila systems model of PTZ induced locomotor plasticity that is responsive to AEDs. Results We empirically determined a regime in which seven days of PTZ treatment and seven days of subsequent PTZ discontinuation respectively cause a decrease and an increase in climbing speed of Drosophila adults. Concomitant treatment with NaVP and LEV, not ETH, GBP and VGB, suppressed the development of locomotor deficit at the end of chronic PTZ phase. Concomitant LEV also ameliorated locomotor alteration that develops after PTZ withdrawal. Time series of microarray expression profiles of heads of flies treated with PTZ for 12 hrs (beginning phase, two days (latent phase and seven days (behaviorally expressive phase showed only down-, not up-, regulation of genes; expression of 23, 2439 and 265 genes were downregulated, in that order. GO biological process enrichment analysis showed downregulation of transcription, neuron morphogenesis during differentiation, synaptic transmission, regulation of neurotransmitter levels, neurogenesis, axonogenesis, protein modification, axon guidance, actin filament organization etc. in the latent phase and of glutamate metabolism, cell communication etc. in the expressive phase. Proteomic interactome based analysis provided further directionality to these events. Pathway overrepresentation analysis showed enrichment of Wnt signaling and other associated pathways in genes downregulated by PTZ. Mining of available transcriptomic and proteomic data pertaining to established rodent models of epilepsy and human epileptic

  5. A hybrid microfluidic system for regulation of neural differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesari, Zahra; Soleimani, Massoud; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Sharifdini, Meysam; Nadri, Samad; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Zare, Mehrak; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-06-01

    Controlling cellular orientation, proliferation, and differentiation is valuable in designing organ replacements and directing tissue regeneration. In the present study, we developed a hybrid microfluidic system to produce a dynamic microenvironment by placing aligned PDMS microgrooves on surface of biodegradable polymers as physical guidance cues for controlling the neural differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The neuronal differentiation capacity of cultured hiPSCs in the microfluidic system and other control groups was investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and immunocytochemistry. The functionally of differentiated hiPSCs inside hybrid system's scaffolds was also evaluated on the rat hemisected spinal cord in acute phase. Implanted cell's fate was examined using tissue freeze section and the functional recovery was evaluated according to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Our results confirmed the differentiation of hiPSCs to neuronal cells on the microfluidic device where the expression of neuronal-specific genes was significantly higher compared to those cultured on the other systems such as plain tissue culture dishes and scaffolds without fluidic channels. Although survival and integration of implanted hiPSCs did not lead to a significant functional recovery, we believe that combination of fluidic channels with nanofiber scaffolds provides a great microenvironment for neural tissue engineering, and can be used as a powerful tool for in situ monitoring of differentiation potential of various kinds of stem cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1534-1543, 2016. PMID:26914600

  6. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  7. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Byung Soo; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moody, Frederick J. [General Electric (Retired), CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  8. Temperature effects over laser-induced Rabi oscillations in a semiconductor quantum dot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The recent progress in the manufacturing of semiconductor quantum dots (QD) systems has made possible the coherent control of quantum states in QDs using optical or electrical techniques. Laser pulses have been recently used to coherently control the exciton population in quantum dots [1]. The coherent manipulation of quantum states is a high priority task to the development of quantum information and quantum computation. One particular signature of coherency in quantum systems is the Rabi Oscillations, which were recently observed in a few experimental works [2]. Here we theoretically study a system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot, tunnel coupled to electron reservoirs. In the presence of a laser field an electron-hole pair is created in the dot. An external gate voltage allows electrons and holes to tunnel out the dot to the reservoirs. To model this system we use the non-equilibrium Green's Function technique. We solve numerically a set of coupled differential equations to the retarded and lesser Green functions. This gives the occupation probabilities of the two levels of the QD and the laser-induced photocurrent as a function of time. We focus our attention on the effects of reservoirs temperature over the Rabi Oscillations. Our main findings encompass a thermal activated Pauli blockade of the Rabi oscillations that can be controlled via the reservoirs temperature. We also discussed the effects of this thermal activation of Pauli blockade on the photocurrent. These results suggest that ability to measure reservoir temperatures via quantum coherent signals, thus opening the possibility of a new quantum-dot based thermometer. [1] N. H. Bonadeo, J. Erland, D. Gammon, D. Park, D. S. Katzer, D. G. Steel, Science 282, 1473 (1998); [2] A. Zrenner, E. Beham, S. Stufler, F. Findeis, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, Nature (London) 418, 612 (2002). (author)

  9. Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Yoon

    Full Text Available We investigated eyedrop vaccination (EDV in pre-clinical development for immunological protection against influenza and for potential side effects involving ocular inflammation and the central nervous system (CNS. Live attenuated influenza EDV, CA07 (H1N1, PZ-4 (H1N2 and Uruguay (H3N2, induced both systemic and mucosal virus-specific antibody responses in ferrets. In addition, EDV resulted in a clinically significant protection against viral challenge, and suppression of viral replication in nasal secretion and lung tissue. Regarding safety, we found that administered EDV flow through the tear duct to reach the base of nasal cavity, and thus do not contact the olfactory bulb. All analyses for potential adverse effects due to EDV, including histological and functional examinations, did not reveal significant side effects. On the basis of these findings, we propose that EDV as effective, while being a safe administration route with minimum local side effects, CNS invasion, or visual function disturbance.

  10. Transient-chaos induced directed transport in a spatially-open Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the autonomous Hamiltonian dynamics of non-interacting particles trapped initially in one well of a symmetric multiple-well washboard potential. The particles interact locally with an anharmonic oscillator acting as an energy deposit. For a range of interaction strengths, the particles gain sufficient energy during a chaotic transient to escape from the well and afterwards settle onto regular (rotational) dynamics. Strikingly, microcanonical ensembles of initial conditions that are unbiased with respect to the washboard coordinate nevertheless give rise to net directed motion. We demonstrate that for unbiased spatially localized initial conditions, violation of parity prevents the existence of pairs of counter-propagating trajectories within the ensemble, despite the time-reversibility symmetry of the equations of motion, allowing for a nonzero current. Recent studies have shown that particle current may be induced in other systems with preserved spatial symmetry by an external periodic but asymmetric driving force, however, averaging over the phase of the latter yields zero current. The system we propose is novel in that averaging over the phase of the oscillator still yields nonzero current. Furthermore, no mixed phase space is required, and chaos is needed only in an initial stage of the dynamics to guide trajectories from the interior of separatrices onto sustained integrable rotational motion.

  11. The bystander effect in experimental systems and compatibility with radon-induced lung cancer in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystander effects following exposure to α-particles have been observed in C3H 10T 1/2 cells and in other experimental systems, and imply that linearly extrapolating low-dose risks from high-dose data might materially underestimate risk. The ratio of lung cancer risk among persons exposed to low and high doses of radon daughters is 2.4-4.0, with an upper 95% confidence limit (CL) of about 14. Assuming that the bystander effect observed in the C3H 10T 1/2 data applies to human lung cells in vivo, the epidemiological data imply that the number of neighbouring cells that can contribute to the bystander effect is between 0 and 1, with an upper 95% CL of about 7. As a consequence, the bystander effect observed in the C3H 10T 1/2 system probably does not play a large part in the process of radon-induced lung carcinogenesis in humans. Other experimental data relating to the bystander effect after α-particle exposure are surveyed; some of these data are more compatible with the epidemiological data. (author)

  12. A new method to determine reflex latency induced by high rate stimulation of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Karacan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High rate stimulations of the neuromuscular system, such as continuous whole body vibration, tonic vibration reflex and high frequency electrical stimulation, are used in the physiological research with an increasing interest. In these studies, the neuronal circuitries underlying the reflex responses remain unclear due to the problem of determining the exact reflex latencies. We present a novel “cumulated average method” to determine the reflex latency during high rate stimulation of the nervous system which was proven to be significantly more accurate than the classical method. The classical method, cumulant density analysis, reveals the relationship between the two synchronously recorded signals as a function of the lag between the signals. The comparison of new method with the classical technique and their relative accuracy was tested using a computer simulation. In the simulated signals the EMG response latency was constructed to be exactly 40 ms. The new method accurately indicated the value of the simulated reflex latency (40 ms. However, the classical method showed that the lag time between the simulated triggers and the simulated signals was 49 ms. Simulation results illustrated that the cumulated average method is a reliable and more accurate method compared with the classical method. We therefore suggest that the new cumulated average method is able to determine the high rate stimulation induced reflex latencies more accurately than the classical method.

  13. Studies on biologically induced corrosion in heat exchanger systems at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological fouling and corrosion of stainless steel tubes in the heat exchangers in nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant have caused decreased heat transfer efficiency and reduced operational life. This report addresses the microbiology and chemistry of the films present on these tubes, and the relation of this data to the corrosion of the tube material (304L stainless steel). Very few microorganisms other than bacteria were found in the biofilm. Bacteria capable of producing H2S, organic acids, anaerobic conditions, and slime have all been isolated from these films. All of these have been implicated in corrosion processes. The most remarkable chemical finding was the inability to detect chloride in the film around areas of presumed chloride induced stress corrosion cracking. Three model systems were used to test the fouling and corrosion potential of metal specimens under a variety of environmental conditions including various biocide regimes. Using these systems, potential improvements in the use of chlorine as a biocidal agent have been observed. It was also shown that larger bacterial populations (including viable and killed cells) were associated with corroded areas as compared to noncorroded areas on the same specimen

  14. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Methods Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk-1 of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Results Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; Pmuscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Conclusion Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy. PMID:24130904

  15. Optimization of liquid jet system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočovská, Katarína; Novotný, Jan; Prochazka, David; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    A complex optimization of geometrical and temporal parameters of a jet system (developed in Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) laboratory of Brno University of Technology) for direct elemental analysis of samples in a liquid state of matter using LIBS was carried out. First, the peristaltic pump was synchronized with the flashlamp of the ablation laser, which reduced variation of the ablated sample amount. Also, the fluctuation of the laser ray angle incident on the jet surface was diminished. Such synchronization reduced signal standard deviations and thus increased repeatability of the measurements. Then, laser energy and distance of the focusing lens from the sample were optimized. The gate delay time and the gate width were optimized for single pulse (SP) experiments; the gate delay time and the inter-pulse delay were optimized for the use of double pulse (DP) variant. Results were assessed according to the highest signal to noise ratios and the lowest relative standard deviations of the signal. The sensitivity of the single pulse and the double pulse LIBS for the detection of heavy metals traces, copper (Cu i at 324.754 nm) and lead (Pb i at 405.781 nm), in aqueous solution of copper (ii) sulfate and lead (ii) acetate, was estimated in terms of limits of detection (LODs). As a result, sensitivity improvement of DP LIBS system was observed, the LOD of Cu obtained with DP was calculated 40% lower than LOD gained from SP technique.

  16. Mechanistic studies of systemic immune responses induced by laser-nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Zhou, Feifan; Henderson, Brock; Vasquez, Bailey; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2014-02-01

    With the help of the specific absorption spectrum of carbon nanotubes, we achieved selective photothermal tumor cell destruction, particularly using a near-infrared laser to reduce potential damage to untargeted tissues. Combined with immunological stimulation, using a novel adjuvant, we also observed the anti-tumor immune responses when treating animal tumors using the laser-nano treatment. In fact, the local application of laser-nano-immunotherapy appeared to result in a systemic curative effect. In our mechanistic study, we found that the laser-nano-immuno treatment can activate antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). More importantly, the uptake and presentation of antigens by these antigen presenting cells were significantly enhanced, as shown by the strong binding of tumor cells and DCs as well as the proliferation of T cells caused by the DCs after the DCs had been incubated with laser-nano-immuno treated tumors. These cellular observations provide evidence that a systemic anti-tumor immune response was induced by the combination of laser and nanotechnology.

  17. New, Coupling Loss Induced, Quench Protection System for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Giloux, C; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    Email Print Request Permissions Save to Project A new and promising method for the protection of superconducting high-field magnets is developed and tested on the so-called MQXC quadrupole magnet at the CERN magnet test facility. The method relies on a capacitive discharge system inducing, during a few periods, an oscillation of the transport current in the superconducting cable of the coil. The corresponding fast change of the local magnetic field introduces a high coupling-current loss, which, in turn, causes a fast quench of a large fraction of the coil due to enhanced temperature. Results of measured discharges at various levels of transport current are presented and compared to discharges by quenching the coils using conventional quench heaters and an energy extraction system. The hot-spot temperature in the quenching coil is deduced from the coil voltage and current. The results are compared to simulations carried out using a lumped-element dynamic electro-thermal model of the so-called MQX...

  18. Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Han, Soo Jung; Park, Tae Kwann; Choi, Kyoung Sub; Choi, Young-Ki; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated eyedrop vaccination (EDV) in pre-clinical development for immunological protection against influenza and for potential side effects involving ocular inflammation and the central nervous system (CNS). Live attenuated influenza EDV, CA07 (H1N1), PZ-4 (H1N2) and Uruguay (H3N2), induced both systemic and mucosal virus-specific antibody responses in ferrets. In addition, EDV resulted in a clinically significant protection against viral challenge, and suppression of viral replication in nasal secretion and lung tissue. Regarding safety, we found that administered EDV flow through the tear duct to reach the base of nasal cavity, and thus do not contact the olfactory bulb. All analyses for potential adverse effects due to EDV, including histological and functional examinations, did not reveal significant side effects. On the basis of these findings, we propose that EDV as effective, while being a safe administration route with minimum local side effects, CNS invasion, or visual function disturbance. PMID:27333331

  19. Magnetic-field-induced valence transition in rare-earth systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Gangadhar Reddy; A Ramakanth; S K Ghatak

    2002-05-01

    The magnetic-field-induced valence transition in rare-earth systems has been investigated using the periodic Anderson model supplemented by the Falicov–Kimball term. This model has been solved by first decoupling the Falicov–Kimball term as proposed by Khomskii and Koharjan and then taking the limit of infinite intra-site Coulomb repulsion. The valence transition both in the absence and in the presence of magnetic field as a function of temperature is studied. It has been found that the system makes transition from non-magnetic to magnetic state when the magnetic field increases beyond a critical value c. The phase boundary defined in terms of reduced field c()/c(0) and reduced temperature /v (v being the valence transition temperature in the absence of field) is almost independent of the position of the localized level. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in Yb- and Eu-compounds.

  20. Protective effect of crocin against apoptosis induced by subchronic exposure of the rat vascular system to diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Khoei, Alireza; Imenshahidi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    Research has suggested that natural antioxidant, crocin, an active ingredient of saffron, may protect against diazinon (DZN)-induced toxicity. Although increased production of lipid peroxidation by DZN in rat aorta has been shown previously, the effects of DZN on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vascular system have not been evaluated. In this study, the effect of crocin on DZN-induced apoptosis in rat vascular system was investigated. The rats were divided into 7 groups: corn oil (control), DZN (15 mg/kg/day, gavage), crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) + DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p., 3 days a week) + DZN, and crocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). The treatments were continued for 4 weeks. Levels of apoptotic (Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl2) were analyzed by Western blotting. Transcript levels of Bax and Bcl2 genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed DZN-induced apoptosis by activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and by increasing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio (both protein and messenger RNA levels). Crocin and vitamin E inhibited apoptosis induced by DZN. In summary, subchronic exposure to DZN induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, and crocin reduced the toxic effects of DZN by inhibiting apoptosis in aortic tissue. PMID:27353299

  1. Systems analysis of a RIG-I agonist inducing broad spectrum inhibition of virus infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Line Goulet

    Full Text Available The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5'pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5'pppRNA, and not by IFNα-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5'pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5'pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents.

  2. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwetsloot KA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training

  3. Comparative evaluation of some flavonoids and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity induced by sulphur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective value of quercetin, gossypin, Hippophae rhamnoides (HR flavone and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity of percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM in mice. Materials and Methods: Quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg, i.p. were administered just before percutaneous administration of SM and protection against the SM lethality was evaluated. In another experiment quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate were administered against 2 LD 50 SM. The animals were sacrificed seven days post SM administration and various biochemical parameters were estimated. Results: The protection against the lethality of SM was very good with the flavonoids (quercetin = 4.7 folds; gossypin = 6.7 folds and HR flavone = 5.6 folds, compared to no protection with tocopherol acetate (0.7 fold. SM (2 LD 50 showed decrease in reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG levels, and an increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA. Oxidative stress enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. The total antioxidant status was also significantly decreased. Additionally, there was a significant increase in red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin content. All the flavonoids significantly protected the GSH, GSSG and MDA, and also the hematological variables. Tocopherol acetate failed to offer any protection in those parameters. Gossypin protected glutathione peroxidase, while HR flavone protected both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase significantly. The decrease in body weight induced by SM and the histological lesions in liver and spleen were also significantly protected by the flavonoids but not by tocopherol acetate. Conclusion: The present study supports that SM induces oxidative stress and flavonoids are promising cytoprotectants against this toxic effect.

  4. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α2-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic

  5. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  6. Differential effectiveness of Serratia plymuthica IC1270-induced systemic resistance against hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic leaf pathogens in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfte Monica M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant reacting to specific biotic or chemical stimuli. Over the years, several forms of induced resistance have been characterized, including systemic acquired resistance, which is induced upon localized infection by an avirulent necrotizing pathogen, and induced systemic resistance (ISR, which is elicited by selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria. However, contrary to the relative wealth of information on inducible defense responses in dicotyledoneous plants, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying induced resistance phenomena in cereal crops is still in its infancy. Using a combined cytomolecular and pharmacological approach, we analyzed the host defense mechanisms associated with the establishment of ISR in rice by the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. Results In a standardized soil-based assay, root treatment with IC1270 rendered foliar tissues more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, causal agent of the devastating rice blast disease. Analysis of the cytological and biochemical alterations associated with restriction of fungal growth in IC1270-induced plants revealed that IC1270 primes rice for enhanced attacker-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and autofluorescent phenolic compounds in and near epidermal cells displaying dense cytoplasmic granulation. Similar, yet more abundant, phenotypes of hypersensitively dying cells in the vicinity of fungal hyphae were evident in a gene-for-gene interaction with an avirulent M. oryzae strain, suggesting that IC1270-inducible ISR and R protein conditioned effector-triggered immunity (ETI target similar defense mechanisms. Yet, this IC1270-inducible ISR response seems to act as a double-edged sword within the rice defense network as induced plants displayed an increased vulnerability to the necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia

  7. Systemic RNA interference is not triggered by locally-induced RNA interference in a plant pathogenic fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takeo; Yaegashi, Hajime; Ito, Tsutae; Kanematsu, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    The white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, damages a wide range of fruit trees. R. necatrix is known to host a variety of mycoviruses, and several of these have potential as biological control agents. RNA interference (RNAi) is a fungal defense mechanism against viral infection, and it is therefore important to understand the RNAi amplification and transmission systems in R. necatrix for effective use of mycoviruses in disease control. In this study, we describe an intriguing RNAi signal transmission phenomenon in R. necatrix. In R. necatrix transformants with autonomously replicating vectors carrying a hairpin structure to induce RNAi, the gene silencing effect was distributed locally and unevenly, based on the vector distribution. This indicates that R. necatrix has no mechanism to propagate silencing signals systemically, unlike Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, the expression of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase homologs was not upregulated during RNAi induction, suggesting that silencing signals are not amplified at sufficient levels to induce systemic RNAi in R. necatrix. Our results also suggest that, in addition to hairpin-induced RNAi, there is either a 5' transitive RNAi or quelling-like gene silencing system in R. necatrix. This is the first study demonstrating that systemic RNAi is not induced by local RNAi in fungi. PMID:25677378

  8. Imaging of Carrageenan-Induced Local Inflammation and Adjuvant-Induced Systemic Arthritis with [11C]PBR28 PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Wang, Xueding; English, Sean J; Desmond, Timothy; Sherman, Phillip S; Quesada, Carole A; Piert, Morand R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction [11C]PBR28 binding to translocator protein (TSPO) was evaluated for imaging of acute and chronic inflammation using two established rat models. Methods Acute inflammation was induced by local Carrageenan-injection into the paw of Fisher 344 rats (model A). T-cell mediated adjuvant arthritis was induced by heat-inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum injection in Lewis rats (model B). Micro-PET scan was performed after injection of approximately 35 MBq [11C]PBR28. In model A, volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined in the paw of Fisher 344 rats (n=6) with contralateral sham treatment as control. For model B, VOIs were defined in the tail, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees and thigh muscles of M. butyricum treated animals (n=8) and compared with sham-treated controls (n=4). The peak 11C-PBR28 SUV (SUVpeak) and area under the curve (AUCSUV) of 60-minute time-activity data were calculated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68, a macrophage stain, was performed from paw tissues. In addition, the [11C]PBR28 cell uptake was measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated and non-stimulated macrophage cultures. Results LPS-stimulated macrophages displayed dose-dependent increased [11C]PBR28 uptake, which was blocked by non-labeled PBR28. In both models, radiotracer uptake of treated lesions increased rapidly within minutes and displayed overall accumulative kinetics. The SUVpeak and AUCSUV of Carrageenan-treated paws was significantly increased compared to controls. Also, the [11C]PBR28 uptake ratio of Carrageenan-treated vs. sham-treated paw correlated significantly with CD68 staining ratios of the same animals. In adjuvant arthritis, significantly increased [11C]PBR28 SUVpeak and AUCSUV values were identified at the tail, knees, and sacroiliac joints, while no significant differences were identified in the lumbar spine and hips. Conclusions Based on our initial data, [11C]PBR28 PET appears to have potential for imaging of various inflammatory processes involving

  9. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. RESULTS: Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001. Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19; however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007. There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019. CONCLUSION: Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  10. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  11. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xijia; Liu, Zhigang; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Weiwei; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation canopy SIF is designed in this study. The system, which is based on a high-resolution spectrometer and an optical multiplexer, can achieve comparative observation of multiple targets. To simultaneously measure the commonly used vegetation index and SIF in the O₂-A and O₂-B atmospheric absorption bands, the following parameters are used: a spectral range of 475.9 to 862.2 nm, a spectral resolution of approximately 0.9 nm, a spectral sampling interval of approximately 0.4 nm, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be as high as 1000:1. To obtain data for both the upward radiance of the vegetation canopy and downward irradiance data with a high SNR in relatively short time intervals, the single-step integration time optimization algorithm is proposed. To optimize the extraction accuracy of SIF, the FluorMOD model is used to simulate sets of data according to the spectral resolution, spectral sampling interval and SNR of the spectrometer in this continuous observation system. These data sets are used to determine the best parameters of Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD), Three FLD (3FLD) and the spectral fitting method (SFM), and 3FLD and SFM are confirmed to be suitable for extracting SIF from the spectral measurements. This system has been used to observe the SIF values in O₂-A and O₂-B absorption bands and some commonly used vegetation index from sweet potato and bare land, the result of which shows: (1) the daily variation trend of SIF value of sweet potato leaves is

  12. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijia Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation canopy SIF is designed in this study. The system, which is based on a high-resolution spectrometer and an optical multiplexer, can achieve comparative observation of multiple targets. To simultaneously measure the commonly used vegetation index and SIF in the O2-A and O2-B atmospheric absorption bands, the following parameters are used: a spectral range of 475.9 to 862.2 nm, a spectral resolution of approximately 0.9 nm, a spectral sampling interval of approximately 0.4 nm, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR can be as high as 1000:1. To obtain data for both the upward radiance of the vegetation canopy and downward irradiance data with a high SNR in relatively short time intervals, the single-step integration time optimization algorithm is proposed. To optimize the extraction accuracy of SIF, the FluorMOD model is used to simulate sets of data according to the spectral resolution, spectral sampling interval and SNR of the spectrometer in this continuous observation system. These data sets are used to determine the best parameters of Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD, Three FLD (3FLD and the spectral fitting method (SFM, and 3FLD and SFM are confirmed to be suitable for extracting SIF from the spectral measurements. This system has been used to observe the SIF values in O2-A and O2-B absorption bands and some commonly used vegetation index from sweet potato and bare land, the result of which shows: (1 the daily variation trend of SIF value of sweet potato leaves is

  13. Estimation of flow-induced loads on a down-scaled model of SMART reactor coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a small and medium-sized integrated reactor to produce an electric power and desalination simultaneously. SMART should be designed to withstand flow-induced loads generated by the coolant flow under both normal and transient operations during the design period. In this study, we evaluated the flow-induced loads and flow characteristics in the axial and the circumferential directions of reactor internals using a down-scaled model of SMART prototype. This paper shows that the simulated results in the axial direction are in good agreement with the experimental data in the reactor coolant system. The flow-induced loads are irregularly distributed in the circumferential direction of the reactor internals. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance. (paper)

  15. Drift-or fluctuation-induced ordering and self-organization in driven many-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to empirical observations, some pattern formation phenomena in driven many-particle systems are more pronounced in the presence of a certain noise level. We investigate this phenomenon of fluctuation-driven ordering with a cellular-automaton model of interactive motion in space and find an optimal noise strength, while order breaks down at high(er) fluctuation levels. Additionally, we discuss the phenomenon of noise- and drift-induced self-organization in systems that would show disorder in the absence of fluctuations. In the future, related studies may have applications to the control of many-particle systems such as the efficient separation of particles. The rather general formulation of our model in the spirit of game theory may allow to shed some light on several different kinds of noise-induced ordering phenomena observed in physical, chemical, biological, and socio-economic systems (e.g., attractive and repulsive agglomeration, or segregation). (authors)

  16. Effect of vacuum-induced coherence on lasing without inversion in an equispaced three-level ladder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Qian; Chengpu Liu; Shangqing Gong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vacuum-induced coherence (VIC) on the properties of the absorption and gain of the probe field in an equispaced three-level ladder atomic system are investigated. It is found that lasing without inversion (LWI) is remarkably enhanced due to the effect of VIC in the case of the small incoherent pump rate.

  17. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  18. Disparate roles of marrow- and parenchymal cell-derived TLR4 signaling in murine LPS-induced systemic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Juskewitch, Justin E.; Platt, Jeffrey L.; Knudsen, Bruce E.; Knutson, Keith L.; Brunn, Gregory J.; Grande, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurs in a range of infectious and non-infectious disease processes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate such responses. We have shown that parenchymal cell TLR4 activation drives LPS-induced systemic inflammation; SIRS does not develop in mice lacking TLR4 expression on parenchymal cells. The parenchymal cell types whose TLR4 activation directs this process have not been identified. Employing a bone marrow transplant model to compartmentalize T...

  19. PELATIHAN MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM SAMA DENGAN PELATIHAN CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN FUNGSIONAL ANGGOTA GERAK ATAS PASIEN STROKE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul chalik meidian; Dewa Putu Sutjana; Irfan, M

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an interruption of blood vasculature system in the brain that causes suddenly neurological dysfunction, resulted in clinically brain tissue damage in a relatively long time period, decreased physical mobility and functional ability impaired of upper limb. The purpose of this study is to know an increasing in upper limb functional ability among stroke patients after mirror neuron system exercise and constraint induced movement therapy exercise and to know the comparison of both exerc...

  20. Nonlinear transient vibrations and coexistences of multi-instabilities induced by friction in an aircraft braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillot, Fabrice; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Hardouin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    International audience Friction-induced vibration is still a cause for concern in a wide variety of mechanical systems, because it can lead to structural damage if high vibration levels are reached. Another effect is the noise produced that can be very unpleasant for end-users, thereby making it a major problem in the field of terrestrial transport. In this work the case of an aircraft braking system is examined. An analytical model with polynomial nonlinearity in the contact between rotor...

  1. The electromagnetically induced transparency in the Y-type four-level atom system at low light levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liying; LIU Zhengdong; CHEN Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a Y-type four-level atom interacting with external fields system is investigated. It is shown that increasing the control field can reduce the probe absorption, the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and gain can be obtained if the parameters are taken appropriately. An interesting phenomenon is found that the system appears to be probe gain in a large region if the external fields Rabi phases are taken appropriately, too.

  2. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, V J; Merkus, D; Bender, S. B.; Tharp, D. L.; Bowles, D.K.; Duncker, D. J.; LAUGHLIN, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hyper...

  3. Characterization of Radiation Induced Current in RF coils of Linac-MR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin Lester

    Real-time MR imaging of the cancer patients undergoing external beam radiation treatment represents the next generation in image guided radiotherapy. However, the radio frequency (RF) coil of the MRI is exposed to the pulsed radiation of the linear accelerator in the systems where a medical linear accelerator is integrated with the MRI. This thesis is primarily concerned with the instantaneous effect of pulsed radiation on the RF coils, in particular the Radiation Induced Current (RIC). The RIC results from the charge imbalance created by the ejection of Compton electrons from the thin conductors of the RF coils during the pulsed irradiation. This work spans the initial observations of the RIC in real coils, a detailed characterization of the RIC and finally its impact on the MR image. The first part presented the measurements of the instantaneous RIC in two different MRI RF coils. Some basic characterization of the RIC included the isolation of the RF coil component responsible for RIC, the dependence of RIC on linear accelerator dose rate, and the effect of placing wax buildup on the coil to reduce RIC. The copper windings of the RF coils were isolated as the main source of RIC. A linear dependence of the RIC amplitude on dose rate was observed. The RIC was decreased with wax buildup, suggesting an electronic disequilibrium as the cause of RIC. In the second part, a buildup method of RIC removal in planar conductors is tested, a Monte Carlo method of RIC calculation in metal conductors is presented and validated, and the Monte Carlo method is used to examine the effects of magnetic fields on both planar conductor and practical cylindrical coil geometries. The buildup method of RIC removal is effective in planar geometries and in cylindrical coil geometries when the coil conductor is in direct contact with the patient. The presence of air gap between the coil and patient makes this method of RIC removal less effective although placing buildup still reduces the RIC

  4. Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H. D.; Macalady, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.; Luce, C.; Royer, P. D.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    subsurface flow, runoff, groundwater recharge, and streamflow. Under some circumstances there may also be increased flood risks. We hypothesized thresholds of mean annual precipitation and canopy cover reduction identified from the forest harvesting literature as minima that must be exceeded for die-off to noticeably affect hydrologic processes. We note exceptions to these thresholds when snowmelt dominates the watershed hydrology and when mortality affects a single species with a unique hydrologic role. Management options for mitigating die-off effects on ecosystem and earth system processes and implementing post-die-off restoration will likely be limited and costly, requiring ecological and societal adaptation in many areas. As such, climate-induced tree mortality poses a significant risk to the current earth system function through altered exchanges of carbon, energy, and water between the land surface and atmosphere.

  5. Control of microwave signals using bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in multimode circuit electromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Yuanshun, Cui; Xintian, Bian; Xiaowei, Li; Guibin, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the tunable delay and advancement of microwave signals based on bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in a three-mode circuit electromechanical system, where two nanomechanical resonators with closely spaced frequencies are independently coupled to a common microwave cavity. In the presence of a strong microwave pump field, we obtain two transparency windows accompanied by steep phase dispersion in the transmitted microwave probe field. The width of the transparency window and the group delay of the probe field can be controlled effectively by the power of the pump field. It is shown that the maximum group delay of 0.12 ms and the advancement of 0.27 ms can be obtained in the current experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304110 and 11174101), the Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. BK20130413 and BK2011411), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant Nos. 13KJB140002 and 15KJB460004).

  6. The Incompatibility of Living Systems: Characterizing Growth-Induced Incompatibilities in Expanded Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buganza Tepole, Adrian; Gart, Michael; Purnell, Chad A; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Skin expansion is a common surgical technique to correct large cutaneous defects. Selecting a successful expansion protocol is solely based on the experience and personal preference of the operating surgeon. Skin expansion could be improved by predictive computational simulations. Towards this goal, we model skin expansion using the continuum framework of finite growth. This approach crucially relies on the concept of incompatible configurations. However, aside from the classical opening angle experiment, our current understanding of growth-induced incompatibilities remains rather vague. Here we visualize and characterize incompatibilities in living systems using skin expansion in a porcine model: We implanted and inflated two expanders, crescent, and spherical, and filled them to 225 cc throughout a period of 21 days. To quantify the residual strains developed during this period, we excised the expanded skin patches and subdivided them into smaller pieces. Skin growth averaged 1.17 times the original area for the spherical and 1.10 for the crescent expander, and displayed significant regional variations. When subdivided into smaller pieces, the grown skin patches retracted heterogeneously and confirmed the existence of incompatibilities. Understanding skin growth through mechanical stretch will allow surgeons to improve-and ultimately personalize-preoperative treatment planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:26416721

  7. Laser induced forward transfer of SnO2 for sensing applications using different precursors systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattle, Thomas; Hintennach, Andreas; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the transfer of SnO2 by laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) for gas sensor applications. Different donor substrates of SnO2 with and without triazene polymer (TP) as a dynamic release layer were prepared. Transferring these films under different conditions were evaluated by optical microscopy and functionality. Transfers of sputtered SnO2 films do not lead to satisfactory results and transfers of SnO2 nanoparticles are difficult. Transfers of SnO2 nanoparticles can only be achieved when applying a second laser pulse to the already transferred material, which improves the adhesion resulting in a complete pixel. A new approach of decomposing the transfer material during LIFT transfer was developed. Donor films based on UV absorbing metal complex precursors namely, SnCl2(acac)2 were prepared and transferred using the LIFT technique. Transfer conditions were optimized for the different systems, which were deposited onto sensor-like microstructures. The conductivity of the transferred material at temperatures of about 400 ∘C are in a range usable for SnO2 gas sensors. First sensing tests were carried out and the transferred material proved to change conductivity when exposed to ethanol, acetone, and methane.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  9. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  10. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Saulo J F; Sousa, Fernanda I A B; Pereira, Domingos M S; Ferro, Thiago A F; Pereira, Ione C P; Silva, Bruna L R; Pinheiro, Aruanã J M C R; Mouchrek, Adriana Q S; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Costa, Soraia K P; Nascimento, José L M; Grisotto, Marcos A G; da Costa, Robson; Fernandes, Elizabeth S

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1 h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5 min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26922677

  11. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  12. Systemic sclerosis induces pronounced peripheral vascular dysfunction characterized by blunted peripheral vasoreactivity and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frech, Tracy; Walker, Ashley E; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Hopkins, Paul N; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter; Donato, Anthony J

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) vasculopathy can result in a digital ulcer (DU) and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that bedside brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) testing with duplex ultrasound could be used in SSc patients to identify features of patients at risk for DU or PAH. Thirty-eight SSc patients were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls from the VAMC Utah Vascular Research Laboratory. Peripheral hemodynamics, arterial structure, and endothelial function were assessed by duplex ultrasound. A blood pressure cuff was applied to the forearm and 5-min ischemia was induced. Post-occlusion, brachial artery vascular reactivity (peak hyperemia/area under the curve [AUC]), shear rate, and endothelial function (FMD) were measured. SSc patients had smaller brachial artery diameters (p 5.40 %) had less than 15 % chance of DU. All brachial artery FMD measurements were similar between SSc patients with and without PAH (all p > 0.05). Compared to healthy controls, SSc patients had significantly smaller brachial artery diameter and blunted peripheral vascular reactivity and endothelial function. SSc patients with DU have even greater impairments in endothelial function compared to those without DU. FMD testing has clinical utility to identify SSc patients at risk for DU. PMID:25511849

  13. Genetic immunization in the lung induces potent local and systemic immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaimei; Bolton, Diane L; Wei, Chih-Jen; Wilson, Robert L; Camp, Jeremy V; Bao, Saran; Mattapallil, Joseph J; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Herzenberg, Leonard A; Andrews, Charla A; Sadoff, Jerald C; Goudsmit, Jaap; Pau, Maria Grazia; Seder, Robert A; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Nabel, Gary J; Roederer, Mario; Rao, Srinivas S

    2010-12-21

    Successful vaccination against respiratory infections requires elicitation of high levels of potent and durable humoral and cellular responses in the lower airways. To accomplish this goal, we used a fine aerosol that targets the entire lung surface through normal respiration to deliver replication-incompetent recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing gene products from several infectious pathogens. We show that this regimen induced remarkably high and stable lung T-cell responses in nonhuman primates and that it also generated systemic and respiratory tract humoral responses of both IgA and IgG isotypes. Moreover, strong immunogenicity was achieved even in animals with preexisting antiadenoviral immunity, overcoming a critical hurdle to the use of these vectors in humans, who commonly are immune to adenoviruses. The immunogenicity profile elicited with this regimen, which is distinct from either intramuscular or intranasal delivery, has highly desirable properties for protection against respiratory pathogens. We show that it can be used repeatedly to generate mucosal humoral, CD4, and CD8 T-cell responses and as such may be applicable to other mucosally transmitted pathogens such as HIV. Indeed, in a lethal challenge model, we show that aerosolized recombinant adenoviral immunization completely protects ferrets against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Thus, genetic immunization in the lung offers a powerful platform approach to generating protective immune responses against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21135247

  14. KeV-He-ion bombardment induced magnetic modifications and patterning of magnetic thin film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange bias effect in antiferromagnet/ ferromagnet magnetic thin film systems results from the exchange interaction at the interface between both materials. Recently a method has been developed to initialize and tailor the exchange bias in direction and absolute magnitude by bombardment with light ions in a magnetic field. The origin of this effect is a combination of interface and anisotropy modification in the magnetic thin films by the impinging ions. In combining ion bombardment with lithographical techniques a lateral magnetic patterning essentially without change of the surface topography becomes feasible. Besides a brief review of the currently discussed model for the keV-He-ion bombardment induced effects, examples for the various possibilities to apply these technique are given, i.e. among others, tailoring magnitude and direction of the magnetic reference electrode's magnetization in giant magneto- and tunnel magneto-resistance layer stacks, production of standard samples to magnetically characterize magnetic force microscopy probe tips in in-plane magnetic fields, and positioning of magnetic particles

  15. A cost-effective system for differentiation of intestinal epithelium from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaki, Soichiro; Morooka, Mayu; Otera, Kaito; Kume, Shoen

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is a useful model for pharmacological studies of absorption, metabolism, drug interactions, and toxicology, as well as for studies of developmental biology. We established a rapid and cost effective system for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells. In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a low concentration of Activin at 6.25 ng/ml is sufficient to give a similar differentiation efficiency with that using Activin at 100 ng/ml at the presence of Wnt activator. In the presence of DMSO, Activin at low concentration triggered hiPS cells to undergo differentiation through G1 arrest, reduce apoptosis, and potentiate activation of downstream targets, such as SMAD2 phosphorylation and SOX17 expression. This increased differentiation into CDX2 + SOX17 + DE cells. The present differentiation procedure therefore permits rapid and efficient derivation of DE cells, capable of differentiating into intestinal epithelium upon BIO and DAPT treatment and of giving rise to functional cells, such as enterocytes. PMID:26616277

  16. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices.

  17. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  18. Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for the speciation of transuranic elements in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (LPAS) is a new elegant instrumentation for the chemical speciation of acoustic transuranium (TRU) ions in very dilute concentrations (> 10-8 mol L-1). The paper describes the principle of LPAS and its application to the study of the chemical behaviour of TRU ions in natural aquatic systems, the knowledge of which has become increasingly in demand in connection with the safety analysis of nuclear waste disposal in the geosphere. The first part of the paper describes the principle, instrumentation and characteristics of LPAS in aqueous solution, taking particular examples from our own experience. The theoretical estimation of the speciation sensitivity is demonstrated and the result is compared with experiment. The second part deals with the spectral work in aqueous solution and then with the aplication of LPAS for the speciation of TRU ions in groundwater. Some examples demonstrated are hydrolysis reaction, complexation and colloid generation of the Am3+ ion. Speciation sensitivities of U, Np, Pu and Am of different oxidation states in a variety of aqueous solutions are summarized. The application is of course open to a broad field of microchemistry in which the conventional spectrophotometric method has difficulty with sensitivity. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  20. Acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, Matthew (Ann Arbor, MI); Ye, Jing Yong (Ann Arbor, MI); Norris, Theodore B. (Dexter, MI); Baker, Jr., James R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Balogh, Lajos P. (Ann Arbor, MI); Milas, Susanne M. (Ann Arbor, MI); Emelianov, Stanislav Y. (Ann Arbor, MI); Hollman, Kyle W. (Fenton, MI)

    2008-05-06

    An acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) provides information which characterize material which is broken down, microbubbles in the material, and/or the microenvironment of the microbubbles. In one embodiment of the invention, femtosecond laser pulses are focused just inside the surface of a volume of aqueous solution which may include dendrimer nanocomposite (DNC) particles. A tightly focused, high frequency, single-element ultrasonic transducer is positioned such that its focus coincides axially and laterally with this laser focus. When optical breakdown occurs, a microbubble forms and a shock or pressure wave is emitted (i.e., acoustic emission). In addition to this acoustic signal, the microbubble may be actively probed with pulse-echo measurements from the same transducer. After the microbubble forms, received pulse-echo signals have an extra pulse, describing the microbubble location and providing a measure of axial microbubble size. Wavefield plots of successive recordings illustrate the generation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles due to optical breakdown. These same plots can also be used to quantify LIOB thresholds.

  1. Low level RF systems for synchrotrons part II: High Intensity. Compensation of the beam induced effects

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    2005-01-01

    The high intensity regime is reached when the voltage induced by the beam in the RF cavities is of an amplitude comparable to the desired accelerating voltage. In steady state this beam loading can be compensated by providing extra RF power. Transient beam loading occurs at injection or in the presence of a beam intensity that is not uniform around the ring. The transients are periodic at the revolution frequency. Without correction transient beam loading can be very harmful: The stable phase and bucket area will not be equal for all bunches. Strong beam loading often goes in pair with longitudinal instabilities because the RF cavities are a large contributor to the total ring impedance. The low level systems that reduce the effect of the transient beam loading will also increase the threshold intensity of the longitudinal instability caused by the cavity impedance at the fundamental RF frequency. Four classic methods are presented here: Feedforward, RF feedback, long delay feedback and bunch by bunch feedbac...

  2. Sterilization using a microwave-induced argon plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of microwave plasma for sterilization is relatively new. The advantages of this method are the relatively low temperature, time-savings and its nontoxic nature, in contrast to traditional methods such as heat and gas treatment, and radiation. This study investigated the sterilization effects of microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure on materials contaminated with various microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. A low-cost and reliable 2.45 GHz, waveguide-based applicator was designed to generate microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. This system consisted of a 1 kW magnetron power supply, a WR-284 copper waveguide, an applicator including a tuning section, and a nozzle section. Six bacterial and fungal strains were used for the sterilization test. The results showed that regardless of the strain, all the bacteria used in this study were fully sterilized within 20 seconds and all the fungi were sterilized within 1 second. These results show that this sterilization method is easy to use, requires significantly less time than the other traditional methods and established plasma sterilization methods, and it is nontoxic. It can be used in the field of sterilization in medical and dental clinics as well as in laboratory settings

  3. Mediation by the serotonergic system of U-50,488H-induced antinociception and tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Begonia Yeeman.

    1989-01-01

    The antinociceptive action of U-50,488H, a selective {kappa}-opioid receptor agonist, was attenuated by serotonergic but not by noradrenergic receptor antagonists. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered U-50,488H was antagonized by more than two fold by i.c.v. administered pindolol, methysergide, mianserin, ketanserin, pirenperone or ICS-205,930. A similar degree of antagonism of U-50,488H (i.c.v.) was found after intrathecal (i.t.) treatments with pindolol, methysergide or ICS-205,930 but not with mianserin, ketanserin or pirenperone. When U-50,488H and the antagonists were both given i.t., its antinociceptive action was attenuated by pindolol or methysergide, potentiated by mianserin, ketanserin or pirenperone and not affected by ICS-205,930. The release of serotonin was further studied directly by using a superfusion system. A naloxone reversible, concentration- and Ca{sup 2+}- dependent enhancement of release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin by U-50,488H was observed in spinal and brain tissues. Tolerance to the antinociceptive action of U-50,488H was induced in mice using slow release preparations of U-50,488H. Serotonergic receptor antagonists (pindolol or ketanserin) were co-administered with U-50,488H to test for their effects on the development of tolerance to U-50,488H.

  4. Mediation by the serotonergic system of U-50,488H-induced antinociception and tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antinociceptive action of U-50,488H, a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, was attenuated by serotonergic but not by noradrenergic receptor antagonists. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered U-50,488H was antagonized by more than two fold by i.c.v. administered pindolol, methysergide, mianserin, ketanserin, pirenperone or ICS-205,930. A similar degree of antagonism of U-50,488H (i.c.v.) was found after intrathecal (i.t.) treatments with pindolol, methysergide or ICS-205,930 but not with mianserin, ketanserin or pirenperone. When U-50,488H and the antagonists were both given i.t., its antinociceptive action was attenuated by pindolol or methysergide, potentiated by mianserin, ketanserin or pirenperone and not affected by ICS-205,930. The release of serotonin was further studied directly by using a superfusion system. A naloxone reversible, concentration- and Ca2+- dependent enhancement of release of [3H]serotonin by U-50,488H was observed in spinal and brain tissues. Tolerance to the antinociceptive action of U-50,488H was induced in mice using slow release preparations of U-50,488H. Serotonergic receptor antagonists (pindolol or ketanserin) were co-administered with U-50,488H to test for their effects on the development of tolerance to U-50,488H

  5. Dynamically tunable slow light based on plasmon induced transparency in disk resonators coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast and low-power dynamically tunable single channel and multichannel slow light based on plasmon induced transparencies (PITs) in disk resonators coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide system with a nonlinear optical Kerr medium is investigated both numerically and analytically. A coupled-mode theory (CMT) is introduced to analyze this dynamically tunable single channel slow light structure. Multichannel slow light is realized in this plasmonic waveguide structure based on a bright–dark mode coupling mechanism. In order to reduce the pump intensity and obtain ultrafast response time, the traditional nonlinear Kerr material is replaced by monolayer graphene. It is found that the magnitude of the single PIT window can be controlled between 0.08 and 0.48, while the corresponding group index is controlled between 14.5 and 2.0 by dynamically decreasing pump intensity from 11.7 to 4.4 MW cm−2. Moreover, the phase shift multiplication effect is found in this structure. This work paves a new way towards the realization of highly integrated optical circuits and networks, especially for wavelength-selective, all-optical storage and nonlinear devices. (paper)

  6. Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for the speciation of transuranic elements in natural aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) is a new elegant instrumentation for the chemical speciation of aquatic transuranium (TRU) ions in very dilute concentrations (>10-8 mol L-1). The paper describes the principle of LPAS and its application to the study of the chemical behaviour of TRU ions in natural aquatic systems, the knowledge of which has become increasingly in demand in connection with the safety analysis of nuclear waste disposal in the geosphere. The first part of the paper describes the principle, instrumentation and characteristics of LPAS in aqueous solution, taking particular examples from our own experience. The theoretical estimation of the speciation sensitivity is demonstrated and the result is compared with experiment. The second part deals with the spectral work in aqueous solution and then with the application of LPAS for the speciation of TRU ions in groundwater. Some examples demonstrated are hydrolysis reaction, complexation and colloid generation of the Am3+ ion. Speciation sensitivities of U, Np, Pu and Am of different oxidation states in a variety of aqueous solutions are summarized. The application is of course open to a broad field of microchemistry in which the conventional spectrophotometric method has difficulty with sensitivity

  7. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  8. Cocaine/levamisole-induced systemic vasculitis with retiform purpura and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Veronese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole has been increasingly used as an adulterant of cocaine in recent years, emerging as a public health challenge worldwide. Levamisole-associated toxicity manifests clinically as a systemic vasculitis, consisting of cutaneous, hematological, and renal lesions, among others. Purpura retiform, cutaneous necrosis, intravascular thrombosis, neutropenia, and less commonly crescentic nephritis have been described in association with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs and other autoantibodies. Here we report the case of a 49-year-old male who was a chronic cocaine user, and who presented spontaneous weight loss, arthralgia, and 3 weeks before admission purpuric skin lesions in the earlobes and in the anterior thighs. His laboratory tests on admission showed serum creatinine of 4.56 mg/dL, white blood count 3,800/μL, hemoglobin 7.3 g/dL, urinalysis with 51 white blood cells/μL and 960 red blood cells/μL, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio 1.20. Serum ANCA testing was positive (>1:320, as well as serum anti-myeloperoxidase and anti-proteinase 3 antibodies. Urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine and levamisole, with 62.8% of cocaine, 32.2% of levamisole, and 5% of an unidentified substance. Skin and renal biopsies were diagnostic for leukocytoclastic vasculitis and pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, respectively. The patient showed a good clinical response to cocaine abstinence, and use of corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide. Last serum creatinine was 1.97 mg/dL, white blood cell count 7,420/μL, and hemoglobin level 10.8 g/dL. In levamisole-induced systemic vasculitis, the early institution of cocaine abstinence, concomitant with the use of immunosuppressive drugs in severe cases, may prevent permanent end organ damage and associate with better clinical outcomes.

  9. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  10. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields

  11. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  12. Effects of Trigonelline, an Alkaloid Present in Coffee, on Diabetes-Induced Disorders in the Rat Skeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Pytlik, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Śliwiński, Leszek; Krivošíková, Zora; Štefíková, Kornélia; Gajdoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes increases bone fracture risk. Trigonelline, an alkaloid with potential antidiabetic activity, is present in considerable amounts in coffee. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of trigonelline on experimental diabetes-induced disorders in the rat skeletal system. Effects of trigonelline (50 mg/kg p.o. daily for four weeks) were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of trigonelline administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.) or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg i.p.). Serum bone turnover markers, bone mineralization, and mechanical properties were studied. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with significant worsening of bone mineralization and bone mechanical properties. Streptozotocin after nicotinamide induced slight glycemia increases in first days of experiment only, however worsening of cancellous bone mechanical properties and decreased vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) were demonstrated. Trigonelline decreased bone mineralization and tended to worsen bone mechanical properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated rats, trigonelline significantly increased BMD and tended to improve cancellous bone strength. Trigonelline differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with streptozotocin-induced metabolic disorders, intensifying the osteoporotic changes in streptozotocin-treated rats and favorably affecting bones in the non-hyperglycemic (nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated) rats. The results indicate that, in certain conditions, trigonelline may damage bone. PMID:26950142

  13. Effect of Methomyl on the Phenobarbital and Benzo [a] Pyrene Induced Hepatic Microsomal Mixed Function Oxidase System in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna A. Patil1, Arun J. Patil1*, Ajit V. Sontakke1, Satish D. Kalme2 and Sanjay P. Govindwar3

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl (Lannate is a pesticide widely used to control of insects in grape gardens. Methomyl treatment induces significant alteration in mixed function oxidase system. The present work was designed to study the inhibitory effect of methomyl on different forms of cytochrome P450 induced by phenobarbital (CYP 2B1, 2B2 and 3A and benzo[a]pyrene induced (CYP 1A1. Adult male rats were divided into 8 groups of 6 animals each. Microsomes were isolated by calcium precipitation. The levels of electron transport components, CYP 450, cytochrome b5, and cytochrome c-reductase were determined using extinction coefficients. Activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes were assayed. Inducers like phenobarbital, benzo[a]pyrene, showed significant induction of mixed function oxidase in rat. The methomyl treatment (4mg/kg of inducer-(Phenobarbital, benzop [a] pyrene pretreated rat caused a significant decrease in electron transport components and activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes when compared with treatment of inducer alone. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes due to phenobarbital was also altered by the pretreatment of methomyl. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment of methomyl pretreated rats showed significant decreased levels of electron transport components and drug metabolizing enzymes as compared to benzo[a]pyrene treatment alone. These results indicate that the susceptibility of phenobarbital and benzo[a]pyrene induced cytochrome P450 isoform (CYP 2B1, 2B2, 3A; and CYP 1A1 to methomyl and also affected in the induction pattern of some of the inducers with respect to CYP 450 isoforms.

  14. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15-61 y; visual acuity: 20/25-20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n = 10, non-action videogame group (n = 3, and crossover control group (n = 7. Our experiments show that playing video games (both action and non-action games for a short period of time (40-80 h, 2 h/d using the amblyopic eye results in a substantial improvement in a wide range of fundamental visual functions, from low-level to high-level, including visual acuity (33%, positional acuity (16%, spatial attention (37%, and stereopsis (54%. Using a cross-over experimental design (first 20 h: occlusion therapy, and the next 40 h: videogame therapy, we can conclude that the improvement cannot be explained simply by eye patching alone. We quantified the limits and the time course of visual plasticity induced by video-game experience. The recovery in visual acuity that we observed is at least 5-fold faster than would be expected from occlusion therapy in childhood amblyopia. We used positional noise and modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying the visual improvements in terms of decreased spatial distortion (7% and increased processing efficiency (33%. Our study had several limitations: small sample size, lack of randomization, and differences in numbers between groups. A large-scale randomized clinical study is needed to confirm the therapeutic value of video-game treatment in clinical situations. Nonetheless, taken as a pilot study, this work suggests that video-game play may provide important principles for treating amblyopia

  15. Impaired glutathione redox system paradoxically suppresses angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Izawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AII plays a central role in vascular remodeling via oxidative stress. However, the interaction between AII and reduced glutathione (GSH redox status in cardiovascular remodeling remains unknown. METHODS: In vivo: The cuff-induced vascular injury model was applied to Sprague Dawley rats. Then we administered saline or a GSH inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 30 mmol/L in drinking water for a week, subsequently administered 4 more weeks by osmotic pump with saline or AII (200 ng/kg/minute to the rats. In vitro: Incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU was measured to determine DNA synthesis in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. RESULTS: BSO reduced whole blood GSH levels. Systolic blood pressure was increased up to 215 ± 4 mmHg by AII at 4 weeks (p<0.01, which was not affected by BSO. Superoxide production in vascular wall was increased by AII and BSO alone, and was markedly enhanced by AII+BSO. The left ventricular weight to body weight ratio was significantly increased in AII and AII+BSO as compared to controls (2.52 ± 0.08, 2.50 ± 0.09 and 2.10 ± 0.07 mg/g respectively, p<0.05. Surprisingly, the co-treatment of BSO totally abolished these morphological changes. Although the vascular circumferential wall stress was well compensated in AII, significantly increased in AII+BSO. The anti-single-stranded DNA staining revealed increasing apoptotic cells in the neointima of injured arteries in BSO groups. BrdU incorporation in cultured VSMCs with AII was increased dose-dependently. Furthermore it was totally abolished by BSO and was reversed by GSH monoethyl ester. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that a vast oxidative stress in impaired GSH redox system totally abolished AII-induced vascular, not cardiac remodeling via enhancement of apoptosis in the neointima and suppression of cell growth in the media. The drastic suppression of remodeling may result in fragile vasculature intolerable to mechanical

  16. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  17. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity

  18. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  19. Radiation-induced changes in optical transmission in vitreous semiconductors of the Gex Sb40-x S60 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the optical properties of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of the Gex Sb40-x S60 ternary system is studied. It is established that a magnitude of radiation-induced effects in the investigated glasses depends on their chemical composition. It is obtained that maximum γ-induced changes in optical transmission reveal in glasses characterized by the average coordination number Z = 2.67, that is, near the point of the so-called topological phase transition from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional glass structure

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposon system harboring HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 induces sarcomatoid carcinomas in mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUNG, SUNYOUNG; RO, SIMON WEONSANG; JUNG, GEUNYOUNG; JU, HYE-LIM; YU, EUN-SIL; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2013-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is used as a tool for insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. However, little is known about the exact histological phenotype of the tumors induced. Thus, we used immunohistochemical markers to enable histological identification of the type of tumor induced by subcutaneous injection of the HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 oncogenes in female C57BL/6 mice. The tumor was removed when it reached 100 mm3 in volume. Subsequently, we used 13 immunohistochemical markers to histologically identify the tumor type. The results suggested that the morphology of the tumor was similar to that of sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:23380875

  1. Vitamin D receptor activation and downregulation of renin-angiotensin system attenuate morphine-induced T cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chandel, Nirupama; Sharma, Bipin; Salhan, Divya; Husain, Mohammad; Malhotra, Ashwani; Buch, Shilpa; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2012-01-01

    Opiates have been reported to induce T cell loss. We evaluated the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in morphine-induced T cell loss. Morphine-treated human T cells displayed downregulation of VDR and the activation of the RAS. On the other hand, a VDR agonist (EB1089) enhanced T cell VDR expression both under basal and morphine-stimulated states. Since T cells with silenced VDR displayed the activation of the RAS, whereas activation of ...

  2. Inducing enhanced immunogenic cell death with nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems for pancreatic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Yang, Keni; Zhao, Ruifang; Ji, Tianjiao; Wang, Xiuchao; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Yinlong; Cheng, Keman; Liu, Shaoli; Hao, Jihui; Ren, He; Leong, Kam W; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-09-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) occurs when apoptotic tumor cell elicits a specific immune response, which may trigger an anti-tumor effect, via the release of immunostimulatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Hypothesizing that nanomedicines may impact ICD due to their proven advantages in delivery of chemotherapeutics, we encapsulated oxaliplatin (OXA) or gemcitabine (GEM), an ICD and a non-ICD inducer respectively, into the amphiphilic diblock copolymer nanoparticles. Neither GEM nor nanoparticle-encapsulated GEM (NP-GEM) induced ICD, while both OXA and nanoparticle-encapsulated OXA (NP-OXA) induced ICD. Interestingly, NP-OXA treated tumor cells released more DAMPs and induced stronger immune responses of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes than OXA treatment in vitro. Furthermore, OXA and NP-OXA exhibited stronger therapeutic effects in immunocompetent mice than in immunodeficient mice, and the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy was significantly higher in the NP-OXA group than the OXA group. Moreover, NP-OXA treatment induced a higher proportion of tumor infiltrating activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes than OXA treatment. This general trend of enhanced ICD by nanoparticle delivery was corroborated in evaluating another pair of ICD inducer and non-ICD inducer, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In conclusion, although nanoparticle encapsulation did not endow a non-ICD inducer with ICD-mediated anti-tumor capacity, treatment with a nanoparticle-encapsulated ICD inducer led to significantly enhanced ICD and consequently improved anti-tumor effects than the free ICD inducer. The proposed nanomedicine approach may impact cancer immunotherapy via the novel cell death mechanism of ICD. PMID:27343466

  3. Dual control system - A novel scaffolding architecture of an inducible regulatory device for the precise regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbal, L; Luzhetskyy, A

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a novel scaffolding architecture of an inducible regulatory device. This dual control system is completely silent in the off stage and is coupled to the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. This system also functions as an AND gate. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the cumate-riboswitch dual control system for the control of pamamycin production in Streptomyces albus. Placing the cre recombinase gene under the control of this system permitted the construction of synthetic devices with non-volatile memory that sense the signal and respond by altering DNA at the chromosomal level, thereby producing changes that are heritable. In addition, we present a library of synthetic inducible promoters based on the previously described cumate switch. With only one inducer and different promoters, we demonstrate that simultaneous modulation of the expression of several genes to different levels in various operons is possible. Because all modules of the AND gates are functional in bacteria other than Streptomyces, we anticipate that these regulatory devices can be used to control gene expression in other Actinobacteria. The features described in this study make these systems promising tools for metabolic engineering and biotechnology in Actinobacteria. PMID:27040671

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 drives annexin A2 system-mediated perivascular fibrin clearance in oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bihui; Deora, Arun B; He, Kai-Li; Chen, Kang; Sui, Guangzhi; Jacovina, Andrew T; Almeida, Dena; Hong, Peng; Burgman, Paul; Hajjar, Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is a well-characterized model for retinopathy of prematurity, a disorder that results from rapid microvascular proliferation after exposure of the retina to high oxygen levels. Here, we report that the proliferative phase of OIR requires transcriptional induction of the annexin A2 (A2) gene through the direct action of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 complex. We show, in addition, that A2 stabilizes its binding partner, p11, and promotes OIR-related angiogenesis by enabling clearance of perivascular fibrin. Adenoviral-mediated restoration of A2 expression restores neovascularization in the oxygen-primed Anxa2(-/-) retina and reinstates plasmin generation and directed migration in cultured Anxa2(-/-) endothelial cells. Systemic depletion of fibrin repairs the neovascular response to high oxygen treatment in the Anxa2(-/-) retina, whereas inhibition of plasminogen activation dampens angiogenesis under the same conditions. These findings show that the A2 system enables retinal neoangiogenesis in OIR by enhancing perivascular activation of plasmin and remodeling of fibrin. These data suggest new potential approaches to retinal angiogenic disorders on the basis of modulation of perivascular fibrinolysis. PMID:21788340

  5. Cross-polarisation discrimination-induced interference in dual-polarised high-capacity satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Sarki Karasuwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of spectrally-efficient, high-throughput satellite (HTS systems with capacity approaching one terabit per second requires operating at Ka-band frequencies and above, where there are several gigahertz of allocated radio spectrum, using multiple spot beams with dual orthogonal polarisation mode. At these high frequencies, rain attenuation poses a major obstacle to the design of high-availability satellite links which are needed for the realisation of ubiquitous broadband multimedia communication services including high-speed Internet access at rural and remote locations. Furthermore, depolarisation-induced interference in such systems could have a performance-limiting impact if a co-channel cross-polar signal combines with system noise to drive the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (CNIR below an acceptable threshold. This paper employs real measurement data to investigate the impact of depolarisation-induced interference on dual-polarised HTS systems for temperate and tropical climatic regions. Scenarios that cause significant system performance degradation are analysed, including the effects of signal frequency, antenna size, and regional rainfall rate. The impact of depolarisation on system performance is quantified by the reductions in the CNIR and link availability of a dual-polarised system when compared with those of a similarly-dimensioned single-polarised system.

  6. Prediction of ionizing radiation effects induced performance degradation in homodyne BPSK based inter-satellite optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Shanghong; Gong, Zizheng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xuan; Dong, Chen

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiation effects induced on-orbit performance degradation in homodyne binary phase shift keying (BPSK) based inter-satellite optical communication system is predicted in this paper. Essential optoelectronic devices involved in optical communication system were irradiated by Co60 gamma ray and ionizing radiation environment of three general orbits was analyzed. On this basis, variations of terminal performance loss and system BER degradation along with on-orbit working time were simulated. Influences of terminal location and orbit environment were further discussed. Radiation protection on laser transmitters requires more strengthening, especially for those located in MEO and GEO satellites.

  7. A Novel Similarity Measure to Induce Semantic Classes and Its Application for Language Model Adaptation in a Dialogue System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Li; Wei-Qun Xu; Yong-Hong Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a novel co-occurrence probabilities based similarity measure for inducing semantic classes.Clustering with the new similarity measure outperforms the widely used distance based on Kullback-Leibler divergence in precision,recall and F1 evaluation.In our experiments,we induced semantic clases from unannotated in-domain corpus and then used the induced classes and structures to generate large in-domain corpus which was then used for language model adaptation.Character recognition rate was improved from 85.2% to 91%.We imply a new measure to solve the lack of domain data problem by first induction then generation for a dialogue system.

  8. The influence of sterol metabolism upon radiation-induced aneuploidy of Drosophila melanogaster in the yeast-drosophila system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of sterol metabolism upon induced Drosophila melanogaster mutagenesis in an ecology-genetic yeast-drosophila system has been studied. The sterol deficit in fly organism has been created for account of using as food substrate for fremales of biomass of saccharomyces cerevisiae living cells of 9-2-PZ12 train with nyssup(r1) locus mutation which blocks the ergosterol synthesis. It has been found that the Drosophila females content on mutant yeast increases the frequency of losses and non discrepancy of X-chromosomes induced by X-radiation (1000 R). Addition into yeast biomass of 0.1 % cholesterol solution in 10 %-ethanol reduces the oocytes resistance to X-radiation up to control level. Possible hormonal and membrane mechanisms of increasing radiation-induced aneuploidy of Drosophila and the role of sterol metabolism in organism resistance to damaging factors are discussed

  9. Chronic Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Blockade May Not Induce Hypotension During Anaesthesia for Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Guido; Di Salvo, Claudio; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Abramo, Antonio; Fierabracci, Paola; Magno, Silvia; Piaggi, Paolo; Vitti, Paolo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2016-06-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) for the treatment of hypertensive obese patients is steadily increasing. Some studies have reported that the use of these drugs was associated with an increased risk of hypotensive episodes, during general anaesthesia. The number of bariatric procedures is also increasing worldwide, but there is a lack of studies investigating the hypotensive effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers in severely obese patients during general anaesthesia for bariatric surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate hemodynamic changes induced by general anaesthesia in obese patients chronically treated with ACE-I or ARB compared to a control group not treated with antihypertensive therapy. Fourteen obese subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 47.5 kg/m(2)) treated with ACE-I or ARB and twelve obese (mean BMI 45.7 kg/m2) controls not treated with antihypertensive therapy underwent general anaesthesia to perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored continuously and registered at different time points: T0 before induction, then at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after induction, and the last time point taken following recovery from anaesthesia. A progressive reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was observed without significant differences between the two groups. A similar trend of heart rate values was observed. In conclusion, our pilot study suggests that RAS blockers may be continued during the perioperative period in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, without increasing the risk of hypotensive episodes. PMID:26328531

  10. Signal-Induced Noise Effects in a Photon Counting System for Stratospheric Ozone Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David B.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1998-01-01

    Signal-induced noise (SIN) is a common effect resulting when a photomultiplier tube (PMT) is saturated, for a brief moment, with a high intensity light pulse. After the laser pulse is sent into the atmosphere a very large light return, from either the near-field or a cloud, causes the PMT to momentarily saturate. The PMT is gated off at this time so no signal is seen at the anode. When the PMT gate is turned on, the far-field light return from the atmosphere is observed. This signal is distorted, however because of the addition of SIN to the received light signal causing a slower than expected decay of the atmospheric signal return. We have characterized SIN responses to varying parameters of the incident light on the PMT. These varied parameters included incident wavelength, PMT voltage, incident intensity, and tube type. We found that only the amplitude of the SIN was effected by varying PMT voltages and light intensities. The amplitude increased linearly as input light intensity increased. Different incident wavelengths at the same intensity did not effect the amplitude or the temporal behavior of the SIN response. Finally, different PMT tubes with similar physical structures exhibited similar SIN responses although with different amplitudes. The different amplitudes can be attributed to the different gains and operating voltages of each tube. These results suggest that SIN is caused by photocathode electron dynamics such as charge accumulation on internal PMT surfaces. These surfaces then emit the electrons slowly resulting in a long decay noise signal. With the SIN responses characterized we can now try to develop a method to reduce or eliminate SIN in DIAL systems.

  11. Neuropeptide Y Gates a Stress-Induced, Long-Lasting Plasticity in the Sympathetic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Manqi

    2013-01-01

    Acute stress evokes the fight-or-flight reflex, which via release of the catecholamine hormones affects the function of every major organ. Although the reflex is transient, it has lasting consequences that produce an exaggerated response when stress is reexperienced. How this change is encoded is not known. We investigated whether the reflex affects the adrenal component of the sympathetic nervous system, a major branch of the stress response. Mice were briefly exposed to the cold-water forced swim test (FST) which evoked an increase in circulating catecholamines. Although this hormonal response was transient, the FST led to a long-lasting increase in the catecholamine secretory capacity measured amperometrically from chromaffin cells and in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase. A variety of approaches indicate that these changes are regulated postsynaptically by neuropeptide Y (NPY), an adrenal cotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and NPY(GFP) BAC mice, we find that NPY is synthesized by all chromaffin cells. Stress failed to increase secretory capacity in NPY knock-out mice. Genetic or pharmacological interference with NPY and Y1 (but not Y2 or Y5) receptor signaling attenuated the stress-induced change in tyrosine hydroxylase expression. These results indicate that, under basal conditions, adrenal signaling is tonically inhibited by NPY, but stress overrides this autocrine negative feedback loop. Because acute stress leads to a lasting increase in secretory capacity in vivo but does not alter sympathetic tone, these postsynaptic changes appear to be an adaptive response. We conclude that the sympathetic limb of the stress response exhibits an activity-dependent form of long-lasting plasticity. PMID:23904607

  12. Hopf bifurcation and uncontrolled stochastic traffic-induced chaos in an RED-AQM congestion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the Hopf bifurcation and the chaos phenomena in a random early detection-based active queue management (RED-AQM) congestion control system with a communication delay. We prove that there is a critical value of the communication delay for the stability of the RED-AQM control system. Furthermore, we show that the system will lose its stability and Hopf bifurcations will occur when the delay exceeds the critical value. When the delay is close to its critical value, we demonstrate that typical chaos patterns may be induced by the uncontrolled stochastic traffic in the RED-AQM control system even if the system is still stable, which reveals a new route to the chaos besides the bifurcation in the network congestion control system. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  13. The antinociceptive effect of systemic gabapentin is related to the type of sensitization-induced hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero Juan F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gabapentin is a structural analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid with strong anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. Important discrepancies are observed on the effectiveness and potency of gabapentin in acute nociception and sensitization due to inflammation and neuropathy. There is also some controversy in the literature on whether gabapentin is only active in central areas of the nervous system or is also effective in the periphery. This is probably due to the use of different experimental models, routes of administration and types of sensitization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the spinal cord sensitization on the antinociceptive activity of gabapentin in the absence and in the presence of monoarthritis and neuropathy, using the same experimental protocol of stimulation and the same technique of evaluation of antinociception. Methods We studied the antinociceptive effects of iv. gabapentin in spinal cord neuronal responses from adult male Wistar rats using the recording of single motor units technique. Gabapentin was studied in the absence and in the presence of sensitization due to arthritis and neuropathy, combining noxious mechanical and repetitive electrical stimulation (wind-up. Results The experiments showed that gabapentin was effective in arthritic (max. effect of 41 ± 15% of control and ID50 of 1,145 ± 14 micromol/kg; 200 mg/kg and neuropathic rats (max. effect of 20 ± 8% of control and ID50 of 414 ± 27 micromol/kg; 73 mg/kg but not in normal rats. The phenomenon of wind-up was dose-dependently reduced by gabapentin in neuropathy but not in normal and arthritic rats. Conclusion We conclude that systemic gabapentin is a potent and effective antinociceptive agent in sensitization caused by arthritis and neuropathy but not in the absence of sensitization. The potency of the antinociception was directly related to the intensity of sensitization in the present experimental

  14. Quantitative analysis of Hedgehog gradient formation using an inducible expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodsky Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hedgehog (Hh family of secreted growth factors are morphogens that act in development to direct growth and patterning. Mutations in human Hh and other Hh pathway components have been linked to human diseases. Analysis of Hh distribution during development indicates that cholesterol modification and receptor mediated endocytosis affect the range of Hh signaling and the cellular localization of Hh. Results We have used an inducible, cell type-specific expression system to characterize the three-dimensional distribution of newly synthesized, GFP-tagged Hh in the developing Drosophila wing. Following induction of Hh-GFP expression in posterior producing cells, punctate structures containing Hh-GFP were observed in the anterior target cells. The distance of these particles from the expressing cells was quantified to determine the shape of the Hh gradient at different time points following induction. The majority of cholesterol-modified Hh-GFP was found associated with cells near the anterior/posterior (A/P boundary, which express high levels of Hh target genes. Without cholesterol, the Hh gradient was flatter, with a lower percentage of particles near the source and a greater maximum distance. Inhibition of Dynamin-dependent endocytosis blocked formation of intracellular Hh particles, but did not prevent movement of newly synthesized Hh to the apical or basolateral surfaces of target cells. In the absence of both cholesterol and endocytosis, Hh particles accumulated in the extracellular space. Staining for the Hh receptor Ptc revealed four categories of Hh particles: cytoplasmic with and without Ptc, and cell surface with and without Ptc. Interestingly, mainly cholesterol-modified Hh is detected in the cytoplasmic particles lacking Ptc. Conclusion We have developed a system to quantitatively analyze Hh distribution during gradient formation. We directly demonstrate that inhibition of Dynamin-dependent endocytosis is not

  15. Normal mitogen-induced suppression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) response and its deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-frequency suppressor-cell population in normal peripheral blood inhibits the B-cell CESS response to IL-6, following pokeweed mitogen stimulation. The suppression of IL-6 responsiveness is radiation sensitive, directed against CESS targets and not mediated by inhibition of IL-6 production, and associated with nonspecific cytotoxic activity against CESS targets. The generation of these cytolytic cells is also radiation sensitive. A correlation was found between PWM-induced cytotoxicity against CESS and the suppression of IL-6-dependent IgG production. But cytotoxicity toward CESS targets is not responsible for this suppression because IL-2 induces equivalent or greater nonspecific cytotoxicity against CESS in the total absence of suppression of CESS-derived IgG production and suppression is also induced by mitogen-activated PBL separated from CESS targets by a cell-impermeable membrane. This suppression was not mediated by TNF alpha/beta or IFN-gamma. In systemic lupus erythematosus, suppression of IL-6-dependent IgG production is impaired in patients with active disease (29.2 +/- 13.7%) compared to patients with inactive disease (70 +/- 19.5%) or normal controls (82.8 +/- 9.2%). There is also a defect in mitogen-induced nonspecific cytotoxicity in active SLE (specific lysis 15.1 +/- 3.5%, compared to 34 +/- 4% in normals). Pokeweed mitogen-activated PBL can therefore normally induce suppression of B-cell IL-6 responses and this response is deficient in lupus

  16. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  17. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  18. Pre-stimulation of the kallikrein system in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury: An approach to renoprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburto, Andrés [Program of M.Sc., Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Barría, Agustín [School of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Cárdenas, Areli [Ph.D. Program, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Carpio, Daniel; Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Burgos, Maria E. [Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Ardiles, Leopoldo, E-mail: leopoldoardiles@gmail.com [Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2014-10-15

    Antineoplastic treatment with cisplatin is frequently complicated by nephrotoxicity. Although oxidative stress may be involved, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for renal damage have not been completely clarified. In order to investigate the role of the renal kinin system in this condition, a group of rats was submitted to high potassium diet to stimulate the synthesis and excretion of tissue kallikrein 1 (rKLK1) previous to an intraperitoneal injection of 7 mg/kg cisplatin. A significant reduction in lipoperoxidation, evidenced by urinary excretion of malondialdehyde and renal immunostaining of hidroxy-nonenal, was accompanied by a decline in apoptosis. Coincident with these findings we observed a reduction in the expression of renal KIM-1 suggesting that renoprotection may be occurring. Stimulation or indemnity of the renal kinin system deserves to be evaluated as a complementary pharmacological measure to diminish cisplatin nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced-renal damage have not been completely clarified. • Cisplatin induces oxidative stress and apoptosis. • The renal kallikrein-kinin system is protective in experimental acute renal damage. • Kallikrein stimulation reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. • Protection of the kallikrein-kinin system may reduce cisplatin toxicity.

  19. Xe-Kr laser induced collisional ionization system and experimental preparation of its initial state: Four-photon resonant excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Ying; Lu Zhen-Zhong; Fan Rong-Wei; Chen De-Ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel one-colour Xe-Kr laser induced collisional ionization system. Considering the level scheme of the system, it finds that the initial state of the reaction-the four 4f levels with even J of Xe-can be prepared through method of four-photon resonant excitation by dye laser with wavelength of ~440 nm. Absorption of an additional photon (the transfer laser) of the same wavelength will complete the laser induced collisional ionization process. The resonance enhanced ionization spectrum of Xe by four laser photons at ~ 440 nm is measured through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, this aims at the preparation of the initial state of the system proposed. The Stark broadening of the measured spectrum is observed and consistent with the previous study. Analysis of the measured resonance ionization spectrum implies the feasibility of ~ 440 nm four-photon resonant excitation of the initial 4f state of the Xe-Kr system proposed in this paper, which prepares for a further experiment of laser induced collisional ionization.

  20. Xe–Kr laser induced collisional ionization system and experimental preparation of its initial state: Four-photon resonant excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a novel one-colour Xe–Kr laser induced collisional ionization system. Considering the level scheme of the system, it finds that the initial state of the reaction–the four 4f levels with even J of Xe–can be prepared through method of four-photon resonant excitation by dye laser with wavelength of ∼440 nm. Absorption of an additional photon (the transfer laser) of the same wavelength will complete the laser induced collisional ionization process. The resonance enhanced ionization spectrum of Xe by four laser photons at ∼440 nm is measured through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, this aims at the preparation of the initial state of the system proposed. The Stark broadening of the measured spectrum is observed and consistent with the previous study. Analysis of the measured resonance ionization spectrum implies the feasibility of ∼440 nm four-photon resonant excitation of the initial 4f state of the Xe–Kr system proposed in this paper, which prepares for a further experiment of laser induced collisional ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)