Sample records for afars and issas

  1. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review. (United States)

    Donatello, Shane; Cheeseman, Christopher R


    The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 milliontonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass-ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area.

  2. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC). (United States)

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra


    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  3. The SPOrt mission on ISSA (United States)

    Cortiglioni, S.; Cecchini, S.; Orsini, M.; Boella, G.; Gervasi, M.; Sironi, G.; Fabbri, R.; Monari, J.; Orfei, A.; Ng, K.-W.; Nicastro, L.; Pisani, U.; Tascone, R.; Popa, L.; Strukov, I. A.


    In the framework of the International Space Station (ISSA) utilization a project to measure the sky diffuse polarized emission at microwave frequencies has been presented to the ESA AO. After its selection by ESA the Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) has been slightly modified, within ISSA constrains, to meet better its scientific goal. In this paper the current design of SPOrt is presented with emphasis on changes which have a major impact on the overall performances and that were imposed by the ISSA environment.

  4. Auroral interactions with ISSA (United States)

    Purvis, Carolyn K.; Snyder, David B.; Jongeward, Gary A.


    Due to its high inclination orbit, International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will occasionally experience surface charging by the high energy electrons of the auroral environment. This study looks at the frequency of these occurrences and recapitulates a charging model. ISSA should expect about 80 auoral encounters annually. If the plasma contactor is not run continuously, the vehicle may charge several hundred volts. Charge storage on standard space station coatings should not be a problem, but care must be taken that materials are not introduced inadvertently that cannot bleed off accumulated charge in a reasonable time. A conductivity requirement may be used to ensure surface materials do not charge to high voltages, or store charge for long periods of time.

  5. Tectonics of the Afar Depression: A review and synthesis (United States)

    Beyene, Alebachew; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.


    This article outlines geomorphological and tectonic elements of the Afar Depression, and discusses its evolution. A combination of far-field stress, due to the convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian plates along the Zagros Orogenic Front, and uplift of the Afar Dome due to a rising mantle plume reinforced each other to break the lithosphere of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Thermal anomalies beneath the Arabian-Nubian Shield in the range of 150 °C-200 °C, induced by a rising plume that mechanically and thermally eroded the base of the mantle lithosphere and generated pulses of prodigious flood basalt since ˜30 Ma. Subsequent to the stretching and thinning the Afar Dome subsided to form the Afar Depression. The fragmentation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield led to the separation of the Nubian, Arabian and Somalian Plates along the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea and the Main Ethiopian Rift. The rotation of the intervening Danakil, East-Central, and Ali-Sabieh Blocks defined major structural trends in the Afar Depression. The Danakil Block severed from the Nubian plate at ˜20 Ma, rotated anti-clockwise, translated from lower latitude and successively moved north, left-laterally with respect to Nubia. The westward propagating Gulf of Aden rift breached the Danakil Block from the Ali-Sabieh Block at ˜2 Ma and proceeded along the Gulf of Tajura into the Afar Depression. The propagation and overlap of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden along the Manda Hararo-Gobaad and Asal-Manda Inakir rifts caused clockwise rotation of the East-Central Block. Faulting and rifting in the southern Red Sea, western Gulf of Aden and northern Main Ethiopian Rift superimposed on Afar. The Afar Depression initiated as diffused extension due to far-field stress and area increase over a dome elevated by a rising plume. With time, the lithospheric extension intensified, nucleated in weak zones, and developed into incipient spreading centers.

  6. Organization Spotlight: The Power of an Association in Early Childhood Education and Care: ISSA--An Engine for Advocacy, Capacity Building, and Creating a Growing Learning Community (United States)

    Ionescu, Mihaela


    The International Step by Step Association (ISSA) is an association that believes in learning from each other across cultures and borders, building on each other's strengths, and tapping into the power of a network. Building on the strong legacy of the Open Society Foundations' Step by Step program, ISSA has nurtured a culture of belonging to a…

  7. Probing the age and temperature of rifting in Afar (United States)

    Armitage, John; Goes, Saskia; Ferguson, David; Hammond, James; Calais, Eric


    Rifting along the southern part of the Red Sea margin in NE Africa (leading to formation of Afar) has been closely associated with magmatic activity since the initiation of extension at around ~ 25Ma. Numerous active volcanoes are currently found along rift zones here and magma intrusion into the crust has potentially accommodated significant amounts of extension. This extensive present-day volcanism has been linked to elevated mantle temperature, perhaps due to a thermal plume, or as a consequence of passive flow in the mantle beneath the extending lithosphere. Geochemical evidence for basaltic lavas erupted in Afar have been used to suggest that mantle temperatures are in the range 1370 to 1490°C, and that the region is currently experiencing late stage rifting. Analysis of changes in shear wave seismic velocities and relative travel time tomography suggests mantle temperatures are within a similar range, yet the region has greater similarities to a young spreading centre. The range in potential temperature estimates is however very large, with different implications for the volcanic history of the region and hence timing of break-up. Rather than focusing a single observable, we use a relatively straight forward model of extension and decompression melting to predict the seismic-velocity and attenuation structure of the asthenosphere and lithosphere, synthetic receiver functions as a result of this seismic structure, crustal thickness as a result of decompression and finally the melt composition. From this combined study we find that melt composition and seismic structure are dependent on both temperature and time. If mantle potential temperature is 1350°C then both the seismic structure and melt composition can be matched if the duration of extension is more than 30 Myr. However this is longer than the estimated duration of extension from plate reconstructions, and given the low rate of extension in Afar, this cold model only generates up to 5 km of igneous

  8. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model (United States)

    Gates, R. E.


    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements and crew rotation via spread sheets provide adequate benchmarks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  9. PCR Based Microbial Monitor for Analysis of Recycled Water Aboard the ISSA: Issues and Prospects (United States)

    Cassell, Gail H.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Glass, John I.


    added to a PCR assay; There are not likely to be contaminants in ISSA recycled water that would inhibit PCR resulting in false-negative results; The TaqMan PCR product detection system is the most promising method for developing a rapid, highly automated gene-based microbial monitoring system. The method is inherently quantitative. NASA and other government agencies have invested in other technologies that, although potentially could lead to revolutionary advances, are not likely to mature in the next 5 years into working systems; PCR-based methods cannot distinguish between DNA or RNA of a viable microorganism and that of a non-viable organism. This may or may not be an important issue with reclaimed water on the ISSA. The recycling system probably damages the capacity of the genetic material of any bacteria or viruses killed during processing to serve as a template in a PCR desinged to amplify a large segment of DNA (less than 650 base pairs). If necessary, vital dye staining could be used in addition to PCR, to enumerate the viable cells in a water sample; The quality control methods have been developed to insure that PCR's are working properly, and that reactions are not contaminated with PCR carryover products which could lead to the generation of false-positive results; and The sequences of the small rRNA subunit gene for a large number of microorganisms are known, and they consititue the best database for rational development of the oligonucleotide reagents that give PCR its great specificity. From those gene sequences, sets of oligonucleotide primers for PCR and Taqman detection that could be used in a NASA microbial monitor were constructed using computer based methods. In addition to space utilization, a microbial monitior will have tremendous terrestrial applications. Analysis of patient samples for microbial pathogens, testing industrial effluent for biofouling bacteria, and detection biological warfare agents on the battlefield are but a few of the diverse

  10. Regional and local tectonics at Erta Ale caldera, Afar (Ethiopia) (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio


    Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW-SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and regional (maximum extension ˜NE-SW) stress fields, respectively. These structures cross-cut each other at high angles, suggesting that the two stress fields remain distinct, each prevailing during rifting or caldera collapse. The local along-rim extensional fractures are gravity-driven structures that formed due to the retreat of the caldera wall after collapse, and are confined to the region of caldera subsidence. The across-rim structures are mainly located to the N and S of the caldera, where they form rift zones each accommodating a similar amount of extension (˜6.3 m), but displaying different trends and extension directions. Analogue models of interacting fractures are consistent with the Southern Rift being representative of the regional fault kinematics, while the Northern Rift is a local perturbation, resulting from the interaction between two right-stepping rift segments along the Erta Ale Range.

  11. Faulting and block rotation in the Afar triangle, East Africa: The Danakil "crank-arm" model (United States)

    Souriot, T.; Brun, J.-P.


    Several domains of contrasted extensional deformation have been identified in the southern Afar triangle (East Africa) from fault patterns analyzed with panchromatic stereoscopic SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) images. Stretching directions and statistical orientation and offset variations of faults fit with the Danakii "crank-arm" model of Sichler: A 10° sinistral rotation of the Danakil block explains the fault geometry and dextral block rotation in the southern part of the Afar triangle, as well as the oblique extension in the Tadjoura Gulf. Analogue modeling supports this interpretation.

  12. the role of magmatism and segmentation in the structural evolution of the Afar Rift (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Quidelleur, Xavier; Ayalew, Dereje; Leroy, Sylvie


    A common issue at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is the lack of observation of the structures that accommodate stretching and thinning. Indeed, the most distal parts and the Ocean-Continent Transition is often masked by thick seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) sequences. Some current challenges are then to know if the observed thinning fit the divergence (thinning vs dyking); and what is the rheological effect of magma supply that re-thickens the crust during extension? In the Central Afar magmatic rift (Ethiopia), the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are cropping out onshore and are well preserved. We present here a new structural model based on field data and lavas (U-Th/He and K/Ar) datings along a balanced cross-section of the Central Afar Western Margin. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series (29-30 Ma) unconformably overlain by tilted Oligo-Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. The Pliocene flood basalt (Stratoid series) is erupted over an already thinned crust. The bulk extension for the Afar Western Margin is ß ~ 2.50. Our main findings are: - Oligo-Miocene deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time ("magmatic wide rift"). It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient plate boundary during the whole rifting history until the formation of present-day magmatic segments. There is a period of tectonic quiescence accompanied with few magma erupted at the surface between 25 Ma and 7 Ma. We suggest that tectonic and magmatic activity was focused at that time on the highly faulted Danakil block and Southern Red Sea, away from our study zone. - ß ~ 2.50 is higher than the thinning factor of ~1.30 observed in geophysical studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened during extension by the syn

  13. Volatile Organic Compound Emission from Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis, and its hybridisation product Quercus afares (United States)

    Welter, S.; Bracho Nuñez, A.; Staudt, M.; Kesselmeier, J.


    Oaks represent one of the most important plant genera in the Northern hemisphere and include many intensively VOC emitting species. The major group constitutes the isoprene emitters, but also monoterpene emitters and non-emitters can be found. These variations in the oak species might partly be due to their propensity for inter- and intraspecific hybridisation. This study addresses the foliar VOC production of the former hybridisation product the deciduous Quercus afares and its parents, two very distant species: the evergreen monoterpene emitter Quercus suber and the deciduous isoprene emitter Quercus canariensis. The measurements were performed in Southern France, applying two different methods. Plants were investigated in situ in the field with a portable gas exchange measuring system as well as in the laboratory on cut branches with an adapted enclosure system. Quercus afares was found to be a monoterpene emitting species. However, the monoterpene emission was lower and the composition different to that of Quercus suber. Whereas Quercus suber trees belonged to the pinene type most individuals of Quercus afares were identified to represent a limonene type. Quercus canariensis emitted besides high amounts of isoprene also linalool and (Z)-3-hexenylacetate. Emissions from Quercus suber and Quercus afares were higher in the field measurements than in the laboratory on cut branches whereas Quercus canariensis exhibited lower isoprene emissions from cut branches. The results demonstrate the need of further emission studies on a plant species level.

  14. Seismic Imaging of the crust and upper mantle beneath Afar, Ethiopia (United States)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Ebinger, C. J.


    In March 2007 41 seismic stations were deployed in north east Ethiopia. These stations recorded until October 2009, whereupon the array was condensed to 13 stations. Here we show estimates of crustal structure derived from receiver functions and upper mantle velocity structure, derived from tomography and shear-wave splitting using the first 2.5 years of data. Bulk crustal structure has been determined by H-k stacking receiver functions. Crustal Thickness varies from ~45km on the rift margins to ~16km beneath the northeastern Afar stations. Estimates of Vp/Vs show normal continental crust values (1.7-1.8) on the rift margins, and very high values (2.0-2.2) in Afar, similar to results for the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). This supports ideas of high levels of melt in the crust beneath the Ethiopian Rift. Additionally, we use a common conversion point migration technique to obtain high resolution images of crustal structure beneath the region. Both techniques show a linear region of thin crust (~16km) trending north-south, the same trend as the Red Sea rift. SKS-wave splitting results show a general north east-south west fast direction in the MER, systematically rotating to a more north-south fast direction towards the Red Sea. Additionally, stations close to the recent Dabbahu diking episode show sharp lateral changes over small lateral distances (40° over Danakil microplate. Outside of these focused regions the velocities are relatively fast. Below ~250km the anomaly broadens to cover most of the Afar region with only the rift margins remaining fast. At transition zone depths little anomaly is seen beneath Afar, but some low velocities remain present beneath the MER. These studies suggest that in northern Ethiopia the Red Sea rift is dominant. The presence of thin crust beneath northern Afar suggests that the Red Sea rift is creating oceanic like crust in this region. The lack of deep mantle low velocity anomalies beneath Afar suggest that a typical narrow conduit

  15. A kinematic model for the development of the Afar Depression and its paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Wheeler, W. H.; Often, M.


    The Afar Depression is a highly extended region of continental to transitional oceanic crust lying at the junction of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Ethiopian rifts. We analyze the evolution of the Afar crust using plate kinematics and published crustal models to constrain the temporal and volumetric evolution of the rift basin. Our reconstruction constrains the regional-scale initial 3D geometry and subsequent extension and is well calibrated at the onset of rifting (˜20 Ma) and from the time of earliest documented sea-floor spreading anomalies (˜6 Ma Red Sea; ˜10 Ma Gulf of Aden). It also suggests the Danakil block is a highly extended body, having undergone between ˜200% and ˜400% stretch. Syn-rift sedimentary and magmatic additions to the crust are taken from the literature. Our analysis reveals a discrepancy: either the base of the crust has not been properly imaged, or a (plume-related?) process has somehow caused bulk removal of crustal material since extension began. Inferring subsidence history from thermal modeling and flexural considerations, we conclude subsidence in Afar was virtually complete by Mid Pliocene time. Our analysis contradicts interpretations of late (post 3 Ma) large (˜2 km) subsidence of the Hadar area near the Ethiopian Plateau, suggesting paleoclimatic data record regional, not local, climate change. Tectonic reconstruction (supported by paleontologic and isotopic data) suggests that a land bridge connected Africa and Arabia, via Danakil, up to the Early to Middle Pliocene. The temporal constraints on land bridge and escarpment morphology constrain Afar paleogeography, climate, and faunal migration routes. These constraints (particularly the development of geographic isolation) are fundamentally important for models evaluating and interpreting biologic evolution in the Afar, including speciation and human origins.

  16. ISSA (iterative screening and structure analysis)—a new reduction method and its application to the tropospheric cloud chemical mechanism RACM/CAPRAM2.4 (United States)

    Mauersberger, G.

    An automated reduction method ISSA (iterative screening and structure analysis) has been developed. It is aimed at the analysis of complex atmospheric chemical multiphase mechanisms and produces reduced mechanisms for specifiable application purposes. Cyclic and non-cyclic reactions identified by a structure analysis are separately evaluated. The normalized valuation coefficients are calculated in a box model framework by using time-averaged reaction rates. Starting with a set of target species, important reactions and species are selected together in an iteration procedure. So, only one threshold value fixed for all box model scenarios is necessary. For every scenario a specific reduced mechanism is obtained. The sum of reactions and species included in the specific reduced mechanisms generates then the ISSA-reduced mechanism. All reactants in the reduced mechanism are included in the verification procedure where the concentrations simulated with the full and the reduced mechanism are compared. The maximum relative deviation of daily maxima was found to be a suitable deviation measure for atmospheric trace species concentrations. An application of the ISSA method to the large cloud chemical mechanism RACM/CAPRAM2.4 resulted in reduction rates of 55% for reactions (46% gas phase, 60% liquid phase), 23% for species, and 23% for phase transfers. The deviation between full and reduced mechanism averaged over all scenarios and reactants was 2.5%. The liquid-phase part of this application was compared with a condensed version of the CAPARAM2.4 mechanism developed simultaneously with the full version. It was found that these two reduced versions of CAPRAM2.4 differ significantly. Whereas the condensed version achieves good verification results only for the target species, the ISSA-reduced version reproduce very well the complete full mechanism results and should be useful for future large-scale models, which will include both detailed microphysics and complex (reduced

  17. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro Volcanic Range and Ma'alalta volcano (United States)

    Wiart, Pierre; Oppenheimer, Clive


    Much of the volcanological work carried out in north Afar (Ethiopia and Eritrea) has focused on the nature of Quaternary basaltic volcanic ranges, which have been interpreted by some as incipient oceanic ridges. However, we show here that comparable volumes of silicic magmas have been erupted in the region. In particular, the virtually undocumented Nabro Volcanic Range, which runs NNE for more than 100 km from the margin of the Danakil Depression to the Red Sea coast, has a subaerial volume of the order of 550 km3, comparable to the volume of the much better known Erta’Ale axial volcanic range. Nabro volcano itself forms part of an enigmatic double caldera structure with a neighbouring volcano, Mallahle. The twin caldera may have formed simultaneously with the eruption of between 20 and 100 km3 of ignimbrite, which is readily identified in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. This may have been the largest explosive eruption in north Afar, and is certain to have deposited a regionally distributed tephra layer which could in the future be located in distal sections as a stratigraphic marker. An integrated analysis of optical and synthetic aperture radar imagery, digital topographic data, field observations and limited geochemical measurements, permits here descriptions and first order inferences about the structure, stratigraphy and compositions of several major volcanoes of the Afar Triangle, and a reappraisal of their regional significance.

  18. Post-rifting relaxation processes in the Afar region (Ethiopia) from GPS measurements and numerical modelling (United States)

    Bennati, L.; Calais, E.; Wright, T.; Hamling, I.; Lewi, E.; Nooner, S.; Buck, R.; Ebinger, C.


    Accelerated deformation after major dike intrusion events such the 1975-1985 Krafla events in Iceland and the 1978 Asal-Ghoubbet events in Afar have been interpreted as the result of stress relaxation in a viscoelastic lithospheric mantle and/or continued magma injection. Separating these contributions, estimating mantle viscosity and quantifying the interaction with long-term stretching has however proven difficult in the absence of geodetic measurements early on after the main dike intrusion. In September 2005, a 60km-long dike intrusion took place at the Dabbahu rift, Afar, Ethiopia, at the boundary between the Nubian and Arabian (Danakil) plates. Since this major event, 8 new intrusions have affected the central and southern parts of the 2005 dike. In order to measure post-diking deformation, we installed 19 continuous stations in the near-field of the 2005 intrusion and 20 survey sites in the mid- and far-field. Time series from continuous GPS stations outside of volcanoes show a combination of discrete diking events and quasi-constant velocity displacements. Continuous GPS stations on volcanoes show non-linear behaviour related to the feeding of shallow magma chambers. Survey GPS sites in the far-field (up to 150km from the rift) show current extension rates twice as fast as the secular divergence rate between Nubia and Arabia. We present the GPS results and, with some constraints from seismicity, propose a preliminary model that accounts for the combination of dike intrusions and viscoelastic stress relaxation in the upper mantle below Afar.

  19. The development of extension and magmatism in the Red Sea rift of Afar (United States)

    Keir, Derek; Bastow, Ian D.; Pagli, Carolina; Chambers, Emma L.


    Despite the importance of continental breakup in plate tectonics, precisely how extensional processes such as brittle faulting, ductile plate stretching, and magma intrusion evolve in space and time during the development of new ocean basins remains poorly understood. The rifting of Arabia from Africa in the Afar depression is an ideal natural laboratory to address this problem since the region exposes subaerially the tectonically active transition from continental rifting to incipient seafloor spreading. We review recent constraints on along-axis variations in rift morphology, crustal and mantle structure, the distribution and style of ongoing faulting, subsurface magmatism and surface volcanism in the Red Sea rift of Afar to understand processes ultimately responsible for the formation of magmatic rifted continental margins. Our synthesis shows that there is a fundamental change in rift morphology from central Afar northward into the Danakil depression, spatially coincident with marked thinning of the crust, an increase in the volume of young basalt flows, and subsidence of the land towards and below sea-level. The variations can be attributed to a northward increase in proportion of extension by ductile plate stretching at the expense of magma intrusion. This is likely in response to a longer history of localised heating and weakening in a narrower rift. Thus, although magma intrusion accommodates strain for a protracted period during rift development, the final stages of breakup are dominated by a phase of plate stretching with a shift from intrusive to extrusive magmatism. This late-stage pulse of decompression melting due to plate thinning may be responsible for the formation of seaward dipping reflector sequences of basalts and sediments, which are ubiquitous at magmatic rifted margins worldwide.

  20. Launching an Interdisciplinary "International Summer School on Ageing" (ISSA): Aims, Methodology, and Outcomes (United States)

    Barbabella, F.; Chiatti, C.; Di Rosa, M.; Lamura, G.; Martin-Matthews, A.; Papa, R.; Svensson, T.


    Despite the increasing availability of gerontological training programs, knowledge of their contents, characteristics, methods, and outcomes remains limited. However, the transition from multidisciplinarity to interdisciplinary orientations is now fundamental to such training, providing participants from diverse academic orientations and…

  1. ISSA/TSS power preliminary design (United States)

    Main, John A.


    A projected power shortfall during the initial utilization flights of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) has prompted an inquiry into the use of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) to provide station power. The preliminary design of the combined ISSA/TSS system is currently underway in the Preliminary Design Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This document focuses on the justification for using a tether system on space station, the physical principles behind such a system, and how it might be operated to best utilize its capabilities. The basic components of a simple DC generator are a magnet of some type and a conductive wire. Moving the wire through the magnetic field causes forces to be applied to the electric charges in the conductor, and thus current is induced to flow. This simple concept is the idea behind generating power with space-borne tether systems. The function of the magnet is performed by the earth's magnetic field, and orbiting a conductive tether about the earth effectively moves the tether through the field.

  2. 中国与ISSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  3. Governance, Identity, and Counterinsurgency: Evidence from Ramadi and Tal Afar (United States)


    S. The Counterinsurgency Era: U.S. Doctrine and Performance, 1950 to the Present, New York: Free Press, 1977. Beckett , Ian F. W. Modern Insurgencies...University of California Press, 1985. Huntington, Samuel . Political Order in Changing Societies, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968. Joes...1963. Lukitz, Liora. Iraq: The Search for National Identity, London, UK: Frank Cass, 1995. Mao Tse-tung. On Guerilla Warfare, translated by Samuel

  4. 1. Customary Dispute Resolution in Afar Society



    Profile of the Region Afar Regional States located in the Northeast of Ethiopia, is structured into 5 zones and 29 wereda and 339 kebele. Afar land, comprising about 100,860 sq. km, stretches from the Middle Awash Valley in the south to the coastal depression of the Red Sea in the North. The Afar also live in the northern part of Djibouti and in the costal region in Eritrea south of the Bori peninsula. Located in a triangle of low land covering the Awash valley and the Danakil depression, the...

  5. Constraining timescales of focused magmatic accretion and extension in the Afar crust using lava geochronology. (United States)

    Ferguson, David J; Calvert, Andrew T; Pyle, David M; Blundy, Jon D; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Wright, Tim J


    As continental rift zones mature the tectonic and volcanic processes associated with crustal extension become confined to narrow magmatic rift zones, reminiscent of oceanic spreading ridges. The formation of these rift zones and the development of ocean-ridge type topography is a significant milestone in rift evolution as it signifies the localization of crustal extension and rift-related volcanism. Here we show that lavas, which erupted since ~200 ka along part of the on-land Red Sea rift system in Afar, Ethiopia, have a consistent age-progression from the rift axis outwards, indicating that axial dyke intrusion has been the primary mechanism of segment growth and that focused magmatic accretion and extension in the crust have remained stable here over this period. Our results suggest that as this rift segment has formed, in thinned and intruded continental crust, the time-averaged surface opening rate has closely approximated the total extension rate between Africa and Arabia.

  6. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents. (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J


    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  7. Post-rifting relaxation processes in the Afar region (Ethiopia) from geodetic measurements and numerical modeling (United States)

    Bennati, L.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Hamling, I. J.; Wright, T. J.; Lewi, E.; Nooner, S. L.; Buck, W. R.


    In September 2005, a 60km-long dike intrusion took place at the Dabbahu rift, Afar, Ethiopia, at the boundary between the Nubian and Danakil plates. Since this major event, 12 new intrusions have affected the central and southern parts of the 2005 dike. Time series from continuous GPS stations outside of volcanoes show a combination of discrete diking events and quasi constant velocity displacement at rates up to 10 times faster than the secular divergence rate between Nubia and Arabia. Survey GPS sites in the far-field show rates twice as fast as the secular Nubia/Arabia divergence. Similar observations after the 1975-1985 Krafla events in Iceland and the 1978 Asal-Ghoubbet events in Afar have been interpreted as the result of stress relaxation in a viscoelastic lithospheric mantle and/or continued magma injection. Nooner et al. (submitted) showed that horizontal GPS displacements are well explained by the relaxation, in a viscoelastic upper mantle, of the stresses imparted by the dike intrusions. The best fit is obtained for a 13.2km-thick crust overlying a mantle with a viscosity of 5.2x10^18Pa.s. We improve upon this approach with a model accounting for dike intrusions, viscoelastic stress relaxation in a power-law rheology upper mantle, laterally varying crustal thicknesses, and pressure changes in magma reservoirs. Preliminary results indicate that 3-dimensional velocity field from GPS and InSAR requires a combination of viscoelastic relaxation and magma transport at depth.

  8. Forced Folds and Craters of Elevation in the Afar (United States)

    Hetherington, Rachel; Mussetti, Giulio; Hagos, Miruts; Deering, Chad; Corti, Giacomo; Magee, Craig; Ian, Bastow; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Marques, Alvaro


    Uplifts caused by magma intrusion have been observed and mapped since the pioneering work of von Buch two hundred years ago. Von Buch's "Craters of elevation theory", developed in the Auvergne and Canaries, was, unfortunately, discredited and mostly forgotten until recent work has shown that the forced folds mapped in seismic sections in sedimentary basins are the same type of feature. Also, these magmatic bulges are being found on an increasing number of volcanoes. The Danakil region of Ethiopia contains a superb range of forced folds with craters of elevation, which we have mapped using Google Earth and other satellite imagery, and some ground truthing. This preliminary work provides a geological map that is inspired from the 1970 Barberi and Vallet map, and which sets out in detail the structure and lava flow units of this area. We describe the main structures of each uplift, and suggest a preliminary general structural evolutionary pattern that provides a model for future research. This work has been untertaken by a group from multiple universities sharing interpretations and data in an open format. We aim to continue this work to study these superb geological features. Their superb nature and preservation is such that we would also press for them to be made a geoheritage reserve of global importance: Either a Geopark or a World Heritage site.

  9. Current deformation in Central Afar and triple junction kinematics deduced from GPS and InSAR measurements (United States)

    Doubre, Cécile; Déprez, Aline; Masson, Frédéric; Socquet, Anne; Lewi, Elias; Grandin, Raphaël; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ulrich, Patrice; De Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Saad, Ibrahim; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Peltzer, Gilles; Delorme, Arthur; Calais, Eric; Wright, Tim


    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyse the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and Manda Hararo-Dabbahu (MH-D) magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during interdyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central microblock evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the

  10. Endemic North African Quercus afares Pomel originates from hybridisation between two genetically very distant oak species (Q. suber L. and Q. canariensis Willd.): evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. (United States)

    Mir, C; Toumi, L; Jarne, P; Sarda, V; Di Giusto, F; Lumaret, R


    Hybridisation is a potent force in plant evolution, although there are few reported examples of stabilised species that have been created through homoploid hybridisation. We focus here on Quercus afares, an endemic North African species that combines morphological, physiological and ecological traits of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis, two phylogenetically distant species. These two species are sympatric with Q. afares over most of its distribution. We studied two Q. afares populations (one from Algeria and one from Tunisia), as well as several populations of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis sampled both within and outside areas where these species overlap with Q. afares. A genetic analysis was conducted using both nuclear (allozymes) and chloroplastic markers, which shows that Q. afares originates from a Q. suber x Q. canariensis hybridisation. At most loci, Q. afares predominantly possesses alleles from Q. suber, suggesting that the initial cross between Q. suber and Q. canariensis was followed by backcrossing with Q. suber. Other hypotheses that can account for this result, including genetic drift, gene silencing, gene conversion and selection, are discussed. A single Q. suber chlorotype was detected, and all Q. afares individuals displayed this chlorotype, indicating that Q. suber was the maternal parent. Q. afares is genetically, morphologically and ecologically differentiated from its parental species, and can therefore be considered as a stabilised hybrid species.

  11. A kinematic model for Afar Depression lithospheric thinning and its implications for hominid evolution: an exercise in plate-tectonic paleoanthropology (United States)

    Redfield, T.; Often, M.; Wheeler, W. H.


    We present a detailed Nubia-Arabia-Somalia (NU-AR-SOM) kinematic reconstruction based on magnetic sea floor isochrons in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea and piercing points along the Red Sea margins. The reconstruction is combined with digital topographic and depth-to-Moho data to constrain in 4D the Late Oligocene to present-day evolution of the Afar supra-Moho crust. Opposite end-member models for crustal evolution are described. We conclude that less than 20% of the present-day Afar supra-Moho crust was constructed by magmatic processes such as diking and underplating. The reconstructions indicate that the greater percentage of crustal thinning (extension) occurred before 6.2 Ma. We model the thinning of the effective elastic lithosphere that accompanied extension, and show that the regional-scale topographic development of the Afar depression was virtually complete by Mid Pliocene time. The plate-tectonic model has paleoanthropological implications. Prior to 6.2 Ma the proximal positions of NU-SOM, AR, and the Danakil block suggest subaerial conditions prevailed between Yemen and Ethiopia. Uninhibited Africa-Eurasia faunal exchange through Afar and Arabia (corroborated by isotopic and paleontologic data) was tectonically permissible until the time of the earliest hominids. Continued stretching caused the Afar land bridge(s) to disappear during Early to Mid Pliocene time. Primitive hominid populations living within the Afar Depression became isolated from AR sometime before ~3.2 Ma. With the plateau becoming less habitable due to long-term Late Neogene cooling, hominids that remained in the Afar Depression were required to adapt to a smaller range that was effectively bounded by the already well-developed NU-SOM escarpments and the newly opened Straits of Bab el Mandeb. The combination of high quality habitat,topographic confinement, and a gradual (tectonic) reduction in range, exacerbated by potentially severe fluctuations in local climate (well documented by land

  12. The diversification of terpene emissions in Mediterranean oaks: lessons from a study of Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis and its hybrid Quercus afares. (United States)

    Welter, Saskia; Bracho-Nuñez, Araceli; Mir, Céline; Zimmer, Ina; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lumaret, Roselyne; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Staudt, Michael


    Interspecific gene flow is common in oaks. In the Mediterranean, this process produced geographical differentiations and new species, which may have contributed to the diversification of the production of volatile terpenes in the oak species of this region. The endemic North African deciduous oak Quercus afares (Pomel) is considered to be a stabilized hybrid between the evergreen Quercus suber (L.) and the deciduous Quercus canariensis (Willd.), presumably being monoterpene and isoprene emitters, respectively. In a common garden experiment, we examined the terpene emission capacities, terpene synthase (TPS) activities and nuclear genetic markers in 52 trees of these three oak species. All but one of the Q. suber and Q. canariensis trees were found to be genetically pure, whereas most Q. afares trees possessed a mixed genotype with a predominance of Q. suber alleles. Analysis of the foliar terpene emissions and TPS activities revealed that all the Q. canariensis trees strongly produced isoprene while all the Q. suber trees were strong monoterpene producers. Quercus afares trees produced monoterpenes as well but at more variable and significantly lower rates, and with a monoterpene pattern different than that observed in Q. suber. Among 17 individuals tested, one Q. afares tree emitted only an insignificant amount of terpenes. No mixed isoprene/monoterpene emitter was detected. Our results suggest that the capacity and pattern of volatile terpene production in Algerian Q. afares populations have strongly diverged from those of its parental species and became quantitatively and qualitatively reduced, including the complete suppression of isoprene production.

  13. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region (United States)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.


    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  14. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamo Gezahegne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in pastoral communities of Afar. Methods Between March and May 2009, a community-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 818 randomly selected healthy individuals was conducted in pastoral communities of Afar region. Moreover, two focus group discussions (FGDs, one with men and one with women, were conducted in each of the study area to supplement the quantitative study. Results The majority (95.6% of the interviewees reported that they have heard about PTB (known locally as "Labadore". However, the participants associated the cause of PTB with exposure to cold air (45.9%, starvation (38%, dust (21.8% or smoking/chewing Khat (Catha edulis (16.4%. The discussants also suggested these same factors as the cause of PTB. All the discussants and the majority (74.3% of the interviewees reported that persistent cough as the main symptom of PTB. About 87.7% of the interviewees and all the discussants suggested that PTB is treatable with modern drugs. All the discussants and the majority (95% of the interviewees mentioned that the disease can be transmitted from a patient to another person. Socio-cultural practices, e.g. sharing cups (87.6%, and house type (59.8% were suggested as risk factors for exposure to PTB in the study areas, while shortage of food (69.7% and chewing khat (53.8% were mentioned as factors favouring disease development. Almost all discussants and a considerable number (20.4% of the

  15. The Quaternary volcanic rocks of the northern Afar Depression (northern Ethiopia): Perspectives on petrology, geochemistry, and tectonics (United States)

    Hagos, Miruts; Koeberl, Christian; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin


    The northern Afar Depression is one of the most volcano-tectonically active parts of the East African Rift system, a place where oceanic rifting may be beginning to form an incipient oceanic crust. In its center, over an area that is ∼80 km long and ∼50 km wide, there are seven major NNW-SSE-aligned shield volcanoes/volcanic edifices surrounded by compositionally distinct fissure-fed basalts. The Quaternary lavas in this area range from transitional to tholeiitic basalts, with significant across-axis variation both in mineralogy and chemistry. The variation in the contents of the major elements (TiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3), incompatible trace elements (Nd, Hf, Th, Ta), and the contents and ratios of the rare earth elements (REE) (e.g., (La/Yb)n = 5.3-8.9) indicate some variation in the petrogenetic processes responsible for the formation of these basalts. However, the variation in isotopic compositions of the mafic lavas is minimal (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7041, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51286-0.51289), which suggests only one source for all the Danakil Depression basalts. These basalts have isotope and incompatible trace element ratios that overlap with those of the Oligocene High-Ti2 flood basalts from the Ethiopian Plateau, interpreted as being derived from the last phase/tail of the Afar mantle plume source. Moreover, the Ce/Pb, Ba/U ratios indicate that the involvement of continental crust in the petrogenesis of the basaltic rocks is minimal; instead, both depth and degree of melting of the source reservoir underneath the northern Afar Depression played a major role for the production of incompatible element-enriched basalts (e.g., AleBagu Shield basalts) and the incompatible element-depleted tholeiitic basalts (e.g., Erta'Ale and Alu Shield basalts).

  16. Magmatic cycles pace tectonic and morphological expression of rifting (Afar depression, Ethiopia) (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Dumont, S.; Grandin, R.; Williams, A.; Blard, P.-H.; Schimmelpfennig, I.; Vye-Brown, C.; France, L.; Ayalew, D.; Benedetti, L.; Yirgu, G.


    The existence of narrow axial volcanic zones of mid-oceanic ridges testifies of the underlying concentration of both melt distribution and tectonic strain. As a result of repeated diking and faulting, axial volcanic zones therefore represent a spectacular topographic expression of plate divergence. However, the submarine location of oceanic ridges makes it difficult to constrain the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes in time and space. In this study, we use the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo (DMH) magmatic rift segment (Afar, Ethiopia) to provide quantitative constraints on the response of tectonic processes to variations in magma supply at divergent plate boundaries. The DMH magmatic rift segment is considered an analogue of an oceanic ridge, exhibiting a fault pattern, extension rate and topographic relief comparable to intermediate- to slow-spreading ridges. Here, we focus on the northern and central parts of DMH rift, where we present quantitative slip rates for the past 40 kyr for major and minor normal fault scarps in the vicinity of a recent (September 2005) dike intrusion. The data obtained show that the axial valley topography has been created by enhanced slip rates that occurred during periods of limited volcanism, suggestive of reduced magmatic activity, probably in association with changes in strain distribution in the crust. Our results indicate that the development of the axial valley topography has been regulated by the lifetimes of the magma reservoirs and their spatial distribution along the segment, and thus to the magmatic cycles of replenishment/differentiation (<100 kyr). Our findings are also consistent with magma-induced deformation in magma-rich rift segments. The record of two tectonic events of metric vertical amplitude on the fault that accommodated the most part of surface displacement during the 2005 dike intrusion suggests that the latter type of intrusion occurs roughly every 10 kyr in the northern part of the DMH segment.

  17. Kinematics of the southern Red Sea-Afar Triple Junction and implications for plate dynamics (United States)

    McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Amleson, Aman; Healeb, Biniam; Vernant, Philippe; Sholan, Jamal; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Bendick, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis


    GPS measurements adjacent to the southern Red Sea and Afar Triple Junction, indicate that the Red Sea Rift bifurcates south of 17° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red Sea Rift (˜150° Az.) and the other oriented more N-S, traversing the Danakil Depression. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. The partitioning of extension between rift branches varies approximately linearly along strike; north of ˜16°N latitude, extension (˜15 mm/yr) is all on the main Red Sea Rift while at ˜13°N, extension (˜20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil Depression. The Danakil Block separates the two rifts and rotates in a counterclockwise sense with respect to Nubia at a present-day rate of 1.9 ± 0.1°/Myr around a pole located at 17.0 ± 0.2°N, 39.7 ± 0.2°E, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the roughly triangular geometry of the Danakil Depression. Rotating the Danakil Block back in time to close the Danakil Depression, and assuming that the rotation rate with respect to Nubia has been roughly constant, the present width of the Danakil Depression is consistent with initiation of block rotation at 9.3 ± 4 Ma, approximately coincident with the initiation of ocean spreading in the Gulf of Aden, and a concomitant ˜70% increase in the rate of Nubia-Arabia relative motion.

  18. Genetic variation of Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase genes (AFAR) in human tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praml, Christian; Schulz, Wolfgang; Claas, Andreas


    AFAR genes play a key role in the detoxification of the carcinogen Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In the rat, Afar1 induction can prevent AFB(1)-induced liver cancer. It has been proposed that AFAR enzymes can metabolise endogenous diketones and dialdehydes that may be cytotoxic and/or genotoxic....... Furthermore, human AFAR1 catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of the neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and was found elevated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The human AFAR gene family maps to a genomic region in 1p36 of frequent...

  19. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda


    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species-occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  20. Magmatic cycles pace tectonic and morphological expression of rifting (Afar depression, Ethiopia) (United States)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphael; Burnard, Peter; Blard, Pierre-Henri


    Dyking and faulting at mid-oceanic ridges are concentrated in narrow axial volcanic zones due to focussing of both melt distribution and tectonic strain along the plate boundary. Due to the predominantly submarine location of oceanic ridges, the interplay between these processes remain poorly constrained in time and space. In this study, we use the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo (DMH) magmatic rift segment (MRS) (Afar, Ethiopia) to answers the long debated chicken-egg question about magmatic and tectonic processes in extensive context: which on comes first, and how those two processes interplay to finally form oceanic ridges? The DMH MRS is an oceanic ridge analogue and here we present quantitative slip rates on major and minor normal fault scarps for the past 40 kyr in the vicinity of a recent (September 2005) dike intrusion. Our data show that the long-term-vertical slip rates of faults that ruptured in 2005 are too low to explain the present rift topography and that the 2005 strain distribution is not the main stress accommodating mechanism in the DMH segment. Instead, we show that the axial valley topography is created by enhanced slip rates which occur only when the amount of magma available in magma reservoirs is limited, thus preventing dykes from reaching the surface. Our results suggest that development of the axial valley topography is regulated by the magma reservoir lifetime and, thus, to the magmatic cycles of replenishment/differentiation (< 100 ky). This implies that in the DMH rift system (with a magma supply typical of an intermediate spreading centre), significant topography of the axial rift valley is transient, and is expressed only when magma available in the reservoirs decreases. The absence of tilting on the rift margins over the last 200 kyr also suggests that amagmatic accommodation of extension is not required over this time period. Extension instead is accommodated by dykes injected laterally from multiple ephemeral reservoirs located along the DMH

  1. The mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Depression and adjacent regions: implications for mantle plumes and hydration (United States)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.


    The Afar Depression and its adjacent areas are underlain by an upper mantle marked by some of the world's largest negative velocity anomalies, which are frequently attributed to the thermal influences of a lower-mantle plume. In spite of numerous studies, however, the existence of a plume beneath the area remains enigmatic, partially due to inadequate quantities of broad-band seismic data and the limited vertical resolution at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) depth of the techniques employed by previous investigations. In this study, we use an unprecedented quantity (over 14 500) of P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 139 stations from 12 networks to image the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and map the spatial variation of the thickness of the MTZ. Non-linear stacking of the RFs under a 1-D velocity model shows robust P-to-S conversions from both discontinuities, and their apparent depths indicate the presence of an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the entire study area. The Afar Depression and the northern Main Ethiopian Rift are characterized by an apparent 40-60 km depression of both MTZ discontinuities and a normal MTZ thickness. The simplest and most probable interpretation of these observations is that the apparent depressions are solely caused by velocity perturbations in the upper mantle and not by deeper processes causing temperature or hydration anomalies within the MTZ. Thickening of the MTZ on the order of 15 km beneath the southern Arabian Plate, southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden, which comprise the southward extension of the Afro-Arabian Dome, could reflect long-term hydration of the MTZ. A 20 km thinning of the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau is observed and interpreted as evidence for a possible mantle plume stem originating from the lower mantle.

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation of the LLNL Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, Catherine [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The LLNL Nuclear Criticality Safety Division has developed a training center to illustrate criticality safety and reactor physics concepts through hands-on experimental training. The experimental assembly, the Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA), uses surplus highly enriched research reactor fuel configured in a water tank. The training activities will be conducted by LLNL following the requirements of an Integration Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of LLNL instructors. This report provides the technical criticality safety basis for instructional operations with the ISSA experimental assembly.

  3. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros T Wakie

    Full Text Available We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC. Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94, while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95. Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  4. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia. (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda


    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  5. 广西苍梧马尾松林和大叶栎林的火行为比较%Assessing fire potential of Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis f issa forests in Cangwu by fuel modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小荣; 庞世龙; 彭玉华; 申文辉


    Pinus massoniana is a tree species widely used for afforestation in southern China ,and one most flammable and weakly resistant to fire . Eleven‐yr‐old P . massoniana plantations and 4‐yr‐old Castanopsis f issa coppices on different topographies were investigated and fuel models were developed by BehavePlus 5 .0 to evaluate their fire potential in normal winter and summer drought moisture scenarios ,comparing their fireline intensity ,rate of spread and crown fire possibilities . The result showed that fire potential was higher in summer drought than in normal winter .However ,neither in normal winter nor in summer drought ,fire behavior of pine fuel models was consistently higher than that of C . f issa fuel models ;and weather ,topography ,fuelbed composition contributed heavily on fuel moistures which always were dominating factors for fire behaviors .Although C . f issa was classified as nonflammable tree species ,its coppices were more flammable than its mature arbor forests ;and the coppices in Cangwu were possible to be ignited by brands in extreme summer drought .If the C . f issa coppices are used as firebreak belt forest ,understory dead fuels ,herbs and other fine fuels should be treated regularly .%马尾松(Pinus massoniana)是中国南方大面积造林的树种,也是抗火能力最弱的树种。研究了广西苍梧11龄马尾松用材林和4龄大叶栎萌芽林在正常冬季和干旱夏季情景下的火行为,用behaveplus 计算了火线强度、蔓延速度、树冠火可能性等参数。结果表明,两种林分在干旱夏季的火行为高于在正常冬季的火行为。无论是在正常冬季还是在干旱夏季,都没有出现马尾松可燃物模型的火行为一致高于大叶栎可燃物模型的情况;天气、地形、可燃物床结构对可燃物含水率有很大影响,而含水率是火行为的决定因素。虽然大叶栎被划分为难燃树种,大叶栎萌芽林的火行为高于成年大叶

  6. Nature of the crust under Afar: new igneous, not thinned continental (United States)

    Mohr, Paul


    Thinned continental crust is considered absent from beneath Afar, except for isolated remnants such as comprise the Danakil Block. The Ethiopian Plateau sialic crust thins abruptly across the plateau-Afar margin to abut new igneous crust under Afar, generated during the early development of the Red Sea basin. Analyses of stretching and sea-floor spreading amounts elsewhere in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins are employed to support this concept. The dual layering of the Afar crust, and the similarity of P-wave velocities in these layers to velocities in sialic crust, lead to the proposal that new continental crust can be generated at magmatic rift zones.

  7. Regional kinematic models for the development of the Afar depression (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Wheeler, W. H.; Often, M.


    Few reconstructions of the Afar rift combine plate kinematics with analyses of the rift basin evolution. The Afar rift is a highly-extended region of continental to transitional oceanic crust lying at the junction of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Ethiopian rifts. Here, we present a new Afar reconstruction taking into account plate kinematics, crustal thinning and magmatic construction. We use a regional plate reconstruction incorporating Nubia, Arabia, Somalia and Danakil to constrain the regional-scale extension and subsidence of the rift and relative movement of Danakil. The plate model is temporally and spatially well constrained at the onset of rifting (ca. 20 Ma) and from sea-floor spreading anomalies in the Red Sea (ca. 6 Ma-present) and Gulf of Aden (ca. 10 Ma-present). The Red Sea pre-rift fit is constrained by piercing points along the Red Sea margins (Sultan et al. 1993). We model the Late Oligocene to present-day evolution of the Afar crust by volume balance using a crustal model based on published topographic and depth-to-Moho interpretations as well as volume estimates of extrusive and sedimentary rocks. Errors stemming from plate boundary uncertainties are small in relation to the reconstructed volume. We partition Afar magmatism into pre-extensional and syn-extensional volumes. From thermal modeling and flexural considerations we infer that the regional-scale subsidence of the Afar depression was virtually complete by Mid Pliocene time. Our model supports the interpretation that the escarpments bounding the Afar Depression achieved nearly their present height (ca. 3 km) by the Late Miocene. Erosional considerations suggest the Late Miocene escarpments were steeper than they are today. Our model does not support the interpretation found in the paleo-anthropological literature that Late Miocene and Pliocene vertical movements were sufficiently large (ca. 2 km) to cause small fault blocks such as Hadar to migrate through climatic temperature zones

  8. Sheep and goat production objectives in pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems in Chifra district of Afar, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Hassen, Anwar Seid; Tesfaye, Yayneshet


    The study was conducted in Chifra district in Awsi-Resu zone of Afar Regional State to explore production objectives and strategies of sheep and goats in pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems. Cross-sectional survey with systematic random selection of 180 households (90 households from each production system was conducted. Descriptive statistics, t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance, and ranking method were employed in analyzing data using JMP-5 software. In pastoral production system, sheep and goat were primarily reared for household milk consumption, followed by live animal savings and income, while in agro-pastoral production system, sheep and goat are primarily reared for income, followed by household milk consumption and manure supply, as live animal savings. Overall mortality rates of sheep and goats (4 to >12 months of age) were 9 and 9.5 % in pastoral production systems while 7 and 6 % in agro-pastoral production system. Average age at first mating, kidding interval, days of mating after birth, weaning age, lactation length, litter size, slaughtering age, and marketable age of sheep and goats in pastoral production system were 7.4 months, 358 days, 29 days, 4.2 months, 3.1 months, 1.5 lambs, 7.4 months, and 14 months, respectively, while in agro-pastoral production system, they are 6.9 months, 353.3 days, 28 days, 3.2 months, 1.6 lambs, 6.4 months, and 14.5 months, respectively. It was concluded that production system-based development interventions could help to increase the productivity of sheep and goats and thereby enhance the livelihood of smallholders.

  9. Geologic and geochronologic constraints on the evolution of the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden and Afar depression (United States)

    Berhe, Seife M.

    New KAr age determinations show that the development of Southern Afar since 14 Ma ago involved five stages of tectonism and volcanism at 14-11, 11-10, 9-7, 5-4 and post-1.6 Ma ago; while the major phases of rifting for the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden have been shown by geological and geophysical data to be 25, 14, 10 and 4 Ma ago. It is suggested that since 14 Ma ago, identical periods of volcanism preceded by rifting have affected both areas. Continental breakup in the Red Sea region was initiated along large transcurrent faults followed by extension manifested by normal faulting, block tilting in the brittle crustal region and repeated dyke injection. Two large scale transcurrent faults were identified, the Marda (NW-SE) and the Ambo (ENE-WSW) which, it is suggested, controlled the trends of rifting in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, respectively. Structural and geological evidence indicate that these faults have had a relatively long history, since they were active in pre-Jurassic times. Because at least the Ambo fault cuts across the NS trends of the late Proterozoic basement, its orientation must be primarily related to the Phanerozoic rift tectonics. This model avoids overlap of the Arabian plate with the Danakil and Aisha blocks because it involves only limited true oceanic crust. The new age data indicate that the initiation of the Aden and Red Sea rifts was not accompanied by active volcanism on land until the Oligocene-Miocene (30-5 Ma ago). Following that time, volcano-tectonic rifting continued without substantial hiati.

  10. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza


    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  11. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) in Ethiopia’s Afar region (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.


    The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine) in Ethiopia’s Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80) and the final model (test AUC = 0.96). Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local ecological

  12. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet. (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew


    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus before and during outbreaks of the disease in Awash Fentale district, Afar, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Delil, Faris; Asfaw, Yilkal; Gebreegziabher, Berhe


    The present study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats in Awash Fentale district, Afar, Ethiopia. Small ruminants in the district had poor herd immunity at the first visit and succumb to the disease then after. The seroprevalence during the time of an outbreak was much higher compared with the initial levels: 7.3% and 42.6% in sheep and goats, respectively. The higher seroprevalence figure in goats was suggestive of their relative susceptibility to PPR compared with sheep.

  14. The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) End-to-End On-Orbit Maintenance Process Flow (United States)

    Zingrebe, Kenneth W., II


    As a tool for construction and refinement of the on-orbit maintenance system to sustain the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA), the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) developed an end to-end on-orbit maintenance process flow. This paper discusses and demonstrates that process flow. This tool is being used by MOD to identify areas which require further work in preparation for MOD's role in the conduct of on-orbit maintenance operations.

  15. Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Ali Sabieh area (Republic of Djibouti and Ethiopia): constraints on the mechanism of Aden ridge propagation into southeastern Afar during the last 10 Myr (United States)

    Audin, L.; Quidelleur, X.; Coulié, E.; Courtillot, V.; Gilder, S.; Manighetti, I.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Tapponnier, P.; Kidane, T.


    A new detailed palaeomagnetic study of Tertiary volcanics, including extensive K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, helps constrain the deformation mechanisms related to the opening processes of the Afar depression (Ethiopia and Djibouti). Much of the Afar depression is bounded by 30 Myr old flood basalts and floored by the ca 2 Myr old Stratoid basalts, and evidence for pre-2 Ma deformation processes is accessible only on its borders. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of several mineral phases from rhyolitic samples from the Ali Sabieh block shows indistinguishable ages around 20 Myr. These ages can be linked to separation of this block in relation to continental breakup. Different amounts of rotation are found to the north and south of the Holhol fault zone, which cuts across the northern part of the Ali Sabieh block. The southern domain did not record any rotation for the last 8 Myr, whereas the northern domain experienced approximately 12 +/- 9° of clockwise rotation. We propose to link this rotation to the counter-clockwise rotation observed in the Danakil block since 7 Ma. This provides new constraints on the early phases of rifting and opening of the southern Afar depression in connection with the propagation of the Aden ridge. A kinematic model of propagation and transfer of extension within southern Afar is proposed, with particular emphasis on the previously poorly-known period from 10 to 4 Ma.

  16. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix. (United States)

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon


    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  17. InSAR analysis of diking and incipient oceanic spreading in the Danakil depression of the northern Afar rift (United States)

    Gomez, F. G.; Tesfaye, S.


    The Danakil depression in the northern part of the Afar rift is a location of incipient oceanic spreading. Deformation associated with recent magmatic events provides a view of the incremental stages in rifting. Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and geodetic modeling, this study assesses magmatic events that occurred in October 2004 and November 2008 in the axial graben of the Danakil depression. The study utilized C-band Envisat ASAR imagery and L-band ALOS PALSAR imagery. Both events involve deflation of magma chambers and intrusion of NNW-SSE striking dikes. The 2004 event took place in the Dallol area and involved ~5 km deep magmatic source and a SSE-propagating dike that opens approximately 80 - 120 cm - this contrasts with seismological results suggesting a 20 km depth with primarily normal faulting. The 2008 event occurred on the northern segment of the Erta Ale volcanic range between Alu and Dalafillal volcanic centers. Available image data permitted assessing pre- and post-event deformation, as well as the main eruption. Interferograms spanning the 2008 eruption image the deflation of a 3 - 4 km deep magmatic source, as well as dilatation of a SSE-striking dike. Additionally, the erupted lava flow is evident as a decorrelated region along the northeast flank of the fissure event. Prior to the eruption, the inflation of the magmatic chamber is imaged, and after the eruption, resurgence of the magma chamber is also documented. Furthermore, post-eruption interferograms also document the contraction and cooling of the lava flow, which facilitates 1-dimensional modeling of the thickness of the flow and calculation of the volume of the effusive component of the eruption. In both cases, aseismic deformation dominates - i.e., the seismologically measured moment is significantly less than the geodetically observed moment: ~25% for the 2004 event and 10% for the 2008 event. Magnitudes of incremental extension are then compared with regional

  18. Seroprevalence and sero-conversion after vaccination against Peste des Petits Ruminants in sheep and goats from Awash Fentale District, Afar, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Faris, D; Yilkal, A; Berhe, G; Kelay, B


    A cross-sectional epidemiological study followed by vaccination and postvaccinal serum antibody assessment against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in small ruminant population of Awash Fentale District, Afar, Ethiopia, was conducted from September 2006 to June 2007 with the aim of investigating seroprevalence and post-vaccination sero-conversion rate. A total of 1239 sera collected from sheep and goats which were not vaccinated, were screened by using nucleoprotein-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Only 21 (1.70%) animals were found to be positive. Following the base-line seroprevalence study, small ruminants in the area were vaccinated using the attenuated homologous PPR virus (Nigeria 75/1) strain vaccine, produced at National Veterinary Institute (NVI) in Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. A total of 1096 small ruminants were resampled from the vaccinated population fourteen days after vaccination. The postvaccination sero-conversion rate in the population was found to be 61.13%, indicating a relatively weak herd immunity. The main reason for the low sero-conversion could be the thermolabile nature of the vaccine, since no statistically significant difference was observed between small ruminants vaccinated by Veterinary Professionals and Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs), using Chi-squared test at 95% CI (P>0.05). This signifies the need for thermostable vaccine that could potentially increase the herd immunity in addition to that being administered by CAHWs independently. The current finding indicated that CAHWs could participate in vaccination campaigns in such areas as Afar, where there are few veterinarians despite of the huge livestock populations, as means of pastoralists' livelihood.

  19. Earthquake relocations and InSAR analysis following the June 12th 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano, Afar (United States)

    Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Keir, Derek; Neuberg, Jurgen; Grandin, Raphael; Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kibreab, Alem; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Pagli, Carolina; Sansosti, Eugenio


    Nabro volcano sits on the southern part of Danakil block to the east of the Afar depression, on the Arabian plate. On the 12th June 2011, Nabro volcano suddenly erupted after being inactive for 10,000 years. The eruption caused a 17-km-long lava flow, a 15-km-high ash cloud, and ranks as one of the largest emissions of SO2 since the Mt. Pinatubo (1991) event. This eruption creates an important opportunity to use seismicity and surface deformation measurements to understand the subsurface magmatic system and deformation of a hazardous, off axis caldera during continental rupture. We installed a network of 8 seismometers around Nabro caldera which began recording on the 31st August and tasked SAR acquisitions from TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) satellites. The SAR images used for this study post date the eruption. We used TSX stripmap mode images from ascending and descending orbits. Using a small baseline approach, we used 25 images acquired between the 1st July 2011 to the 5th October 2012 on descending orbit 046, to create 34 interferograms. We complemented these with 19 images from ascending orbit 130 spanning the 6th July 2011 to the 10th October 2012 from ascending orbit 130, which we used to create 21 interferograms. We produced a velocity ratemap and timeseries using π-RATE showing subsidence of up to 25cm/yr centred on Nabro. We used a Monte-Carlo hybrid downhill simplex technique to invert the dataset and found the best fitting solution as a mogi source at 6.9 ±1.1 km depth, and located at a 13.35 (lat) and 41.69 (long). The time dependence observed is consistent with a viscoelastic relaxation around the magma chamber, following depletion. Concurrent with the TSX acquisitions, CSK imaged the volcano on a descending track between 26th June 2011 and 18th July 2012 within the ASI project SAR4Volcanoes, and 64 images were used to produce 171 interferograms which were inverted to form a timeseries using a SBAS approach. This dataset has an overall

  20. Generic along-strike segmentation of Afar normal faults, East Africa: Implications on fault growth and stress heterogeneity on seismogenic fault planes (United States)

    Manighetti, I.; Caulet, C.; Barros, L.; Perrin, C.; Cappa, F.; Gaudemer, Y.


    Understanding how natural faults are segmented along their length can provide useful insights into fault growth processes, stress distribution on fault planes, and earthquake dynamics. We use cumulative displacement profiles to analyze the two largest scales of segmentation of ˜900 normal faults in Afar, East Africa. We build upon a prior study by Manighetti et al. (2009) and develop a new signal processing method aimed at recovering the number, position, displacement, and length of both the major (i.e., longest) and the subordinate, secondary segments within the faults. Regardless of their length, age, geographic location, total displacement, and slip rate, 90% of the faults contain two to five major segments, whereas more than 70% of these major segments are divided into two to four secondary segments. In each hierarchical rank of fault segmentation, most segments have a similar proportional length, whereas the number of segments slightly decreases with fault structural maturity. The along-strike segmentation of the Afar faults is thus generic at its two largest scales. We summarize published fault segment data on 42 normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults worldwide, and find a similar number (two to five) of major and secondary segments across the population. We suggest a fault growth scenario that might account for the generic large-scale segmentation of faults. The observation of a generic segmentation suggests that seismogenic fault planes are punctuated with a deterministic number of large stress concentrations, which are likely to control the initiation, arrest and hence extent and magnitude of earthquake ruptures.

  1. A quantitative geomorphological approach to constraining the volcanic and tectonic evolution of the active Dabbahu rift segment, Afar, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphaël; Burnard, Peter; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Blard, Pierre-Henri; France, Lydéric; Dumont, Stéphanie; Grandin, Raphaël; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Benedetti, Lucilla; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn


    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is organised along rift segments that morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well-documented 2005 rifting event on the Dabbahu rift segment. This tectono-volcanic crisis was observed in detail via remote sensing techniques, providing invaluable information on the present-day tectonic - magmatic interplay during a sequence of dyke intrusions. However, lack of data remains on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of the rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He and 36Cl) to determine the ages of young (<100 kyr) lava flows and to date the initiation and movement of fault scarps, which cut the lavas. Where possible, we analysed vertical profiles along fault scarps, in an attempt to distinguish individual tectonic events that offset the scarp, estimate their amplitudes and date the recurrence intervals. These geochronological constraints, combined with major & trace element compositions, field mapping and digital mapping (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), provide valuable insights on the magmatic and tectonic history of the segment. The results show that over the last 100 ka, the northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by at least two different magma reservoirs, which can be identified from their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano at the northern tip of the rift segment, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. The second reservoir is located further south on the rift axis and corresponds to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. Two magmatic cycles linked to the Dabbahu magma chamber were recorded, lasting 20-30 kyr

  2. Influence of the Afar plume on the deep structure of Aden and Red Sea margins - Insight from teleseismic tomography in western Yemen (United States)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Basuyau, Clémence; Leroy, Sylvie; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham; Rolandone, Frédérique; Ganad, Ismail Al; Khanbari, Khaled


    Continental rupture processes under mantle plume influence are still poorly known although extensively studied. The Afar plume has been largely investigated in Ethiopia to study early stages of continental break-up. Here we imaged the lithospheric structure of western continental Yemen to evaluate the role of the Afar plume on the evolution of the continental margin and its extent towards the East. A part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory) permitted the deployment of twenty-three broadband stations in Yemen (from 2009 to 2010). Using a classical teleseismic tomography (Aki et al., 1974) on these stations together with a permanent GFZ station, we image the relative velocity variations of P-waves in the crust and lithosphere down to 300 km depth, with a maximum lateral resolution of about ~20 km. The model thus obtained shows (1) a dramatic and localized thinning of the crust in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden (2) the presence of magmatic underplating related to seaward dipping reflectors under those two volcanic margins (3) two granitic syn-rift intrusions on the border of the great escarpment (4) a low velocity anomaly in which with evidence of partial melting, just below thick Oligocene trapps series and other volcanic events (from 15 Ma to present). This low velocity anomaly could correspond to an abnormally hot mantle and could be responsible for dynamic topography and recent magmatism in western Yemen. (5) Finally, we infer the presence of hot material under the Southwestern corner of Yemen that could be related to Miocene volcanism in Jabal an Nar.

  3. Great Times Now and In the Future For Telescopes Afar in Education (United States)

    Pennypacker, Carlton


    These are very exciting times in education and astronomy, and our communities have growing capabilities to positively change teachers and students lives through the use of remote telescopes. This has been a long haul, but traction is evident. Over the last 17 years, beginning with researchers and students acquiring and discovering our first automatically requested images of supernovae from UC Berkeley's automated Leuschner Observatory (arguably one of the first successful civilian automated telescopes). we, as other groups, have found extremely high engagement with students of various ages in using remote telescopes, both in real-time and cue-based observing modes. E.G., we currently have a small GHOU network of small telescopes that can intermittently serve our teachers, and eagerly try to use every telescope that might share a few photons with our kids, some living in tough circumstances. (some GHOU students are from very low-economic conditions, but still love the stars, and love to communicate and collaboate with children around the world). Other groups are actively pursuing making such networks succeed, too. The project I work with is called "Global Hands-On Universe" (GHOU). The need for regular and robust remote telescopes could grow to very high levels, if the astronomy community can produce reliable and robust telescope networks. For example, as part of the International Year of Astronomy, I helped in efforts that eventually led to the training (coordinated by Rosa Doran, of Portugal) of 5000 teachers in greater than 90 nations in the use of .fts images, Salsa J image processing, and Stellarium software (both French softwares). We have a particular focus and have found huge resonances for this work in developing nations, including nations in Africa, Asia, and South America. In addition, we have developed good after school programs that teach astronomy and use of real images, again which can benefit by astronomy community cooperation and collaboration. A

  4. Jaufré Rudel's 'love from afar' and distant love via chat; a metaphorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Gerez


    Full Text Available Love for an unknown person in a distant location has featured spectacularly throughout the history of literature. One of the emblematic authors who dealt with falling in love in such a blind fashion was the troubadour Jaufré Rudel, to the extent that he may be considered to be a literary paradigm. When analysing his work and its repercussions, it is impossible to escape a comparison with the type of amorous relationships that can be established via chat, the common denominator of which is that the interlocutor is unknown. In addition to the mystery, related to a high component of idealisation, we believe that there are other comparative links from a metaphorical perspective, such as distance, the identity of the participants and the specific nature of the code used. In this article, we will set out some ideas with a view to stimulating further analyses in that respect.

  5. Tal Afar and Ar Ramadi: Grass Roots Reconstruction (Military Review, March-April 2009) (United States)


    income; in iraq these are often women. (this was similar to the micro-Loan Program developed by muhammed yunus of the grameen Bank in Bangladesh...Station (petroleum fuels) 138,858.67 Electricity 1,830,233.33 Census 54,160.67 Agriculture Bank 69,287.75 Veterinary Clinics 158,643.45 Rafidan Bank ...private banks . the tax office collects sales taxes on homes, automobiles, and other big purchases that can increase the amount of money for district

  6. Elections From Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Packed into a Beijing cafe on November 5, 6,000 miles and 16 hours away from the U. S. presidential election, the crowd excitedly began counting down the seconds until Wes Coast polls closed: 10,9,8 Earlier voter surveys had shown Barack Obama would win California, Oregon and Washington by wide margins. Together with the states he had already won, these states would give him more than enough electoral votes. As soon as the countdown ended, up flashed on the TV screen: "Barack Obama Elected President."

  7. Plate kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression, Ethiopia (United States)

    Bottenberg, Helen Carrie

    This work utilizes the Four-Dimensional Plates (4DPlates) software, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to examine plate-scale, regional-scale and local-scale kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression in Ethiopia. First, the 4DPlates is used to restore the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift to development of a new model that adopts two poles of rotation for Arabia. Second, the 4DPlates is used to model regional-scale and local-scale kinematics within the Afar Depression. Most plate reconstruction models of the Afro-Arabian Rift System relies on considering the Afar Depression as a typical rift-rift-rift triple junction where the Arabian, Somali and Nubian (African) plates are separating by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian Rift suggesting the presence of "sharp and rigid" plate boundaries. However, at the regional-scale the Afar kinematics are more complex due to stepping of the Red Sea propagator and the Gulf of Aden propagator onto Afar as well as the presence of the Danakil, Ali Sabieh and East Central Block "micro-plates". This study incorporates the motion of these micro-plates into the regional-scale model and defined the plate boundary between the Arabian and the African plates within Afar as likely a diffused zone of extensional strain within the East Central Block. Third, DInSAR technology is used to create ascending and descending differential interferograms from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-Band data for the East Central Block to image active crustal deformation related to extensional tectonics and volcanism. Results of the DInSAR study indicate no strong strain localization but rather a diffused pattern of deformation across the entire East Central Block.

  8. MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights (United States)

    Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

    This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

  9. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA). (United States)

    Donatello, S; Tong, D; Cheeseman, C R


    The recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge ash samples obtained from 7 operating sludge incinerators in the UK using a sulfuric acid washing procedure to produce a technical grade phosphoric acid product has been investigated. The influences of reaction time, sulfuric acid concentration, liquid to solid ratio and source of ISSA on P recovery have been examined. The optimised conditions were the minimum stoichiometric acid requirement, a reaction time of 120 min and a liquid to solid ratio of 20. Under these conditions, average recoveries of between 72% and 91% of total phosphorus were obtained. Product filtrate was purified by passing through a cation exchange column, concentrated to 80% H(3)PO(4) and compared with technical grade H(3)PO(4) specifications. The economics of phosphate recovery by this method are briefly discussed.

  10. The State of Stress in the Afar Region From Inversion of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms (United States)

    Hagos, L.; Lund, B.; Roberts, R.


    The state of stress in the Afar region, where the Arabian, Nubian, and Somalian plates meet, is investigated by inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms. Based on earlier studies in the region, we compiled a catalogue of 93 earthquakes, M > 4, with focal mechanisms, spanning the time period from 1969 to present. From this data set we select three clusters suitable for inversion: one along the EW trending Gulf of Aden and Tadjoura rift, one in central Afar, and one on the western margin of the Afar depression. Using the grid-search based inversion of Lund and Slunga (1999), we assess how the choice of fault plane from the nodal planes affect the results and include known fault data where possible. The resulting stress states show an overall normal faulting stress regime. This especially pronounced in the cluster on the western margin of the Afar depression, whereas the southern two clusters have more oblique stress states with significant strike-slip components. The estimated directions of the minimum principal stress vary from NE on the Danakil -Somalia plate boundary to an approximate EW direction at the western margin of the Afar depression. Although the data is scarce, we discuss the temporal consistency of the stress field through the studied time period. The broad zone of active extensional deformation at the Afar Depression, a triple junction where the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian rift systems meet, constitutes a complicated tectonic region and we discuss our results in this context. We also compare the stress estimates to available deformation data in the region.

  11. The Afar Depression: interpretation of the 1960-2000 earthquakes (United States)

    Hofstetter, R.; Beyth, M.


    We studied the seismic activity of the Afar Depression (AD) and adjacent regions during the period 1960-2000. We define seven distinct seismogenic regions using geological, tectonic and seismological data. Based on the frequency-magnitude relationships we obtain b-values of about 1 for the different regions. The pattern of the distribution of the location of epicentres fits with the known active fault zone in the AD and the axial volcanic ridges. The Bab el Mandab area and the Danakil-Aysha'a blocks are less active. For 125 intermediate to strong earthquakes the seismic moment and source parameters were calculated. The results of the fault plane solutions for the Afar Depression indicate mainly strike-slip and normal sense of movement originating from fault planes striking NW-SE. These results indicate a clockwise block rotation described previously as a bookshelf model in central AD. There are a few right-lateral faults east of Massawa with E-W-striking fault planes. At the southern Red Sea, north of the Danakil block, the mixed focal mechanisms, with axial plane striking NW-SE, comprise several reverse faulting, strike-slip motion and normal faulting. Right-lateral movement was also calculated for a cluster of seismic events between the Manda Hararo and Alyata volcanic ridges along NW-SE-striking faults. Along the N-S-striking faults in the escarpment, at the western Afar margins, there are two distinct clusters of epicentres. The strong earthquakes at the southern cluster exhibit normal or strike-slip motions. The intermediate to small earthquakes in the northern cluster exhibit reverse and strike-slip motions. Mainly normal faults were calculated along NE-SW-striking faults of the Ethiopian East African Rift. Estimates of the seismic efficiency suggest that the maximal values are about 50 per cent or less, implying that most of the motion is taken aseismically.

  12. Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Mamo Kassa


    epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7% at ≥4 mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7% at cutoff ≥2 mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28% and 47% (95% CI: 37–56% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5% and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149 and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data? (United States)


    ... aircraft; (b) Lease or lease-purchase aircraft; (c) Hire aircraft and related services through an ISSA or a full service contract; or (d) Obtain related aviation services through an ISSA or by contract...

  14. Uppermost mantle (Pn) velocity model for the Afar region, Ethiopia: an insight into rifting processes (United States)

    Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.


    The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.

  15. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermo-chronology and lithospheric mechanisms. Methodological and applied approach: the Kunlun range (Asia) and the Afar triple junction area (East Africa); Thermochronologie {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar et mecanismes lithospheriques. Approche methodologique et appliquee: exemples de la chaine du Kunlun (Asie) et de la jonction triple de l'Afar (Afrique de l'Est)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, C


    A {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermo-chronological study has been carried out for two contrasted geodynamic settings: - the Eastern Kunlun range (Northern Tibet), in order to characterize the lithospheric deformation mechanisms related to the India-Asia collision; - the Afar triple junction area (East Africa), in order to constrain the timing of mantle plume-related basement uplift in Ethiopia and Yemen, which will indicate whether rifting was active or passive. In the Kunlun, the cooling event (9-15 deg.C/Ma) outlined at 30 Ma for the granitoids (Bt = 128-138 Ma; Kf = 102-147 Ma) reflects a denudation event (0.2-0.3 km/Ma), related to ramp stacking and normal faulting with associated uplift. This unroofing period is coeval with the great Asian strike-slip faults. This suggests that 30 Ma ago, the India-Asia collision was accommodated by lateral extrusion along great strike-slip faults, which might have led to local crustal thickening because of the formation of anticlines from major thrusts 'branching' from the Kunlun fault. In the Afar area the Panafrican basement (granitoids = 462-678 Ma;metamorphic rocks 505-750 Ma) has undergone a reheating event during the Cenozoic; its temperature is estimated around 138-177 deg.C over the last 50 Ma for a depth of 2 km, implying a thermal gradient of 69-88 deg./km. This reheating event results from both heat conduction, related to the mantle plume. and heat advection. because of magma transfer. However, it was not possible to define the timing of the mantle plume-related basement uplift. This study outlines the important thermal effect of continental flood basalts on the crust and suggests that the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermo-chronology does not allow to characterize the denudation of the lithosphere for an extension-type geodynamic setting. Finally, some of the results suggest that diffusion in the laboratory and in nature may be different. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermo-chronological analysis thus might be tricky

  16. New geodetic measurements in central Afar constraining the Arabia-Somalia-Nubia triple junction kinematics (United States)

    Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Lewi, E.; Grandin, R.; Calais, E.; Wright, T. J.; Bendick, R. O.; Pagli, C.; Peltzer, G.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Ibrahim Ahmed, S.


    The Afar Depression is an extraordinary submerged laboratory where the crustal mechanisms involved in the active rifting process can be studied. But the crustal movements at the regional scale are complicated by being the locus of the meeting of three divergent plate boundaries: the oceanic spreading ridges of the Red Sea and the Aden Ridge and the intra-continental East-African Rift (EAR). We present here the first GPS measurements conducted in a new network in Central Afar, complementing existing networks in Eritrea, around the Manda-Harraro 2005-2010 active segment, in the Northern part of the EAR and in Djibouti. Even if InSAR data were appropriate for mapping the deformation field, the results are difficult to interpret for analyzing the regional kinematics because of the atmospheric conditions, the lack of complete data catalogue, the acquisition configuration and the small velocity variations. Therefore, our measurements in the new sites are crucial to obtain an accurate velocity field over the whole depression, and focus specifically on the spatial organization of the deformation to characterize the tripe junction. These first results show that a small part of the motion of the Somalia plate with respect to the Nubia plate or the Arabia plate (2-3 mm/yr) occurs south of the Tadjura Gulf and East of the Adda-do segment in Southern Afar. The complex kinematic pattern involves a clockwise rotation of this Southeastern part of the Afar rift and can be related to the significant seismic activity regularly recorded in the region of Jigjiga (northern Somalia-Ethiopia border). The western continuation of the Aden Ridge into Afar extends West of the Asal rift segment and does not reach the young active segment of Manda-Inakir (MI). A slow gradient of velocity is observed across the Dobi Graben and across the large systems of faults between Lake Abhe and the MI rift segment. A striking change of the velocity direction occurs in the region of Assaïta, west of Lake

  17. Spectral analysis of dike-induced earthquakes in Afar, Ethiopia (United States)

    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Yun, Sang-Ho


    Shallow dike intrusions may be accompanied by fault slip above the dikes, a superposition which complicates seismic and geodetic data analyses. The diverse volcano-tectonic and low-frequency local earthquakes accompanying the 2005-2010 large-volume dike intrusions in the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift (Afar), some with fault displacements of up to 3 m at the surface, provide an opportunity to examine the relations among the earthquakes, dike intrusions, and surface ruptures. We apply the frequency index (FI) method to characterize the spectra of swarm earthquakes from six of the dikes. These earthquakes often have broad spectra with multiple peaks, making the usual peak frequency classification method unreliable. Our results show a general bimodal character with high FI earthquakes associated with deeper dikes (top > 3 km subsurface) and low FI earthquakes associated with shallow dikes, indicating that shallow dikes result in earthquakes with more low-frequency content and larger-amplitude surface waves. Low FI earthquakes are more common during dike emplacement, suggesting that interactions between the dike and faults may lead to lower FI. Taken together, likely source processes for low FI earthquakes are shallow hypocenters (<3 km) possibly with surface rupture, slow rupture velocities, and interactions with dike fluids. Strong site effects also heavily influence the earthquake spectral content. Additionally, our results suggest a continuum of spectral responses, implying either that impulsive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and the unusual, emergent earthquakes have similar source processes or that simple spectral analyses, such as FI, cannot distinguish different source processes.

  18. Mode of rifting in magmatic-rich setting: Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Central Afar rift system (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Leroy, Sylvie; Ayalew, Dereje


    Observation of deep structures related to break-up processes at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is often a troublesome exercise: thick pre- to syn-breakup seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) usually mask the continent-ocean boundary and hide the syn-rift tectonic structures that accommodate crustal stretching and thinning. Some of the current challenges are about clarifying 1) if tectonic stretching fits the observed thinning and 2) what is the effect of continuous magma supply and re-thickening of the crust during extension from a rheological point of view? The Afar region in Ethiopia is an ideal natural laboratory to address those questions, as it is a highly magmatic rift that is probably close enough to breakup to present some characteristics of VPM. Moreover, the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are out-cropping, onshore and well preserved. In this contribution, we present new structural field data and lavas (U-Th/He) datings along a cross-section from the Ethiopian Plateau, through the marginal graben down to the Manda-Hararo active rift axis. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series unconformably overlain by tilted Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. It is itself overlain by flat lying Pliocene series, including the Stratoid. Balanced cross-sections of those areas allow us to constrain a surface stretching factor of about 2.1-2.9. Those findings have the following implications: - High beta factor constrained from field observations is at odd with thinning factor of ~1.3 predicted by seismic and gravimetric studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened by the emplacement of underplated magma and SDR. - The deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time. It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient

  19. Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary: Into Afar (United States)

    Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Gillot, P. Y.; Jacques, E.; Courtillot, V.; Armijo, R.; Ruegg, J. C.; King, G.


    It is generally accepted that the Aden ridge has propagated westward from ˜58°E to the western tip of the Gulf of Aden/Tadjoura, at the edge of Afar. Here, we use new tectonic and geochronological data to examine the geometry and kinematics of deformation related to the penetration of that ridge on dry land in the Republic of Djibouti. We show that it veers northward, forming a narrow zone of dense faulting along the northeastern edge of the Afar depression. The zone includes two volcanic rifts (Asal-Ghoubbet and Manda Inakir), connected to one another and to the submarine part of the ridge by transfer zones. Both rifts are composite, divided into two or three disconnected, parallel, NW-SE striking subrifts, all of which appear to have propagated northwestward. In Asal-Ghoubbet as in Manda Inakir, the subrifts appear to have formed in succession, through north directed jumps from subrifts more farther south. At present, the northernmost subrifts (Manda and Dirko Koma) of the Manda Inakir rift, form the current tip of the northward propagating Arabia-Somalia plate boundary in Afar. We account for most observations by a mechanical model similar to that previously inferred for the Gulf of Aden, in which propagation is governed by the intensity and direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress, σ3. We interpret the northward propagation on land, almost orthogonal to that in the gulf, to be related to necking of the Central Afar lithosphere where it is thinnest. Such necking may be a consequence of differential magmatic thickening, greater in the center of the Afar depression where the Ethiopian hot spot enhanced profuse basaltic effusion and underplating than along the edges of the depression. The model explains why the Aden ridge foregoes its WSW propagation direction, constant from ˜58°E to Asal-Ghoubbet. At a smaller scale, individual rifts and subrifts keep opening perpendicular to the Arabia-Somalia (or Danakil-Somalia) motion vector and propagate

  20. Characteristics of the Bab al Mandab-Northern Afar area of the southern Red Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.B. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Sikander, A.H. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)); Abouzakhm, A.G.


    The southern Red Sea and adjacent Afar area represent an enigmatic portion of the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden basin system. Although the topographic rift shoulders of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden can be traced through this elbow, and appear to suggest that a similar width for the zone of extension is maintained across the region, the character of the floor of the rift zone changes. The distinctive character of the southern Red Sea-Afar area results in part from a topographically elevated region, possibly associated with the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden-East African rift triple junction. In addition, however, seismic data from offshore Ethiopia suggests that the distinctive character is due a complex pattern of rifting. The central axial trough of the Red Sea decreases in depth to the south toward the strait of Bab al Mandab, suggesting that rifting is dying out southward. Farther to the west at the same latitude, a major but narrow half-graben can be seen on seismic in the Gulf of Zula, bounded to the east by a large west-dipping normal fault. This structure continues south into the Danakil Depression of the Afar area. Between these two en echelon rift trends, the Danakil Alps form a long-lived high. Seismic data from the southern Red Sea of Ethiopia show southward thinning and pinch-out of the Miocene syn-rift evaporite sequence onto the northern Danakil block. Thus, it appears that the Danakil block has largely escaped Red Sea extension and subsidence. Instead, it forms a large unextended terrain located between overlapping en echelon rift trends, and may represent an accommodation zone structure associated with offset in the rift axis of the southern Red Sea.

  1. The August 2002 earthquake sequence in north Afar: Insights into the neotectonics of the Danakil microplate (United States)

    Ayele, Atalay; Stuart, Graham; Bastow, Ian; Keir, Derek


    In August 2002, there was high seismic activity in Afar concentrated at the plateau margin of the northern Ethiopian rift east of Mekele, near the western part of the Danakil microplate. The spatial and temporal distributions of this seismic activity over four weeks indicate the NNW propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift across the Afar Depression towards the western Ethiopian plateau. Fault plane solutions for six larger earthquakes from the August 2002 sequence are estimated from moment tensor inversion of local broadband waveform data. The results show only normal faulting on NNW trending and NE dipping faults, which agree with tectonics of the area and distribution of aftershocks. No strike-slip component is observed in any of our fault plane solutions or those of other workers including Harvard CMT solutions in the region. Such motion would be indicative of oblique-slip deformation between the Nubian plate and the Danakil microplate consistent with counter-clockwise rotation of the microplate. Hypocentral depths of well-constrained events are 5-7 km, which is the approximate elastic plate thickness in the Main Ethiopian rift, possibly indicating the depth to the brittle-ductile transition zone in this part of the Afar Depression. The shallowness of the depth estimates agree with the macroseismic reports available from a wide area in northern Ethiopia. Potential future shallow crustal deformation may cause significant loss of human life and damage to property in the densely populated highland region around Mekele unless measures are taken in improving building standards. The b-value for this sequence is estimated to be 0.66 using a least squares fit, while it is 0.67 ± 0.16 from a maximum-likelihood approach. This estimated b-value is low or the frequency of occurrence of relatively larger magnitude events is high indicating that it is a highly stressed region as evidenced by the recent increase of the seismicity in the area.

  2. Study of the deformation in Central Afar using InSAR NSBAS chain (United States)

    Deprez, A.; Doubre, C.; Grandin, R.; Saad, I.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.


    The Afar Depression (East Africa) connects all three continental plates of Arabia, Somalia and Nubia plates. For over 20 Ma, the divergent motion of these plates has led to the formation of large normal faults building tall scarps between the high plateaus and the depression, and the development of large basins and an incipient seafloor spreading along a series of active volcano-tectonic rift segments within the depression. The space-time evolution of the active surface deformation over the whole Afar region remains uncertain. Previous tectonic and geodetic studies confirm that a large part of the current deformation is concentrated along these segments. However, the amount of extension accommodated by other non-volcanic basins and normal faulting remains unclear, despite significant micro-seismic activity. Due to the active volcanism, large transient displacements related to dyking sequence, notably in the Manda Hararo rift (2005-2010), increase the difficulty to characterize the deformation field over simple time and space scales. In this study, we attempt to obtain a complete inventory of the deformation within the whole Afar Depression and to understand the associated phenomena, which occurred in this singular tectonic environment. We study in particular, the behavior of the structures activated during the post-dyking stage of the rift segments. For this purpose, we conduct a careful processing of a large set of SAR ENVISAT images over the 2004-2010 period, we also use previous InSAR results and GPS data from permanent stations and from campaigns conducted in 1999, 2003, 2010, 2012 within a GPS network particularly dense along the Asal-Ghoubbet segment. In one hand, in the western part of Afar, the far-field response of the 2005-2010 dyke sequence appears to be the dominant surface motion on the mean velocity field. In an other hand, more eastward across the Asal-Ghoubbet rift, strong gradients of deformation are observed. The time series analysis of both In

  3. Distribution of brucellosis among small ruminants in the pastoral region of Afar, eastern Ethiopia. (United States)

    Ashenafi, F; Teshale, S; Ejeta, G; Fikru, R; Laikemariam, Y


    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pastoral region of Afar, in eastern and central Ethiopia, to determine the distribution of brucellosis in small ruminants. Between December 2005 and June 2006, 1,568 serum samples were taken: 563 samples from sheep and 1,005 from goats. One hundred and forty-seven of these (9.4%) tested positive using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and 76 (4.8%) also tested positive by the complement fixation test (CFT). Brucellosis was detected in all five administrative zones of the region. The difference in prevalence (P) among the zones was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of Brucella infection was found to be 5.8% (n = 58) in goats and 3.2% (n = 18) in sheep. A prevalence rate of 5.3% was observed in adult animals and 1.6% in younger sheep and goats. Caprine species (chi2 = 5.56) and adult goats and sheep (chi2 = 4.84) were found to be at higher risk of Brucella infection (P 0.05). The study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is a widely distributed disease in Afar. The authors recommend the implementation of well-organised disease control and prevention methods to mitigate the economic losses and public health hazard caused by the disease.

  4. 'They were about to take out their guns on us': accessing rural Afar communities in Ethiopia with HIV-related interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, R.; Etsub, E.; Moyer, E.


    Although pastoralists are a significant proportion of the rural population in many African countries, they are often underserved with regard to health-related interventions. This paper presents data on an effort to provide information about HIV prevention and treatment to Afar people living in remot

  5. A one-million-year-old Homo cranium from the Danakil (Afar) Depression of Eritrea. (United States)

    Abbate, E; Albianelli, A; Azzaroli, A; Benvenuti, M; Tesfamariam, B; Bruni, P; Cipriani, N; Clarke, R J; Ficcarelli, G; Macchiarelli, R; Napoleone, G; Papini, M; Rook, L; Sagri, M; Tecle, T M; Torre, D; Villa, I


    One of the most contentious topics in the study of human evolution is that of the time, place and mode of origin of Homo sapiens. The discovery in the Northern Danakil (Afar) Depression, Eritrea, of a well-preserved Homo cranium with a mixture of characters typical of H. erectus and H. sapiens contributes significantly to this debate. The cranium was found in a succession of fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine deposits and is associated with a rich mammalian fauna of early to early-middle Pleistocene age. A magnetostratigraphic survey indicates two reversed and two normal magnetozones. The layer in which the cranium was found is near the top of the lower normal magnetozone, which is identified as the Jaramillo subchron. Consequently, the human remains can be dated at approximately 1 million years before present.

  6. Ground deformation near Gada ‘Ale Volcano, Afar, observed by radar interferometry (United States)

    Amelung, Falk; Oppenheimer, Clive; Segall, P.; Zebker, H.


    Radar interferometric measurements of ground-surface displacement using ERS data show a change in radar range, corresponding to up to 12 cm of subsidence near Gada ‘Ale volcano in northern Afar, Ethiopia, that occurred between June 1993 and May 1996. This is the area of lowest topography within the Danakil Depression (-126 m). Geodetic inverse modeling and geological evidence suggest a volcanic origin of the observed deformation; it was probably caused by a combined process of magma withdrawal from a larger reservoir and normal faulting. There is no evidence of subaerial eruption. This is the only identifiable deformation event during June 1993-October 1997 in the 80 km long Erta ‘Ale volcanic range, indicating surprising inactivity elsewhere in the range.

  7. Strain Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Belay


    Full Text Available Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n=13 isolates were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%. Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers.

  8. Exploratory Research and Development of Microwave Filters in Silicon Technology (United States)


    Conf. Proc. (APMC), pp. 1146-1149, 2010. [45] H. Issa , J. -M. Duchamp, S. Abou-Chahine, and Ph. Ferrari, “Compact Semi-lumped Two-pole DBR Filter with...Spurious Suppression,” 2011 Asia- Pacific Microw. Conf. Proc. (APMC), pp. 425-428, 2011. [46] H. Issa , J. -M Duchamp, and Ph. Ferrari, “Miniaturized

  9. Electrodialytic Separation of Phosphorus and Heavy Metals from Two Types of Sewage Sludge Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie


    During sewage sludge incineration phosphorus (P) is retained in the ash in a form not directly available to plants. As P is a sparse resource, it is important to develop techniques for recovery of P from incinerated sewage sludge ashes (ISSA). Heavy metals are concentrated in ISSA and separation ...

  10. Examining the Causes of Low-frequency Hybrid Earthquakes During Dike Intrusions in the Afar Rift, Ethiopia (United States)

    Tepp, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.


    Between 2005 and 2012, there were 14 large dike intrusions into the Dabbahu rift segment in the Afar rift, Ethiopia. Swarms of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.45events found 173 earthquakes with more low-frequency content and longer codas than expected for typical volcano-tectonic events. These unusual earthquakes were classified as low-frequency hybrid events based on peak frequency and percent of energy below 2 Hz. Previous studies in other volcanic regions have found similar events, which has led to debate about what causes these events and how best to classify them. Explanations for hybrid events include both source and path effects, though the results from previous work and this study suggest that the Afar hybrids are largely a result of path effects based on high attenuation (Q ~ 200) and azimuthal dependence of spectral content. However, large (~3m) surface displacements on short faults indicate that unusual source processes, such as slow rupture times, may also be a factor in these hybrid events. The aims of this study are to distinguish between path and source effects, to characterize the source processes of these events, and to explore the relation between hybrid and normal tectonic events in the region - are the differences in the source or only in the path? For closely located earthquakes, an Empirical Green's Function approach is a great method to isolate the source-time function. Spectral analysis of the source-time function can be used to provide insights into the rupture time, stress drop, and scaling relations of the earthquakes. These results will be used to further refine earthquake classifications and determine if there are any defining characteristics of the classes that associate them with specific faulting processes, such as surface ruptures, that occur during diking events.

  11. The ISSAS Model: Understanding the Information Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses (United States)

    Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa


    Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…

  12. The large silicon tracker for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) (United States)

    Pauluzzi, M.


    The design of the high precision microstrip silicon tracker for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment (AMS) is presented. We emphasize features of the silicon tracker which make it suitable for a space born experiment and for equipping large active areas.

  13. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars (United States)

    van Buren, Dave; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Dgani, Ruth


    We searched the IRAS data for bow shock-like objects like those known around ζ Oph and α Cam near the positions of 188 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 μm emission we identify 58 candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well-resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with the proper motions of the stars indicate the two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  14. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar. (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K


    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  15. From Afar to Zulu: A Dictionary of African Cultures. (United States)

    Haskins, Jim; Biondi, Joann

    This resource provides information on over 30 of Africa's most populous and well-known ethnic groups. The text concisely describes the history, traditions, environment, social structure, religion, and daily lifestyles of these diverse cultures. Each entry opens with a map outlining the area populated by the group and a list of key data regarding…

  16. Urban Formation in China Since 1950 Seen from Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter; G.; Rowe


    Urban formations at the national,regional and urban district levels in China are discussed.Observations at the national level concern spatio-temporal distributions of regional and county-level cities,as well as designated towns,since 1950,and references to comparable western patterns of urbanization are made.At a regional level and especially for the Yangtze River Delta Region,less well-controlled development appears primarily in conurbated areas between relatively well-managed cities and towns,often causing adverse environmental consequences and economic inefficiencies.At local urban district levels,characteristics of large-block developments are compared with western counterparts,as well as with earlier conditions of Chinese urbanization.Although future adaptation appears possible,problems include a relative inflexibility in prevailing building types,inefficiencies of coarse-grained infrastructure distribution,and potential isolation from relatively high degrees of selfcontainment.

  17. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA strip for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in Hassoba school children, Afar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele B.


    Full Text Available A total of 206 urine samples collected from Hassoba Elementary schoolchildren, Afar, Ethiopia, a low Schistosoma haematobium endemic setting, was diagnosed to evaluate the performance of CCA strip using double references, urine filtration technique and urinalysis dipstick (Combur 10 Test® that detect schistosome eggs and blood in urine, respectively. The former was used as a gold standard reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the CCA were 52%, 63.8%, 56.7% and 59% respectively, with reference to urine filtration technique whereas these parameters were 50.4%, 62.4%, 55.6% and 57.5% respectively, with reference to Combur 10 Test®. 47 S. haematobium egg-positive children were found negative by CCA strip while 38 egg-negative children were found positive by CCA strip. Moreover, among the pre-tests done in duplicate, inconsistent results were also recorded. Assays were also compared with regard to the cost of equipment and reagents, speed and simplicity of use. Though CCA strip was found to be rapid and could be performed with minimal training, it was found to be expensive (US $ 4.95 per test to use it for large-scale field use even if its diagnostic value would have been satisfactory. Further development and standardization of the CCA strip are required for its applicability for field use. It is also recommended that its cost per strip should be substantially cut down if it is to be used in poor schistosomiasis endemic countries.

  18. New age constraints on the timing of volcanism in central Afar, in the presence of propagating rifts (United States)

    Lahitte, Pierre; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Kidane, Tesfaye; Courtillot, Vincent; Bekele, Abebe


    We investigate the relationship between rift propagation and volcanism in the Afar Depression in the last 4 Myr. Potassium-argon and thermoluminescence dating allow detailed reconstruction of the temporal evolution of volcanism. Volcanic activity is almost continuous since 3.5 Ma, with intervals characterized by more intense activity, especially around 2 Ma. Spatial distribution of ages reveals that Stratoid Series volcanism migrated northward along a 200-km trend between 3 and 1 Ma, at about 10 cm/yr, linked to northward propagation of the Gulf of Aden Ridge, after it had cut across the Danakil horst at 4 Ma. Our work underlines the role of rhyolitic volcanism in initiation of rifting. Acid volcanoes, initially formed near the axes of extensional zones, have been subsequently dissected and are presently located on both sides of active rift segments. These lavas were the first to be erupted in areas of low extensional strain and were followed by basaltic lavas as extension increased. Differentiated volcanoes acted as zones of local weakness and guided localization of fractures, then leading to fissural magmatism. This regional-scale, composite style of rifting, including volcanic and tectonic components, can be compared to the large-scale continental breakup process itself. Deformation occurs through propagation of faults and fissures under a regional stress field. These become localized because of weakening of the crust (or lithosphere) due to emplacement of magmas, under the influence of a plume in the large-scale case, or of silicic centers linked to magma chambers in the regional-scale case.

  19. 全球化世界中的体育与国家认同、伦敦奥运及女子体育--国际体育社会学协会主席Pike 女士、副主席Jackso n先生学术访谈录%Sport and National Identity in a Globalising World,London Olympic Games,and Women Sports--- Interview to ISSA President Ms .Pike and Vice-President Mr .Jackson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董进霞; 陆地; 李璐玚


    访谈围绕全球化世界中的体育与国家认同、伦敦奥运会中的新机遇和新挑战、女子体育发展现状和体育社会学研究趋势等议题展开讨论。全球化是当代体育的重要特征之一,全球化时代下国家的弱化给国家认同带来严峻挑战,体育作为提高文化软实力的重要手段,有助于在全球化背景下增进国家认同。伦敦奥运会的成功之处包括安保、交通、推进男女平等等方面,但距离男女真正意义性别平等的实现,还需要更加努力。妇女体育是现代体育不可分割的一个重要部分,访谈者还围绕妇女体育发展的热点问题,例如中国妇女体育发展的特点、李娜现象、女运动员与社会阶层、伦敦奥运会前后女性体育发展的趋势等进行探讨。%The interview centers around the topics such as sport and national identity in a globalizing world ,new opportuni-ties and challenges born after the London Olympic Games ,the development of women’s sports ,and research trends of soci-ology of sport .Globalization is a key feature of modern sports .In the era of globalization ,the concept of nation is weak-ened and correspondingly brings more challenges to national identity .Sport ,as an important tool to enhance the soft power of a culture ,contributes to strengthening national identity .London Olympic Games achieved success in many aspects ,in-cluding security ,transportation and promoting equality between male and female athletes .Despite the progress in gender e-quality ,more efforts are needed in sport arena .Women’s sport has been an integral part of modern sport .Interviewees al-so share their opinions on some hot issues in terms of women’s sport ,such as the characteristics of development of Chinese women sport ,the Li Na phenomenon ,female athletes and their social classes ,trends in women’s sport before and after the London Olympic Games ,and etc .

  20. Magma influence on propagation of normal faults: Evidence from cumulative slip profiles along Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo rift segment (Afar, Ethiopia) (United States)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Klinger, Yann; Socquet, Anne; Doubre, Cécile; Jacques, Eric


    Measuring displacement-length profiles along normal faults provides crucial information on fault growth processes. Here, based on satellite imagery and topography we analyze 357 normal faults distributed along the active rift of Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo (DMH), Afar, which offers a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of magmatism on fault growth processes. Our measurements reveal a large variety of slip profiles that are not consistent with elastic deformation. Their analysis contributes towards a better understanding of the lateral propagation of faults, especially when nucleation points and existence of barriers are included. Using the fault growth model of Manighetti et al. (2001), we determine the preferred direction of lateral propagation for each fault. Our results suggest that lateral propagation of faults is easier away from areas where magma has been stored for long time at crustal depth, and has thus modified the thermo-mechanical properties of the host-rock. However, these areas correspond also to areas where the initiation of fault growth appears as easiest along the rift. In combining these results with the analysis of rift width and the position of magma reservoirs along DMH rift, we show that fault growth keeps track of the magma presence and/or movement in the crust.

  1. “Monstrous Betrayal”: On the Sources of the Controversy around the Film Adaptation of Dolina Issy [The Issa Valey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kaniecki


    Full Text Available The author attempts to identify the origins of the famous argument between Miłosz and Konwicki about the film adaptation of Dolina Issy. Konwicki created a film which, although it is an adaptation of the novel, clearly belongs to his own creative output, focused on axiological uncertainty after The Second World War. Konwicki’s work is a record of a quest for enduring points of reference, a quest conducted with realisation that such points cannot be found by a person who feels lost in the modern world. Such a world-view was not acceptable for Miłosz, and it is difficult to expect that the poet would accept an adaptation of his novel created from such a point of view.

  2. Correlation between serum inhibin B level afar treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist and outcome of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer%促性腺激素释放激素激动剂降调节后血清抑制素B水平对体外受精-胚胎移植结局的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文琴; 杨海燕; 林金菊; 陈霞; 叶碧绿


    Objective To evaluate the decreased level of serum inhibin B(INHB)treated by gunadotropin releasing hormone agonist(GNRH-a)in predicting ovarian response and pregnancy in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer(IVF-ET).Methods The prospective study enrolled 124 women given by GnRH-a+recombine follicle stimulating hormone(rFSH)+human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG)long term stimulation protocol undergone their first cycle of IVF-ET treatment.The following predictive factors were collected and analyzed,such as age,basal level of follicle stimulating hormone(FSH),the ratio of FSH/luteinizing hormone(LH),the concentration of INHB after down-regulation,total number of antral follicle count(AFC)and mean ovarian volume. Ovarian response was evaluated by the number of oecytes obtained.A multiple regression analysis and logistic regression model were used for all possible prognostic variables to evaluate the value of difierent hormones in predicting ovariall response and pregnancy after IVF-ET.Receiver operating characteristic(ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the level of INHB in predicting the number of oocytes obtained.The sensitivity and specificity were calculated at the discriminating cut-off point Results The concentration of INHB after down-regulation showed a highly significant positive correlations with the number of oocytes obtained(r=0.435,P0.05).ROC analyses showed INHB after down-regulation had the largest area under curve(AUC)0.933(95%CI:0.878-0.988).When a threshold of 15 ng/L of INHB was established,95.5%sensitivity and 50.0% specificity in ovarian response were observed.Conclusions The level of INHB Was the best factor in predicting ovarian response in IVF-ET.Decreased level of INHB Was the early sign of ovarian reserve function failure,however,useless in predicting IVF-ET outcome.%目的 探讨促性腺激素释放激素激动剂(GnRH-a)降调节后,血清抑制素B(INHB)对体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)中卵巢反应性和IVF

  3. Volcanic evolution of an active magmatic rift segment on a 100 Kyr timescale: exposure dating of lavas from the Manda Hararo/Dabbahu segment of the Afar Rift (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Williams, A.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Vye, C.; France, L.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.


    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is already organised along rift segments which morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation here results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well documented 2005 event on the Dabbahu rift segment. During this tectono-volcanic crisis, a megadyke was injected, followed by 12 subsequent dike intrusions, sometimes associated with fissure flow eruptions. Despite the accurate surveying of the magmatic and tectonic interplay during this event via remote sensing techniques, there is a lack of data on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of a rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. It is possible to constrain the timing of fault growth relative to the infilling of the rift axial depression by lava flows, and to assess the influence of the different magma bodies involved in lava production along the rift-segment. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He) to determine the ages of young (cartography (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), the rift geomorphology can be linked to the magmatic and tectonic history defined by surface exposure dating. The results show that over the last 100 ka the Northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by two different magma reservoirs which can be identified based on their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. This magmatic centre supplies magma to most of the northern third of the rift segment. The second reservoir is located further south, on the axis, close to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. This second magmatic centre supplies magma to the remaining 2/3 of the segment, but scarcely impacts its Northern termination (where the Dabbahu

  4. Database Development for Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts for the International Space Station Alpha (United States)

    Wassil-Grimm, Andrew D.


    More effective electronic communication processes are needed to transfer contractor and international partner data into NASA and prime contractor baseline database systems. It is estimated that the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) parts database will contain up to one million parts each of which may require database capabilities for approximately one thousand bytes of data for each part. The resulting gigabyte database must provide easy access to users who will be preparing multiple analyses and reports in order to verify as-designed, as-built, launch, on-orbit, and return configurations for up to 45 missions associated with the construction of the ISSA. Additionally, Internet access to this data base is strongly indicated to allow multiple user access from clients located in many foreign countries. This summer's project involved familiarization and evaluation of the ISSA Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts data and the process of electronically managing these data. Particular attention was devoted to improving the interfaces among the many elements of the ISSA information system and its global customers and suppliers. Additionally, prototype queries were developed to facilitate the identification of data changes in the data base, verifications that the designs used only approved parts, and certifications that the flight hardware containing EEE parts was ready for flight. This project also resulted in specific recommendations to NASA for further development in the area of EEE parts database development and usage.

  5. English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman? (United States)

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma


    The aim of this paper is to investigate, from a student perspective, how English communication skills are taught in Oman's schools and higher education institutions. Previous research has documented the lack of communicative ability in English among school and higher education graduates in Oman (Al-Issa, 2007; Moody, 2009). However, the reasons…

  6. Assessing the sociology of sport : On critical sport sociology and sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies


    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, Annelies Knoppers, one of the leading scholars in understanding the culture of sport in organizational settings, considers how the critical lens of sociology can enhance and mesh with research on sport management. Knoppers argues that there have been los

  7. RELIEF: Revue de linguistique et d'enseignement du francais (Review of Linguistics and French Language Instruction), 1994. (United States)

    Mahler, M., Ed.; Haillet, P., Ed.


    Contains five articles, all in French, reporting research on French second language instruction. "Francophonie et francais langue seconde a l'oral: quel(s) culture(s), quelles methodes?" (Francophony and Spoken French as a Second Language: What Cultures(s), What Method(s) (D. Issa-Sayegh) discusses the content and structure of a university course…

  8. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga


    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  9. Chemical Investigation of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves from Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekle Kebede Kidanemariam


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical constituents of the hydrodistilled oil and n- hexane extract of L. inermis leaves. The essential oil of L. inermis leaves was analyzed using GC-MS and revealed the presence of twenty eight components. Nine components comprising 80.6% of the total oil have been identified by MS, spectral data and by comparison with literature. According to the GC-MS results, eugenol, hexadecanoic acid, phytol, α-terpineol and etherphenylvinyl were the major components of the oil. Bisabolene was isolated from n- hexane extract and its structure was elucidated by NMR technique.

  10. Geodetic results in Afar: The rifting episode of November 1978 in the Asal-Ghoubbet rift (United States)

    Kasser, M.; Lepine, J. C.; Ruegg, J. C.; Tarantula, A.


    A seismo-tectonic and volcanic crisis occurred in November 1978 in the Asal-Ghoubbet rift, first subaerial section of the accreting plate boundary between the African and Arabian plates (Allard et al., 1979; Abdallah et al., 1979; Le Dain et al., 1980). The activity was located in the center of a geodetic network set up in the winter 1972-1973 by the Institut Géographique National in collaboration with the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. Simultaneously, a precise levelling line of about 100 km was established across the area (I.G.N., 1973). The resurveying of both the geodetic network and the levelling line was carried out after the crisis, between November 1978 and March 1979. Extensions up to 2.4 m and vertical displacements up to 0.7 m were measured. Operating techniques and results of the resurveying are described in Kasser et al. (1979) and Ruegg et al. (1979). Figure 1 shows the horizontal displacements (relating to point B and to the direction BT) and figure 2 shows the vertical displacements relating to the two external points. Tarantola et al. (1979, 1980) have shown that these results can be geodynamically interpreted by a mechanism of sudden breaking and elastic rebound after an elastic stretching of the crust due to the relative drift of the plates. The breaking is triggered by magmatic fracturing of the crust, with dykes injection from a magmatic chamber which has fed the basaltic fissurai eruption. The horizontal and vertical displacements outside the broken zone of the Inner Floor are predicted by a numerical model based on this interpretation which fit very well the experimental data.

  11. Whistle from Afar: A Case of Endotracheal Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitoti Chattopadhyay


    Full Text Available Endotracheal metastasis is a rare situation, usually associated with malignancies of breast and gastrointestinal tract, specially colon. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid commonly disseminates through lymphatic channels and tracheal involvement through vascular route is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of tracheal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid. The patient responded to external beam radiation therapy with cobalt 60 beams in a dose of 44 Gy followed by a 16 Gy boost. The patient is under followup and is presently asymptomatic. This paper adds to the repertoire of evidence in treatment of endotracheal metastasis.

  12. Healing Form Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu


    THERESA Shikuku,51,had been to all major hospitals in Kenya during her illness.She'd even sent a tissue sample to South Africa for tests.Ihe results confirmed liposarcoma - a malignancy of fat ceils in her abdomen.There was no treatment regime.Her death was just one of the 18,000 people who die annually because of cancer,according to the Committee on Health at the Kenya's Parliament,in February 2011.

  13. On Information System Security Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfangJiang; ChaoyuanYue; JianguoZuo


    The current studies on security architecture and information system security architecture (ISSA) are surveyed in this paper, and some types and their features of ISSA are discussed. Then, the structural elements of ISSA are analyzed, and the constructing steps for ISSA are proposed.

  14. Forecasting spring from afar? Timing of migration and predictability of phenology along different migration routes of an avian herbivore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Bauer, S.; De Boer, R.; Griffin, L.; Cabot, D.; Exo, K-M.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.; Nolet, B.A.


    1.Herbivorous birds are hypothesized to migrate in spring along a seasonal gradient of plant profitability towards their breeding grounds (green wave hypothesis). For Arctic-breeding species in particular, following highly profitable food is important, so that they can replenish resources along the

  15. Dissimilar Deficiency of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) among the AFARS and the Somalis of Djibouti (United States)


    directly related to the type ot variant Plus de 200 variantes de la moliculc G-6-PD present. ont it dicrites i ce jour, (1) Medical Research Assistant...Research Associate, International Health Program, School of Medicine, University of Maryland. Baltimore. MEDECINE TROPICALE - Volume 51 - IN’ 2 - Avni - Juin...hemolytiques severes qui semblent relativementfriquentes i Djibouti chez les malades awc himaties parasities accis palustres (MIARY, Uniti de Soins Intensifs

  16. Estimates of Vertical Velocity Errors for IGS ITRF2014 Stations by Applying the Improved Singular Spectrum Analysis Method and Environmental Loading Models (United States)

    Klos, Anna; Gruszczynska, Marta; Bos, Machiel Simon; Boy, Jean-Paul; Bogusz, Janusz


    A reliable subtraction of seasonal signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) position time series is beneficial for the accuracy of derived velocities. In this research, we propose a two-stage solution of the problem of a proper determination of seasonal changes. We employ environmental loading models (atmospheric, hydrological and ocean non-tidal) with a dominant annual signal of amplitudes in their superposition of up to 12 mm and study the seasonal signal (annual and semi-annual) estimates that change over time using improved singular spectrum analysis (ISSA). Then, this deterministic model is subtracted from GPS position time series. We studied data from 376 permanent International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, derived as the official contribution to International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014) to measure the influence of applying environmental loading models on the estimated vertical velocity. Having removed the environmental loadings directly from the position time series, we noticed the evident change in the power spectrum for frequencies between 4 and 80 cpy. Therefore, we modelled the seasonal signal in environmental models using the ISSA approach and subtracted it from GPS vertical time series to leave the noise character of the time series intact. We estimated the velocity dilution of precision (DP) as a ratio between classical Weighted Least Squares and ISSA approach. For a total number of 298 out of the 376 stations analysed, the DP was lower than 1. This indicates that when the ISSA-derived curve was removed from the GPS data, the error of velocity becomes lower than it was before.

  17. 'Letres qui van per tal afar' : un nouveau salut Occitano-Catalan et la fortune du genre en catalogne (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uulders, Hedzer


    The recent discovery of a new Occitano-Catalan salut has made it possible to resume research into this neglected field of medieval Catalan literature. This second and final article is an attempt to place the salut in its historical and literary context by evaluating the terms used to designate the g

  18. Up Close from Afar: Using Remote Sensing To Teach the American Landscape. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 8. (United States)

    Baumann, Paul R., Ed.

    This teaching guide offers educators glimpses into the value of remote sensing, the process of observing and analyzing the earth from a distance. Remote sensing provides information in forms to see spatial patterns over large areas in a more realistic way than thematic maps and allows a macro-scale look at global problems. The six instructional…

  19. Multimodal Integration of High Resolution EEG and Functional Magnetic Resonance: a Simulation Study (United States)


    Luca Romani3, Paolo Maria Rossini2, and Febo Cincotti4 1 Dip. Fisiologia umana e Farmacologia, Università "La Sapienza", Rome, 2 “AFAR", Ospedale...Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Dip. Fisiologia umana e Farmacologia, Università "La Sapienza", Rome Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHan-Zheng; HANXiang-Jun; LUShu-Hua; SUNZhi-Da; SHENWei-Xiong; ZHOUWei


    The direct effects of oxytocin and relatcd peptides on human luteal cells were attudied Suslxmsions of luteal cells were prepared enzymatically from human corpora htae, obtained during cycle days 19-25. Afar incubation with hCG (liu / ml) for 3 h, the

  1. Djibouti. (United States)


    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenkhan ALTINTAŞ


    Full Text Available Sosyal güvenlik hakkının, evrensel insan haklarından biri olarak kabul edilmesinden bu yana, sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının genişletilmesine yönelik çabalar giderek artmıştır. Uluslararası boyutlara varan bu çabalar, özellikle düşük gelire sahip bireylerin malullük, yaşlılık, ölüm, analık, hastalık, iş kazası ve meslek hastalığı gibi temel sosyal risklere karşı güvence altına alınması üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Uluslararası Çalışma Örgütü (ILO ve Uluslararası Sosyal Güvenlik Teşkilatı (ISSA, sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının genişletilmesi noktasında uluslararası düzeyde çalışmalar yapmakta ve ortaya koydukları parametrelerle sosyal güvenliğin kapsamına ilişkin olarak uluslararası standartlar geliştirmektedirler. Özellikle sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının sınırlı seviyede olduğu düşük ve orta gelire sahip ülkelerde sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının genişletilmesine yönelik bir takım tavsiyeleri de içeren bu tarz çalışmalar, ülkelerin sosyal güvenliğin kapsamını genişletme girişimlerine yardımcı olmakta ve bir nevi rehber olma niteliği taşımaktadır. Bu bağlamda, çalışmada öncelikle ILO ve ISSA’nın sosyal güvenliğin kapsamına ilişkin olarak uluslararası metinlerle ortaya koydukları kavramlar ve parametrelere yer verilmektedir. Diğer bir başlıkta ise Türkiye’de sosyal güvenliğin kapsamı ILO ve ISSA’nın ortaya koyduğu parametreler çerçevesinde ele alınmaktadır.

  3. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew


    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  4. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)


    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  5. Measuring positive and negative affect and physiological hyperarousal among Serbian youth. (United States)

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Laurent, Jeff; Lakic, Aneta


    This study extended previous cross-cultural work regarding the tripartite model of anxiety and depression by developing Serbian translations of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C), the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C), and the Affect and Arousal Scale (AFARS). Characteristics of the scales were examined using 449 students (M age = 12.61 years). Applying item retention criteria established in other studies, PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS translations with psychometric properties similar to English-language versions were identified. Preliminary validation of the scales was conducted using a subset of 194 students (M age = 12.37 years) who also completed measures of anxiety and depression. Estimates of reliability, patterns of correlations among scales, and age and gender differences were consistent with previous studies with English-speaking samples. Findings regarding scale validity were mixed, although consistent with existing literature. Serbian translations of the PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS mirror the original English-language scales in terms of both strengths and weaknesses.

  6. The Israeli Approach to Irregular Warfare and Implications for the United States (United States)


    tabula - rasa strategy later resulted in recriminations and reevaluation. In Tall Afar and Ramadi, U.S. forces implemented tactics to secure and gain...Sayeret Golani, and possi- bly Sayeret Mat’Kal.17 Israeli special units played a large role in a highly successful counterinsurgency campaign along...transmissions. The Aman plays a predominate role in setting missions of small special forces. A tendency within the Israeli SOF community that has been less

  7. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham


    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.

  8. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.


    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  9. ‘Soldiers for a Joint Cause’: A Relational Perspective on Local and International Educational Leagues and Associations in the 1860s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Van Praet


    Full Text Available Between 1819 and 1830, the Dutch moral reform society Maatschappij tot Nut van ’t Algemeen [Society for Public Welfare] failed to establish any long-lasting local branches in the Catholic southern part of the Netherlands. Thirty years later, an upsurge in the number of international social reform congresses rekindled the desire to establish southern sister organizations. In this article, Carmen Van Praet and Christophe Verbruggen argue that the congresses of the International Social Science Association (issa from 1862 to 1865 played a vital role in bringing together intermediaries from across Europe. These international congresses offered a transnational space where attendees not only exchanged information about social reform experiments, but also contributed to the dissemination of association structures. During the Amsterdam congress of the issa in 1864, the principal Belgian advocates of secular education were strongly influenced by contacts with the advocates  of Tot Nut. Shortly after this contact, the Belgian Ligue de l’Enseignement, an association aimed at improving education and establishing public libraries, was founded and was modelled on the associational structure of Tot Nut. The Ligue also maintained contacts with other single and multi-issue European organizations, resulting in an educational reform network of sibling associations. ‘Bondgenoten in de strijd’. Een relationele benadering van lokale en internationale onderwijsverenigingen in de jaren 1860De Maatschappij tot Nut van ’t Algemeen slaagde er in de periode van het Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (1815-1830 niet in om duurzame afdelingen te vestigen in het katholieke Zuiden. Dertig jaar later flakkerde de wens opnieuw op om inhet ondertussen onafhankelijke België zusterverenigingen op te richten. Vooral de internationale contacten tijdens de congressen van de International Social Science Association (issa tussen 1862 en 1865 voedden dit verlangen. Deze

  10. Comparative Cost Analysis of Increasing Registered Nursing Staff on the Labor and Delivery Unit at the National Naval Medical Center. (United States)


    recognized L&D Nurses 9 the central role of the registered nurse. In its most recent Accreditation Manual for Hospitals, JCAHO requires that "a...far beyond that of a L&D Nurses 60 comparably-sized civilian instituCion . Above all else NNMC is a Navy hospital, with responsibilities far beyond...1990). Accreditation Manual for Hospitals, 1990. Chicago: Author. Klarman, H. E. (1974). Application of cost-benefit analysis to the health services and

  11. "The guys told us crying that they saw how they were killing her and they could not do anything": Psychosocial explorations of migrant journeys to the U.S.


    Jana Sládková


    In this article I examine undocumented migrant experiences on their journeys to the U.S. Tens of thousands of Honduran migrants leave their homes in hopes to provide better for their families from afar. In in-depth interviews, 21 migrants from Honduras share the events they endure as they cross Guatemala, Mexico and the borders that divide them. I conducted narrative analyses and specifically used the analytical tools of high points and poises to locate the most salient experiences the migran...

  12. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Getachew


    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L. Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if any in canopy closure. P. juliflora was recorded in all habitat types in highest density and observed affecting the plant diversity there in. Its growth characteristics and dense thicket formation restrict light to the ground flora and hence diminishes plant diversity. Leaf, bark and root aqueous extract of P. juliflora at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2 and 6% wereprepared and their effect studied on germination percentage and seedling growth of the study plant species. Germination of A. nilotica and A. tortilis was not affected by all aqueous extracts of different organ parts of P. juliflora while leaf and root extracts at higher concentrations inhibited germination of C. ciliaris and E. rupestris. Shoot and root growth of the study species were inhibited by leaf and root at higher concentrations. Seed germination of all species except A. nilotica was inhibited by soil amended with decaying plant parts and under canopy soil. The effect is species specific and annuals (grasses and herbs were affected more than perennials. Leaf seems to contain greater number/amount of inhibitors than does root and bark. Bark seems to contain the least. Heavy accumulation of toxic substances at under canopy soil of P. juliflora may be one of the reasons for its invasiveness and low plant diversity.

  13. 手术治疗结节性硬化的疗效观察%The outcome of tuberous sclerosis complex afar surgical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟锋; 栾国明; 周健; 刘兴洲


    Objective Presenting of 6 cases with tuberous sclerosis complex being surgically treated, to observe the clinical effects after 18-30 months follow-up. Method We retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 6 cases with tuberous sclerosis complex. Different operations had been made based on the pre-operation evaluations, including the semiologies, CT, MRI, VEEG, PET, MEG and regular follow-up (18-30 months) was made. Through the synthetical estimations, in 3 cases the tubers which conducted epilepsy seizure were resected with navigation and the low power heat burn was made;in 2 cases the tubers were resected after subdural electrodes implantation;in 1 case anterior callosotomy was made. Results In the follow-up term,2 cases epilepsy seizured free, 1 case occasionally epilepsy seizured,3 cases the seizure frequencies were reduced. Conclusions The operations are effective to control or reduce the epilepsy seizure which is conducted by tuberous sclerosis complex.%目的 探讨手术治疗结节性硬化引起癫痫的疗效.方法 回顾性分析6例患者的临床资料并系统随访18-30个月,综合评估3例导航下行致痫结节切除+皮层低功率热灼术;2例皮层电极植入后,经过监测,行致痫结节切除+皮层热灼术;1例行胼胝体前段切开术的疗效.结果 癫痫发作完全消失2例(Engel Ⅰ级),偶有发作1例(Engel Ⅱ级),发作减轻3例(Engel Ⅲ级).结论 手术可以有效地控制或者减轻结节性硬化引起的癫痫发作.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Send manuscripts and address all editorial correspondence to the Editorial Office of PEDOSPHERE, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 821, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. Tel.:+86-25-8688 1235, +86-25-8688 1256; Fax:+86-25-8688 1256;,,

  15. Maps of Dust IR Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and CMBR Foregrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, D J; Davis, M; Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc


    We present a full sky 100 micron map that is a reprocessed composite of the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA maps, with the zodiacal foreground and confirmed point sources removed. Before using the ISSA maps, we remove the remaining artifacts from the IRAS scan pattern. Using the DIRBE 100 micron and 240 micron data, we have constructed a map of the dust temperature, so that the 100mu map can be converted to a map proportional to dust column density. The result of these manipulations is a map with DIRBE-quality calibration and IRAS resolution. A wealth of filamentary detail is apparent on many different scales at all Galactic latitudes. To generate the full sky dust maps, we must first remove zodiacal light contamination as well as a possible cosmic infrared background (CIB). This is done via a regression analysis of the 100mu DIRBE map against the Leiden-Dwingeloo map of \\HI emission, with corrections for the zodiacal light via a suitable expansion of the DIRBE 25mu flux. For the 100\\mu map no significant CIB is det...

  16. 桥面铺装黏结材料的制备与性能研究%Preparation and Study of Bonding Material for Deck Overlay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朋; 张肖宁; 吴少鹏


    制备并研究了新型桥面黏结材料.选用柔性和耐久性能优越的单组分聚氨酯作为黏结材料,探讨了其与集料的黏结机制.利用优质集料和国际稀浆封层协会微表处技术指南(ISSA A143)中Ⅱ型级配制备出了新型桥面黏结材料.性能研究表明其具有良好的抗拉伸剪切性能、抗疲劳性能和抗水损害性能.该材料是一种性能优良的桥面铺装材料.%A new type bonding material (polyurethane-aggregates mixture) for bridge deck overlay has been prepared and analyzed. One component moisture-curable polyurethane was chosen for binder material because of its excellent flexibility and durability, and then curing mechanism between polyurethane and aggregates was analyzed then. According to ISSA A143 Ⅱ type gradation, polyurethane-aggregate mixture was prepared with selected solidifying mechanism. Experimental results of polyurethane-aggregates mixture show [ that the materid has ] excellent direct tensile and shear properties, fatigue resistance, moisture resistance and flame retardant properties. Polyurethane-aggregates mixture is proved to be an excellent bonding material for bridge deck overlay due to its excellent performance.

  17. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism (United States)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.


    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  18. Cloud and Cloud Shadow Masking of High and Medium Resolution Optical Sensors- An Algorithm Inter-Comparison Example for Landsat 8 (United States)

    Lebreton, Carole; Stelzer, Kerstin; Brockmann, Carsten; Bertels, Luc; Pringle, Nicholas; Paperin, Michael; Danne, Olaf; Knaeps, Els; Ruddick, Kevin


    Image processing for satellite water quality products requires reliable cloud and cloud shadow detection and cloud classification before atmospheric correction. Within the FP7/HIGHROC ("HIGH spatial and temporal Resolution Ocean Colour") Project, it was necessary to improve cloud detection and the cloud classification algorithms for the spatial high resolution sensors, aiming at Sentinel 2 and using Landsat 8 as a precursor. We present a comparison of three different algorithms, AFAR developed by RBINS; ACCAm created by VITO, and IDEPIX developed by Brockmann Consult. We show image comparisons and the results of the comparison using a pixel identification database (PixBox); FMASK results are also presented as reference.

  19. Simple shear detachment fault system and marginal grabens in the southernmost Red Sea rift (United States)

    Tesfaye, Samson; Ghebreab, Woldai


    The NNW-SSE oriented Red Sea rift, which separates the African and Arabian plates, bifurcates southwards into two parallel branches, southeastern and southern, collectively referred to as the southernmost Red Sea rift. The southern branch forms the magmatically and seismo-tectonically active Afar rift, while the less active southeastern branch connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden through the strait of Bab el Mandeb. The Afar rift is characterized by lateral heterogeneities in crustal thickness, and along-strike variation in extension. The Danakil horst, a counterclockwise rotating, narrow sliver of coherent continental relic, stands between the two rift branches. The western margin of the Afar rift is marked by a series of N-S aligned right-lateral-stepping and seismo-tectonically active marginal grabens. The tectonic configuration of the parallel rift branches, the alignment of the marginal grabens, and the Danakil horst are linked to the initial mode of stretching of the continental crust and its progressive deformation that led to the breakup of the once contiguous African-Arabian plates. We attribute the initial stretching of the continental crust to a simple shear ramp-flat detachment fault geometry where the marginal grabens mark the breakaway zone. The rift basins represent the ramps and the Danakil horst corresponds to the flat in the detachment fault system. As extension progressed, pure shear deformation dominated and overprinted the initial low-angle detachment fault system. Magmatic activity continues to play an integral part in extensional deformation in the southernmost Red Sea rift.

  20. The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate contexts for aripithecus ramidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldegabriel, Giday [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ambrose, Stanley H [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Barboni, Doris [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bonneffille, Raymond [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bremond, Laurent [MONTPELLIER, FRANCE; Currie, Brian [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Degusta, David [STANFORD UNIV.; Hart, William K [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Murray, Alison M [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Renne, Paul R [UC/BERKELEY; Jolly - Saad, M C [NANTERRE, FRANCE; Stewart, Kathlyn M [CANADA; White, Tim D [UC/BERKELEY


    Sediments containing Ardipithecus ramidus were deposited 4.4 million years ago on an alluvial floodplain in Ethiopia's western Afar rift. The Lower Aramis Member hominid-bearing unit, now exposed across a >9-kilometer structural arc, is sandwiched between two volcanic tuffs that have nearly identical {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Geological data presented here, along with floral, invertebrate, and vertebrate paleontological and taphonomic evidence associated with the hominids, suggest that they occupied a wooded biotope over the western three-fourths of the paleotransect. Phytoliths and oxygen and carbon stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates provide evidence of humid cool woodlands with a grassy substrate.

  1. 努力推动建设21世纪积极合作全面的中美关系在第二轮中美战略与经济对话开幕式上的致辞%Endeavor to Build a Positive, Cooperative and Comprehensive China-U.S. Relationship for the 21st Century Address at the Opening Session of the Second Round of The China-U.S. Strategic and Economic Dialogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Secretary Clinton, Secretary Geithner, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, Dear Friends, The second round of the China-U.S. Strategic and Economic Dialogues (S&ED) opens in Beijing today. Let me first of all extend a warm welcome to our American friends coming from afar. The second round of the S&ED takes places at an important moment when new developments are unfolding in the international political and economic landscape and when China and the United States face new opportunities to further the bilateral relationship.

  2. About furniture. Before and after Ptolomaeus Philadelphos' pavilion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calandra


    Full Text Available The furniture is of primary importance towards the canopies definition, more than the architectonic structure: they  contribute, in fact, in creating and organizing the spaces, so that there is almost no distinction between furniture and structure, as it is possible to observe in the ancient sources of different periods (Herodotus, Euripides, Julius Caesar, Plutarchus, Athenaeus: the pavilions of Xerxes at Plataia, of Ion at Delphi, of Alexander after the Issa battle and at Susa, of Pompey at Pharsalos, as well as the Ptolomaeus's canopy at Alexandria. At the same time, the furniture language is studied, signifying the power and the force of the sovereign through the luxurious materials and surprising the spectators.      At the end, some hypotheses on the final destination of the furniture, after dismantling the Ptolomaeus' canopy, equiped for one year.

  3. Performance of International Space Station Alpha electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.; Lu, C.Y.; Padhye, V.; Hajela, G.; Hague, L. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Division


    The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be an Earth-orbiting laboratory in space. It will house experimental payloads, distribute resource utilities, and support human habitation for conducting research and science experiments in a microgravity environment. Electrical power is a major utility to support successful achievement of the mission goal. The ISSA United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) Electric Power System (EPS) power generation capability will vary with orbital parameters, natural and induced environment, and hardware aging/replacement throughout the ISSA life. Power capability will be further restricted by various assembly configurations during ISSA buildup, by various flight attitudes, by shadowing on the solar arrays, by EPS operational constraints, such as pointing accuracy, battery charging, as well as operating voltage setpoints, and by ISSA operational constraints either to avoid long-term solar array shadowing from the adjacent solar array or to accommodate ISSA maneuver during proximity operations with other space vehicles, mating, and departing. Design of the ISSA USOS EPS takes into consideration the various equipment degradation modes, operation constraints, and orbital conditions to make it compatible with the environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements.

  4. Surface soil factors and soil characteristics in geo-physical milieu of Kebbi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Usman


    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K factor is the most important tool for estimation the erosion. The aim of this study Soil factors and surface soil characteristics are important components of agricultural environment. They support surface and subsurface soils to perform many functions to agriculture and economic human developments. Understanding these factors would aid to the recognition of the values that our soil and land offered to humanity. It is therefore, aim of this study to visualise and examine the soil factors and surface soil characteristics in Kebbi State Nigeria. An Integrated Surface Soil Approach (ISSA was used in the classification and description of soil environment in the study region. The factors constituted in the ISSA are important components of soil science that theories and practice(s noted to provide ideas on how soil environment functioned. The results indicate that the surface soil environments around Arewa, Argungu, Augie, Birnin Kebbi and Dandi are physically familiar with the following surface soil characteristics: bad-lands, blown-out-lands, cirque-lands, fertile-lands, gullied-lands, miscellaneous and rock-outcrops.The major soil factors observed hat played an important role in surface soil manipulations and soil formation are alluvial, colluvial, fluvial and lacustrine; ant, earthworms and termite; and various forms of surface relief supported by temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind. Overall, the surface soil environment of the region was describe according to their physical appearance into fadama clay soils, fadama clay-loam soils, dryland sandy soils, dryland sandy-loam soils, dryland stony soils and organic-mineral soils.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper explains and summarizes a new attempt to derive a general mathematical model [GMM] to simulate surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, using the superposition principle and delta function model. GMM can be used to simulate One-to-One, One-to-Multi and Multi-to-Multi SAW filter devices. The simulation program was written using MATLAB (the language of technical computing). Four-design structures (One-to-One, One-to-Two, One-to-Three and Ten-to-Ten) ware selected to test the correctness of GMM. The frequency response of the simulation and test results are similar in center frequency and 3-dB bandwidth, but the insertion loss is different, because of some second order effects (Issa Haitham, 1999).

  6. Vibration Suppression Strategies for Large Tension-Aligned Array Structures (United States)


    constraint in Eq.(31) remains the same. This control scheme is shown in Fig.16. Based on previous work done by Nudehi, et al. [33] and Issa , et al. [34...Optimal Joint Placement and Modal Disparity in Control of Flexible Structures”, Computers and Structures, 86(13-14), pp. 1456-1462. [17] Issa , J...Multidiscilinary Optimization, 31(1), pp.1-7. [22] Issa , J., Mukherjee, R., Diaz, A. R. and Shaw, S. W., 2008, “Modal Disparity and its Experi- mental

  7. Kinematics of the Danakil microplate



    A refinement and extrapolation of recent motion estimates for the Danakilmicroplate, based on ancient kinematic indicators in the Afar region, describesthe evolution of a microplate in the continental realm. The Danakil horst is anelevated part of this microplate, exposing Precambrian basement within theAfar depression, site of the Nubia-Somalia-Arabia triple junction. We compareevidence for strike- or oblique-slip faults in data from the Afar depression andsouthern Red Sea to small circles a...

  8. Monitoring dyke injection and strain field evolution using shear-wave splitting. (United States)

    Kendall, J.-M.; Verdon, J. P.; Keir, D.; Baird, A.


    Magma storage and dyke injection in the shallow crust is a fundamental process in rifting and volcanic environments. The dyking will tend to align with directions of maximum compressive stress, and the associated aligned fracturing and melt migration provides a very effective means of generating seismic anisotropy. Observations of shear-wave splitting provide one of the most unambiguous indicators of such anisotropy. As such, shear-wave splitting can be used to monitor the evolving strain field in volcanic and rifting environments. Here we apply lessons learned from monitoring fracture propagation during the hydraulic stimulation of tight-gas reservoirs. In a number of experiments we observe spatial and temporal variations in shear-wave splitting magnitude and orientation. We invert shear-wave observations for fracture properties, including the tangential and normal compliance, the ratio of which is a good indicator of fluid flow and permeability. Frequency dependent affects can be also used to indicate the length scales of the causative cracks or fractures. We apply these insights to microseismic data recently acquired across the volcanically active Afar triple junction in Ethiopia. The pattern of S-wave splitting in Afar is best explained by anisotropy from deformation-related structures, with the dramatic change in splitting parameters into the rift axis from the increased density of dyke-induced faulting combined with a contribution from oriented melt pockets near volcanic centres. The results help in our understanding of the role of melt in strain accommodation in rifting and volcanic environments.

  9. Ethnobotanical study of forage/fodder plant species in and around the semi-arid Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinsae Bahru; Zemede Asfaw; Sebsebe Demissew


    We undertook ethnobotanical study of forage/fodder plant species used by the Afar and Oromo (Kereyu and Ittu) Nations in and around the semi-arid Awash National Park (ANP), Ethiopia. The study aimed at investigating and documenting indigenous knowledge (IK) on forage/fodder plant species and threats to their survival. Ninety-six in-formants between 20 and 80 years old were selected using prior informa-tion. Data were collected using semi-structured interview, guided field walk, discussion and field observation. Preference ranking, Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity and priority ranking were used for data analysis. One hundred twenty-six forage/fodder species of 90 genera and 43 fami-lies were collected in the study area. More than 88%of the species were reported with their vernacular names, where 68% were reported by the Afar Nation and 70%by the Oromo Nation. Family Poaceae was repre-sented by 25 species (20%), followed by Fabaceae 18 (14%). Preference ranking for the most preferred forage grasses as perceived by key infor-mants revealed that Chrysopogon plumulosus was the most important forage/fodder species. Overgrazing was the major threat in the study area, scoring 22%.

  10. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.


    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two...... different ISSAs; one rich in Al (67g/kg) and the other in Fe (58g/kg). The difference related to P precipitation at the waste water treatment facilities. Another major difference between the ashes was that flue gas purification products were mixed into the first ash and it contained about 5% activated...... carbon. The Al rich ash had a significantly higher buffering capacity and required more acid for extraction of P. When acid extraction of P from ISSA is the method for recovery, it is thus beneficial to go back to the waste water treatment facility and e.g. choose Fe for P precipitation rather than Al...

  11. The Use of Terrorism by Drug Trafficking Organizations’ Paramilitary Groups in Mexico (United States)


    Narcoterrorism. The New Century’s War). Madrid: Ediciones Nowtilus. Ramirez, J. I. (2009). Historia de la Modernidad en Mexico , Siglos XIX-XX. Enfoque...BY DRUG TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS’ PARAMILITARY GROUPS IN MEXICO by Cesar A. Barria Issa December 2010 Thesis Advisor: Michael Mexico 6. AUTHOR(S) Cesar A. Barria Issa 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  12. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen (United States)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène


    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  13. Ecological residence: theory and application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper makes an overall introduction of ecological residence (ER), a new type of eco-building and studies its origin, definition, status quo and characteristics. Firstly, it shapes like a forest seen from afar and like a garden seen inside; secondly, its environment should be up to the natural level; thirdly, designing, management, green energy utilization and sanitation should be up to environmental standard;fourthly, the green ecology concept is not only applied to building but also rooted in the residents. In this paper, the features of ecological residence are summarized- coziness,health, high-efficiency and beauty, and principles of ecological residence are proposed - ecology-based, human-oriented,local-conditions-based and systematic. Also, techniques, problems and various understandings are discussed for the enhancement of ecological residence.

  14. Influences of German science and scientists on Melbourne Observatory (United States)

    Clark, Barry A. J.

    The multidisciplinary approach of Alexander von Humboldt in scientific studies of the natural world in the first half of the nineteenth century gained early and lasting acclaim. Later, given the broad scientific interests of colonial Victoria's first Government Astronomer Robert Ellery, one could expect to find some evidence of the Humboldtian approach in the operations of Williamstown Observatory and its successor, Melbourne Observatory. On examination, and without discounting the importance of other international scientific contributions, it appears that Melbourne Observatory was indeed substantially influenced from afar by Humboldt and other German scientists, and in person by Georg Neumayer in particular. Some of the ways in which these influences acted are obvious but others are less so. Like the other Australian state observatories, in its later years Melbourne Observatory had to concentrate its diminishing resources on positional astronomy and timekeeping. Along with Sydney Observatory, it has survived almost intact to become a heritage treasure, perpetuating appreciation of its formative influences.

  15. Surgical triumvirate of Theodor Kocher, Harvey Cushing, and William Halsted. (United States)

    Modlin, I M


    It is difficult to evaluate precisely the effects of one individual on an entire discipline such as surgery. Indeed, it is impossible to do so when such a discipline spans so vast a country as the United States of America. Nevertheless, as a mountain peak can be seen from afar, so may one perceive the influence of man of Kocher's stature. His connection with Halsted and especially Cushing provided a direct link between the grandeur of Kocher's achievements and their lineal translation to a generation of evolving American surgeons. Both individuals, by personal example and professional endeavor, transmitted the precepts of Kocher to the nascent surgical fellowship of America. Thus the icon of Swiss surgery, recognized by a Nobel laureate and esteemed by his European colleagues, became a profound influence on American surgery. The triumvirate of Kocher, Cushing, and Halsted may thus be acknowledged as of vital consequence to the establishment of American surgery during the twentieth century.

  16. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt): a project to measure the diffused sky polarization from the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) (United States)

    Cortiglioni, S.


    The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), a project to measure the diffused sky polarization in the frequency range of 22-90 GHz from the International Space Station, is described in its current configuration. Some preliminary considerations about the general topic of polarization in radiometric observations are made, in order to introduce the importance of polarimetric measurements in the more general context of Cosmic Microwave Background observations. The International Space Station is also introduced as a quite good opportunity to address such problematics.

  17. [The dream as a tool in diagnosis, healing and life orientation in antiquity]. (United States)

    Strunz, F


    The dream is usually discussed in connection with the work of Freud und Jung and the dreamlore initiated by these two eminent dream scientists. Therefore the dream knowledge gathered by investigators of classical antiquity is almost forgotten, although the same diagnostic and therapeutic aims have been followed by them as they are by modern psychotherapy and medicine. Hippocrates and the other Greek physicians saw in dreams indications of bodily and psychosomatic disturbances. Dreams from the gods, especially Ascelepios, helped those who travelled from afar to be healed while sleeping in the temples. Popular dream interpretation availed itself of just as sophisticated an interpretative system as has been set up by modern depth psychologists. Dreams served to give orientation in life and warn of fateful future events. In spite of its elusive quality truth is sought in dreams today as it was in antiquity. Dream interpretation was then, and is now, one of the preferential techniques of existence.

  18. Long-term prospects: Mitigation of supernova and gamma-ray burst threat to intelligent beings (United States)

    Ćirković, Milan M.; Vukotić, Branislav


    We consider global catastrophic risks due to cosmic explosions (supernovae, magnetars and gamma-ray bursts) and possible mitigation strategies by humans and other hypothetical intelligent beings. While by their very nature these events are so huge to daunt conventional thinking on mitigation and response, we wish to argue that advanced technological civilizations would be able to develop efficient responses in the domain of astroengineering within their home planetary systems. In particular, we suggest that construction of shielding swarms of small objects/particles confined by electromagnetic fields could be one way of mitigating the risk of cosmic explosions and corresponding ionizing radiation surges. Such feats of astroengineering could, in principle, be detectable from afar by advanced Dysonian SETI searches.

  19. Long-Term Prospects: Mitigation of Supernova and Gamma-Ray Burst Threat to Intelligent Beings

    CERN Document Server

    Cirkovic, Milan M


    We consider global catastrophic risks due to cosmic explosions (supernovae, magnetars and gamma-ray bursts) and possible mitigation strategies by humans and other hypothetical intelligent beings. While by their very nature these events are so huge to daunt conventional thinking on mitigation and response, we wish to argue that advanced technological civilizations would be able to develop efficient responses in the domain of astroengineering within their home planetary systems. In particular, we suggest that construction of shielding swarms of small objects/particles confined by electromagnetic fields could be one way of mitigating the risk of cosmic explosions and corresponding ionizing radiation surges. Such feats of astroengineering could, in principle, be detectable from afar by advanced Dysonian SETI searches.

  20. Sampling Nomads: A New Technique for Remote, Hard-to-Reach, and Mobile Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himelein Kristen


    Full Text Available Livestock are an important component of rural livelihoods in developing countries, but data about this source of income and wealth are difficult to collect due to the nomadic and seminomadic nature of many pastoralist populations. Most household surveys exclude those without permanent dwellings, leading to undercoverage. In this study, we explore the use of a random geographic cluster sample (RGCS as an alternative to the household-based sample. In this design, points are randomly selected and all eligible respondents found inside circles drawn around the selected points are interviewed. This approach should eliminate undercoverage of mobile populations. We present results of an RGCS survey with a total sample size of 784 households to measure livestock ownership in the Afar region of Ethiopia in 2012. We explore the RGCS data quality relative to a recent household survey, and discuss the implementation challenges.

  1. Digital detectives and virtual volunteers: Integrating emergent online communities into disaster response operations. (United States)

    Griswold, Alisha


    The demonstration of altruistic behaviours by disaster survivors, and even those observing emergencies from afar, is well documented. Over the past few decades, government-sponsored crisis planning has evolved to include affiliated volunteer agencies, with a general acknowledgment of the need to plan for unaffiliated or spontaneous volunteers. Just as the understanding of the need for volunteers has grown, so too have the ways in which volunteers are able to donate their time and skills. The popularity of social media networks and online communities provide new ways for the public to get involved in disaster response. Public service agencies should be proactive in investigating these emerging platforms and understanding their impacts during crises. Established methods of integrating on-scene volunteers into post-disaster response operations can be used as templates for creating virtual volunteer programmes.

  2. The First Historic Eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from Thermal and UV Satellite Data (United States)

    Sealing, C. R.; Carn, S. A.; Harris, A. J. L.


    In June 2011, the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, took place at the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia. This eruption was the largest in what could be considered an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence, and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study were limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement using predominantly free, publicly available satellite data. We use MODIS and OMI data to examine rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission, and quantify the amount of erupted products. We also examine published images from other satellites, such as ALI and SEVIRI in order to understand the temporal evolution of the eruption. Synthesizing these data, we then attempt to infer the mechanisms through which the eruption progressed. Examination of satellite data reveals a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This was followed by a period of rapid effusion, producing a ~17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ~22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. This eruption of Nabro continued for nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. This type of work highlights the effectiveness and importance of accessible satellite remote sensing data for the study of active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  3. Characterizing the first historic eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from thermal and UV remote sensing (United States)

    Sealing, Christine R.

    June 2011 saw the first historic eruption of Nabro volcano, one of an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Due to its remote location, little was known about this event in terms of the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study are limited. Using free, publicly available satellite data, I examined rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission in order to quantify the amount of erupted products and understand the temporal evolution of the eruption, as well as explore what information can be gleaned about eruption mechanisms using remote sensing data. These data revealed a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This gave way to a period of rapid effusion, producing a ˜17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ˜22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. The 2011 eruption of Nabro lasted nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. Work such as this highlights the importance of satellite remote sensing for studying and monitoring volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  4. Asthenosphere–lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin;; Graham, David W; Thornber, Carl; Duncan, Robert A; Kent, Adam J.R.; Al-Amri, Abdulla


    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting.

  5. S(eoul Search: The Changing Religious Landscape in Seoul and Its Implications for Defining “Asia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Kim


    Full Text Available There is a saying that if one looks at Seoul at night from afar, one will see a large city covered with neon-lit red crosses. It is also said that a Christian church can be found on every other block in the streets of Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea (also known as South Korea. To be sure, this is not the case. Yet this embellished illustration of Seoul as a Christian symbol of a cross-covered city conveys the message that Christianity is no longer a foreign or a Western religion, but has, rather, become a major religious tradition in South Korea as represented in its capital. Christianity may not be the majority religion in terms of demographics, but it has certainly become a dominant religion in terms of social and political influence as well as economic power in South Korea.

  6. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype-High Colorectal Cancers and Their Prognostic Implications and Relationships with the Serrated Neoplasia Pathway (United States)

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Kang, Gyeong Hoon


    The concept of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first introduced by Toyota and Issa to describe a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) with concurrent hypermethylation of multiple CpG island loci. The concept of CIMP as a molecular carcinogenesis mechanism was consolidated by the identification of the serrated neoplasia pathway, in which CIMP participates in the initiation and progression of serrated adenomas. Distinct clinicopathological and molecular features of CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRCs have been characterized, including proximal colon location, older age of onset, female preponderance, and frequent associations of high-level microsatellite instability and BRAF mutations. CIMP-H CRCs arise in sessile or traditional serrated adenomas and thus tend to display the morphological characteristics of serrated adenomas, including epithelial serration, vesicular nuclei, and abundant cytoplasm. Both the frequent association of CIMP and poor prognosis and different responses of CRCs to adjuvant therapy depending on CIMP status indicate clinical implications. In this review, we present an overview of the literature documenting the relevant findings of CIMP-H CRCs and their relationships with the serrated neoplasia pathway. PMID:27885175

  7. Power spectrum of the cosmic infrared background at 60 and 100 microns with IRAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miville-Deschênes, M A; Puget, J L


    Based on a power spectrum analysis of the IRAS ISSA maps, we present the first detection of the Cosmic far-Infrared Background (CIB) fluctuations at 60 and 100 microns. The power spectrum of 12 low cirrus emission regions is characterized by a power excess at spatial frequencies higher than k~0.02 arcmin^{-1}. Most of this excess is due to noise and to nearby point sources with a flux stronger than 1 Jy. But we show that when these contributions are carefully removed, there is still a power excess that is the signature of the CIB fluctuations. The power spectrum of the CIB at 60 and 100 microns is compatible with a Poissonian distribution, at spatial frequencies between 0.025 and 0.2 arcmin^{-1}. The fluctuation level is ~1.6x10^3 Jy^2/sr and ~5.8x10^3 Jy^2/sr at 60 and 100 microns respectively. The levels of the fluctuations are used in a larger framework, with other observationnal data, to constrain the evolution of IR galaxies (Lagache et al. 2002). The detections reported here, coupled with the level of t...

  8. MOUT: Military Operations in Urban Terrain (Air Land Sea Bulletin, Issue No. 2008-1, January 2008) (United States)


    Regiment (3ACR) in Tal Afar; and 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division in Ramadi. Tal Afar in early 2005 was dominated by Al Qaeda in Iraq. Local...MOUT villages in the approximate center of the Hohenfels Training Area ( HTA ). These targets also had the advantage of being relatively unrestricted...missile target development in early entry and mature theater operations. It provides a common understanding of the threat missile target set and

  9. Glaciers between two drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst


    It is assumed that the monsoon is the dominant influence on Himalayan glaciers. However, a study now investigates the importance of the mid-latitude Westerlies and shows that glacier changes can be triggered from afar.......It is assumed that the monsoon is the dominant influence on Himalayan glaciers. However, a study now investigates the importance of the mid-latitude Westerlies and shows that glacier changes can be triggered from afar....

  10. The time dependent propensity function for acceleration of spatial stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda R.


    The inhomogeneous stochastic simulation algorithm (ISSA) is a fundamental method for spatial stochastic simulation. However, when diffusion events occur more frequently than reaction events, simulating the diffusion events by ISSA is quite costly. To reduce this cost, we propose to use the time dependent propensity function in each step. In this way we can avoid simulating individual diffusion events, and use the time interval between two adjacent reaction events as the simulation stepsize. We demonstrate that the new algorithm can achieve orders of magnitude efficiency gains over widely-used exact algorithms, scales well with increasing grid resolution, and maintains a high level of accuracy.

  11. The time dependent propensity function for acceleration of spatial stochastic simulation of reaction–diffusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jin, E-mail: [Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Wu, Sheng, E-mail: [Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Li, Hong, E-mail: [Teradata Inc., El Segundo, California (United States); Petzold, Linda R., E-mail: [Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States)


    The inhomogeneous stochastic simulation algorithm (ISSA) is a fundamental method for spatial stochastic simulation. However, when diffusion events occur more frequently than reaction events, simulating the diffusion events by ISSA is quite costly. To reduce this cost, we propose to use the time dependent propensity function in each step. In this way we can avoid simulating individual diffusion events, and use the time interval between two adjacent reaction events as the simulation stepsize. We demonstrate that the new algorithm can achieve orders of magnitude efficiency gains over widely-used exact algorithms, scales well with increasing grid resolution, and maintains a high level of accuracy.

  12. The World Anti-Doping Agency and the challenges for political steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Ulrik


    Article submitted March 2007 for the Graduate Paper Award of the International Sociology of Sport Association. Presented as winner at "Sport in a Global World - past, present, future" the first joint world conference of ISSA & ISHPES at the University of Copenhagen, July 31st - August 5th 2007....

  13. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar (United States)

    Martinak, M. Linda


    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  14. Petrogenesis and origin of modern Ethiopian rift basalts: Constraints from isotope and trace element geochemistry (United States)

    Ayalew, D.; Jung, S.; Romer, R. L.; Kersten, F.; Pfänder, J. A.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.


    The source of continental rift-related basalts and their relation to rifting processes is a continuous matter of debate. We present major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotope data for axial rift basalts from eight volcanic centres (Ayelu, Hertali, Dofan, Fantale, Kone, Bosetti and Gedemsa, from NE to SW) in Afar and Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) to assess their source regions and their genetic relationships. These lavas have geochemical characteristics, i.e., a peak at Ba, Nb and troughs at K and Rb in primitive mantle-normalised multielement diagrams, which are consistent with predominant melting of an amphibole-bearing lithospheric mantle. However, the isotopic compositions for these lavas are heterogeneous (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70354-0.70431, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51280-0.51294, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28301-0.28315, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.48-19.31, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.53-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.61-39.06) and require various mantle reservoirs with distinctive isotopic signatures. The range of isotopic compositions requires the involvement of three distinct source components from the asthenospheric and veined lithospheric mantle. Progressive rifting leads to lithosperic thinning and upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle, which induces melting of the veined lithospheric mantle. The trace element characteristics of the lavas are dominated by the vein material, which has a higher trace element content than the surrounding mantle. The isotopic composition of the vein material, however, is not very different from the ambient mantle, giving rise of apparent uncoupling of trace element and isotope constraints for the melt source. The uprising basaltic liquids in part inherit a lithospheric trace element signature, while their isotopic compositions are mostly unaffected due to short residence times within the lithosphere in context with progressive rifting and lithospheric thinning. Thus, the geochemical and isotope data are consistent with a multi-component source prevailing beneath the Afar

  15. The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Huchon, Philippe; McClay, Ken


    We here summarize the evolution of the greater Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system, which includes the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden marine basins and their continental margins, and the Afar region. Plume related basaltic trap volcanism began in Ethiopia, NE Sudan (Derudeb), and SW Yemen at ˜31 Ma, followed by rhyolitic volcanism at ˜30 Ma. Volcanism thereafter spread northward to Harrats Sirat, Hadan, Ishara-Khirsat, and Ar Rahat in western Saudi Arabia. This early magmatism occurred without significant extension, and continued to ˜25 Ma. Much of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region was at or near sea level at this time. Starting between ˜29.9 and 28.7 Ma, marine syn-tectonic sediments were deposited on continental crust in the central Gulf of Aden. At the same time the Horn of Africa became emergent. By ˜27.5-23.8 Ma a small rift basin was forming in the Eritrean Red Sea. At approximately the same time (˜25 Ma), extension and rifting commenced within Afar itself. At ˜24 Ma, a new phase of volcanism, principally basaltic dikes but also layered gabbro and granophyre bodies, appeared nearly synchronously throughout the entire Red Sea, from Afar and Yemen to northern Egypt. This second phase of magmatism was accompanied in the Red Sea by strong rift-normal extension and deposition of syn-tectonic sediments, mostly of marine and marginal marine affinity. Sedimentary facies were laterally heterogeneous, being comprised of inter-fingering siliciclastics, evaporite, and carbonate. Throughout the Red Sea, the principal phase of rift shoulder uplift and rapid syn-rift subsidence followed shortly thereafter at ˜20 Ma. Water depths increased dramatically and sedimentation changed to predominantly Globigerina-rich marl and deepwater limestone. Within a few million years of its initiation in the mid-Oligocene the Gulf of Aden continental rift linked the Owen fracture zone (oceanic crust) with the Afar plume. The principal driving force for extension

  16. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil


    it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  17. Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach. (United States)

    Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M


    Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly

  18. Full seismic waveform inversion of the African crust and Mantle - Initial Results (United States)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Ermert, Laura; Staring, Myrna; Trampert, Jeannot; Fichtner, Andreas


    We report on the progress of a continental-scale full-waveform inversion (FWI) of Africa. From a geodynamic perspective, Africa presents an especially interesting case. This interest stems from the presence of several anomalous features such as a triple junction in the Afar region, a broad region of high topography to the south, and several smaller surface expressions such as the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo Basin. The mechanisms behind these anomalies are not fully clear, and debate on their origin spans causative mechanisms from isostatic forcing, to the influence of localized asthenospheric upwelling, to the presence of deep mantle plumes. As well, the connection of these features to the African LLSVP is uncertain. Tomographic images of Africa present unique challenges due to uneven station coverage: while tectonically active areas such as the Afar rift are well sampled, much of the continent exhibits a severe dearth of seismic stations. As well, while mostly surrounded by tectonically active spreading plate boundaries (a fact which contributes to the difficulties in explaining the South's high topography), sizeable seismic events (M > 5) in the continent's interior are relatively rare. To deal with these issues, we present a combined earthquake and ambient noise full-waveform inversion of Africa. The noise component serves to boost near-surface sensitivity, and aids in mitigating issues related to the sparse source / station coverage. The earthquake component, which includes local and teleseismic sources, aims to better resolve deeper structure. This component also has the added benefit of being especially useful in the search for mantle plumes: synthetic tests have shown that the subtle scattering of elastic waves off mantle plumes makes the plumes an ideal target for FWI [1]. We hope that this new model presents a fresh high-resolution image of sub-African geodynamic structure, and helps advance the debate regarding the causative mechanisms of its surface

  19. Earthquake relocations and InSAR time series analysis of the June 12th 2011 eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Hamlyn, J.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O.; Wright, T. J.; Neuberg, J.; Kibreab, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Goitom, B.


    Nabro volcano sits on the Danakil block next to the Afar triangle, nested between the Somalian, Arabian and Nubian plates. It is the largest and most central volcano within the ~110-km-long, SSW-NNE trending Nabro Volcanic Range (NVR) which extends from the Afar depression to the Red Sea. On the 12th June 2011, Nabro volcano suddenly erupted after being inactive for 10, 000 years. The resulting ash cloud rose 15 km, it reached the stratosphere and forced aircraft to re-route. The eruption also caused a 17 km long lava flow and ranks as one of the largest SO2 eruptions since the Mt. Pinatubo (1991) event. In response, a network of 8 seismometers were located around the active vent and were recording by the 31st August. Also, satellites with InSAR acquisition capabilities were tasked to the region including TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed and Envisat. We processed the seismic signals detected by the array and those arriving at a regional seismic station (located in the north west) to provide accurate earthquake locations for the period September-October, 2011. We used Hypoinverse-2000 to provide preliminary locations for events, which were then relocated using HypoDD. Absolute error after Hypoinverse-2000 processing was, on average, approximately ±2 and ±4 km in the horizontal and the vertical directions, respectively. These errors were reduced to a relative error of ±20 and ±30 m in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, using HypoDD. Investigation of the parameters controlling the relocation was completed, in order to monitor bias that they caused in the final positioning of the hypocentres. The hypocentres produced have a very small relative depth error (~±30m), and show columns and clusters of activity as well as areas devoid of events. The majority of the seismic events are located at the active vent and within Nabro caldera, with fewer events located on the flanks. There also appears to be a smaller cluster of events to the south-west of Nabro

  20. FESTR: Finite-Element Spectral Transfer of Radiation spectroscopic modeling and analysis code (United States)

    Hakel, Peter


    We report on the development of a new spectral postprocessor of hydrodynamic simulations of hot, dense plasmas. Based on given time histories of one-, two-, and three-dimensional spatial distributions of materials, and their local temperature and density conditions, spectroscopically-resolved signals are computed. The effects of radiation emission and absorption by the plasma on the emergent spectra are simultaneously taken into account. This program can also be used independently of hydrodynamic calculations to analyze available experimental data with the goal of inferring plasma conditions. Catalogue identifier: AFAR_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD 3-Clause license No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1237516 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17542918 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: HPC, PC. Operating system: Linux, MacOS. RAM: Problem dependent (based on size of input) Classification: 1.3, 2.2, 20.2. Nature of problem: Calculation of spectral signals by postprocessing hydrodynamics simulations. Analysis of experimental spectroscopic data to infer plasma temperature and density conditions, and its chemical composition. Simultaneous treatment of spatial non-uniformity (on 3D unstructured meshes) along with spectroscopic-quality radiation transport. Solution method: Rays are cast across a 3D unstructured mesh that characterizes local temperature, density, and chemical composition of the material. Analytic solution to the 1D (along the ray) steady-state, local radiation transport equation is repeatedly used to gradually build a synthetic spectrum for each ray. Restrictions: Steady-state approximation of the radiation transport equation is used. Scattering as a radiation source is not included. Given plasma conditions are

  1. Asthenosphere-lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin; Graham, David W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M.


    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed 3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (< 850 ka) and the northeasternmost of the volcanic fields. There is a remarkable homogeneity of 3He/4He trapped within most xenoliths, with a weighted mean of 7.54 ± 0.03 RA (2σ, n = 20). This homogeneity occurs over at least eight different xenolith types (including spinel lherzolite, amphibole clinopyroxenite, olivine websterite, clinopyroxenite and garnet websterite), and encompasses ten different volcanic centers within an area of ~ 2500 km2. The homogeneity is caused by volatile equilibration between the xenoliths and fluids derived from their host magma, as fluid inclusions are annealed during the infiltration of vapor-saturated magmas along crystalline grain boundaries. The notable exceptions are the anhydrous spinel lherzolites, which have a lower weighted mean 3He/4He of 6.8 ± 0.3 RA (2σ, n = 2), contain lower concentrations of trapped He, and have a distinctly depleted light rare earth element signature. 3He/4He values of ~ 6.8 RA are also commonly found in spinel lherzolites from harrats Ithnayn, Al Birk, and from Zabargad Island in the Red Sea. Olivine from non-xenolith-bearing lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting. Elevated 3He/4He in the western harrats has been observed only at Rahat (up to 11.8 RA; Murcia et al., 2013), a

  2. Active kinematics of the southern Red Sea (United States)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Ogubazghi, G.; Amlesom, A.; Haileab, B.; Sholan, J.; Vernant, P.; Arrajehi, A.


    GPS measurements adjacent to the southern Red Sea and around the Afar Triple Junction (Red Sea Rift-Gulf of Aden Rift-East African Rift), indicate that the Red Sea rift bifurcates south of 16° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red Sea rift (~150° Azimuth) and the other oriented roughly N-S traversing the Danakil Depression/Afar volcanic province. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. Within the resolution of our observations, the partitioning of extension between rift branches varies linearly along strike; north of ~16°N extension (~15 mm/yr at 16°N) is confined to the main Red Sea rift while at the latitude of the Afar Triple Junction (~12°N) extension (~20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil-Afar Depression. The Danakil block separates the two rifts and rotates counterclockwise, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the triangular geometry of the Danakil/Afar Depression. Extrapolating the geodetic rates to the time of initial rifting of Arabia from Nubia (~25 ± 3 Ma) and estimating total extension across the rift branches from the present-day widths of the rifts suggests that Arabia-Nubia relative motion has been roughly constant since the initiation of Red Sea spreading, and that extension was initially confined to the main Red Sea rift with the presently observed bifurcation initiating at about 17 Ma.

  3. Alpha antagonists and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: A spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A Issa


    Full Text Available Sharif A Issa, Omar H Hadid, Oliver Baylis, Margaret DayanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKBackground: To determine occurrence of features of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-antagonists (AA.Methods: We prospectively studied patients on AA and who underwent phacoemulsification. The following were recorded: pupil diameter preoperatively, iris flaccidity, iris prolapse and peroperative miosis.Results: We studied 40 eyes of 31 subjects. Mean age was 78 years. Overall, 14 eyes (13 patients showed signs of IFIS: 9/13 (69% eyes of patients on tamsulosin, 1/18 (6% eyes in the doxazosin group, 2/2 prazosin patients, 1/4 eyes in the indoramin group, and 1/2 eyes in two patients on a combination of doxazosin and tamsulosin. Most cases (92% had only one or two signs of IFIS. Bilateral cataract surgery was undertaken in 9 patients but only one patient (on tamsulosin had features of IFIS in both eyes, while 4 patients (2 on tamsulosin and 2 on other AA showed signs of IFIS in one eye only, and 4 patients did not show IFIS in either eye.Conclusion: Most AA were associated with IFIS, but it tends to present as a spectrum of signs rather than full triad originally described. Tamsulosin was most likely to be associated with IFIS; however, its intake does not necessarily mean that IFIS will occur. For patients on AA, the behavior of the iris intraoperatively in one eye is a poor predictor of the other eye. Surgeons should anticipate the occurrence of IFIS in any patient on AA.Keywords: alpha blocker, alpha antagonist, cataract surgery, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome, tamsulosin.

  4. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros


    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  5. Exoplanets - search methods, discoveries, and prospects for astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Barrie W


    Whereas the Solar System has Mars and Europa as the best candidates for finding fossil/extant life as we know it - based on complex carbon compounds and liquid water - the 263 (non-pulsar) planetary systems around other stars as known at 15 September 2008 could between them possess many more planets where life might exist. Moreover, the number of these exoplanetary systems is growing steadily, and with this growth there is an increase in the number of planets that could bear carbon-liquid water life. In this brief review the main methods by which exoplanets are being discovered are outlined, and then the discoveries that have so far been made are presented. Habitability is then discussed, and an outline presented of how a planet could be studied from afar to determine whether it is habitable, and whether it is indeed inhabited. This review is aimed at the astrobiology community, which spans many disciplines, few of which involve exoplanets. It is therefore at a basic level and concentrates on the major topics...

  6. Combined Plate Motion and Density Driven Flow in the Asthenosphere beneath Saudi Arabia: Evidence from Shearwave Splitting and Seismic Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Schwartz, S; Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A


    Mantle anisotropy along the Red Sea and across the Arabian Peninsula was analyzed using shear-wave splitting recorded by stations from three different seismic networks: the largest, most widely distributed array of stations examined across the Arabian Peninsula to date. Stations near the Gulf of Aqaba display fast orientations aligned parallel to the Dead Sea Transform Fault, most likely related to the strike-slip motion between Africa and Arabia However, most of our observations across Arabia are statistically the same (at a 95% confidence level), with north-south oriented fast directions and delay times averaging about 1.4 s. Since end-member models of fossilized anisotropy and present-day asthenospheric flow do not adequately explain these observations, we interpret them as a combination of plate and density driven flow in the asthenosphere. Combining northeast oriented flow associated with absolute plate motion with northwest oriented flow associated with the channelized Afar upwelling along the Red Sea produces a north-south resultant that matches the observations and supports models of active rifting.

  7. The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption (United States)

    Biggs, Juliet; Robertson, Elspeth; Cashman, Katharine


    Volcanic eruptions often occur simultaneously or tap multiple magma reservoirs. Such lateral interactions between magmatic systems are attributed to stress changes or hydraulic connections but the precise conditions under which coupled eruptions occur have yet to be quantified. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite data to analyse the surface deformation generated by volcanic unrest in the Kenyan Rift. We identify several magma sources located at depths of 2-5 km importantly, sources that are spaced less than about 10 km apart interact, whereas those spaced more than about 25 km apart do not. However, volcanoes up to 25 km apart have interacted in the geologic past. Thus, volcanic coupling is not simply controlled by the distance between the magma reservoirs. We then consider different tectonic settings globally, including intraplate volcanoes such as Hawaii and Yellowstone, arc volcanism in Alaska and Chile, and other rift settings, such as New Zealand, Iceland and Afar. We find that the most closely spaced magmatic interactions are controlled by the extent of a shallow crystal mush layer, stress changes can couple large eruptions over distances of about 20-40 km, and only large dyke intrusions or subduction earthquakes could generate coupled eruptions over distances of about 50-100 km.

  8. Foraging and ingestive behaviors of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in response to chemical stimulus cues. (United States)

    Dove, Alistair D M


    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, display a number of behaviors that suggest these animals can locate food from afar, as well as identify and discriminate between food items. However, their intractably large size and relative rarity in the field has so far prevented direct studies of their behavior and sensory capability. A small population of aquarium-held whale sharks facilitated direct studies of behavior in response to chemical stimulus plumes. Whale sharks were exposed to plumes composed of either homogenized krill or simple aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is associated with krill aggregations and is used by several pelagic species as a food-finding stimulus. Whale sharks exhibited pronounced ingestive and search behaviors when exposed to both types of stimuli, compared to control trials. Ingestive behaviors included open mouth swimming and active surface feeding (gulping). These behaviors were stronger and more prevalent in response to krill homogenate plumes than to DMS plumes. Both chemical stimuli also increased visitation rate, and krill homogenate plumes additionally affected swimming speed. Whale sharks use chemosensory cues of multiple types to locate and identify palatable food, suggesting that chemical stimuli can help direct long-range movements and allow discrimination of different food items. There appears to be a hierarchy of responses: krill metabolites directly associated with food produced more frequent and intense feeding responses relative to DMS, which is indirectly associated with krill. DMS is used to find food by a number of pelagic species and may be an important signaling molecule in pelagic food webs.

  9. On the effects of the evolution of microbial mats and land plants on the Earth as a planet. Photometric and spectroscopic light curves of paleo-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Sanromá, E; García-Muñoz, A


    Understanding the spectral and photometric variability of the Earth and the rest of the Solar System planets has become of the utmost importance for the future characterization of rocky exoplanets. As this is not only interesting at present times but also along the planetary evolution, we studied the effect that the evolution of microbial mats and plants over land has had on the way our planet looks from afar. As life evolved, continental surfaces changed gradually and non- uniformly from deserts through microbial mats to land plants, modifying the reflective properties of the ground and most probably the distribution of moisture and cloudiness. Here, we used a radiative transfer model of the Earth, together with geological paleo-records of the continental distribution and a reconstructed cloud distribution, to simulate the visible and near-IR radiation reflected by our planet as a function of the Earth's rotation. We found that the evolution from deserts to microbial mats and to land plants produce detectabl...

  10. Effects of overlying water aeration on phosphorus fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity in surface sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Chen; Shaoyong Lu; Yikun Zhao; Wei Wang; Minsheng Huang


    Microbial activity may influence phosphorus (P) deposit and release at the water sediment interface.The properties of DO (dissolved oxygen), pH, P fractions (TP, Ca-P, Fe-P, OP, IP), and APA (alkaline phosphatase activity) at the water sediment interface were measured to investigate microbial activity variations in surface sediment under conditions of two-month intermittent aeration in overlying water.Results showed that DO and TP of overlying water increased rapidly in the first week and then decreased gradually after 15 day of intermittent aeration.Microorganism metabolism in surface sediment increased pH and decreased DO and TP in the overlying water.After two-month intermittent aeration, APA and OP from surface sediment (0-2 crm) were both significantly higher than those from bottom sediment (6-8 cm) (p < 0.05), and surface sediment Fe-P was transferred to OP during the course of microorganism reproduction on the surface sediment.These results suggest that microbial activity and microorganism biomass from the surface sediment were higher than those from bottom sediment afar two-month intermittent aeration in the overlying water.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Zhi-yong


    [1]Baylin SB, Fearon ER, Vogeletein B, et al. Hyper- methylation of 5' the region of the calcitonin gene is a property of human lymphoid and acute myeloid malignancies [J]. Blood 1987; 70:412.[2]Nelkin BD, Przepiorka D, Burke PJ, et al. Abnormal methylation of the calcitonin gene marks progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia [J]. Blood 1991; 77: 2431.[3]Ritter M, Kant EDe, Huhn D, et al. Detection of DNA methylation in the calcitonin gene in human leukemias using differential polymerase chain reaction [J]. Leukemia 1995; 9:915.[4]Wu SL, Xie GL, Bai RK, et al. Semi-quantitative study of calcitonin gene methylation in myelodysplastic syndrome [J]. Chin Med J 1998; 111:690.[5]Admas RL, Rinaldi A, Seivwright CA. Microassay for DNA methyltranferase [J]. J Biochem Biophys Methods 1991; 22:19.[6]Bai ZY, Xu GB, Wu SL. Detection of DNA- methyl- tranferase activity of leukemia cells with radiology microassay [J]. J Beijing Med Univ 2000; 32:76.[7]Issa J, Veritino PM, Wu J, et al. Increased cytosine DNA- Methyltranferase activity during colon cancer pro- gression [J]. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85:1235.[8]Vertino PM, Yen RW, Gao J, et al. De novo methylation of CpG islands sequences in human fibroblasts overexpression DNA (cytosine-5-) methyltranferase [J]. Mol cell Bio 1996; 16:4555.[9]Robertson KD, Uzvolgyi E, Liang G, et al. The human DNA methyltranferase (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b: coordinate mRNA expression in normal tissue and overexpression in tumors [J]. Nucleic Acids Res 1999; 27:2291.[10]Okano M, Bell DW, Haber DA, et al. DNA methyl- tranferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are essential for de novo methylation and mammalian development [J]. Cell 1999; 99:247.

  12. Towards the creation of a US national heritage: documentation and survey for the understanding and safeguard of the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella La Mantia


    Full Text Available The phenomenon that led in recent decades to the safeguard and enhancement of significant historic buildings in the US territory starts from afar: at the beginning of the last century, in fact, the Federal State considered it appropriate to adopt a number of institutions for the protection of natural sites and architectural achievements. It dates back to 1935 the drafting, by the National Park Service, of the first list of buildings,monuments and districts of historical interest of the US. In December 1933 was instead founded the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS, the federal institution which represented for a long time one of the main references in the study of US architecture, thanks to a massive intervention of photographic, graphic and historic documentation of architectural works spread throughout the nation. This paper aims to illustrate the historical and cultural path which has led to the development of this phenomenon of protection of American historic buildings, emphasizing the role of graphic and photographic documentation in the restorations of the main works of Frank Lloyd Wright.

  13. Cooperation and tensions in multiethnic corporate societies using Teotihuacan, Central Mexico, as a case study. (United States)

    Manzanilla, Linda R


    In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan's collapse.

  14. Combined plate motion and density driven flow in the asthenosphere beneath Saudi Arabia: Evidence from shear-wave splitting and seismic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Schwartz, S


    A comprehensive study of mantle anisotropy along the Red Sea and across Saudi Arabia was performed by analyzing shear-wave splitting recorded by stations from three different seismic networks: the largest, most widely distributed array of stations examined across Saudi Arabia to date. Stations near the Gulf of Aqaba display fast orientations that are aligned parallel to the Dead Sea Transform Fault, most likely related to the strike-slip motion between Africa and Arabia. However, most of our observations across Saudi Arabia are statistically the same, showing a consistent pattern of north-south oriented fast directions with delay times averaging about 1.4 s. Fossilized anisotropy related to the Proterozoic assembly of the Arabian Shield may contribute to the pattern but is not sufficient to fully explain the observations. We feel that the uniform anisotropic signature across Saudi Arabia is best explained by a combination of plate and density driven flow in the asthenosphere. By combining the northeast oriented flow associated with absolute plate motion with the northwest oriented flow associated with the channelized Afar plume along the Red Sea, we obtain a north-south oriented resultant that matches our splitting observations and supports models of active rifting processes. This explains why the north-south orientation of the fast polarization direction is so pervasive across the vast Arabian Plate.

  15. Dentognathic remains of Australopithecus afarensis from Nefuraytu (Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia): Comparative description, geology, and paleoecological context. (United States)

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Levin, Naomi E; Saylor, Beverly Z; Deino, Alan; Mundil, Ronald; Scott, Gary; Mulugeta Alene; Gibert, Luis


    Australopithecus afarensis is the best-known and most dimorphic species in the early hominin fossil record. Here, we present a comparative description of new fossil specimens of Au. afarensis from Nefuraytu, a 3.330-3.207 million-years-old fossil collection area in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. These specimens include NFR-VP-1/29, one of the most complete mandibles assigned to the species thus far and among the largest mandibles attributed to Au. afarensis, likely representing a male individual. NFR-VP-1/29 retains almost all of the distinctive archaic features documented for Au. afarensis. These features include a posteriorly sloping symphysis, a low and rounded basally set inferior transverse torus, anterosuperiorly opening mental foramen, a lateral corpus hollow bound anteriorly by the C/P3 jugae and posteriorly by the lateral prominence, and the ascending ramus arising high on the corpus. Dental morphology and metrics of the Nefuraytu specimens also falls within the range of Au. afarensis. The presence of this species at Woranso-Mille between 3.330 and 3.207 million years ago confirms the existence of this species in the area in close spatial and temporal proximity to other middle Pliocene hominin taxa such as the one represented by the Burtele foot (BRT-VP-2/73) and the recently named species Australopithecus deyiremeda. This has important implications for our understanding of middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

  16. Evolution of continental-scale drainage in response to mantle dynamics and surface processes: An example from the Ethiopian Highlands (United States)

    Sembroni, Andrea; Molin, Paola; Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Faccenna, Claudio; Abebe, Bekele


    Ethiopia offers an excellent opportunity to study the effects and linkage between mantle dynamics and surface processes on landscape evolution. The Ethiopian Highlands (NW Ethiopia), characterized by a huge basaltic plateau, is part of the African Superswell, a wide region of dynamically-supported anomalously high topography related to the rising of the Afar plume. The initiation and steadiness of dynamic support beneath Ethiopia has been explored in several studies. However the presence, role, and timing of dynamic support beneath Ethiopia and its relationship with continental flood basalts volcanism and surface processes are poorly defined. Here, we present a geomorphological analysis of the Ethiopian Highlands supplying new constraints on the evolution of river network. We investigated the general topographic features (filtered topography, swath profiles, local relief) and the river network (river longitudinal profiles) of the study area. We also apply a knickpoint celerity model in order to provide a chronological framework to the evolution of the river network. The results trace the long-term progressive capture of the Ethiopian Highlands drainage system and confirm the long-term dynamic support of the area, documenting its impact on the contrasting development of the Blue Nile and Tekeze basins.

  17. The Manda—Inakir rift, republic of Djibouti: A comparison with the Asal rift and its geodynamic interpretation (United States)

    Vellutini, P.


    Asal-Ghoubbet and Manda-Inakir, two axial zones, and the Mak'Arrassou N—S strike-slip zone, are located between the Afar Depression where significant crustal thinning is shown by geophysical data and the relatively thicker continental crust of the "Danakil horst". These three active structures were formed in response to the counterclockwise motion of the Danakil horst. The two modes of response (rift and strike-slip faults) are related to the orientation of the horst boundaries. The boundaries perpendicular to the opening direction lead to extensional zones and rifts (Asal and Manda-lnakir). The parallel boundaries give strike-slip faults (Mak'Arrassou). The two narrow subsided "axial structures" (rift in rift), located on the crustal discontinuity, seem to represent a stage where, after crustal thinning between 4 and 1 Ma (when the "stratoid series" was erupted), the breaking point was reached. These two axes, though not genuine oceanic crust (the older continental series are found under the Axial series), represent a proto-oceanic stage and foreshadow the future ridges. They also indicate the southwest border of the Arabian plate, including the "Danakil horst".

  18. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)


    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  19. "The guys told us crying that they saw how they were killing her and they could not do anything": Psychosocial explorations of migrant journeys to the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sládková


    Full Text Available In this article I examine undocumented migrant experiences on their journeys to the U.S. Tens of thousands of Honduran migrants leave their homes in hopes to provide better for their families from afar. In in-depth interviews, 21 migrants from Honduras share the events they endure as they cross Guatemala, Mexico and the borders that divide them. I conducted narrative analyses and specifically used the analytical tools of high points and poises to locate the most salient experiences the migrants narrated as well as identifying particular selves the migrants were presenting. The high points centered around the crossings of the Mexico-U.S. border, encounters with gangs and the police in Mexico, and travels on top of freight trains. Most of these events were highly charged with potential short and long-term effects on the migrants' health. In trying to make sense of their experiences, migrants presented themselves as heroes helping others, victims of the migration systems, good parents, or unaffected bystanders. This research provides insight into the rarely explored psychosocial aspects of undocumented migration, illuminates how Honduran migrants who attempt this journey make sense of their experiences, and proposes interventions to mitigate the potentially tragic consequences of this migration.

  20. «El ser y la cuchara»: Meditación sobre el ser en el De Mente de Nicolás de Cusa «Being and spoon»: Meditation on being in De Mente of Nicholas of Cusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El De Mente de Nicolás de Cusa quiere ser un estudio de la mente como medida del universo y como imagen de Dios. En este libro, Nicolás se presenta a sí mismo como un Idiota o Ignorante y toma el ejemplo de la fabricación de una cuchara. La cuchara, instrumento simple, llega a ser símbolo del ser. El arte y la fabricación de este instrumento reflejan el ser humano y su esfuerzo por entender y construir el mundo (co-crear, por acercarse a Dios y a su obra de creación. La cuchara se transforma en un espejo que permite ver la realidad aunque sea de lejos; permite sobre todo acercarse al primer espejo que es Cristo.Nicholas de Cusa’s De Mente pretends to be a study of the mind as the measure of the universe and the image of God. In this book, Nicolas presents himself as an idiot or ignorant and takes the example of manufacture of a spoon. The spoon, simple tool, becomes a symbol of being. The human ability to create this tool expresses the human nature and his effort to understand and cocreate the world, God and His work of creation. Thus, the spoon becomes a mirror that allows us to discover reality, even from afar; and moreover allows us to approach to Christ also our first or main mirror.

  1. 'Letres qui van per tal afar' : un nouveau salut Occitano-Catalan et la fortune du genre en catalogne (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uulders, Hedzer


    The recent discovery of a new occitan-catalan salut or love-letter in verse enables a new investigation into this neglected field of medieval Catalan literature. This first article offers a brief survey of the attention the genre has received so far in order to define the problems it raises; it then

  2. Determination of Space Station on-orbit nondestructive evaluation requirements (United States)

    Salkowski, Charles


    NASA has recently initiated a reassessment of requirements for the performance of in-space nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) while on- orbit. given the on-orbit operating environment, there is a powerful motivation for avoiding inspection requirements. For example the ISSA maintenance philosophy includes the use of orbital replacement units (ORUs); hardware that is designed to fail without impact on mission assurance or safety. Identification of on-orbit inspection requirements involves review of a complex set of disciplines and considerations such as fracture control, contamination, safety, mission assurance, electrical power, and cost. This paper presents background discussion concerning on-orbit NDE and a technical approach for separating baseline requirements from opportunities.

  3. Feasibility of flywheel energy storage systems for applications in future space missions (United States)

    Santo, G. Espiritu; Gill, S. P.; Kotas, J. F.; Paschall, R.


    The objective of this study was to examine the overall feasibility of deploying electromechanical flywheel systems in space used for excess energy storage. Results of previous Rocketdyne studies have shown that the flywheel concept has a number of advantages over the NiH2 battery, including higher specific energy, longer life and high roundtrip efficiency. Based on this prior work, this current study was broken into four subtasks. The first subtask investigated the feasibility of replacing the NiH2 battery orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the international space station (ISSA) with a flywheel ORU. In addition, a conceptual design of a generic flywheel demonstrator experiment implemented on the ISSA was completed. An assessment of the life cycle cost benefits of replacing the station battery energy storage ORU's with flywheel ORU's was performed. A fourth task generated a top-level development plan for critical flywheel technologies, the flywheel demonstrator experiments and its evolution into the production unit flywheel replacement ORU.

  4. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas (United States)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.


    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  5. Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania. (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K


    Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa.

  6. Induced somatic sector analysis of cellulose synthase (CesA) promoter regions in woody stem tissues. (United States)

    Creux, Nicky M; Bossinger, Gerd; Myburg, Alexander A; Spokevicius, Antanas V


    The increasing focus on plantation forestry as a renewable source of cellulosic biomass has emphasized the need for tools to study the unique biology of woody genera such as Eucalyptus, Populus and Pinus. The domestication of these woody crops is hampered by long generation times, and breeders are now looking to molecular approaches such as marker-assisted breeding and genetic modification to accelerate tree improvement. Much of what is known about genes involved in the growth and development of plants has come from studies of herbaceous models such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, transferring this information to woody plants often proves difficult, especially for genes expressed in woody stems. Here we report the use of induced somatic sector analysis (ISSA) for characterization of promoter expression patterns directly in the stems of Populus and Eucalyptus trees. As a case study, we used previously characterized primary and secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase (CesA) promoters cloned from Eucalyptus grandis. We show that ISSA can be used to elucidate the phloem and xylem expression patterns of the CesA genes in Eucalyptus and Populus stems and also show that the staining patterns differ in Eucalyptus and Populus stems. These findings show that ISSA is an efficient approach to investigate promoter function in the developmental context of woody plant tissues and raise questions about the suitability of heterologous promoters for genetic manipulation in plant species.

  7. Isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography (United States)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.


    A fundamental scientific question is, what controls the Earth's topography? Although the theoretical principles of isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography are widely discussed, the parameters needed to apply these principles are frequently not available. Isostatic factors controlling lithospheric buoyancy are frequently uncertain and non-isostatic factors, such as lithospheric bending towards subduction zones and dynamic topography, are hard to distinguish. The question discussed here is whether a set of simple rules that relate topography to lithospheric structure in various tectonic environments can be deduced in a way that missing parameters can be approximated; or does each area behave differently, making generalizations problematic. We contribute to this issue analyzing the Asia-Africa-Arabia-Europe domain following a top-down strategy. We compile a new crustal thickness map and remove the contribution of the crust from the observed elevation. Then, the challenge is to interpret the residual topography in terms of mantle lithosphere buoyancy and dynamics. Based on systematic relationships between tectonic environments and factors controlling topography, we argue that crustal buoyancy and mantle lithospheric density can be approximated from available geological data and that regions near mantle upwelling or downwelling are easily identified by their extreme residual topography. Yet, even for other areas, calculating lithospheric thickness from residual topography is problematic, because distinguishing variations in mantle lithosphere thickness from sub-lithospheric dynamics is difficult. Fortunately, the area studied here provides an opportunity to examine this issue. Based on the conjunction between the Afar Plume and the mid-ocean ridge in the nearby Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea, we constrain the maximal amplitude of dynamic topography to ~ 1 km. This estimate is based on a narrow definition of dynamic topography that only includes sub

  8. An Extinction Study of the Taurus Dark Cloud Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, H G; Arce, Hector G.; Goodman, Alyssa A.


    We present a study of the detailed distribution of extinction in a region of the Taurus dark cloud complex. Our study uses new BVR images of the region, spectral classification data for 95 stars, and IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) 60 and 100 micron images. We study the extinction of the region in four different ways, and we present the first inter-comparison of all these methods, which are: 1) using the color excess of background stars for which spectral types are known; 2) using the ISSA 60 and 100 micron images; 3) using star counts; and 4) using an optical (V and R) version of the average color excess method used by Lada et al. (1994). We find that all four methods give generally similar results, with important exceptions. To study the structure in the dust distribution, we compare the ISSA extinction and the extinction measured for individual stars. From the comparison, we conclude that in the relatively low extinction regions studied, with 0.9 < A_V < 3.0 mag (away from filamentary dark clouds and IR...

  9. The Marshall Plan as Strategic Analogy: Implications for Post-Conflict Reconstruction Planning (United States)


    lateralisation of payments, and achieve conditions for better utilization of labour .56 The Marshall Plan was designed to work through this institution...reconstruction project and program implementation and often caused contractors to manage their projects from afar.95 In addition, security affected...for Iraq Reconstruction, Lessons in Program and Project Management , Cyber Cemetery, March 2007, accessed September, 8 2014, http://cybercemetery

  10. The Role of Tone in Some Cushitic Languages. (United States)

    Appleyard, David L.


    The morphological function of tone/accent is examined in a number of Cushitic languages, with the objective of determining whether any comparative statement can be made validly at the group level. Three languages, the Somali dialect cluster, Afar, and Oromo, are the basis for the study. Patterns in case, gender, and the jussive form are analyzed.…

  11. What China Inc. Can Learn from American Universities (United States)

    Fallows, James


    From afar, the boom in China's higher education system seems to be one more indication of its ceaseless rise overall. Potentially it is the most significant sign, since a China that could rival the existing American and Western-democratic dominance of the world's research and educational establishment might enjoy many other advantages as well.…

  12. To Kill For An Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    Images can provide both an overview and insight, but also the opposite. This ambivalence has become an even bigger part of the nature of the image, of what is an Image? Today we kill for an image, seen from afar on a screen and captured by a drone. The time also asks: Should it be big data...

  13. Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa (United States)

    Ayele, A.


    The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity < 3 mm/yr. Recent studies in the region helped researchers to highlight the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the development of along-axis segmentation. Although the human resource and instrument coverage is sparse in the continent, our understanding of rift processes and deep structure has improved in the last decade after the advent of space geodesy and broadband seismology. The recent major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mega dike intrusions that occurred along the EARS attracted several earth scientist teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

  14. Signatures of the Invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    Strom, D


    On the Net it is possible to take a look at art from afar via Virtual Museums. One such exhibition was recently in the New York Museum of Modern Art's branch, PS1. Entitled 'Signatures of the Invisible' it was a collaborative effort between artists and physicists (1/2 page).

  15. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics: Opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Bossen, Claus


    What kind of knowledges, skills and competences may be required by Techno-Anthropology engaging with health informatics? If we understand Techno-Anthropology to mean conducting anthropological analyses of the interwoven and mutually shaping relationship between organizing, technologies and actors in healthcare, such engagements and interventions can take many forms: Short-term consultancy work dedicated to achieving specific goals, long-term studies of broad changes in healthcare; management support within hospitals and public healthcare administration; or technology development with vendors of healthcare IT. The opportunities would seem to be manifold. Since the healthcare sector is a heterogeneous mix of interests, political agendas, professions et cetera, there is great merit in having people knowledgeable about this heterogeneity; able to facilitate meetings and processes between the various professions and organizations; and skilled in generating analyses and proposing new solutions. Also, people with insight into how action, technologies and organizing are interwoven and redistribute competences, responsibilities and risks are invaluable: Look at from afar, technologies seem to cause and determine social development, whereas detailed studies reveal that determinants and causes are both technical and social. The challenges include the one of making one's knowledge and skills legitimate and relevant to health informatics. Having a degree from arts or social sciences is not necessarily impressive for people with similar degrees in medicine, computer science, and business administration. Another challenge is to design an engagement with health informatics that will generate insights which often requires time, while also providing quick results for project sponsors or collaborators. The chapter points at three issues that seem to be central foundations for appropriate and quality-driven research and interventions of the 'quick and proper' kind: Modes of engagement

  16. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas (United States)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.


    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  17. a Model of the Kinematics of the Danakil Microplate (United States)

    Gloaguen, R.; Eagles, G.


    We present a regional approach to the tectonics of the Afar depression, in which we attempt to relate reconnaissance-scale data to overall movement of a Danakil microplate. Topographic, satellite, airphoto, magnetic and gravity data from the flanks and interior of the Afar depression, NE Africa, are used to assess differing models of the dispersal of the Danakil microplate from its western to its eastern margin. The data are compared to small circles about published instantaneous poles to find evidence of strike-slip and transverse features. A good fit to such features is made using a statistically-significant modern pole to the NNE of the Afar depression. A possible reconstruction about this pole, which reunites branches of an inherited shear zone, is presented. This reconstruction is not consistent with a `crank-arm' or `saloon-doors' mode of opening for the Afar depression. Instead we suggest that only recently has the Danakil microplate come into existence, after the westwards propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift into the Afar depression. Prior to this time movement of Danakil occurred very slowly about the same pole, but as part of the Somalian plate; as shown by the continuity of ancient flowline features onto the Nubian margin of the Main Ethiopian Rift. At 7 Ma, possibly due to the onset of oceanic-type accretion in Afar where the lithosphere was hot and thin already from the presence of a hotspot, Danakil accelerated eastwards about this pole. In response the Gulf of Aden rift propagated westwards to form a new plate boundary between Danakil and Somalia. The newly-formed Danakil microplate is thus an intermediate stage in the transfer of all or part of the Danakil horst to the Arabian plate from the Somalian plate. Further south, at the Main Ethiopian Rift, continental lithosphere did not rupture but the presence of focussed accretion at Afar in a hitherto-diffuse plate boundary precipitated the southward migration of the Somalia-Nubia pole to its present

  18. Social care and changes in occupational accidents and diseases - the situation in Eastern Europe in general and for skin diseases in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus Albert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a consequence of the disintegration of the state systems and the expansion of the European Union, there have been marked changes in the political and social affiliations of the countries of Eastern Europe. Of the 22 countries in Northeastern, Centraleastern, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, 12 are now members and 10 are "new" neighbours of the European Union. The accident insurance systems and changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases in eastern European countries are described. Changes since EU and visible differences from non-EU countries are analysed. Special emphasis is given to occupational skin diseases. Methods The available data from the European Union (MISSOC and MISSCEEC Studies on the Social Protection Systems, the database "Social Security Worldwide" (SSW of the International Social Security Association (ISSA, the International Labour Office Database (LABORSTA, the World Health Organization (WHO and the annual statistical reports of the different countries were analysed with respect to changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases. To find missing data, 128 ministries and authorities in the 22 countries in eastern Europe were researched and 165 persons contacted. Results The social insurance systems were very different in the different countries and some were better established than others. Moreover, not all data were available. For these reasons, detailed comparison was not always possible. The occupational accident rates are decreasing in more than half the countries. In contrast, the fatal accident rates have increased in half the countries. The number of newly registered occupational diseases is decreasing in more than half the countries. The rates for occupational skin diseases in 2006 were particularly high in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. In half the countries (four out of eight, the number of occupational skin diseases is decreasing. A reliable analysis of any

  19. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros


    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  20. Ethiopian Red Sea petroleum geology and regional geophysical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, A. Tadesse, K.; Worku, T.; Tsadik, E.G. (Ethiopian Inst. of Geological Surveys, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia))


    The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. The primary objectives were to encourage increased hydrocarbon exploration activity within the project area by applying recent exploration techniques basin wide, and to train national geoscientists in exploration techniques. The study of the Ethiopian Red Sea and Gulf of Aden was based on public-domain exploration data, published information, and data released by operating companies. These included reports, sections and wire lines logs from eight wells, samples from seven wells for biostratigraphic analysis, and samples from five wells for geochemical analysis. Interpretation was carried out on 6,600 line-km of seismic data selected from a grid of 29,710 line-km. Four horizons were identified on a regional basis, including the sea floor, top and near base of Middle to Upper Miocene evaporites, and approximate acoustic basement. A bathymetric map, three structure-contour maps, and three interval isopach maps were prepared using digitized picks from the interpreted seismic. The results show that the Ethiopian Red Sea is similar to the better known productive Gulf of Suez in some respects, including the overall tectonic evolution and the Miocene to Holocene stratigraphic sequence. Nevertheless, significant differences result from the location of the Ethiopian Red Sea in the transition zone to the Afar area. An important difference is the development of two major en echelon trends of rifting separated by a block with limited extension in the Danakil Alps. The resulting variations in sedimentary sequence, structural style, and geothermal gradient suggest that a favorable petroleum potential may be present locally in both pre-evaporite and post-evaporite objectives.

  1. Kinematics of the Danakil microplate (United States)

    Eagles, Graeme; Gloaguen, Richard; Ebinger, Cynthia


    A refinement and extrapolation of recent motion estimates for the Danakil microplate, based on ancient kinematic indicators in the Afar region, describes the evolution of a microplate in the continental realm. The Danakil horst is an elevated part of this microplate, exposing a Precambrian basement within the Afar depression, the site of the Nubia-Somalia-Arabia triple junction. We compare evidence for strike- or oblique-slip faults in data from the Afar depression and southern Red Sea to small circles about published poles of rotation for the Danakil microplate with respect to Nubia. A reconstruction about the preferred pole reunites lengths of a Precambrian shear zone on the Nubia and Danakil sides and preserves a uniform basement fabric strike through Nubia, Danakil and Yemen. Since at least magnetic chron C5 (˜11 Ma) Danakil rotated about a different pole with respect to Nubia than either Somalia or Arabia, but between chrons C5 and C2A Nubia-Danakil motion was a close approximation to Nubia-Somalia motion. Since C2A relative motions of the Danakil microplate have been independent of movements on any of the neighbouring plate boundaries. We relate this to the onset of oceanic-type accretion within Afar. The resulting eastwards acceleration of Danakil was accommodated by westwards propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift that became the new, discrete, plate boundary between the Danakil microplate and the Somalia plate. Present-day activity suggests that the Red Sea and Aden rifts will link through Afar, thereby isolating the Danakil horst as a microcontinent on the Arabian margin.

  2. Helium and CO2 in xenoliths and lavas from Harrat Hutaymah, Saudi Arabia: insight to magma sources (United States)

    Konrad, K.; Graham, D. W.; Thornber, C. R.; Duncan, R. A.


    Harrat Hutaymah is a young (chromium-diopside and aluminous augite lithologies (including spinel lherzolite, amphibole clinopyroxenite, olivine websterite, clinopyroxenite and garnet websterite). The samples are from eight different volcanic centers over an area of ~2500 km2. The one notable exception is anhydrous spinel lherzolite, which has lower He and CO2 concentrations, and a weighted mean 3He/4He of 7.07× 0.2 RA (2σ, n = 3). Helium and CO2 concentrations are highly correlated in the xenolith suite, with some clinopyroxene separates ranging up to 0.65 ucc STP/g and 32 mcc STP/g, respectively. Olivine-phyric lavas from the region are more variable in composition, but have a similar weighted mean 3He/4He of 7.33 × 1.5 RA (2σ, n = 4) and extend to significantly lower gas concentrations. The 3He/4He results indicate a non-plume origin for volcanism in this area of central Arabia, and trace element data suggest a melting origin within the Proterozoic lithospheric mantle. Despite the uniformity in 3He/4He, Hutaymah xenoliths exhibit a large range of ɛNd, from -0.1 to 12.3 (Thornber 1992). The xenolith isotope variations in lithophile elements are apparently decoupled from those of volatile elements such as helium, as observed in previous studies from other localities (Dunai and Porcelli 2002). This decoupling, combined with the upper mantle He isotope signature, may be indicative of open system behavior in the lithospheric mantle and implies fluid exchange with the shallow asthenosphere. Further work is required to establish if there are spatial or temporal variations of 3He/4He indicating involvement of the high 3He/4He Afar plume.

  3. Predator-prey interactions, flight initiation distance and brain size. (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J


    Prey avoid being eaten by assessing the risk posed by approaching predators and responding accordingly. Such an assessment may result in prey-predator communication and signalling, which entail further monitoring of the predator by prey. An early antipredator response may provide potential prey with a selective advantage, although this benefit comes at the cost of disturbance in terms of lost foraging opportunities and increased energy expenditure. Therefore, it may pay prey to assess approaching predators and determine the likelihood of attack before fleeing. Given that many approaching potential predators are detected visually, we hypothesized that species with relatively large eyes would be able to detect an approaching predator from afar. Furthermore, we hypothesized that monitoring of predators by potential prey relies on evaluation through information processing by the brain. Therefore, species with relatively larger brains for their body size should be better able to monitor the intentions of a predator, delay flight for longer and hence have shorter flight initiation distances than species with smaller brains. Indeed, flight initiation distances increased with relative eye size and decreased with relative brain size in a comparative study of 107 species of birds. In addition, flight initiation distance increased independently with size of the cerebellum, which plays a key role in motor control. These results are consistent with cognitive monitoring as an antipredator behaviour that does not result in the fastest possible, but rather the least expensive escape flights. Therefore, antipredator behaviour may have coevolved with the size of sense organs, brains and compartments of the brain involved in responses to risk of predation.

  4. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.


    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  5. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia). (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio


    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  6. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and evolution of the Somaliland-Yemen conjugate margin (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.


    We have used biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells to determine the tectonic subsidence history of the Somaliland (northwestern Somalia)-Yemen conjugate margin, a poorly known margin in the central part of the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data suggest the Gulf of Aden is a young feature that formed following the rifting apart and breakup of the African and Arabian plates ~32 Ma. Our tectonic subsidence data suggest, however, that the present-day Gulf of Aden developed on an earlier Mesozoic rift system. The oldest episode of rifting initiated at ~156 Ma and lasted for ~10 Ma and had a NW-SE trend. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the breakup of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. At ~80 Ma, there is evidence of an intermediate rift event which correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The combined effect of all three rifting events has been to thin the crust and upper mantle by up to a factor of 2. The amount of thinning deduced from the wells is in accord with the crustal structure inferred from available seismic refraction data and process-oriented gravity and flexure modeling. The margin is asymmetric with a steeper gradient in the Moho on the Yemen side than the Somaliland side. The main discrepancy is on the Yemen side where the gravity-derived Moho is 10 km deeper than the well-derived Moho. We attribute the discrepancy to the addition of material at the base of the crust since rifting, possibly magma sourced from the Afar plume.

  7. Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary: The Gulfs of Aden and Tadjoura (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; Tapponnier, Paul; Courtillot, Vincent; Gruszow, Sylvie; Gillot, Pierre-Yves


    a mechanical model in which the large-scale propagation of the ridge followed a WSW trending zone of maximum tensile stress, while the small-scale propagation of its NW trending segments was dictated by the orientation of that stress. Oblique propagation was a consequence of passive lithospheric necking of the Arabia-Somalia plate along its narrow section, in map view, between Socotra and the kink of the Red Sea-Ethiopian rift, above the Afar plume. Individual ridge segments oriented roughly perpendicular to plate motion, like lithospheric cracks, were forced to jump southward because of confinement within the necking zone. Self-sustaining, plate-scale necking may explain why the Aden ridge did not connect with the Red Sea through Bab El Mandeb but continued straight into Afar.

  8. Gravity tectonics of topographic ridges: Halokinesis and gravitational spreading in the western Ogaden, Ethiopia (United States)

    Mège, Daniel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Rango, Tewodros; Korme, Tesfaye


    The Cenozoic history of the western Ogaden region of Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian rift and the South Afar margin, is marked by uplift and incision of the Ogaden plateau down to the Gorrahei Formation, an upper Cretaceous evaporite formation. Debuttressing of this and the overlying sedimentary formations resulted in widespread and spectacular gravitational spreading landforms over a minimum surface area of 15,000 km2, most of which remains unstudied. After clearing up some misconceptions about the surface geology of the study area, the Kebenawa Ridge in the Audo Range, observations are reported that point to a tectonic style controlled by halokinesis and subsequently, gravitational spreading. The role of diapirism and karstification in the observed halokinesis is discussed, as well as the influence of halokinesis on gravitational spreading. Spreading is in part akin to sackung, in that ridge deformation features include a crestal graben and basal ridge topography extrusion, and deformation was triggered by lateral ridge debuttressing. Ridge spreading also presents analogy with gravitational spreading of the Canyonlands grabens in the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. The scale and the mechanisms are found to be basically similar, but two differences are noted. First, incision by the drainage network in response to plateau uplift in Ethiopia has debuttressed the topography along two parallel rivers, instead of a single river (the Colorado River) in Utah. Secondly, incision proceeded to the base of the evaporite layer in the Ogaden, whereas incision has not exceeded the top of the evaporite layer in Utah. These differences may have influenced the details of the spreading mechanisms in ways that remain to be investigated. Overall, in Ethiopia, association of halokinesis and a transitional mode of gravitational spreading at the interface between narrow ridge spreading (sackung) and plateau spreading (Canyonlands-type), illustrates a fascinating and

  9. Analogy between natural gas found in lakes of rift valley system of east Africa and its allied gas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuta, O.


    The Afar triangle in northeastern Ethiopia is where the Red Sea rift, the Carlsberg Ridge of the Indian Ocean, and the Rift Valley system of east Africa meet. In 1979, J. Welhan and H. Craig reported that hydrothermal vents at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise, are discharging turbid waters. Mixtures of the plumes with ambient seawater contain significant amounts of dissolved H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ as well as mantel-derived /sup 3/He-rich helium. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios of rock samples obtained earlier by J. Lupton and H. Craig from the Mid-Oceanic Ridge, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the east Pacific Rise, are extremely high at an almost constant value of (1.3 +/- 0.2) x 10/sup -5/, which they defined as the MOR-type helium. However, the deep brines of the Red Sea contain about 1,000 times more methane than normal seawater does, according to Gold and Soter in 1980. Much evidence leads us to believe that large amounts of /sup 3/He-rich helium-bearing natural gas have been gushing out in many places of the Rift Valley of east Africa for a long time. In 1980, Gold and Soter stated that Lake Kivu, which occupies part of the East African rift valley, contains 50 million tons of dissolved methane for which there is no adequate microbial source. The Japanese Islands began to separate from the Asian continent during the early Miocene. The early Miocene was characterized by intensive volcanic activity that produced large amounts of pyroclastics and other volcanic rocks, generally called green tuff in Japan. It has been suggested that oil and gas in green tuff is derived from the upper mantle.

  10. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.


    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  11. Risk assessment of AMC (Advanced measurement and control systems). Survey of information security vulnerabilities in AMC.; Risikovurdering av AMS. Kartlegging av informasjonssikkerhetsmessige s#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#rbarheter i AMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnes, Line Maria [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Johansen, Gorm Idar [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); S#Latin Small Letter Ae#le, Hanne [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway)


    SINTEF has carried out an overall assessment of Advanced measurement and control Systems (AMC) for Norway Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). The assessment includes mainly AMC basis functions, which are record measurement data in customer and transfer these to the network, as well as wrestling / throttling power outlet in the each measuring point. Adjoining IT systems with network companies are considered only to a limited degree. The focus in analysis has been measuring point by geographical location, and the opportunity for both consumption and feed. Mobile devices such as measuring the charging of electric vehicles have not been touched upon in the analysis. It must be noted that this report provides an overall risk assessment related to general AMC technology and infrastructure. Each grid company must prepare their own risk assessments for their systems. The report describes a general AMC infrastructure with the refinements that have been made for this analysis. Then it is made an assessment on the basis of an information security perspective, the confidentiality, integrity and availability are the most important aspects. Different scenarios and events are presented and discussed, and the events that are judged to be at highest risk, one or more of the following elements out: - Unwanted shutdown of many customers - Software Error - Central system fails or used in the attack - Unfaithful servant's own employee misuses of knowledge and / or legitimate accesses In addition, a scenario with many gauges inoperative once considered to be critical, without cause need to be a targeted attack. This is because the consequences will incur substantial costs for repair and / or replacement of equipment. Malicious software could be causing, or a tool in several of events, especially at the onset that run from afar (remote connection). It is recommended that the Emergency Regulations should apply to AMC, because the risk assessment has been done shows that

  12. The He isotope composition of the earliest picrites erupted by the Ethiopia plume, implications for mantle plume source (United States)

    Stuart, Finlay; Rogers, Nick; Davies, Marc


    The earliest basalts erupted by mantle plumes are Mg-rich, and typically derived from mantle with higher potential temperature than those derived from the convecting upper mantle at mid-ocean ridges and ocean islands. The chemistry and isotopic composition of picrites from CFB provide constraints on the composition of deep Earth and thus the origin and differentiation history. We report new He-Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the picrites from the Ethiopian flood basalt province from the Dilb (Chinese Road) section. They are characterized by high Fe and Ti contents for MgO = 10-22 wt. % implying that the parent magma was derived from a high temperature low melt fraction, most probably from the Afar plume head. The picrite 3He/4He does not exceed 21 Ra, and there is a negative correlation with MgO, the highest 3He/4He corresponding to MgO = 15.4 wt. %. Age-corrected 87Sr/86Sr (0.70392-0.70408) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512912-0.512987) display little variation and are distinct from MORB and OIB. Age-corrected Pb isotopes display a significant range (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 18.70-19.04) and plot above the NHRL. These values contrast with estimates of the modern Afar mantle plume which has lower 3He/4He and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios that are more comparable with typical OIB. These results imply either interaction between melts derived from the Afar mantle plume and a lithospheric component, or that the original Afar mantle plume had a rather unique radiogenic isotope composition. Regardless of the details of the origins of this unusual signal, our observations place a minimum 3He/4He value of 21 Ra for the Afar mantle plume, significantly greater than the present day value of 16 Ra, implying a significant reduction over 30 Myr. In addition the Afar source was less degassed than convecting mantle but more degassed than mantle sampled by the proto-Iceland plume (3He/4He ~50 Ra). This suggests that the largest mantle plumes are not sourced in a single deep mantle domain with a

  13. Continental Break-up Above A Mantle Plume: Opening of The Southern Red Sea (United States)

    Ebinger, C.; Eagles, G.; Elders, C.; Gloaguen, R.; McClay, K.; Tiberi, C.; Wolfenden, E.

    Initial rifting in the Red Sea occurred concurrent with, or soon after flood basaltic mag- matism at~31 Ma in the Ethiopia-Yemen plume province. Yet, the development of the ca. 400 km-wide extensional province of the southern Red Sea between 31 Ma and the onset of seafloor spreading at ~4 Ma has been poorly understood, in large part owing to inaccessibility in the Afar depression. The Afar depression is a diffuse extensional province marking a triple point zone between plate boundaries in the Red Sea (Arabia Nubia), the Gulf of Aden (Arabia Somalia); and the Main Ethiopian Rift (Somalia Nu- bia). Complicating this setting, the Danakil horst is a microplate lying between oceanic provinces in the southernmost Red Sea and incipient seafloor spreading in the northern Afar depression. We have integrated exploration seismic, gravity, well, and magnetic data from offshore regions with remote sensing, geological and geophysical data from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Yemen to evaluate models for continental break-up above mantle plumes. Plate kinematic reconstructions using a pole of rotation within the error ellipse of the Chu and Gordon (1999) pole predict real features in remote sensing and gravity data; these reconstructions provide a general framework for our interpretations. Field and geochronology studies along the western margin of Afar show a southward prop- agation of rifting since about 25 Ma when extension commenced offshore Red Sea and in Yemen. We also see an eastward migration of strain from the western border fault to narrow zones of primarily basaltic magmatism since mid-Miocene time. These magmatic sequences, where not onlapped by Pliocene-Recent sedimentary strata, dip steeply seaward and define a regional eastward flexure into transitional oceanic crust, as suggested by gravity models constrained by existing seismic data. Our synthesis suggests that the southern Afar depression, assumed to be most proximal to the plume, was the site of incipient seafloor

  14. Backyard botica. (United States)

    Choudhury, P A


    Barangay Veterans Village (BVV) is a community of World War II veterans. After one of the village leaders in 1987 asked the Institute for Social Studies and Action (ISSA) to help develop the community, the BVV community outreach project was launched. Project components promote health care and mobilize women to take an active role in their health as well as their family's and the community's. Once the project was implemented, the ISSA facilitated the formation of an association of volunteers to help residents design and carry out community projects. Exposure trips and lectures outside BVV led to the establishment of communal gardens of medicinal plants by the first three groups of volunteers. Three years later, the trained workers continue to maintain the concept of herbal gardening through individual plots. On their own and with the help of friends, books, and seminars, the women volunteers at BVV have discovered and shared knowledge about the curative powers of medicinal plants. Their faith in herbs and other plants is reinforced by the knowledge that some of the ingredients of imported drugs are medicinal plants native to the country. Herbal produce from the garden has therefore become a viable alternative to expensive name brand drugs. Consumers are, however, told by a volunteer registered nurse to seek her input should improvement in health status not be forthcoming following administration of the appropriate herbs. At the ISSA weekly outreach clinic, whenever applicable or appropriate, an herbal remedy is suggested instead of a branded or generic drug. The article explains which herbs are used per affliction.

  15. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization’s Culture: A Case Study (United States)


    overcome the COE’s resistance to change and policies by using the theoretical concepts of a best value environment as a component of the technical...checklist, and the weekly report. 6.1. Resistance to Change . The migration to Best Value is threatening to the status quo due to the following. (1...accompanied by fear, man- ifested in resistance to change , not being open to logic/best practices, using the FAR and AFARS and interpreting new concepts

  16. Official (ISC)2 guide to the CISSP exam

    CERN Document Server

    Hansche, Susan; Hare, Chris


    Candidates for the CISSP exam can now go directly to the source for study materials that are indispensable in achieving certification. The Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP Exam is derived from the actual CBK review course created and administered by the non-profit security consortium (ISC)2. In addition to being an invaluable study guide, this book is detailed enough to serve as an authoritative information security resource. Both of the guide's co-authors are CISSPs, and the entire text has been reviewed and approved by Hal Tipton, Co-Founder and Past President of ISSA and Co-Founder of (I

  17. Jointly Create a Bright New Future for International Friendship Cities——Speech by NPC Standing Committee Vice Chairman Chen Changzhi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 2014 China International Friendship Cities Conference and the Guangzhou International Urban Innovation Conference are nowconvening here in Guangzhou.First of all,on behalf of the Chinese Government and in my own name,I’d like to extend warm congratulations on the convocation of the conference and a sincere welcome to all the delegates,especially foreign friends from afar.China’s international friendship city activities carried out for more than

  18. A semi-supervised approach uncovers thousands of intragenic enhancers differentially activated in human cells



    Background Transcriptional enhancers are generally known to regulate gene transcription from afar. Their activation involves a series of changes in chromatin marks and recruitment of protein factors. These enhancers may also occur inside genes, but how many may be active in human cells and their effects on the regulation of the host gene remains unclear. Results We describe a novel semi-supervised method based on the relative enrichment of chromatin signals between 2 conditions to predict act...

  19. Julius J. Bautista (2010. Figuring Catholicism: An ethnohistory of the Santo Niño de Cebu. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Seng Guan


    Full Text Available Let me begin with a confession—I am a novice to Philippines Studies.However, long before stepping foot in the Philippines (in 2006, I have beenintrigued by the seemingly pervasive presence of Roman Catholicism in party politics, popular culture and the everyday religiosity of Philippine society as gleaned through my sporadic forays into Filipino scholarly literature (and movies from afar.

  20. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access. (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot


    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  1. Using the DIRBE/IRAS All-Sky Reddening Map To Select Low-Reddening Windows Near the Galactic Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, K Z


    Recently Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis published an all-sky reddening map based on the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA infrared sky surveys. Using the reddening map of Baade's Window and sample of 19 low-latitude ($|b|<5\\deg$) Galactic globular clusters I find that the DIRBE/IRAS reddening map overestimates $E(B-V)$ at low galactic latitudes by a factor of $\\sim 1.35$. I also demonstrate the usefulness of this high resolution map for selecting low-reddening windows near the Galactic plane.

  2. Mineralogy and Petrology of Comet Wild 2 Nucleus Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolensky, M E; Zega, T J; Yano, H; Wirick, S; Westphal, A J; Weisberg, M K; Weber, I; Warren, J L; Velbel, M A; Tsuchiyama, A; Tsou, P; Toppani, A; Tomioka, N; Tomeoka, K; Teslich, N; Taheri, M; Susini, J; Stroud, R; Stephan, T; Stadermann, F J; Snead, C J; Simon, S B; Siminovici, A; See, T H; Robert, F; Rietmeijer, F M; Rao, W; Perronnet, M C; Papanastassiou, D A; Okudaira, K; Ohsumi, K; Ohnishi, I; Nakanura-Messenger, K; Nakamura, T; Mostefaoui, S; Mikouchi, T; Meibom, A; Matrajt, G; Marcus, M A; Leroux, H; Lemelle, L; Le, L; Lanzirotti, A; Langenhorst, F; Krot, A N; Keller, L P; Kearsley, A T; Joswiak, D; Jacob, D; Ishii, H; Harvey, R; Hagiya, K; Grossman, L; Graham, G A; Gounelle, M; Gillet, P; Genge, M J; Flynn, G; Ferrior, T; Fallon, S; Ebel, D S; Dai, Z R; Cordier, P; Chi, M; Butterworth, A L; Brownlee, D E; Bridges, J C; Brennan, S; Brearley, A; Bradley, J P; Bleuet, P; Bland, P A; Bastien, R


    The bulk of the Wild 2 samples appear to be weakly-constructed mixtures of nanometerscale grains with occasional much larger (>1{micro}m) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions in Wild 2 require a wide range of formation conditions, probably reflecting different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk. The restricted compositional ranges of Fe-Ni sulfides, the wide range for silicates, and absence of hydrous phases indicate that Wild 2 experienced little or no aqueous alteration. Less abundant Wild 2 materials include a refractory particle, whose presence appears to require large-scale radial transport in the early protoplanetary disk. The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Until now we have had to study comets from afar using spectroscopy, or settle for analyses of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of uncertain provenance. We report here mineralogical and petrographic analyses of particles derived directly from Comet Wild 2. All of the Wild 2 particles we have thus far examined have been modified in various ways by the capture process. All particles that may have been loose aggregates, ''traveling sand piles'', disaggregated into individual components with the larger, denser components penetrating more deeply into the aerogel. Individual grains experienced a wide range of heating effects that range from excellent preservation to melting (Fig. 1); such behavior was expected (1, 2 ,3). What is remarkable is the extreme variability of these modifications and the fact that severely modified and unmodified materials can be found within a micrometer of each other, requiring tremendous local temperature gradients. Fortunately, we have an internal gauge of impact collection heating. Fe-Ni sulfides are ubiquitous in the Wild 2 samples, are very

  3. New Software for Long-Term Storage and Analysis of Seismic Wave Data (United States)

    Cervelli, D. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Murray, T. L.


    Large seismic networks generate a substantial quantity of data that must be first archived, and then disseminated, visualized, and analyzed, in real-time, in the office or from afar. To achieve these goals for the Alaska Volcano Observatory we developed two software packages: Winston, a database for storing seismic wave data, and Swarm, an application for analyzing and browsing the data. We also modified an existing package, Valve, an internet web-browser based interface to various data sets developed at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, to communicate with Winston. These programs provide users with the tools necessary to monitor many commonly used geophysical parameters. Winston, Wave Information Storage Network, uses a vendor-neutral SQL database to store seismic wave data. Winston's primary design goal was simple: develop a more robust, scalable, long-term replacement for the Earthworm waveserver. Access to data within the Winston database is through a scalable internet based server application, an Earthworm waveserver emulator, or directly via SQL queries. Some benefits of using an SQL database are easy backups and exports, speed, and reliability. Swarm, Seismic Wave Analysis and Real-time Monitor, is a stand-alone application that was designed to replace the traditional drum helicorder and computer wave viewer with an intuitive and interactive interface for rapidly assessing volcanic hazard, browsing through past data, and analyzing waveforms. Users can easily view waves in traditional analytic ways, such as frequency spectra or spectrograms, and employ standard analytic tools like filtering. Swarm allows efficient dissemination of data and breaks cross-disciplinary barriers by creating an accessible interface to seismic data for non-seismologists. Swarm currently operates with many seismic data sources including Earthworm waveservers and SEED files. Lastly, Swarm can be a valuable education and outreach tool by using its Kiosk Mode: a full-screen mode that

  4. Recent kinematics of the tectonic plates surrounding the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Macchiavelli, Chiara; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Zanoni, Davide; Rasul, Najeeb


    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden represent two young basins that formed between Africa and Arabia since the early Oligocene, floored by oceanic crust or by transitional and thinned continental crust. While in the easternmost Gulf of Aden, the rift-drift transition can be dated chron C6 (˜20.1 Ma), here we show that in the Red Sea the first pulse of seafloor spreading occurred during chron C3n.2n (˜4.6 Ma) around ˜17.1°N (present-day coordinates) and propagated southwards from this location, separating the Danakil microplate from Arabia. It is also shown that seafloor spreading between Arabia and Nubia started later, around chron 2A (˜2.58 Ma), and propagated northwards. At present, there is no magnetic evidence for the existence of a linear spreading centre in the northern Red Sea at latitudes higher than ˜24°N and in the southern Red Sea below ˜14.8°N. The present-day plate kinematics of this region can be described with high accuracy by a network of five interacting plates (Nubia, Arabia, Somalia, Sinai and Danakil) and six triple junctions. For times older than anomaly 2A (˜2.58 Ma) and up to anomaly 3, the absence of marine magnetic anomalies between Arabia and Nubia prevents a rigorous kinematic description of the five-plates system. However, there is strong evidence that the unique changes in plate motions during the last 5 Myr were a dramatic slowdown at chron C2 (˜1.77 Ma) in the spreading or extension rates along the ridge and rift axes, thereby a good representation of the real plate motions can be obtained anyway by backward extension of the oldest Arabia-Nubia and Arabia-Danakil stage rotations determined on the basis of marine magnetic anomalies, respectively, C2-C2A and C2A-C3. The proposed kinematic reconstructions are accompanied by a geodynamic explanation for the genesis of large continent-continent fracture zones at the rift-drift transition and by an analysis of the strain associated with plate motions in Afar, northeastern Egypt and

  5. Pre-, Syn- and Post Eruptive Seismicity of the 2011 Eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kendall, Michael; Nowacky, Andy; Keir, Derek; Oppenheimer, Clive; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Ayele, Atalay; Ibrahim, Said; Jacques, Eric


    Nabro volcano, located in south-east Eritrea, East Africa, lies at the eastern margin of the Afar Rift and the Danakil Depression. Its tectonic behaviour is controlled by the divergence of the Arabian, Nubian and Somali plates. Nabro volcano was thought to be seismically quiet until it erupted in June 2011 with limited warning. The volcano erupted on June 12, 2011 around 20:32 UTC, following a series of earthquakes on that day that reached a maximum magnitude of 5.8. It is the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano and only the second in Eritrea, following the Dubbi eruption in 1861. A lava flow emerged from the caldera and travelled about 20 km from the vent and buried settlements in the area. At the time of this eruption there was no seismic network in Eritrea, and hence the volcano was not monitored. In this study we use ten Ethiopian, one Yemeni and one Djibouti stations to investigate the seismicity of the area before, during and after the eruption. Four Eritrean seismic stations deployed in June 2011, four days after the eruption, are also included in the dataset. Travel time picks supplied by colleagues from Djibouti were also incorporated into the dataset. Our analysis covers roughly three months before and after the eruption and shows that Nabro was seismically quiet before the eruption (nine events), with the exception of one major earthquake (4.8 magnitude) that occurred on March 31, 2011. In contrast, the region shows continued seismic activity after the eruption (92 events). During the eruption seismicity levels are high (123 events), with two days particularly active, June 12 and June 17 with 85 and 28 discrete events, respectively. Maximum magnitudes of 5.8 and 5.9 were recorded on these two days. The two days of increased seismicity are consistent with satellite observations of the eruption which show two distinct phases of the eruption. The period between these two phases was dominated by volcanic tremor. The tremor signal lasted for almost one

  6. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele


    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  7. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    analysed to calculate possible long range trajectories [Weisbin 99] for the rover. Provided the rover is given a predefined "ideal rock" definition, the same DEMs can be used to classify rocks in the surrounding area and identify any which meet the ideal rock criteria, meaning that, during long-range traverses potentially scientifically rich rocks would not be missed. The technique can also be used identify the approach trajectory for the arm given the orientation of the rock surface. 1 If several ideal rocks have been identified the rover could then use a rock reachability map to prioritise the rocks for sampling, this would consider: rock classification; the amount of energy required to reach the rock; and the number of instruments that can be placed on the surface. Autonomously identifying ideal rocks and calculating instrument position reduces the rover waiting time and operator input, and increases the scientific return. 1. Shaw A.J. and Barnes D.P., Landmark recognition for localisation and navigation of aerial vehicles. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Las Vegas, October 2003. CD-ROM Proceedings. 2. Weisbin, Charles R. Rodriguez Guillermo, Schenker Paul S., Das Hari, Hayati Samad A., Baumgartner Eric T., Maimone Mark, Nesnas Issa A., Volpe Richard A. Autonomous rover technology for mars sample return, Pages 1-10 of: 1999 International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, ISAIRAS99. 2

  8. The development of extension and magmatism during continent-ocean transition: evidence from Ethiopia (United States)

    Bastow, Ian; Keir, Derek; Booth, Adam; Corti, Giacomo; Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher; Wilkinson, Jason


    The geological record at rifts and margins worldwide often reveals along-strike variations in volumes of extruded and intruded igneous rocks. These variations may be the result of asthenospheric heterogeneity, variations in rate and timing of extension. Preexisting plate architecture and/or the evolving kinematics of extension during breakup may also influence magmatism strongly. The Ethiopian and Afar Rift systems provide an excellent opportunity to address these issues since they expose, along strike, several sectors of ongoing, asynchronous rift development from embryonic continental rifting in the south to incipient oceanic spreading in the north. A consensus has now emerged from a variety of disciplines in Ethiopia that a considerable proportion of extension in Ethiopia is accommodated by focused dyke intrusion in narrow axial zones, without marked crustal (and plate?) thinning. These "magmatic segments" may mark the final breakup boundary and location of an incipient oceanic spreading centre. However, observations of markedly thinned crust and a pulse in Quaternary-Recent basaltic volcanism within the Danakil Depression have recently been cited as evidence that an abrupt, late stage of localised plate stretching may instead mark the final stages of continent-ocean transition (Bastow & Keir, 2011). We explore this hypothesis using recently-acquired seismic reflection data and accompanying borehole geological constraints from Danakil. Thick sequences of evaporites have been deposited in an asymmetric basin, whose subsidence has been controlled primarily by a major, east dipping normal fault. Surprisingly, no significant magmatism is observed in the upper ~1000m. Age constraints on a potash-bearing sequence presently being mined in the basin point towards rapid basin infill in the last several tens-to-hundreds of thousands of years. Basin formation cannot be easily attributed to the effects of magmata intrusion. Instead, an abrupt, localised, late-stage, plate

  9. Arabia/Africa/Eurasia kinematics and the Dynamics of Post-Oligocene Mediterranean Tectonics (United States)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.


    Geodetic and plate tectonic observations indicate that the rate of Africa (AF) - Eurasia (EU) convergence slowed by ~50% at 24 +/- 4 Ma when AF began to separate from Arabia (AR) initiating extension along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. A further ~50% slowing of AF-EU convergence occurred at 11+/- 2 Ma when extension in the Gulf of Aden evolved to full ocean spreading, completely severing this segment of the AR-AF plate boundary, thereby reducing the slab-pull from Zagros-Makran subduction on the AF plate. This change in torque balance also caused an increase in the N-S component of AR-AF motion resulting in kinematic changes in both the northern (Dead Sea Fault/Sinai/Gulf of Suez) and southern (Danakil/Afar) Red Sea. While AF-EU convergence slowed, AR-EU convergence remained approximately constant from >21 Ma to the present. Contemporaneous with the initial slowing of AF-EU convergence, extension initiated along the entire AF-EU boundary (Alboran, Central Mediterranean [Tyrrenian, Balearic], and Aegean basins). The timing of the initial slowing of AF-EU convergence (~25 Ma; Late Oligocene/Early Miocene) corresponds to the initiation of extensional tectonics in the Mediterranean Basin (Alboran, Central Mediterranean [Tyrrenian, Balearic], and Aegean basins), and the second phase of slowing to changes in the character of Mediterranean extension reported at ~ 11 Ma (Tortonian). Based on theoretical considerations indicating that buoyancy forces on the subducted lithosphere are proportional to the rate of subduction, we hypothesize that the slowing of AF-EU convergence caused an imbalance in the dynamic equilibrium of the subducting Neotethys oceanic lithosphere beneath the Mediterranean segment of the plate boundary, resulting in foundering of the subducted plate, and associated southward migration of the trench system. Southward trench migration resulted in contemporaneous ~N-S extension within the Mediterranean Basin. The detailed configuration of these extensional

  10. Modelling the effects of climate and land use change on the hydrological system of Urumqi, Northwest China (United States)

    Fricke, K.; Bubenzer, O.


    This case study is about the hydrological system of Urumqi City, Northwest China, where the effects of climate change and land use change until 2050 are modelled. The research is part of the BMBF-funded project "RECAST Urumqi - Meeting the Resource Efficiency Challenge in a Climate Sensitive Dryland Megacity Environment". Northwest China is a region where notable climate change takes place. Regional climate has shifted during the last 30 years to a wetter regime, while at the same time exhibiting rising temperatures. The provincial capital Urumqi is a fast expanding economic and industrial centre, leading to enforced and notable land use change around the city. The hydrological effects of both drivers have to be assessed to allow customized adaptation to the inevitable changes. The hydrological model is based on the water balance equation and uses partly physically based modules e.g. to calculate potential evapotranspiration with the Penman-Monteith formula and partly index based modules e.g. to simulate snow melt water and surface runoff. The main challenge when applying the model was the lack of field research and hydrological data such as measured runoff or groundwater recharge. Hence, input data was almost completely collected from afar, from climate and soil databases and remote sensing (land use and cover, spatial distribution of land surface temperature and precipitation). The hydrological model was calibrated at one of the upper sub-catchments with good results for the total annual runoff volume but low values for the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient. In order to assess the annual water balance, the methodology was transferred to the whole catchment area. The hydrological behaviour of the other sub-catchments was assumed to be comparable to the calibrated one, applying the concept of predicting ungauged basins based on similar characteristics of the hydrological system. Future scenarios that were modelled include on the one hand the projection of

  11. The COMPLETE Nature of the Warm Dust Ring in Perseus

    CERN Document Server

    Ridge, N A; Goodman, A A; Schnee, S L; Foster, Jonathan B.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Ridge, Naomi A.; Schnee, Scott L.


    The Perseus molecular cloud complex is a ~30pc long chain of molecular clouds most well-known for the two star-forming clusters NGC1333 and IC348 and the well-studied outflow source in B5. However, when studied at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths the region is dominated by a ~10pc diameter shell of warm dust, likely generated by an HII region caused by the early B-star HD278942. Using a revised calibration technique the COMPLETE team has produced high-sensitivity temperature and column-density maps of the Perseus region from IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) 60 and 100um data. In this paper, we combine the ISSA based dust-emission maps with other observations collected as part of the COMPLETE Survey, along with archival H-alpha and MSX observations. Molecular line observations from FCRAO and extinction maps constructed by applying the NICER method to the 2MASS catalog provide independent estimates of the ``true'' column-density of the shell. H-alpha emission in the region of the shell confirms that it is most like...

  12. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.


    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  13. Development of Performance-Related Specification for Fresh Emulsions Used for Surface Treatments and Performance Study of Chip Seals and Microsurfacing (United States)

    Ilias, Mohammad

    appraised using the procedure specified by the International Slurry Surfacing Association (ISSA) with no provision for quantifying microsurfacing residue performance. In this study, residue performance is quantified using the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test for rutting and bleeding, the Bitumen Bond Strength Test (BBS) for raveling, Low Temperature Frequency (LTF) test for low temperature Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) properties prediction, and Single Edge Notched Bend (SENB) fracture test developed under this work. Microsurfacing mixture performance is quantified using the Wet Track Abrasion Test (WTAT) for raveling, Model Mobile Load Simulator (MMLS3) for rutting and bleeding, and SENB test developed for low-temperature cracking. Microsurfacing mixture performance is correlated to residue properties in order to identify critical emulsion residue properties in determining performance and to derive specification limits. Results indicate rutting and thermal cracking are the distresses most directly related to the emulsion residue performance. Correspondingly, specifications are proposed to address rutting at high temperature and thermal cracking at low temperature based on the relationship between residue and mixture results coupled. In addition, test methods and specification criteria are developed to address lowtemperature raveling resistance of emulsion residues used in chip seals. The SENB test is used to quantify residue resistance to thermal cracking under the assumption that lowtemperature raveling occurs primarily by cohesive fracture of the residue in the chip seal. The Vialit test is modified and employed for quantifying raveling resistance of chip seals mixture for determining if the SENB test captures binder contribution to mixture raveling. The correlation between residue and mixture properties have been used to assess applicability of the residue tests and to derive specification limits.

  14. 78 FR 42589 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (United States)


    ..., Colombia; Cedula No. 20222497 (Colombia) (individual) (Linked To: ISSA EMPRESA UNIPERSONAL; Linked To... To: CHAPS INVESTMENT INC.; Linked To: SBT S.A.; Linked To: ISSA EMPRESA UNIPERSONAL; Linked To.... (f.k.a. ``ORLY OVADIA DE GUBEREK EMPRESA UNIPERSONAL''), Calle 17 No. 68D-52, Bogota,...

  15. Lagrangian Modeling of Evaporating Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions: Effects of Multi-Hole Injector Nozzles With JP-8 Surrogates (United States)


    pressure. This is achieved using the modified Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operator (PISO) algorithm first introduced by Issa [13]. An...2012). 12. Pomraning, E., “Development of Large Eddy Simulation Turbulence Models”,PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000. 13. Issa


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Badat


    Full Text Available Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently experienced several years of civil war and extreme economic hardships, have begun to improve benefit structures and amounts, which include national medical benefits. The attention being provided to social security and how it fits into a nation’s plans to lift itself out of poverty is increasingly involving the actuarial profession from international organisations such as ILO and ISSA as well as consulting actuaries and academics. Assessing and ensuring sustainability of social security benefits requires actuarial valuations to take long-term consequences involving demographic changes into account in the face of providing the benefits in the short term; asset liability modelling to ensure adequate resources are held; ensuring that results are appropriately reported and communicated to key stakeholders; as well as developing long-term strategic plans and dynamic systems surrounding all of these issues. In this paper, the role of actuaries is brought to the centre of the increasingly changing face and evolving culture of social security in taking Africa closer to poverty alleviation. La Seguridad Social en la mayoría de los países africanos ha evolucionado significativamente en cuanto a perspectivas, motivos, gobernanza, así como en innovación en las prestaciones y la adminsitración. Los países africanos están comenzando a reevaluar el papel de la Seguridad Social en la eliminación de determinados problemas sociales. Los programas de acción y los

  17. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.


    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  18. Excursion guide to the Danakil



    The Danakil, also called the Afar Depression is part of the Great Rift Valley which extends some 7200 km from Jordan to the coastal region of Mozambique near Beira, with 5600 km laying within Africa (Pritchard, 1986). It covers an area of ~ 200,000 km2 and is flanked on the west and southeast by the Ethiopian and Somali Plateaux, and on the east by the Danakil Block or Danakil Alps (Bosworth, 2005).The Danakil escarpment displays some of the most spectacular examples of faulted landscapes ...

  19. 2. Customary Dispute Resolution in Amhara Region: The Case of Wofa Legesse in North Shewa


    Abate, Melaku; Shiferaw, Wubishet


    Profile of the Region and the selected study area Amhara Region is located in the northern and northwestern parts of Ethiopia. It shares borders with the regional states of Oromia, Afar, Benishangul, and Tigray. It also borders Sudan. The Region has an area of 161,828 square kilometers and a population of 17,205,000. The political center of Amhara is Bahir Dar, which is 565 kilometers from Addis Ababa. The Region comprises eleven zones of which three are special zones, namely Awi, Wag Himra a...

  20. MicroASC instrument onboard Juno spacecraft utilizing inertially controlled imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Jørgensen, Andreas Härstedt; Benn, Mathias


    This contribution describes the post-processing of the raw image data acquired by the microASC instrument during the Earth-fly-by of the Juno spacecraft. The images show a unique view of the Earth and Moon system as seen from afar. The procedure utilizes attitude measurements and inter......-calibration of the Camera Head Units of the microASC system to trigger the image capturing. The triggering is synchronized with the inertial attitude and rotational phase of the sensor acquiring the images. This is essentially works as inertially controlled imaging facilitating image acquisition from unexplored...

  1. 高等教育的挑战:1981年以来百次访华的回想%Challenges for Higher Education: A Reflection of My 100 Trips to China since 1981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Da-Husan


    @@ 1 Preface Thank you so much for giving me the honor to speak here today. There is a famous story about a blind person trying to figure out what an elephant looks like. When he touches the tail, he said the elephant looks like the tail. When he touches the ears, he said that the elephant looks like the ears. The reason is because the elephant is huge and unless you can examine both closely and afar, with open eyes, you may not see the whole picture.

  2. Four Easy Steps to Drastically Improve Your Phone-Based Customer Service. (United States)

    Peller, Spencer; Beimes, Zachary


    Japan is renowned for impeccable customer service (as anyone who's watched an apple get wrapped up like a crown jewel in a Tokyo grocery store will tell you). The Japanese concept of kaizen (constant improvement) is a fundamental reason for this, and for the enduring success of conglomerates such as Toyota, Honda, and Sony. From afar, you may think this trait is caused by something in the waters from Mt. Fuji, but many in the know credit the work of an American engineer named W. Edwards Deming as the catalyst for this movement. If his ideas could transform a nation, there's no question they can improve the patient satisfaction rates at your practice.

  3. Assessing the sociology of sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    of football as a male social field. Women’s football gained hold in scholarly inquiry with comparative studies of participation, experiences, and policies in diverse national settings. Challenges in the area of women’s participation and legitimacy in football are rooted in persistent stereotyping......On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, a leading figure in the sociology of sport in Denmark, Gertrud Pfister, considers an important line of research on women and football (soccer). The analysis uses a diverse set of theoretical lenses to examine women’s participation and reception...... in football. Constructivist understandings of gender are combined with notions of ‘leaky hegemony’, socialization, habitus, taste and social fields. The trajectory of inquiry on women and football necessarily builds from recognition of ‘leaks’ in hegemonic masculinity and the entrenched naturalization...

  4. Primary epiploic appendagitis: from A to Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad A Issa


    Full Text Available Iyad A Issa1, Mohamad-Tarek Berjaoui2, Wajdi S Hamdan21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rafik Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of General Surgery, Rafik Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, LebanonAbstract: Epiploic appendagitis is a rare and uncommon diagnosis that is frequently unknown to clinicians. Inflammation is usually acute and causes abrupt symptoms, but once the diagnosis is accurately made, most patients respond to pain control and conservative management. We report the case of a young woman presenting with acute primary epiploic appendagitis of the right colon. The inflammatory mass was unusually large and occurred a few months after surgery for gastric bypass. This case will give us the opportunity to discuss the clinical presentation of this disease, as well as the potential associations and risk factors and the means for adequate diagnosis and treatment.Keywords: appendices, epiploicae, bypass surgery, inflammation, computed tomography

  5. Trends in disability benefit recipient rates in post industrialised countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    This working paper is part of a study organized by International Social Security Association (ISSA). The study is called Trends in disability benefit recipient rates in post-industrial societies. The other countries participating in the study are Sweden, United States, United Kingdom......, The Netherlands, and Israel. The study is organized in two phases. In phase one, country reports are prepared, and in phase two, comparative studies are carried out. This paper is related to the first phase. Previous versions of the paper have been discussed with Steen Bengtsson, Ole Gregersen, Jan Høgelund......, and Jørgen Søndergaard. I am thankful for their suggestions and help. The participating countries have financed the study....

  6. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.


    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  7. 国际船舶物料导航3.0C管理软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Ship Stock Data-CRM 3.0C developed by KingMax Ocean Business Net Development Co., Ltd. is put into application in 2001. This is a marine procurement management software specially developed for ships, shipowners, shipyards and suppliers.The package contains a huge database, including all material data of ISSA 88/98 versions and pictures of 98 version with maker list in both Chinese-English languages.It assists the seller/buyer to definitely confirm all the items to be purchased online.This software also can be used into many independent application softwares by registering the nature of the different users. All the data are supported and renewed by the “”.

  8. IRIS: A new generation of IRAS maps

    CERN Document Server

    Miville-Deschênes, M A; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Lagache, Guilaine


    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) had a tremendous impact on many areas of modern astrophysics. In particular it revealed the ubiquity of infrared cirrus that are a spectacular manifestation of the interstellar medium complexity but also an important foreground for observational cosmology. With the forthcoming Planck satellite there is a need for all-sky complementary data sets with arcminute resolution that can bring informations on specific foreground emissions that contaminate the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. With its 4 arcmin resolution matching perfectly the high-frequency bands of Planck, IRAS is a natural data set to study the variations of dust properties at all scales. But the latest version of the images delivered by the IRAS team (the ISSA plates) suffer from calibration, zero level and striping problems that can preclude its use, especially at 12 and 25 micron. In this paper we present how we proceeded to solve each of these problems and enhance significantly the general quality...

  9. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J


    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  10. Antideuterons as a Signature of Supersymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, F; Salati, Pierre


    Once the energy spectrum of the secondary component is well understood, measurements of the antiproton cosmic-ray flux at the Earth will be a powerful way to indirectly probe for the existence of supersymmetric relics in the galactic halo. Unfortunately, it is still spoilt by considerable theoretical uncertainties. As shown in this work, searches for low-energy antideuterons appear in the mean time as a plausible alternative, worth being explored. Above a few GeV/n, a dozen spallation antideuterons should be collected by the future AMS experiment on board ISSA. For energies less than about 3 GeV/n, the antideuteron spallation component becomes negligible and may be supplanted by a potential supersymmetric signal. If a few low-energy antideuterons are discovered, this should be seriously taken as a clue for the existence of massive neutralinos in the Milky Way.

  11. Late-stage stretching and subsidence rates in the Danakil Depression, evidenced from borehole records and seismic reflection data (United States)

    Booth, Adam; Bastow, Ian; Magee, Craig; Keir, Derek; Corti, Giacomo; Jackson, Chris; Wilkinson, Jason


    The Ethiopian and Afar Rift systems provide a globally unique opportunity to study the incipient transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading. A consensus has emerged that a considerable proportion of plate extension in Ethiopia is accommodated by dyke intrusion, with smaller contributions from crustal thinning. However, observations of thinned crust and a pulse in Quaternary-Recent basaltic volcanism within Ethiopia's Danakil Depression have been cited (Bastow and Keir, 2011) as evidence that localised plate stretching may mark the final stages of continent-ocean transition. We explore this hypothesis using an archive of five 2-D seismic reflection profiles, each between 7-10 km in length, and ˜120 borehole records distributed over an area of 225 km2. From depth and age relationships of key marker horizons, we also suggest local subsidence and extension rates. The borehole archive reveals extensive evaporite sequences deposited in and around an asymmetric basin, bounded to the west by a network of east-dipping normal faults. West of the basin, the maximum observed thickness of evaporites is 150 m, beneath which are deposits of clastic sediment, but a sequence of evaporites at least 900 m thick is observed at the basin centre. The sedimentary architecture of these sequences suggests deposition in a shallow salt-pan environment, with seasonal - potentially diurnal - freshening of the brine supply (Warren, 2012). Isotopic analysis of reef carbonates in the basin flank dates the last marine incursion into the Danakil Depression at 24-230ka (Lalou et al., 1970; Bonatti et al., 1971; Bannert et al., 1971), therefore the evaporite sequence must be younger than this. A key marker horizon within the evaporites is the potash-bearing Houston Formation, also distinct in borehole records given its high porosity (25-40%) and radioactivity (50-250 API units). The elevation of the Houston Formation is ˜500 m deeper in the centre of the basin than on the flank

  12. Formation and stability of ridge-ridge-ridge triple junctions in rheologically realistic lithosphere model (United States)

    Gerya, Taras; Burov, Evgueni


    -branch junction formation and evolution by using high-resolution 3D numerical mechanical experiments that take into account realistic thermo-rheological structure and rheology of the lithosphere. We find that two major types of quadruple and triple junctions are formed under bi-directional or multidirectional far-field stress field: (i) plate rifting junctions are formed by the initial plate fragmentation and can be subsequently re-arranged into (ii) oceanic spreading junctions controlled by the new oceanic crust accretion. In particular, we document initial formation and destabilization of quadruple R-R-R-R junctions as initial plate rifting structures under bi-directional extension. In most cases, quadruple plate rifting junctions rapidly (typically within 1-2 Myr) evolve towards formation of two diverging triple oceanic spreading junctions connected by a linear spreading center lengthening with time. This configuration remains stable over long time scales. However, under certain conditions, quadruple junctions may also remain relatively stable. Asymmetric stretching results in various configurations, for example formation of "T-junctions" with trans-extensional components and combination of fast and slow spreading ridges. Combined with plume impingement, this scenario evolves in realistic patterns closely resembling observed plate dynamics. In particular, opening of the Red Sea and of the Afar rift system find a logical explanation within a single model. Numerical experiments also suggest that several existing oceanic spreading junctions form as the result of plate motions rearrangements after which only one of two plates spreading along the ridge become subjected to bi-directional spreading.

  13. A new kinematic approach for the Danakil block using a Digital Elevation Model representation (United States)

    Collet, B.; Taud, H.; Parrot, J. F.; Bonavia, F.; Chorowicz, J.


    Data from the literature are integrated in a regional Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in order to analyse the motion of the Danakil block with regard to the Arabian and Somalian plates. The application of the poles and angles of rotation taken from the literature, induces a superposition of the Danakil block on the Arabian plate, and the formation of a gap in the Afar region. The determination of new poles of rotation using a best-fitting procedure allows one to avoid these drawbacks. In all cases, calculations are carried out keeping the Nubian plate stationary. The present approach shows that the Danakil block is an independent entity and is not related to the Nubian and Arabian plates. Between the Oligocene and the Miocene, it has been submitted to a N20°E sinistral strike-slip motion anterior to the rotation itself that was started in the middle Miocene. This rotation is directed by a mechanical couple due to the combination of the Red Sea and North Afar extensions.

  14. Imprint of Southern Red Sea Major Tectonic Zone In A New Bouguer Anomaly Map of Southern Yemen Margin (United States)

    Blecha, V.

    A new Bouguer anomaly map of western part of southern Yemen margin has been compiled. Densities of rock samples from main geological units (Precambrian base- ment, Mesozoic sediments, Tertiary volcanites) have been measured and used for grav- ity modeling. Regional gravity map indicates decrease of thickness of continental crust from volcanites of the Yemen Trap Series towards the coast of the Gulf of Aden. Most remarkable feature in the map of residual anomalies is a positive anomaly over the Dhala graben. The Dhala graben is a prominent geological structure in the area of study trending parallel to the Red Sea axis. Gravity modeling on a profile across the Dhala graben presumes intrusive plutonic rocks beneath the graben. There are two other areas in the southwestern tip of Arabia, which have essentially the same struc- tural position as the Dhala graben: the Jabal Tirf volcanic rift zone in the southern Saudi Arabia and Jabal Hufash extensional zone in northern Yemen. All three areas extend along the line trending parallel to the Red Sea axis with length of about 500 km. The line coincides with the axis of Afar (Danakil) depression after Arabia is shifted and rotated back to Africa. These facts imply conclusion that the Oligocene - Early Miocene magmatic activity on the Jabal Tirf - Dhala lineament is related to the same original deep tectonic zone, forming present-day Afar depression and still active.

  15. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis) (United States)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie


    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  16. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia (United States)

    Kusák, Michal


    visualization in GIS identifies a larger number of shorter lineaments than lineaments by visual interpretation. Key words: valley network, lineaments, faults, azimuth, Jemma River basin, Ethiopian Highlands GANI, N., D., ABDELSALAM, M., G., GERA, S., GANI, M., R. (2009): Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northweastern Ethiopian Plateau. Geologic Journal, 44, s. 30-56. KAZMIN, V. (1975): Geological Map of Ethiopia. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Adrie Ababa, Ethiopia. MANGESHA, T., CHERNET, T., HARO, W. (1996): Geological Map Of Ethiopia (1: 250,000). Geological Survey of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PIK, R., MARTY, B., CARIGNAN, J., LAVÉ, J. (2003): Stability of the Upper Nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduces from (U/Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the Afar plume dome. and Planetary Science Letters, 215, s. 73 - 88.

  17. Rifting, volcanism, and magma genesis at the northern end of the Danakil Depression: The Alid volcanic center of Eritrea (Invited) (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Clynne, M. A.; Duffield, W. A.; Smith, J. G.; Woldegiorgis, L.


    The Alid volcanic center, Eritrea, is a structural dome formed by subvolcanic intrusion of pyroxene-bearing rhyolite, subsequently erupted as pumice and lava, during the period 40,000 to 15,000 years ago. The northern Danakil Depression is thought to be the most recently developed part of the Afar, and represents an active continental rift subparallel to the Red Sea spreading center. The location of Alid may be controlled by the intersection of the structural grain of the NE trending Senafe-Alid lineament with the NW trending Danakil Depression. Our work began as a geothermal assessment (Duffield et al., 1997, USGS Open-file 97-291) that found evidence for 300 meters of vertical offset of early Pleistocene basalt flows over the past 1.1 million years. Structural uplift at Alid reveals Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks overlain by Quaternary marine sediments including siltstone, and sandstones interbedded with pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. These units are overlain by subaerial amphibole-bearing rhyolites (dated at ~200 ka), basalts, and andesites that were deposited on a relatively flat surface and before significant growth of a large volcanic edifice. About 1 km of structural uplift of the marine sediments began 40 ka when pyroxene-bearing rhyolitic magma intruded close to the surface. Uplift was accompanied by contemporaneous eruptions of pumice falls and more common obsidian domes and lava flows over the next 20,000 years. Uplift apparently ceased after eruption of pyroclastic flows and vent-clogging lava about 15 ka. The pumice deposits contain cognate xenoliths of granophyric pyroxene-granite (Lowenstern et al., 1997, J. Petrol. 38:1707). Our geochronology of the uplift is consistent with the idea that growth of the Alid volcanic center played a role in isolating the southern Danakil Depression from the Red Sea, helping to initiate dessication of the rift and producing the young evaporites found today at Baddha and further south at Dallol. U

  18. Geochemical study of the Sakalol-Harralol geothermal field (Republic of Djibouti): Evidences of a low enthalpy aquifer between Manda-Inakir and Asal rift settings (United States)

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Boschetti, Tiziano; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Baudron, Paul; Kawalieh, Ali Dirir; Dabar, Omar Assowe; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Ahmed, Samaleh Idriss; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Egueh, Nima Moussa; Mohamed, Jalludin


    Eighty-six sodium bicarbonate to sodium chloride hot springs and four water wells in the Tadjourah Region of Djibouti were investigated for major, minor (B, Br, F, Sr, Li) chemistry and isotope composition of water and dissolved components (87Sr/86Sr, 11B/10B, 13C/12C and 14C of DIC, 34S/32S and 18O/16O of sulfate). The deep saline Na-Cl reservoir at 143 °C shows affinity with the shallow geothermal water from the "active" Asal rift. Asal water is a diluted and recycled seawater component with the major cation composition obliterated by equilibration with Stratoid basalt. Locally, the deep reservoir is differentiated in term of recharge, and re-equilibration with rocks and mixing. In particular, two spring groups reveal contributions from evaporites typical of the "passive" graben setting of the Afar. A model on 34S/32S and 18O/16O demonstrates the isotope imprint of magmatic SO2 disproportionation on dissolved and solid sulfate, whose values probably persists in a sedimentary environment without trace of seawater. On the other hand a seawater signature, modified by mixing and secondary fractionation effects, is partially maintained according to the boron isotope composition (up to + 27.4‰). Temperature estimation in low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs is notoriously difficult, especially where mixing with fluids of differing genesis and/or conduction cooling take place. From a geothermometric point of view, the multi-method approach followed in this study (up-to-date theoretical and thermodynamic equations, ad-hoc silica geothermometers inferred from local rocks, checking of the results on a 18Oαsulfate-water vs. temperature diagram) provides some insights and perspectives on how to tackle the problem. Table S2. Sampling locations, T, pH, EC, TDS and hydrochemical types of the sampled waters. Table S3. Chemical analyses of thermal and cold waters from Sakalaol-Haralol geothermal field. Table S4. Mineral saturation indices of SHGF hot springs waters calculated

  19. 东非构造演化与油气成藏规律初探%Tectonic Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Principle in East Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金宠; 陈安清; 楼章华; 金爱民; 朱蓉; 陶丽; 徐胜林


    The opening up of the oil and gas resources of Africa provides opportunities to Chinese overseas oil strategy. Generally, the exploration level of oil and gas is low in East Africa, thus it's necessary to understand the hydrocarbon accumulation rules and its dominant controlling factors in order to effectively choose the hydrocarbon prospect area and explore in future. By analyzing tectonic evolution and conditions of hydrocarbon accumulation of various basins in East Africa, we conclude that the controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation in East Africa include salt sequence, drainage distribution, geothermal anomaly and hydrocarbon preserving conditions. The hydrocarbon accumulations in passive continental margin basins are mainly controlled by delta, submarine fan, salt sequence and mudstone seal, whereas, in rift basins are mainly controlled by the distribution of graben and horst, trap type and scale forming by rifting, the intensity and range of structure activity and mag-matism. The passive continental margin basins have hydrocarbon accumulation rules of Karoo Group producing gas, salt sequence distribution areas developing favorable play, land part of basins being poor conditions of oil and gas accumulation, large delta and submarine fan bearing considerable exploration potential. The rift basins have remarkable characteristics that the hydrocarbon migrates along a short distance to reservoirs, and hydrocarbon enriches in the horst margin which is close to trough hydrocarbon kitchen, and shows relatively weak struc-tare activity, magmatism and geothermal anomaly. In conclusion, the exploration potential of East African becomes better away from Afar plume.%随着非洲油气资源对外开放程度的加大,给我国海外石油战略提供了机遇.东非低勘探程度区油气地质资料匮乏,其油气勘探潜力综合评价和预测是目前的一个重点与难点,又是我国海外油气资源战略选区的需要.根据东非的区域构造演

  20. 新生儿复杂型心脏病1例并11例文献复习%1 case report of complex newborn heart disease and review of 11 cases reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧; 杨基龙


    Objective To investigate risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic experiences of complex neonatal single ventricle congenital heart disease, so as to provide basis for diagnosing and preventing this disease better. Methods Data of one case of newbern single atrium, single ventricle and persistent truncus arteriosus were reported and 11 cases reports of same disease seen in the past 10 years in our country were reviewed. Results The mothers of 5 cases had a determined history of abnormal pregnancy and/or history of viral infection during early pregnancy, history of exposure to toxins. 8 neonates with complex congenital heart diseases presented with dyspnea,facial cyanosis and other clinical manifestations within 24 hours after birth, and their cyanosis was difficult to be corrected by oxygen inhalation. 9 cases of complex congenital heart diseases were diagnozed with color Doppler ultrasonography, and diagnoses of 3 cases were confirmed by pathological autopsy. The prognosis of neonates with this disease was poor, 4 neonates died several days after birth, 6 neonates were given up treatment by their family members, 1 neonate improved and discharged afar treatment, only 1 neonate survived up to 11 years of age when the diagnosis was determined. Conclusion The causes of congenital heart disease are complex, at present the researchers considered preliminarily that complex congenital heart disease is related to genetic and environmental factors as well as viral infections, drugs, radiation and other related exposures. Clinical manifestations of heart failure and changes in radiogram of the neonate are not typical. Cardiac color Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive, rapid, highly accurate and most valuable method to early identify and diagnose congenital heart disease in neonatal period. The key measures to prevent neonatal congenital heart disease include strengthening maternal health, preventing maternal infections, strengthening prenatal examination and

  1. 基于时序仿真的风光容量配比分层优化算法%Stratified Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Proportion of Wind and Solar Capacity Based on Time Sequence Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 黄越辉; 袁越; 王敏; 李鹏; 郭思琪


    中国风能和太阳能产业发展迅猛,由于其规划和建设周期短,开发过程中与地区电源、电网规划脱节,导致“弃风”、“弃光”现象严重。该文综合考虑区域资源特性,提出基于时序仿真的风光容量配比分层优化算法。内层建立省级电网年度风电、光伏接纳能力优化模型,采用分支定界法优化系统全年运行方式,最大化提升电网的节能减排效益,使规划结果更加符合电力系统实际运行。外层以内层模型的电网节能减排效益作为适应度函数,建立风光配比优化模型。采用细菌觅食算法结合粒子群算法求解风光最佳配比,提高计算效率和求解精度。以某省级电网为例进行研究,计算结果验证了提出的模型合理、算法可行。该方法可为地区风电和光伏建设、实际电力系统调度以及政府相关政策的制定提供指导。%With increasing wind and solar penetration into power systems, curtailment has become a particular concern in regional power networks in China. This is largely because the electricity generated by renewable sources cannot be fully consumed due to limited peak load regulation ability of local thermal units and transmission capacity is insufficient to deliver the power to load central afar. A stratified optimization algorithm which is took into account of regional wind solar energy resources was proposed to optimize the proportion of wind and solar capacity on the system based on time sequence simulations. An optimization model for assessing annual wind and solar accommodating capacity in a provincial power system was developed in inner tier. The branch and bound method was applied to optimize annual operation of the power system and thus maximize the environmental benefits and ensure the planning results conforming to actual system operations. An optimization model for evaluating the proportion of wind and solar was developed using the

  2. Perioperative clinical care of parenteral and enteral nutrition supports in post-hepatectomy patients%肝切除患者围手术期营养支持的护理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门吉芳; 李磊; 付申凌; 张丹静; 金向晖; 崔红元; 朱明炜; 韦军民


    目的 评述肝切除患者围手术期营养支持的护理作用.方法 146例接受肝切除手术的患者人院后进行营养风险筛查,术前给予肠内营养,术后进行肠外和肠内营养支持,围绕术后营养指标变化、临床部分结局指标,就诊治过程中的各种护理方法进行总结.结果 146例患者营养风险筛查评分≥3分者91例,<3分者55例;接受肠外肠内营养支持者118例,平均肠内营养支持时间9.6 d,平均肠外营养支持时间5.4d;术后平均肛门排气时间(70.7±17.1)h;死亡3例,术后感染15例次,其他并发症13例,中位住院习25.5 d.结论 肝切除患者人院后应进行营养风险筛查,围手术期营养支持以肠内营养为主,术后需要联合肠外营养,强化护理作用是实施营养支持的保障.%Objective To summarize the perioperative clinical care experience of parenteral and enteral nutrition supports in post-hepatectomy patients.Methods The clinical data of 146 consecutive post-hepatectomy patients in Beijing Hospital were collected and analyzed.For these patients,nutritional risk screening (NRS) 2002 was performed after admission,enteral nutrition support was provided before operation,and enteral and parenteral nutrition supports were provided after operation.Nutritional parameters,clinical outcomes,and nursing methods were evaluated.Results Among these 146 patients,91 patients had≥3 NRS2000 scores,and the remaining 55 patients scored < 3.A total of 118 patients were administrated with enteral and pareteral nutrition;the average enferal nutrition time was 9.6 days,and the average pareteral nutrition time was 5.4 days.The average onset time of passage of gas by anus afar operation was (70.7±17.1) hours.Three patients died,15 patients suffered from infections after operation,and 13 patients experienced other complications.The median hospital stay was 25.5 days.Conclusions Post-hepatectomy patients need take nutritional risk screening after admission and

  3. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin


    We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps

  4. Geodynamic Evolution of the Nubia-Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary System (United States)

    Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.; Vernant, P.; Ogubazghi, G.; Fisseha, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Bendick, R. O.; Sholan, J.


    We present a geodynamic scenario for the evolution of the Nubia (Nu)-Arabia (Ar)-Somalia (So) plate boundary system that is based on new geodetic constraints on the kinematics of active deformation, and published estimates of the timing of regional tectonic processes. This scenario supports two, long debated, principal hypotheses for plate dynamics, 1) plate motions are driven primarily by sinking of oceanic lithosphere at subduction zones, and 2) the lithosphere is strong in relation to plate boundaries and drag forces on the base of the lithosphere (and likely, resisting forces associate with continental collision). 1) During the Late Oligocene (~30 Ma), domal uplift of the Afar region due to the Afar hot spot caused regional extension and the initial development of the Afar Triple Junction (TJ) along pre-existing zones of weakness; 2) The So-Nu plate boundary, East African Rift (EAR), developed at a slow rate due to the absence of boundary-normal extensional stresses (i.e., no subduction “pulling” the So Plate), slow motion that continues to the present; 3) Larger extensional stresses across the Nu-Ar and Ar-So boundaries (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden) due to active subduction of the Neotethys ocean lithosphere beneath Eu caused more rapid extension of these early rifts, with full scale continental rifting beginning ~ 25-30 Ma; 4) Between 16 - 11 Ma full ocean rifting in the Gulf of Aden caused a decrease in the forces transmitted to the So and Nu plates, causing slowing of the Nu and So plates with respect to Eu and Ar, and (possibly) an additional component of N-S oriented extension across the Red Sea; 5) Around this time (~10 Ma), activity shifted from the Gulf of Suez to the DSF system in the N Red Sea, and the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea began rotating with respect to Nu and Ar, both changes related to the change in Nu-Ar relative motion; and 6) The balance of forces on the plate system have remained roughly unchanged since ~10 Ma, as have

  5. Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia. (United States)

    Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N


    Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Chang-qing


    . Cell cycle control in mammalian cells: role of cyclins, cyclin dependent [1] kinase (cdks), growth suppressor genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) [J]. Oncogene 1995; 11:211.kinase (cdks), growth suppressor genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) [J]. Oncogene 1995; 11:211.[13]Lo KW, Cheung ST, Leung SF, et al. Hyper-methylation of the pl6 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma [J]. Cancer Res 1996; 56:2721.[14]Wong DJ, Barrett MT, Stoger R, et al. pl6INK4a promoter is hypermethylated at a high frequency in esophageal adenocarcinomas [J]. Cancer Res 1997; 57:2619.[15]Gonzalgo ML, Hayashida T, Bender CM, et al. The role of DNA methylation in expression of the pl9/pl6 locus in human bladder cancer cell lines [J]. Cancer Res 1998; 58:1245.[16]Akao T, Kakehi Y, Itoh N, et al. A high prevalence of functional inactivation by methylation modification of p16INK4A/CDKN2/ MTS1 gene in primary urothelial cancers [J]. Jpn J Cancer Res 1997; 88:1078.[17]Herman JG, Civin CI, Issa JPJ, et al. Distinct patterns of inactivation of p15INK4B and p16INK4A characterize the major types of hematological malignancies [J]. Cancer Res 1997; 57:837[18]Zhang SJ, Endo S, Ichikawa T, et al. Frequent deletion and 5'CpG island methylation of the pl6 gene in primary malignant lymphoma of the brain [J]. Cancer Res 1998; 58:1231.

  7. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure. (United States)

    Richard, Tom L


    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale.

  8. Understanding Space Weather: The Sun as a Variable Star (United States)

    Strong, Keith; Saba, Julia; Kucera, Therese


    The Sun is a complex system of systems and until recently, less than half of its surface was observable at any given time and then only from afar. New observational techniques and modeling capabilities are giving us a fresh perspective of the solar interior and how our Sun works as a variable star. This revolution in solar observations and modeling provides us with the exciting prospect of being able to use a vastly increased stream of solar data taken simultaneously from several different vantage points to produce more reliable and prompt space weather forecasts. Solar variations that cause identifiable space weather effects do not happen only on solar-cycle timescales from decades to centuries; there are also many shorter-term events that have their own unique space weather effects and a different set of challenges to understand and predict, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar wind variations.

  9. Diplodia quercivora sp. nov.: a new species of Diplodia found on declining Quercus canariensis trees in Tunisia. (United States)

    Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Alves, Artur; Phillips, Alan J L


    During a study of the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with oak decline in Tunisia, a large collection of Diplodia strains were isolated from Quercus afares, Q. canariensis and Q. suber trees showing a progressive dieback of shoots and branches, trunk canker and exudates and collar rot. Most of the isolates were identified as Diplodia corticola, while two isolates from Q. canariensis were morphologically and phylogenetically (ITS and tef1-α sequences data) distinct from all other known species of Diplodia. They are described here as Diplodia quercivora sp. nov. In addition, phylogenetic analyses showed for the first time the existence of two distinct lineages within D. corticola. In artificial inoculation experiments, D. quercivora caused necrotic lesions on bark and wood of three Mediterranean oak species, Q. ilex, Q. pubescens and Q. suber. In particular, among the oak species tested, Q. pubescens was the most susceptible.

  10. Cuba's Urban Landscape Needs a Second Round of Innovation for Health. (United States)

    Peña, Jorge


    Cuba's economy spiraled downward in the 1990s, reeling from the collapse of European socialism and a tightened US embargo. To mitigate the crash's drastic effects, measures were adopted that transformed our urban landscape, especially in large cities such as Havana, paradoxically linking the period to nascent health-promoting options. One of the most important was the introduction of bicycle lanes on city streets, paths daily ridden by people on the over one million bicycles imported to offset the nearly nonexistent public transport caused by fuel shortages. Second, urban gardens began to sprout up, involving urban dwellers in production of their own food, particularly vegetables. Without minimizing the impact of the crisis, these two seemingly disparate phenomena meant people were getting more exercise, consuming fewer fats and carbohydrates and more fresh vegetables. People were even breathing fresher air, with fewer CO2-belching trucks, old cars and buses on the streets and less diesel used to transport produce in from afar.

  11. Resurrection, Re-Imagination, Reconstruction: New Viewpoints on the Hereford Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Lepine


    Full Text Available The Hereford Screen is one of the most complex and intricate choir screens of the Victorian era. Positioned in the gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum’s main entrance, its glistening metalwork, brass, and terracotta effect surfaces, incrustations of wrought floral forms, Gothic Revival lettering, and semi-precious stones combine with delicate slivers of glinting glass that wink at each of the museum’s visitors, whether they journey up the stairs to gaze at this monument up close or regard it from afar on their way to the galleries beyond. The Hereford Screen is one of a family of screens produced by the architect George Gilbert Scott and the metalwork firm of Francis Skidmore for British cathedrals in the mid- to late nineteenth century. The Hereford Screen was perceived by many to be the pinnacle of Victorian Gothic Revival metalwork. Before its installation in Hereford Cathedral it was shown at the 1862 International Exhibition in London.

  12. DARPA on your mind. (United States)

    Moreno, Jonathan D


    Applied science may once again play a decisive role in changing the face of armed conflict, and the rest of human affairs, by shifting the battlefield to our very brains. The national-security establishment--and particularly the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)--supports research at the intersection of neuroscience and national security that could ultimately enable authorities to do things like enhance (or muddle, or erase) memory, monitor crowds for individuals whose brain patterns correlate with aggressive behaviors, or control weapons from afar merely with thoughts. What are the dangers of such information falling into "the wrong hands," and are there any "right hands" for this kind of knowledge? Is any extension of human abilities justified by the need for government to protect its society?

  13. First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011. (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O S; Grandin, Raphaël; Barnie, Talfan; Donovan, Amy; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Yohannes, Ermias; Kibrom, Goitom; Kendall, J-Michael; Carn, Simon A; Fee, David; Sealing, Christine; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay; Blundy, Jon; Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Berhe, Seife

    We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of regional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodigious quantity of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shallow, NW-SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response mitigated the human costs of the eruption.

  14. Møder og grænser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik


    In the early 2000s, The Danish Arts Foundation strengthened a burgeoning inter-disciplinary tendency in urban planning when it decided to fund strategic design pro-jects for post-industrial Danish harbour cities. The present study delves into the process that involved a specially composed team...... of contemporary urban life. ”Encountering the City’s Harbour”: these words summarize the conception under-lying the urban design and development strategy proposed by the Arts Foundation team. A model comprising four levels – [1] studies from afar; [2] in situ explorations of the urban fabric; [3] elaboration...... of seven members (architects, artists, and a scholar of cultural theory [the author of the present article]), as well as administrative and political institutions in Sønderborg, a historic city of 30,000 inhabitants in Sou-thern Jutland, not far from Germany. Referring to French philosopher Michel de...

  15. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao


    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  16. Hominid environments at Hadar from paleosol studies in a framework of Ethiopian climate change. (United States)

    Aronson, James L; Hailemichael, Million; Savin, Samuel M


    The amount and seasonal distribution of paleo-rainfall is a major concern of paleoanthropology because they determine the nature of the vegetation and the structure of the ecosystem, particularly in eastern Africa. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C of paleosol carbonates are quantitative proxies of these critical features of the paleoenvironment. The Afar region of Ethiopia lies between the African and Indian summer monsoons, and is prone to profound climate change. In the western Afar, the dominant paleoenvironment of the Hadar Formation during the late Pliocene was a major meandering river's distal low, flat floodplain, on which muds accreted that were continuously transformed into vegetated soils with Bk horizons rich in CaCO(3). The mean delta(13)C of paleosols throughout the Hadar Formation translates to an average vegetative cover across the extensive floodplain of about 30% of the C(4) grasses and 70% of unspecified C(3) plants. The character of the paleosols, such as the one at Locality 333, and their delta(18)O(Carbonate) argue for a highly seasonal rainfall of about twice today's amount, implying that the C(3) plants were mostly sizeable trees and that the biome for Australopithecus afarensis was a grassy woodland. The amount of grasses abruptly increased in the lower Busidima Formation with its early Homo and artifacts to a more open grassy woodland of ca. 50% grasses. However, this transition in delta(13)C is not mirrored in the delta(18)O, which persists at a quite negative average value of -6.4 per thousand over the entire >2-Myr duration of both formations. This value for the carbonate means that the paleosoil water was a quite negative -4.1 per thousand, a significant 5 per thousand more negative than our estimate of modern rain at Hadar. We put the negative delta(18)O of paleo-Hadar's rainfall into an isotopic framework of the dynamic history of climate change in sub-Saharan northern Africa. There have been two end-member climate regimes: (1) an

  17. 信息系统安全体系结构发展研究%Line of Development and Future Trend of Information System Security Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云; 张凤鸣; 黄浩; 孙璐



  18. 杨斌:享受健身才是真健身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心宇; 李达



  19. Retraction RETRACTION of "Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer" by Y. Ji, H.H. Jin, M.D. Wang, W.X. Cao, J.L. Bao - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028261 (2016) - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028261. (United States)

    Ji, Y; Jin, H H; Wang, M D; Cao, W X; Bao, J L


    The retracted article is: Ji Y, Jin HH, Wang MD, Cao WX, et al. (2016). Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15028261. There are significant parts of this article (particularly, in the discussion section) that are copied from "Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancer is associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation is associated with outcome", by Jia Xu, Priya B Shetty, Weiwei Feng, Carol Chenault, Robert C Bast Jr, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Susan G Hilsenbeck and Yinhua Yu, published in BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 243. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-243. The first paragraphs of both discussions are identical. This is concerning. The abstract and introduction sections have much of their text plagiarized. Overall, there is high plagiarism detected. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  20. Mechanism reduction for the formation of secondary organic aerosol for integration into a 3-dimensional regional Air Quality Model: α-pinene oxidation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Michelangeli


    Full Text Available A detailed α-pinene oxidation mechanism was reduced systematically through the successive application of five mechanism reduction techniques. The resulting reduced mechanism preserves the ozone- and organic aerosol-forming properties of the original mechanism, while using less species. The methodologies employed included a directed relation graph method with error propagation (DRGEP, which removed a large number of redundant species and reactions, principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix (PCA, used to remove unnecessary reactions, the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA, used to remove some QSS species, an iterative screening method (ISSA, which removes redundant species and reactions simultaneously, and a new lumping approach dependant on the hydrocarbon to NOx ratio (which reduced the number of species in mechanism subsets for specific hydrocarbon to NOx ranges. This multistage methodology results in a reduction ratio of 2.5 for the number of both species and reactions compared with the full mechanism. The simplified mechanism reproduces the important gas and aerosol phase species (the latter are examined in detail by individual condensing species as well as in classes according to four functional groups: PANs, nitrates, organic peroxides, and organic acids. The total SOA mass is also well represented in the condensed mechanism, to within 16% of the detailed mechanism under a wide range of conditions. The methodology described here is general, and may be used in general mechanism reduction problems.

  1. Molecular clouds associated with compact HII regionsin Galactic plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锦; 沈家健; 孙艳春; 张燕平


    13CO (J = 1 - 0) emission of massive star forming region including 15 ultracompact and 4compact HII regions in Galactic plane was mapped with the 13.7 m millimeter wave telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. The present observations provide the first complete structure of the clouds in 13CO with a higher spatial resolution and a wide-field coverage of 28′×45′. Combined with the images of far-infrared emission and dust color temperature obtained from ISSA, various possible dynamical connections between the compact HII regions and associated clouds were found. We presente some reasons to explain the formation of new dense cold core and molecular emission cavity in the massive star formation and early evolution. The luminosities of excitation stars for all HII regions and the main parameters of associated clouds are also derived. The results show that the newborn stars' luminosities are correlated with the 13CO column densities, masses (in 55"beam) and 13CO velocity widths obviously.``

  2. Integration issues of a plasma contactor Power Electronics Unit (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; York, Kenneth W.; Bowers, Glen E.


    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is baselined on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for spacecraft charge control. The plasma contactor system consists of a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), a power electronics unit (PEU), and an expellant management unit (EMU). The plasma contactor has recently been required to operate in a cyclic mode to conserve xenon expellant and extend system life. Originally, a DC cathode heater converter was baselined for a continuous operation mode because only a few ignitions of the hollow cathode were expected. However, for cyclic operation, a DC heater supply can potentially result in hollow cathode heater component failure due to the DC electrostatic field. This can prevent the heater from attaining the proper cathode tip temperature for reliable ignition of the hollow cathode. To mitigate this problem, an AC cathode heater supply was therefore designed, fabricated, and installed into a modified PEU. The PEU was tested using resistive loads and then integrated with an engineering model hollow cathode to demonstrate stable steady-state operation. Integration issues such as the effect of line and load impedance on the output of the AC cathode heater supply and the characterization of the temperature profile of the heater under AC excitation were investigated.

  3. Integration issues of a plasma contactor Power Electronics Unit (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; York, Kenneth W.; Bowers, Glen E.


    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is baselined on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for spacecraft charge control. The plasma contactor system consists of a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), a power electronics unit (PEU), and an expellant management unit (EMU). The plasma contactor has recently been required to operate in a cyclic mode to conserve xenon expellant and extend system life. Originally, a DC cathode heater converter was baselined for a continuous operation mode because only a few ignitions of the hollow cathode were expected. However, for cyclic operation, a DC heater supply can potentially result in hollow cathode heater component failure due to the DC electrostatic field. This can prevent the heater from attaining the proper cathode tip temperature for reliable ignition of the hollow cathode. To mitigate this problem, an AC cathode heater supply was therefore designed, fabricated, and installed into a modified PEU. The PEU was tested using resistive loads and then integrated with an engineering model hollow cathode to demonstrate stable steady-state operation. Integration issues such as the effect of line and load impedance on the output of the AC cathode heater supply and the characterization of the temperature profile of the heater under AC excitation were investigated.

  4. Testing the COBE/IRAS All-Sky Reddening Map Using the Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, K Z


    We live in a dusty Universe, and correcting for the dust extinction and reddening affects almost all aspects of the optical astronomy. Recently Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis published an all-sky reddening map based on the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA infrared sky surveys. Their map is intended to supersede the older Burstein & Heiles reddening estimates. In this paper I test this new reddening map by comparing the reddening values for a sample of 110 $|b|>5\\deg$ Galactic globular clusters selected from compilation of Harris. I find a good agreement for globular clusters with galactic latitude $|b|>20\\deg$ and fair overall agreement for globular clusters with $20>|b|>5\\deg$, but with several significant deviations. I discuss four individual clusters with largest deviations, NGC 6144, Terzan 3, NGC 6355 and IC 1276, in order to investigate the reasons for these large deviations. It seems that the new reddening map overestimates the reddening in some large extinction regions. However, with its high spatial re...

  5. Measuring Galactic Extinction A Test

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, H G; Arce, Hector G.; Goodman, Alyssa A.


    We test the recently published all-sky reddening map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998 [SFD]) using the extinction study of a region in the Taurus dark cloud complex by Arce & Goodman (1999 [AG]). In their study, AG use four different techniques to measure the amount and structure of the extinction toward Taurus, and all four techniques agree very well. Thus we believe that the AG results are a truthful representation of the extinction in the region and can be used to test the reliability of the SFD reddening map. The results of our test show that the SFD all-sky reddening map, which is based on data from COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA, overestimates the reddening by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5 in regions of smooth extinction with A_V > 0.5 mag. In some regions of steep extinction gradients the SFD map underestimates the reddening value, probably due to its low spatial resolution. We expect that the astronomical community will be using the SFD reddening map extensively. We offer this Letter as a cautionary n...

  6. A Far-Infrared Survey of Molecular Cloud Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Jessop, N E


    We present a catalogue of molecular cloud cores drawn from high latitude, medium opacity clouds, using the all-sky IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) images at 60 and 100~$\\mu$m. The typical column densities of the cores are $ N(H_2)\\sim 3.8 \\times 10^{21} $cm$^{-2}$ and the typical volume densities are $ n(H_2) many other samples obtained in other ways. Those cloud cores with IRAS point sources are seen to be already forming stars, but this is found to be only a small fraction of the total number of cores. The fraction of the cores in the protostellar stage is used to estimate the prestellar timescale - the time until the formation of a hydrostatically supported protostellar object. We argue, on the basis of a comparison with other samples, that a trend exists for the prestellar lifetime of a cloud core to decrease with the mean column density and number density of the core. We compare this with model predictions and show that the data are consistent with star formation regulated by the ionisation fraction.

  7. Multiwavelength observations of the M15 intermediate velocity cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Smoker, J V; Keenan, F P; Davies, R D; Pollacco, D L


    We present Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI images, Lovell Telescope multibeam HI wide-field mapping, Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper facility images, William Herschel Telescope longslit echelle CaII observations, and IRAS ISSA 60 and 100 micron coadded images towards the intermediate velocity cloud located in the general direction of the M15 globular cluster. When combined with previously-published Arecibo data, the HI gas in the IVC is found to be clumpy, with peak HI column density of 1.5x10^(20) cm^(-2), inferred volume density (assuming spherical symmetry) of 24 cm^(-3)/(D kpc), and maximum brightness temperature at a resolution of 81x14 arcsec of 14 K. The HI gas in the cloud is warm, with a minimum FWHM value of 5 km/s, corresponding to a kinetic temperature, in the absence of turbulence, of 540 K. There are indications in the HI data of 2-component velocity structure in the IVC, indicative of cloudlets. This velocity structure is also tentatively seen in the CaK spectra, although the SNR is low. The m...

  8. Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Issa


    Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

  9. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.


    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  10. Surface roughness monitoring by singular spectrum analysis of vibration signals (United States)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.


    This study assessed two methods for enhanced surface roughness (Ra) monitoring based on the application of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to vibrations signals generated in workpiece-cutting tool interaction in CNC finish turning operations i.e., the individual analysis of principal components (I-SSA), and the grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA). Singular spectrum analysis is a non-parametric technique of time series analysis that decomposes a signal into a set of independent additive time series referred to as principal components. A number of experiments with different cutting conditions were performed to assess surface roughness monitoring using both of these methods. The results show that singular spectrum analysis of vibration signal processing discriminated the frequency ranges effective for predicting surface roughness. Grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA) proved to be the most efficient method for monitoring surface roughness, with optimum prediction and reliability results at a lower analytical-computational cost. Finally, the results show that singular spectrum analysis is an ideal method for analyzing vibration signals applied to the on-line monitoring of surface roughness.

  11. Modeling Plant Nitrogen Uptake and Grain Protein Accumulation in Rice%水稻植株氮素吸收与籽粒蛋白质积累模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 汤亮; 刘小军; 曹卫星; 朱艳


    accumulation and environmental and genetic factors were quantified by modeling the processes of nitrogen assimilation and partitioning within plant. [Result] The model proposed that the rate of individual grain nitrogen accumulation was determined by the nitrogen availability restricted by source and nitrogen accumulation rate restricted by sink.Nitrogen availability of individual grain restricted by source was the sum of nitrogen uptake and remobilization from the vegetative organs post-anthesis, whereas nitrogen accumulation rate restricted by sink was dependent on potential nitrogen accumulation rate and interactive effects of temperature, water and nitrogen factors. Post-anthesis nitrogen uptake exhibited a logarithmic relationship to increasing grain weight. Nitrogen remobilization from the vegetative organs was provided from nitrogen accumulated in both leaves and stems. Relative nitrogen contents in leaves and stems pre-anthesis linearly increased with the accumulative growing degree-days after sowing, while those post-anthesis linearly decreased with the growing degree-days. The model was tested using the independent data sets of different years, eco-sites, cultivars, nitrogen rates, and it exhibited a good fit between the simulated and observed values, with the R2 of 0.968, 0.980, 0.974, 0.970 and 0.976, and RMSE of 16.55%, 13.24%, 9.53%, 10.93% and 9.29% for nitrogen uptake amounts of leaf and stem before anthesis, grain nitrogen uptake amount afar anthesis, and nitrogen translocation amount of leaf and stem att er anthesis, respectively, with the RMSE of 7.82% and R2 of 0.930 for grain protein cont, respectively.[ Conclusion ] The simulation model based on nitrogen assimilation and translocation in rice could give a reliable prediction of plant nitrogen uptake and translocation amounts, and grain protein content and accumulation under different cultural conditions, which would provide a quantitative tool for grain quality prediction.

  12. 顺阿曲库铵的药效学及其对组胺释放的影响%Pharmacodynamics and histamine-me-releasing potency of cis-atracurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新民; 李玲; 刘毓和; 张兰霞


    CIS1 than in group ATR.The maximal degree of N-M block was 100%and the intubation condition was excellent in group CIS1 and ATR.There wag no significant difference in the recovery index between group CIS1 and ATR.The onset time was significantly longer and duration of action shorter in group CIS2 than in group CIS1.There was no significant difference in recovery index between group CIS1 and CIS2.There was no significant change in plasma histamine concentration at T1-3 as compared with the baseline at T0 in group CIS1 but plasma histamine concentration was significantly increased at T2,3 in group ATR.MAP was significantly decreased after induction of anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil,but CIS and ATR did not significantly change MAP.Conclusion The onset time is longer and duration of action is shorter after cis-atracurium than afar atracurium.The N-M block induced by cis-atracurium is significantly attenuated if stored at the room temperature.Cis-atracurium does not cause histamine release.

  13. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden (United States)

    Pyle, David M.


    -based hyperspectral infrared measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption J. Geophys. Res. 117 D00U16 Wiart P and Oppenheimer C 2005 Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano Bull. Volcanol. 67 99-115

  14. 世纪之交的安全、卫生与环境--世界面临新挑战%Safety, hygiene and environment at the crossing ofcentury --The world facing new challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@自从1955年在罗马召开了首届世界职业安全与卫生大会以来,世界范围内的职业安全与卫生已越来越引起人们高度的重视,国际劳工组织(ILO)和国际社会保障协会(ISSA)对每一次大会都十分关注。20世纪末的最后一届大会在巴西召开,大会讨论了国际社会共同关注的问题和人类未来将遇到的挑战,即人类共同生存的环境与安全如何更美好。 大会的主题是:"安全、卫生与环境--全球的挑战"。 权威人士认为世纪之交之际是国与国之间相互依存这样一种从未有过的历史时刻,讨论职业安全卫生与环境极为重要。当前,经济全球化和竞争的加剧提出对生命质量新的条件因素和对生命质量提高的新挑战,经济全球化造成新的风险,也使各国相互交流经验成为可能。

  15. Seismic constraints on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (United States)

    Rychert, Catherine A.


    The basic tenet of plate tectonics is that a rigid plate, or lithosphere, moves over a weaker asthenospheric layer. However, the exact location and defining mechanism of the boundary at the base of the plate, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is debated. The oceans should represent a simple scenario since the lithosphere is predicted to thicken with seafloor age if it thermally defined, whereas a constant plate thickness might indicate a compositional definition. However, the oceans are remote and difficult to constrain, and studies with different sensitivities and resolutions have come to different conclusions. Hotspot regions lend additional insight, since they are relatively well instrumented with seismic stations, and also since the effect of a thermal plume on the LAB should depend on the defining mechanism of the plate. Here I present new results using S-to-P receiver functions to image upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath volcanically active regions including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, and Afar. In particular I focus on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and discontinuities related to the base of melting, which can be used to highlight plume locations. I image a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the 50 - 95 km depth range beneath Hawaii, Galapagos, and Iceland. Although LAB depth variations exist within these regions, significant thinning is not observed in the locations of hypothesized plume impingement from receiver functions (see below). Since a purely thermally defined lithosphere is expected to thin significantly in the presence of a thermal plume anomaly, a compositional component in the definition of the LAB is implied. Beneath Afar, an LAB is imaged at 75 km depth on the flank of the rift, but no LAB is imaged beneath the rift itself. The transition from flank of rift is relatively abrupt, again suggesting something other than a purely thermally defined lithosphere. Melt may also exist in the asthenosphere in these regions

  16. Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa (United States)

    Vigny, Christophe; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Huchon, Philippe; Feigl, Kurt L.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Asfaw, Laike; Kanbari, Khaled


    Since most of Tadjoura-Asal rift system sits on dry land in the Afar depression near the triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia plates, it is an ideal natural laboratory for studying rifting processes. We analyze these processes in light of a time series of geodetic measurements from 1978 through 2003. The surveys used triangulation (1973), trilateration (1973, 1979, and 1981-1986), leveling (1973, 1979, 1984-1985, and 2000), and the Global Positioning System (GPS, in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003). A network of about 30 GPS sites covers the Republic of Djibouti. Additional points were also measured in Yemen and Ethiopia. Stations lying in the Danakil block have almost the same velocity as Arabian plate, indicating that opening near the southern tip of the Red Sea is almost totally accommodated in the Afar depression. Inside Djibouti, the Asal-Ghoubbet rift system accommodates 16 ± 1 mm/yr of opening perpendicular to the rift axis and exhibits a pronounced asymmetry with essentially null deformation on its southwestern side and significant deformation on its northeastern side. This rate, slightly higher than the large-scale Arabia-Somalia motion (13 ± 1 mm/yr), suggests transient variations associated with relaxation processes following the Asal-Ghoubbet seismovolcanic sequence of 1978. Inside the rift, the deformation pattern exhibits a clear two-dimensional pattern. Along the rift axis, the rate decreases to the northwest, suggesting propagation in the same direction. Perpendicular to the rift axis, the focus of the opening is clearly shifted to the northeast, relative to the topographic rift axis, in the "Petit Rift," a rift-in-rift structure, containing most of the active faults and the seismicity. Vertical motions, measured by differential leveling, show the same asymmetric pattern with a bulge of the northeastern shoulder. Although the inner floor of the rift is subsiding with respect to the shoulders, all sites within the

  17. Thermal models of dyke intrusion during development of continent-ocean transition (United States)

    Daniels, K. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Menand, T.


    A consensus has emerged in recent years from a variety of geoscientific disciplines that extension during continental rifting is achieved only partly by plate stretching: dyke intrusion also plays an important role. Magma intrusion can accommodate extension at lower yield stresses than are required to extend thick, strong, unmodified continental lithosphere mechanically, thereby aiding the breakup process. Dyke intrusion is also expected to heat and thereby weaken the plate, but the spatial extent of heating and the effect of different rates of magmatic extension on the timescales over which heating occurs are poorly understood. To address this issue, a numerical solution to the heat-flow equation is developed here to quantify the thermal effects of dyke intrusion on the continental crust during rifting. The thermal models are benchmarked against a priori constraints on crustal structure and dyke intrusion episodes in Ethiopia. Finite difference models demonstrate that magmatic extension rate exerts a first-order control on the crustal thermal structure. Once dyke intrusion supersedes faulting and stretching as the principal extensional mechanism the crust will heat and weaken rapidly (less than 1 Ma). In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), the majority of present-day extension is focused on ∼20 km-wide Quaternary-Recent axial magmatic segments that are mostly seismogenic to mid-crustal depths and show P-wave seismic velocities characteristic of heavily intruded continental crust. When reviewed in light of our models, these observations require that no more than half of the MER's extension since ∼2 Ma has been achieved by dyke intrusion. Magmatic heating and weakening of the crust would have rendered it aseismic if dyke intrusion accounted for the entire 6 mm/yr extension rate. In the older, faster extending (16 mm/yr) Red Sea rift (RSR) in Afar, dyke intrusion is expected to have had a more dramatic impact on crustal rheology. Accordingly, effective elastic plate

  18. Geochemical signals of progressive continental rupture in the Main Ethiopian Rift (United States)

    Furman, T.; Bryce, J.; Yirgu, G.; Ayalew, D.; Cooper, L.


    Mafic volcanics of the Main Ethiopian Rift record the development of magmatic rift segments during continental extension. The Ethiopian Rift is one arm of a triple junction that formed above a Paleogene mantle plume, concurrent with eruption of flood basalts ca. 30 Ma across northern Ethiopian and Yemen. The geochemistry of Ethiopian Rift lavas thus provides insight into processes associated with the shift from mechanical (lithospheric) to magmatic (asthenospheric) segmentation in the transitional phase of continental rifting. Quaternary basalts from five volcanic centers representing three magmatic segments display along-axis geochemical variations that likely reflect the degree of rifting and magma supply, which increase abruptly with proximity to the highly-extended Afar region. To first order, the geochemical data indicate a decreasing degree of shallow-level fractionation and greater involvement of depleted or plume-like mantle source materials in basalts sampled closer to the Afar. These spatially controlled geochemical signatures observed in contemporaneous basalts are similar to temporal variations documented in southern Ethiopia, where Quaternary lavas indicate a greater degree of crustal extension than those erupted at the onset of plume activity. Primitive Ethiopian Rift basalts have geochemical signatures (e.g., Ce/Pb, La/Nb, Ba/Nb, Ba/Rb, U/Th) that overlap ocean island basalt compositions, suggesting involvement of sub-lithospheric source materials. The estimated depth of melting (65-75 km) is shallower than values obtained for young primitive mafic lavas from the Western Rift and southern Kenya as well as Oligocene Ethiopian flood basalts from the onset of plume-driven activity. Basalts from the Turkana region (N. Kenya) and Erta 'Ale (Danakil depression) reflect melting at shallower levels, corresponding to the greater degree of crustal extension in these provinces. Preliminary Sr and Nd isotopic data trend towards primitive earth values, consistent

  19. Population status of chimpanzees in the Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem, Tanzania. (United States)

    Piel, Alex K; Cohen, Naomi; Kamenya, Shadrack; Ndimuligo, Sood A; Pintea, Lilian; Stewart, Fiona A


    More than 75 percent of Tanzania's chimpanzees live at low densities on land outside national parks. Chimpanzees are one of the key conservation targets in the region and long-term monitoring of these populations is essential for assessing the overall status of ecosystem health and the success of implemented conservation strategies. We aimed to assess change in chimpanzee density within the Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem (MUE) by comparing results of re-walking the same line transects in 2007 and 2014. We further used published remote sensing data derived from Landsat satellites to assess forest cover change within a 5 km buffer of these transects over that same period. We detected no statistically significant decline in chimpanzee density across the surveyed areas of MUE between 2007 and 2014, although the overall mean density of chimpanzees declined from 0.09 individuals/km(2) in 2007 to 0.05 individuals/km(2) in 2014. Whether this change is biologically meaningful cannot be determined due to small sample sizes and large, entirely overlapping error margins. It is therefore possible that the MUE chimpanzee population has been stable over this period and indeed in some areas (Issa Valley, Mkanga, Kamkulu) even showed an increase in chimpanzee density. Variation in chimpanzee habitat preference for ranging or nesting could explain variation in density at some of the survey sites between 2007 and 2014. We also found a relationship between increasing habitat loss and lower mean chimpanzee density. Future surveys will need to ensure a larger sample size, broader geographic effort, and random survey design, to more precisely determine trends in MUE chimpanzee density and population size over time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Handayani


    Full Text Available The Research was conducted in North Jakarta and Selected 2 district in Jakarta North that is Tanjung Priok and Koja district as a research region. About 300 respondents which include 140 men and 151 woman from Tanjung Priok district. In Koja district was taken 200 respondents that consist of 101 men and 99 woman. Data processing done with double entry, by using program ISSA (Integrated Survey Analysis and Analysis Data used SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science. The Research shown 88,7%-89,2% prevent spicy food can overcome dysentery disease of, 55.2% improving clean water can be temporary prevention of dysentery disease, and 56,4%-56,6% personal hygiene able to handle dysentery disease forever. By repairing bathroom (usually used for bath, wash, dump faeces 57.1%-58.4% and fixing garbage 56,2%-57,2% can prevent dysentery disease temporary, while 97,2%-97,4% of drinking traditional medicine (jamu also happen the same thing with dysentery disease. Based on respondents, 96,5%-96,6% using its own medicine/ingredient will prevent dysentery disease. According respondents habit on wash hand about 84.4% respondents wash their hand firstly in the morning and 74.2% washing band before sleep but 64.4% respondents who never wash their band before get dressed. From this research inferential respondents belief to prevent eat spicy food, improving readily clean water, bathroom, garbage place, efficacious of traditional drink, ingredients, washing band habit can be major factors that can prevent community from dysentery disease. The research is part of social Behavior Culture in Overcome Shigella Disease in Jakarta. Keywords: Respondent, Preventing, Shigella Disease

  1. [Tasks, roles and expectations of safety practitioners at free-standing occupational health and safety services in Spain]. (United States)

    Boix Ferrando, Pere; Gil Alcamí, Josep; Velarde Collado, José María; García, María Inés; Daniou Vargas, Ximena


    Objetivos: Conocer las actividades profesionales que realizan habitualmente los prevencionistas y su grado de satisfacción con las mismas. Métodos: Se accedió a una muestra de 236 técnicos de prevención con actividad en servicios de prevención ajenos de las comunidades autónomas de Baleares, Andalucía y Madrid a los que se les administró un cuestionario entre noviembre de 2009 y mayo de 2011 basado en el cuestionario propuesto por la Asociación Internacional de la Seguridad Social y la Red Europea de Organizaciones Profesionales en Salud y Seguridad (ISSA-ENSHPO). Resultados: Las tareas más frecuentemente realizadas por los prevencionistas en nuestra muestra (80% o más las realizan como mínimo una vez al mes) son la evaluación de riesgos, la formulación de recomendaciones preventivas, la información y la formación. Algunas tareas, como la fijación de criterios de selección del personal o la realización de análisis coste-beneficio, son mayoritariamente (por más del 50% de los encuestados) consideradas como impropias de los profesionales de la prevención. Los encuestados desearían dedicar más tiempo a la mayoría de las tareas que llevan a cabo, especialmente a las relacionadas con la propia formación y con la interacción en el seno de la empresa. Conclusiones: En el patrón de actividad de los profesionales entrevistados predominan las tareas relacionadas con el asesoramiento técnico en el puesto de trabajo, la formación de trabajadores y la difusión de informaciones, siendo los ámbitos de la gestión del propio conocimiento y el de las relaciones humanas en la empresa los que generan un deseo de mayor dedicación.

  2. التناص القرآني في شعر النقائض الأموية

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. A. Rawajbeh


    Full Text Available The poets of opposites poems take their knowledge from multi-springs of knowledge. So, the direction of Islamic values were added to the knowledge that take from the past and its literature, and from present Islam and its acquaintances, so the poetic culture was colored with the color of the culture which they take. It was the way for the best poets to serve their purpose and to deliver their messages. There is no doubt that the Quran was afar distance of both recipient and poet for his eloquence this type of poem has been associated with the name of obscenity because of the large number insults and exposure of the taboos. This article came to reveal the relationship between the poetic text and the Quranic text in the poem of the three Umayyad poets and to wipe the dust of obscenity which knighted him and to identify the impact of the holy Quran upon its simple, compound and inspiration system and address the extent of correlation of poetic text and overlap with the Holy Quran.

  3. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa


    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services.

  4. Constraints for timing of extensional tectonics in the western margin of the Red Sea in Eritrea (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Carter, Andrew; Hurford, Anthony J.; Talbot, Christopher J.


    Recent work on asthenosphere-lithosphere coupling reinforces past observations that active and passive rifting models do not adequately describe real rifts. There remains insufficient knowledge of fundamental controls on rift architecture. In the actively extending Red Sea margin of eastern Eritrea, which lies at the Red Sea/Danakil-Gulf of Aden and the East African rift triple junction zone, the geometry and kinematics of extension are complex and poorly defined due to large data gaps. Extension and sea-floor spreading in both the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden have influenced the Neogene tectonic development of Eritrea but many of the structures have Pan-African origins and do not follow normal plate opening geometries. To constrain the rifting history in eastern Eritrea, apatite fission-track thermochronologic data were measured for 22 Pan-African rock samples. Results identify late Oligocene-early Miocene cooling coincident with extension and erosion along the conjugate margin in Yemen. A younger age group, confined to Mt Ghedem, relates to an episode of fault reactivation and dyke injection that began ˜10 Ma coincident with rotation of the nearby Danakil block. Initially this was driven by onset of sea-floor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and later, in the Pliocene, aided by northward rifting in the Afar depression concomitant with spreading in the Red Sea. These different processes highlight the complex linkage between different extensional events and rift architecture.

  5. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng


    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  6. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin


    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  7. The consequences of hotspots on continental lithosphere : a thermal case study on the Arabian Plate. (United States)

    Vicente De Gouveia, S.; Besse, J.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Frizon de Lamotte, D.; Leparmentier, F.; Lescanne, M.


    Hotspots are thermal instabilities coming from various depths in the mantle. Their activity is often revealed by surface and sub-surface phenomena such as volcanic trapps or oceanic plateaus, and volcanic island tracks on the seafloor. The two first are often linked to the eruption of a hotspot head, while the third is due to the volcanic material fed by the subsequent tail. Consequences of a hotspot tail on the oceanic lithosphere are well known, while its effect on the continental lithosphere is most often masked by the thickness of the lithosphere. The aim of our study is to try and link hotspot tracks with geological events in the continental lithosphere. Hotspot tracks are first built using a modified version of the hybrid reference frame of Seton et al. (2012), and their effect on the continental lithosphere is then evaluated using geological markers issued from petroleum wells, in particular the sedimentary record, backstripping, heat flux anomaly and temperature data. A case study is performed on the Arabian Plate, potentially crossed by two hotspots (Afar and Comores). Several W-E heat flux profiles display a large thermal anomaly close to the Red Sea, while a smaller N-S elongated heat flow anomaly more to the E suggests that a hotspot track could impact the thermal history of the Arabian plate.

  8. Volcanic Eruptions in the Southern Red Sea During 2007–2013

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon


    The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.

  9. The E-pistolary Novel: Print Screens of Media-driven Thoughts in David Llewellyn’s Eleven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Celia GHEORGHIU


    Full Text Available Contemporary literature seems to have reconciled the idea that everything valuable has already been said and done and, as such, has wilfully inscribed itself in a never-ending cycle of narratives about narratives, in a process of recycling and updating the past, which some love to name postmodernist. What is left at stake is simply the consumerist need to produce an oxymoronic ‘original copy’: to launch that piece of literature unseen and unheard of before on a crowded book market. A recipe for success seems to be the ability to combine the novelty of the architectural design – the formal innovation – with the thematisation of the present. It is precisely what the young Welsh novelist and scriptwriter, David Llewellyn, achieves with his debut novel, Eleven. In an attempt to translate the old into the new, Eleven is constructed following the design of the early modern epistolary novels, yet making use of a contemporary mode of writing: the email. Thematically, it is an exploration of patterns of individual thinking shaped by the media, against the background of an event with global consequences, which is, nevertheless, viewed from afar, without the inherent trauma so visible in American post-9/11 fiction. The present paper aims at analysing the construction of the novel, including the linguistic transformations it employs, and at accounting for the identitaryrevolt that transpires from the e mails exchanged between various character-narrators on an apparently ordinary day: September 11, 2001.

  10. Measurement of ground displacement from optical satellite image correlation using the free open-source software MicMac (United States)

    Rosu, Ana-Maria; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Delorme, Arthur; Binet, Renaud; Klinger, Yann


    Image correlation is one of the most efficient techniques to determine horizontal ground displacements due to earthquakes, landslides, ice flows or sand dune migrations. Analyzing these deformations allows a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of the events. By using sub-pixel correlation on before- and after-event ortho-images obtained from high resolution satellite images it is possible to compute the displacement field with high planimetric resolution. In this paper, we focus on measuring the ground displacements due to seismotectonic events. The three sub-pixel correlators used are: COSI-Corr - developed by Caltech, a free, closed-source correlator, dependent on commercial software (ENVI) and widely used by the geoscience community for measuring ground displacement; Medicis - developed by CNES, also a closed-source correlator capable of measuring this type of deformation; and MicMac - developed by IGN, the free open-source correlator we study and tune for measuring fine ground displacements. We measured horizontal ground deformation using these three correlators on SPOT images in three study cases: the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake, the 2005 dyke intrusion in the Afar depression and the 2008 Yutian earthquake.

  11. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages. (United States)

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S


    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  12. Et in Arcadia Ego. The Mausoleum at Castle Howard (en inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz


    Full Text Available AbstractAll buildings that populate the garden of Castle Howard in a seemingly random, always placed on small hills, convey the feeling of being constantly observed objects, rather than being themselves observation sites surrounding territory. They are  more the gaze receptors than its origin, and this is particularly relevant in the case of the mausoleum of Hawksmoor, more  than a pavilion or a landmark in the landscape as it is the culmination of an itinerary that covers all of them and the counterpoint to the main house. The mausoleum is the building most inhabited and the most qualified from the spatial point of view, the most closed, the emptiest, the most inaccessible and the closest. This circular building can be watched with emotion  from afar, but also encouraged to approach their limits, to almost physically feel the vitality of who lives inside that cage of stone, and dwells there forever reminding us that, as stated  Erwin Panofsky, death is the real subject of the existence in the Arcadian landscape.Key wordsCastle Howard, paysage, mausoleum, Hawksmoor, arcadia, death, Panofsky

  13. Variable coefficients EV model in the application of the exchange rate%变系数 EV 模型在人民币汇率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 张德生; 王丽辉; 荀新新


    将自适应变系数EV模型在计算机模拟实验的基础上推广到人民币汇率应用中,并利用该模型对人民币美元汇率的月度数据进行拟合预测。实证研究结果表明:自适应变系数EV模型的拟合效果优于FA R模型、A FA R模型的拟合效果,其预测精度也是这几种模型中最优的,可以为研究人民币美元汇率今后的趋势提供帮助。%The adaptive variable coefficients EV model on the basis of computer simulation ex-periment to the RMB exchange rate applications ,the monthly RMB exchange rate is fitted and predicted by using this model .The empirical results show that adaptive variable coeffi-cients EV model was used for data fitting and forecasting precision is superior to the FAR model and AFAR model ,so this model can offer help for the trends of RMB/USD exchange rate .

  14. Dynamics of a seafloor-spreading episode at the East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Tan, Yen Joe; Tolstoy, Maya; Waldhauser, Felix; Wilcock, William S. D.


    Seafloor spreading is largely unobserved because 98 per cent of the global mid-ocean-ridge system is below the ocean surface. Our understanding of the dynamic processes that control seafloor spreading is thus inferred largely from geophysical observations of spreading events on land at Afar in East Africa and Iceland. However, these are slow-spreading centres influenced by mantle plumes. The roles of magma pressure and tectonic stress in the development of seafloor spreading are still unclear. Here we use seismic observations to show that the most recent eruption at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise just North of the Equator initiated at a melt-rich segment about 5 kilometres long. The change in static stress then promoted almost-concurrent rupturing along at least 35 kilometres of the ridge axis, where tectonic stress had built up to a critical level, triggering magma movement. The location of impulsive seismic events indicative of lava reaching the seafloor suggests that lava subsequently erupted from multiple isolated magma lenses (reservoir chambers) with variable magma ascent rates, mostly within 48 hours. Therefore, even at magmatically robust fast-spreading ridges, a substantial portion of the spreading may be due to tectonic stress building up to a critical level rather than magma overpressure in the underlying magma lenses.

  15. Crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Baer, Gidon


    We investigate the crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Afar, Eritrea. The Nabro volcano erupted on the night of 12 June 2011. A seismic sequence started 5 h before the onset of the volcanic eruption. It included 25 M > 3 earthquakes, of which one Mw 5.6 normal fault earthquake occurred on 12 June at about the same time as the onset of the eruption, and one Mw 5.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred at the end of the main sequence on 17 June. The deformation associated with the eruption and the seismic activity was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the TerraSAR-X and ENVISAT satellites. Interferograms were generated using ascending and descending track pairs. The Nabro caldera and the associated channel of magma flow are characterized by significant loss of coherence which limited our InSAR observations at the near field of the volcano. Therefore, detailed assessment of co- and post-eruptive seismicity and monitoring of post-eruptive deformation using continued InSAR observations were added to the co-eruptive analysis in order to better constrain the different magmatic and tectonic components and determine the final source model. We carried out tens of different inversion models. Our best-fit model includes a dike, a normal fault and a strike-slip fault, consistent with the mechanisms of the major earthquakes. Coulomb stress calculations based on our model are found to be in agreement with post-eruptive seismicity. Finally, the source mechanism and geometry of our model are found to be in accord with the major tectonic structures in this area.

  16. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production. (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander


    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  17. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses. (United States)

    Verhagen, Josanne H; van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Vuong, Oanh; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M


    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i) H3 virus kinship, (ii) temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii) H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  18. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josanne H Verhagen

    Full Text Available Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i H3 virus kinship, (ii temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  19. The Upper Mantle Flow Field around South-Africa as Reflected by Isotopic Provinciality (United States)

    Meyzen, C.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Ludden, J.; Humler, E.; Mevel, C.; Albarede, F.


    Isotopic studies of MORB have established the existence of broad isotopic provinces within the underlying asthenosphere, such as in the Indian Ocean (DUPAL). How these features relate to mantle circulation is, however, still unknown. The steepness of the transition between such isotopic provinces will define the geometry of the velocity field in the upper mantle. In this respect, the transition between the Indian and South Atlantic provinces, two domains that are isotopically contrasted, should be readily identifiable over this long ridge segment. Here, we present Hf isotope data for 60 samples dredged along the SWIR between 35° and 69°E. The new Hf isotope data show that the Indian asthenosphere does not spill directly into the South Atlantic upper mantle: the general decreasing southward gradient observed for ^{176}Hf/^{177}Hf down the mid- Atlantic Ridge, and also for Sr isotopes and model Th/U ratios (derived from Pb isotopes), is overprinted by material with radiogenic Sr, unradiogenic Hf and high Th/U. The Indian domain grades into the South Atlantic around Bouvet, while the South Atlantic collides with the Atlantic province around Tristan. We interpret these features to represent fronts between three adjacent isotopic provinces similar to what has been suggested for the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. The common DUPAL signature of MORB and OIB from the Indian province and the geochemistry of Gulf of Aden MORB and the Afar plume suggest that the source of this distinctive mantle component is deep and lies to the north of the province. This is also what the three-dimensional flow field computed by Behn et al. (2004) from shear-wave splitting shows with a major lower mantle upwelling radiating at the base of the asthenosphere under the Afar plume. Lower mantle gushing out from this source flows southward unimpeded along the Indian ridges, whereas it only reaches the South Atlantic ridge after first having been deflected under the deep roots of the South

  20. Rapid Deployment of International Tele-Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria. (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig


    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.

  1. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600) (United States)

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Manzanilla, Linda R.; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael


    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco’s history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  2. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A Álvarez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla, and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  3. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600). (United States)

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael


    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  4. [Inpatient rehabilitation with balneotherapy in the elderly--our experience over the last 10 years]. (United States)

    Kurabayashi, H; Kubota, K; Shirakura, T


    We describe 308 patients hospitalized for rehabilitation incorporating balneotherapy in our hospital between 1986 and 1996, with respect to age, place of residence, disease, duration of impairment, duration of hospitalization, reason for hospitalization, person taking care of the patient, and family size. Patients in eighth decade of life were the most common and 41% of the patients were residents of Kusatsu. Cerebral diseases were the most common (36%). The average length of hospitalization was 72 days. The reason for hospitalization, person taking care of patient and family size were compared between patients 60 to 79 years old and patients 80 years old or older. Many patients came from afar to our hospital with expectation of rehabilitation using balneotherapy. More than half of the patients 80 years old or older were admitted at their own request without a doctor's letter of introduction. The person who most often took care of a patient 80 years old or older was the patient's daughter in law. The average length of hospitalization of patients who were taken care of by their wife, husband, daughter, son, daughter in law, and nobody were 58, 71, 75, 114, 86, and 124 days, respectively. Many patients 60 to 79 years old lived alone or with another family member, but most of those 80 years old or older lived with at least 2 other family members. The lack of a definite goal for rehabilitation might have prolonged these patients' hospital stays. Balneotherapy might have given them an incentive to continue their rehabilitation and made their quality of life better.

  5. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  6. Silicon isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation (United States)

    Savage, Paul S.; Georg, R. Bastian; Williams, Helen M.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.


    The Si isotopic composition of Earth's mantle is thought to be homogeneous (δ 30Si = -0.29 ± 0.08‰, 2 s.d.) and not greatly affected by partial melting and recycling. Previous analyses of evolved igneous material indicate that such rocks are isotopically heavy relative to the mantle. To understand this variation, it is necessary to investigate the degree of Si isotopic fractionation that takes place during magmatic differentiation. Here we report Si isotopic compositions of lavas from Hekla volcano, Iceland, which has formed in a region devoid of old, geochemically diverse crust. We show that Si isotopic composition varies linearly as a function of silica content, with more differentiated rocks possessing heavier isotopic compositions. Data for samples from the Afar Rift Zone, as well as various igneous USGS standards are collinear with the Hekla trend, providing evidence of a fundamental relationship between magmatic differentiation and Si isotopes. The effect of fractionation has been tested by studying cumulates from the Skaergaard Complex, which show that olivine and pyroxene are isotopically light, and plagioclase heavy, relative to the Si isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle. Therefore, Si isotopes can be utilised to model the competing effects of mafic and felsic mineral fractionation in evolving silicate liquids and cumulates. At an average SiO 2 content of ˜60 wt.%, the predicted δ 30Si value of the continental crust that should result from magmatic fractionation alone is -0.23 ± 0.05‰ (2 s.e.), barely heavier than the mantle. This is, at most, a maximum estimate, as this does not take into account weathered material whose formation drives the products toward lighter δ 30Si values. Mass balance calculations suggest that removal of continental crust of this composition from the upper mantle will not affect the Si isotopic composition of the mantle.

  7. Feedback control policies employed by people using intracortical brain-computer interfaces (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Pandarinath, Chethan; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Murphy, Brian A.; Memberg, William D.; Blabe, Christine H.; Saab, Jad; Walter, Benjamin L.; Sweet, Jennifer A.; Miller, Jonathan P.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Bolu Ajiboye, A.


    Objective. When using an intracortical BCI (iBCI), users modulate their neural population activity to move an effector towards a target, stop accurately, and correct for movement errors. We call the rules that govern this modulation a ‘feedback control policy’. A better understanding of these policies may inform the design of higher-performing neural decoders. Approach. We studied how three participants in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial used an iBCI to control a cursor in a 2D target acquisition task. Participants used a velocity decoder with exponential smoothing dynamics. Through offline analyses, we characterized the users’ feedback control policies by modeling their neural activity as a function of cursor state and target position. We also tested whether users could adapt their policy to different decoder dynamics by varying the gain (speed scaling) and temporal smoothing parameters of the iBCI. Main results. We demonstrate that control policy assumptions made in previous studies do not fully describe the policies of our participants. To account for these discrepancies, we propose a new model that captures (1) how the user’s neural population activity gradually declines as the cursor approaches the target from afar, then decreases more sharply as the cursor comes into contact with the target, (2) how the user makes constant feedback corrections even when the cursor is on top of the target, and (3) how the user actively accounts for the cursor’s current velocity to avoid overshooting the target. Further, we show that users can adapt their control policy to decoder dynamics by attenuating neural modulation when the cursor gain is high and by damping the cursor velocity more strongly when the smoothing dynamics are high. Significance. Our control policy model may help to build better decoders, understand how neural activity varies during active iBCI control, and produce better simulations of closed-loop iBCI movements.

  8. À propos du regard éloigné de l’ethnographe ou les rapports entre la théorie et l’observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien Scubla


    Full Text Available À propos du regard éloigné de l’ethnographe ou les rapports entre la théorie et l’observation. « Il faut se laisser porter par le terrain, ne pas avoir d’idées préconçues », recommande-t-on souvent aux étudiants et aux jeunes chercheurs. Nous nous proposons de soutenir et d’illustrer la thèse inverse : c’est l’idée préconçue, l’hypothèse ou le corps d’hypothèses, en un mot la théorie, qui rend possible l’observation.Cette thèse n’est pas originale. Familière aux historiens des sciences de la nature, elle a été brillamment défendue par Hocart, en anthropologie. Elle conduit à préconiser un usage systématique de la méthode comparative. Nous l’illustrerons par quelques observations personnelles de rites chrétiens et républicains.On the ethnographer’s view from afar or the relationship between theory and observation. “Let the field be your guide; leave behind any preconceived ideas”: such is the advice often given to students and young researchers. We propose to defend and illustrate the opposite thesis: the preconceived idea, hypothesis or set of hypotheses — in short, theory — is what makes observation possible.This thesis is not original. Familiar to historians of the natural sciences, it was brilliantly defended by Hocart in anthropology. It entails making systematic use of the comparative method. Here we will demonstrate its relevance for the study of Christian and republican myths and rituals.

  9. 20世纪中国文学的异文化观照——从《变形记》与《一九八六年》看卡夫卡对余华的影响%In twentieth Century the Chinese literature from Cultural Perspective --Influence of Kafka's ‘The Metamorphosis' on Yu Hua' s ‘The 1986'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article analyses the influence of Austrian writer Kafka on Yu Hua who is one of the Chinese vanguard writers in the style of the two novels The Metamorphosis and The 1986. Not only on narrative style, but on the mode of plot, the processing of details and the thought of theme, Yu Hua echoes from afar with Kafka who is the originator of modernist sehool in the 20th century. Such influence en- abled Yu Hua to break through and innovate from the level of both the form and tile thought in his novels. Under the deep influence of Kafka, Yu Hua' s creation, has witnessed space for free expression and no longer gets bogged down in the bondage of reality.%摘要:本文从影响研究的角度,以《变形记》和《一九八六年》两部短篇小说为例,分析奥地利作家卡夫卡对中国先锋作家余华的影响。余华的《一九八六午》在叙事风格、情节模式、细节处理和主题思路方面,均与20世纪现代文学鼻祖卡夫卡遥相呼应。这种影响使余华的写作无论是在形式层面上还是在思想层面上,都有了相当的突破与创新;在卡夫卡的深刻影响下,余华的创作同时有了一个自由表述的空间,而不再拘泥于现实的束缚。

  10. Why did Arabia separate from Africa? Insights from 3-D laboratory experiments (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Daniel, J. M.; Jolivet, L.


    We have performed 3-D scaled lithospheric experiments to investigate the role of the gravitational force exerted by a subducting slab on the deformation of the subducting plate itself. Experiments have been constructed using a dense silicone putty plate, to simulate a thin viscous lithosphere, floating in the middle of a large box filled with glucose syrup, simulating the upper mantle. We examine three different plate configurations: (i) subduction of a uniform oceanic plate, (ii) subduction of an oceanic-continental plate system and, (iii) subduction of a more complex oceanic-continental system simulating the asymmetric Africa-Eurasia system. Each model has been performed with and without the presence of a circular weak zone inside the subducting plate to test the near-surface weakening effect of a plume activity. Our results show that a subducting plate can deform in its interior only if the force distribution varies laterally along the subduction zone, i.e. by the asymmetrical entrance of continental material along the trench. In particular, extensional deformation of the plate occurs when a portion of the subduction zone is locked by the collisional process. The results of this study can be used to analyze the formation of the Arabian plate. We found that intraplate stresses, similar to those that generated the Africa-Arabia break-up, can be related to the Neogene evolution of the northern convergent margin of the African plate, where a lateral change from collision (Mediterranean and Bitlis) to active subduction (Makran) has been described. Second, intraplate stress and strain localization are favored by the presence of a weakness zone, such as the one generated by the Afar plume, producing a pattern of extensional deformation belts resembling the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system.

  11. Enhanced SO2 Concentrations Observed over Northern India: Role of Long-range Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, H.; Pant, P.


    Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher than background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.

  12. Why did Arabia separate from Africa ? (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Daniel, J. M.; Jolivet, L.


    We have performed 3-D scaled lithospheric experiments to investigate the role of the gravitational force exerted by subduction slab on the deformation of the subducting plate itself. Experiments have been constructed using a dense silicone putty plate, to simulate a thin viscous lithosphere, floated in glucose syrup, simulating the upper mantle. We show different plate configuration: (i) subduction of a uniform oceanic plate, (ii) subduction of oceanic-continental plate system, and (iii) subduction of a more complex oceanic-continental system simulating the asymmetric Africa-Eurasia system at the beginning of the Tertiary. Each model has been performed including or not the presence of circular weak zone inside the subducting plate simulating the near-surface weakening effect of a plume activity. Our results show that a subducting plate can deform in its interior only if the velocity field generated by the slab varies laterally along the subduction zone, i.e. by the asymmetrical entrance of continental material at trench. The result of this study can be used to analyze the formation of the Arabian plate. We found that intraplate stresses, similar to the one that generated the Africa-Arabia break-up, can be related to the Neogene evolution of the northern convergent margin of the African plate where a lateral change from collision (Mediterranean and Bitlis) to active subduction (Makran) has been described. Second, intraplate stress and strain localization are favored by the presence of a weakness zone, such as the one generated by the Afar plume, producing a pattern of extensional deformation belts resembling to the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system.

  13. 古代舞蹈的当代遗影——“於菟”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nianduhu,an ethnic Tu village in an outlying area that lies,3,000 meters above sea level on the QinghaiTibet Plateau,may have remained anonymous forever but for those anthropologiste coming afar for a uniaue ritual performed annually on November 2-th by the lunar calendar,The ritual ,featuring haunting of evil spirits by a group of yong male dancers who disguise themselves as tigers,

  14. 改性稀浆封层在公路养护中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    信阳公路物资处乳化沥青车间用SBR改性剂及美国产复合乳化剂,采用内掺法生产出的改性乳化沥青符合“ISSA A143-1996”标准,通过在国道312线信阳段的改性稀浆封层施工应用,取得了理想的效果。

  15. 加拿大大学生拒绝语使用情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章以90名加拿大大学生为研究对象,调查拒绝语的使用情况,并对其使用策略进行了分析.语料收集采用"语篇补全测试"(DCT)问卷调查法.情景设计参考了Nelson, G.L. et al. (1993, 2002) 和Al-Issa (2003)研究所设计的情景.

  16. MA’ADEN与SABIC签订战略伙伴关系协定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ma'aden总裁兼首席执行官Abdullah Ibn Issa Al-Dabbagh博士与SABIC副董事长兼首席执行官Mohamed Al-Mady先生于2007年3月12日共同签署合作协定,自此拉开两家公司进行战略合作的帷幕。根据协定,两家公司将在一个磷酸盐矿物项目中建立合资企业。

  17. The study on apoptosis of liver cancer cell line HepG2 induced by culture supernatant of DCs transfection with recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISS)%重组质粒pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISS)转染DC培养上清诱导HepG2株凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 田德英; 许东; 张振纲; 陈淼; 章述军; 吴会玲


    目的:探讨人类乙肝核心抗原重组质粒pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISS)转染人外周血单核细胞来源树突状细胞后,细胞培养上清诱导肝癌细胞株HepG2凋亡的作用及机制.方法:构建真核表达质粒pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISSa,c),将其转染人外周血来源DC,用培养上清诱导HepG2的凋亡.用流式细胞仪检测已转染DC表面CD80和CD86的表达,检测培养上清诱导HepG2凋亡的变化.用ELISA法检测转染后DC培养上清的IFN-γ、IL-2、IL-12、IL-4和IL-10的水平.结果:pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISSa)转染DC表面CD80和CD86的表达均有明显升高(P<0.01).转染后上清中Th1型细胞因子 IFN-γ、IL-2和IL-12的表达增强(P<0.01),Th2型细胞因子IL-4和IL-10的表达下降(P<0.05),pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISSa)组培养上清对HepG2细胞具有促凋亡作用,随着培养时间延长,细胞凋亡率逐渐增加,HepG2细胞在诱导后24小时凋亡率达到最大,为18.4%.结论:重组质粒pEGFP-N1/CpG-HBcAg(ISSa)转染培养上清能明显促进肝癌细胞株HepG2的凋亡.

  18. 改性稀浆封层技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    用SBR改性剂及美国产复合乳化剂,采用内掺法生产出的改性乳化沥青符合“ISSA A143-1996”标准,通过在国道312线信阳段的改性稀浆封层施工应用,取得了理想的效果,主要从实验研究设计这一方面作分析和总结。

  19. 汉语拒绝语中的礼貌表达方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文以90名大学生为研究对象,调查汉语拒绝语中的礼貌表达方法.语料收集采用"语篇补全测试"(DCT)问卷调查法.情景设计参考了Nelson, al.(1993,2002)和Al-Issa(2003)研究所设计的情景.笔者从词汇和句法层次对汉语拒绝语中的礼貌表达方法进行分析.

  20. 法国与科威特签署核合作协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炎(译); 伍浩松(校)


    【世界核新闻网站2010年1月15日报道】法国原子能委员会(CEA)主席Bernard Bigot与科威特和平利用原子能委员会主席Ahmad Issa Bshara近日分别代表两国政府签署了一份核合作协议,其中包括对有意购买阿海珐集团(Areva)股份的海湾国家的相关建议。

  1. 美国107届国会新议员(续二)%New Faces in the 107th Session of U.S. Congress (part two)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱宇; 钱立伟


    达雷尔·伊萨(Darrell Issa)。共和党保守派,选自加利福尼亚州第48选区。伊1953年11月1日生于克利夫兰。1976年获肯特州立大学文学预科、西恩纳高等大学文学士学位。信奉安蒂奥克基督教会(Antioch Christian Church)。曾是轿车报警器公司老板。1970

  2. 世界关注中国社会保障——访ISSA秘书长达尔曼·霍斯金先生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  3. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  4. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. Third Quarter FY-10 (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark


    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic,as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period. With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need

  5. Geodetic constraints on continental rifting along the Red Sea (United States)

    Reilinger, R.; McClusky, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.; Ghebreab, W.; Ogubazghi, G.; Al-Aydrus, A.


    We are using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor and quantify patterns and rates of tectonic and magmatic deformation associated with active rifting of the continental lithosphere and the transition to sea floor spreading in the Red Sea. Broad-scale motions of the Nubian and Arabian plates indicate coherent plate motion with internal deformation below the current resolution of our measurements (~ 1-2 mm/yr). The GPS-determined Euler vector for Arabia-Nubia is indistinguishable from the geologic Euler vector determined from marine magnetic anomalies, and Arabia-Eurasia relative motion from GPS is equal within uncertainties to relative motion determined from plate reconstructions, suggesting that Arabia plate motion has remained constant (±10%) during at least the past ~10 Ma. The approximate agreement between broad-scale GPS rates of extension (i.e., determined from relative plate motions) and those determined from magnetic anomalies along the Red Sea rift implies that spreading in the central Red Sea is primarily confined to the central rift (±10-20%). Extension appears to be more broadly distributed in the N Red Sea and Gulf of Suez where comparisons with geologic data also indicate a relatively recent (between 500 and 125 kyr BP) change in the motion of the Sinai block that is distinct from both Nubia and Arabia. In the southern Red Sea, GPS results are beginning to define the motion of the "Danakil micro-plate". We investigate and report on a model involving CCW rotation of the Danakil micro-plate relative to Nubia and magmatic inflation below the Afar Triple Junction that is consistent with available geodetic constraints. Running the model back in time suggests that the Danakil micro-plate has been an integral part of rifting/triple junction processes throughout the history of separation of the Arabian and Nubian plates. On the scale of Nubia-Arabia-Eurasia plate interactions, we show that new area formed at spreading centers roughly equals that

  6. Characteristics of seismicity in Eritrea (2011-2012): Implications for rifting dynamics (United States)

    Goitom, B.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendal, M. J.; Ogubazghi, G.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Illsley-Kemp, F.


    Eritrea hosts the final stages of on-land East-African rifting, yet questions remain about how rifting transits from the Afar Depression to the Red Sea. In this study, we use data from recent deployments of 6 broadband seismometers in Eritrea together with deployments in Ethiopia to locate seismicity and determine the current focus of strain. Over 1000 events have been located with local magnitudes 0.7-5.0. A significant period of seismicity was observed on 1 July 2012 around Nabro volcano and is associated with the biggest event of mL 5 preceded by 33 events in the previous two days. It may be related to magma movement below Nabro. Other significant seismicity was observed on 25 December 2011 and is correlated with an earthquake of mL 4.2 and associated with 13 other events on the same day. This event is located around Hayli Gubbi and Ale Bagu volcanoes and could be related to the activities around these volcanoes. We use double difference relocations to improve accuracy and show two main clusters of seismicity, one oriented NW-SE in the Bada-Alid axis along the north-western boundary of the Danakil microplate and the other NE-SW, following the trend of the Biddu-Nabro volcanic complex. Our new estimates of seismicity demarcate the boundary between the Nubian, Somalian, and Danakil Microplate and suggest that the Danakil microplate may be broken in two along the Biddu-Nabro Volcanic complex. We estimate b-values for the different clusters of events and show that close to the major border faults near Massawa, average b-values are lower (0.65) than that found near the volcanic centres (1.2 - Bada-Alid, 0.81 - Biddu-Nabro). This may indicate that the stress is less in the volcanic regions and the seismicity is due to movement of magma fluids and strain is accommodated by the injection of magma. In contrast the earthquakes around Massawa occur in relatively stronger rocks suggesting strain may be accommodated by movement on larger faults.

  7. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepro NB


    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  8. Geodynamic environments of ultra-slow spreading (United States)

    Kokhan, Andrey; Dubinin, Evgeny


    Ultra-slow spreading is clearly distinguished as an outstanding type of crustal accretion by recent studies. Spreading ridges with ultra-slow velocities of extension are studied rather well. But ultra-slow spreading is characteristic feature of not only spreading ridges, it can be observed also on convergent and transform plate boundaries. Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on divergent plate boundaries: 1. On spreading ridges with ultra-slow spreading, both modern (f.e. Gakkel, South-West Indian, Aden spreading center) and ceased (Labrador spreading center, Aegir ridge); 2. During transition from continental rifting to early stages of oceanic spreading (all spreading ridges during incipient stages of their formation); 3. During incipient stages of formation of spreading ridges on oceanic crust as a result of ridge jumps and reorganization of plate boundaries (f.e. Mathematicians rise and East Pacific rise); 4. During propagation of spreading ridge into the continental crust under influence of hotspot (Aden spreading center and Afar triple junction), under presence of strike-slip faults preceding propagation (possibly, rift zone of California Bay). Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on transform plate boundaries: 1. In transit zones between two "typical" spreading ridges (f.e. Knipovich ridge); 2. In semi strike-slip/extension zones on the oceanic crust (f.e. American-Antarctic ridge); 3. In the zones of local extension in regional strike-slip areas in pull-apart basins along transform boundaries (Cayman trough, pull-apart basins of the southern border of Scotia plate). Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on convergent plate boundaries: 1. During back-arc rifting on the stage of transition into back-arc spreading (central

  9. Office seeking and policy principles Stjórnsækni og stefnufesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson


    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Í þessari grein er tekist á við spurninguna um hlutfallslegt vægi stjórnsækni og stefnufestu hjá íslenskum stjórnmálaflokkum. Við myndun samsteypustjórna þurfa flokkar oft að meta kosti þess að komast í stjórnaraðstöðu á móti því að gefa eftir einhver stefnumál sín. Rannsóknir benda til þess að íslenskir stjórnmálaflokkar séu fremur stjórnsæknir og setji það tiltölulega lítið fyrir sig að gefa eftir stefnumál sín. Þrjár tilgátur eru settar fram um það í greininni hvaða afleiðingar þetta hefur fyrir íslensk stjórnmál: Í fyrsta lagi að íslenskir stjórnmálaflokkar hafi tilhneigingu til að mynda lágmarks sigursamsteypur og myndi síður minnihlutastjórnir eða stjórnir með aukaflokka innanborðs en flokkar í nálægum ríkjum, í öðru lagi að stjórnarsáttmálar séu styttri en í öðrum ríkjum og í þriðja lagi að skipting ráðuneyta sé tiltölulega hagstæð smærri stjórnarflokkum vegna harðrar samkeppni um að komast í stjórnaraðstöðu. Tilgáturnar fá í meginatriðum stuðning af gögnum sem skoðuð voru að undanskilinni annarri tilgátunni. Þótt stjórnarsáttmálar séu afar stuttir á Íslandi er ekki almennt samband á milli stjórnsækni og lengdar stjórnarsáttmála af því tagi sem tilgátan gerir ráð fyrir, í þeim löndum sem samanburðargögn eru til um. Á hinn bóginn kemur í ljós að þar sem stjórnarsáttmálar eru stuttir hafa forsætisráðherrar þess meiri völd. Á Íslandi fara hins vegar saman valdalitlir forsætisráðherrar og stuttir stjórnarsáttmálar, sem samrýmist vel hugmyndum um stjórnsækni íslenskra stjórnmálaflokka.

  10. Calming the Churn: Resolving the Dilemma of Rotational Warfare in Counterinsurgency (United States)


    Letter from Iraq,” The New Yorker, April 10, 2006, 29 execution of 3rd...October 1990, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi signed the authorization to stand up the organization with a limited initial budget. The new Rashtriya...Leavenworth, KS. Packer, George. “The Lesson of Tal Afar: Letter from Iraq.” The New

  11. Dokumenttienhallintajärjestelmän kehittäminen


    Leskinen, Jussi


    Insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli kehittää yksinkertainen dokumenttien hallintaan soveltuva intranet sellaisten yritysten käyttöön, jotka tekevät projekteja asunto-osakeyhtiöissä. Järjestelmän tarkoituksena on palvella yrityksiä niiden dokumenttien hallinnassa sekä yhteystyökumppaneita projektien etenemisestä tiedottamisessa. Järjestelmä toteutettiin sisällönhallintajärjestelmää käyttäen, koska sen päälle järjestelmää on mahdollista jatkokehittää tulevaisuudessa...

  12. Space robot could climb craters%能攀爬火山的空间机器人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina D'Ario


    一个由NASA喷气推进实验室的Issa A.D.Nesnas领导的工程师团队,还包括加州理工学院的Joel Burdick教授和他的学生,设计和测试了一个能在陡峭斜坡和岩石表面进行导航的轻型探路者机器人原型。这个两轮圆柱形的机器人被命名为Axel,是Axel探路者系统中的一员。该系列是用来探测行星表面的。

  13. 国际社会保障协会简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  14. 劳动和社会保障部副部长刘永富谈我国社会保障事业的发展状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓萍; 章微


    @@ 国际社会保障协会(英文简称ISSA)第28届全球大会于9月12日在北京开幕,并将持续到18日结束.值此盛会召开之际,我们走访了劳动和社会保障部副部长刘永富,就ISSA的基本情况、本届大会的主题和意义、与会代表情况及我国社会保障事业的发展状况等问题进行了深入的了解.

  15. 高远圣工:道路管养的完美体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 公司简介 河南省高远公路养护设备有限公司是河南省高远公路养护技术有限公司全资子公司,主要从事公路养护机械,道路检测设备及试验仪器的研发、生产及销售,是河南省高新技术企业与优秀民营科技企业,沥青回收与再生协会成员单位(ARRA),国际道路稀浆罩面协会(ISSA)会员.

  16. On the importance of debate in (geo-)scientific research (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Courtillot, V.


    It is of course a great honor to receive the Holmes medal from EGU. As past (founding) treasurer and later president of EUG, the medal carries special significance for me. It may be a good time to look back on the scientific path I have followed, pursuing research in the geosciences, with outstanding support from a number of family members (foremost my wife Michèle), mentors, colleagues and students. Chance, not planning, led me to attend a French school that trained mining engineers, then a US University that made me fall in love with geophysics and plate tectonics at a time when this scientific revolution was still going on, and finally the marvelous Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), where I have spent the rest of my career to this day. To pursue on this path, I selected the rather separate fields of paleomagnetism (then linked to geology) and geomagnetism (then linked to physics). I have devoted much of my time to make sure that the two specialties would closely interact, including in the structure of our groups at IPGP. Geo- and paleo-magnetism have turned out (in a way reminiscent of geochemistry) to be powerful tools to explore a broad range of exciting scientific questions. Equipped with them, I have had the pleasure and good fortune to navigate from the discovery of geomagnetic secular variation impulses (with Jean-Louis Le Mouël), now inelegantly called "geomagnetic jerks", to that of propagating rifting of continents in the Afar depression, to fascinating work on the India-Asia collision in the Tibetan plateau and the Cenozoic paleogeography of the Indian ocean bordering continents, to the reconstruction of synthetic apparent polar wander paths for major continental masses (with Jean Besse) that have been widely used, to the understanding of the significance of the volume, age and short duration of massive flood basalt volcanism in the Deccan traps of India and their potential link to the biological mass extinction at the Cretaceous

  17. Obituary: John Louis Africano III, 1951-2006 (United States)

    Barker, Edwin, S.


    Technical Conference whose attendance expanded dramatically during his tenure. John moved to the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in 1998 to work full time on orbital debris projects including the 3.0 meter Liquid Mirror Telescope and the CCD Debris Telescope in Cloudcroft, New Mexico. In 2000 he moved back to Colorado Springs, Colorado, to be closer to his family. From there he continued to support both the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) and AMOS. John was very instrumental in establishing cooperative programs between the ODPO and AMOS, which will benefit both organizations for many years to come. John left an indelible mark on his programs and all those who knew and loved him. The impact of his untimely departure will reverberate for many years. As John's wife Linda put it, "John is now visiting the stars and galaxies he adored from afar." John is survived by his wife, Linda Ann Africano; two sons, James Keith and Brian Michael; a daughter, Monica Lynn Africano; a sister, Diana Smith; and four grandchildren. The author acknowledges valuable input from Brian Africano (University of Colorado at Colorado Springs), Eugene Stansbery (NASA), Mark Mulrooney (NASA contractor), Tom Kelecy (Boeing LTS, Inc.), Paul Sydney (Boeing LTS, Inc.), Kira Abercromby (NASA contractor), and Patrick Seitzer (University of Michigan).

  18. Laulupeod rahvusliku identiteedi kandjana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kuutma


    Full Text Available The basis of wider distribution of choral singing among the country people was established at school and in the church. At the beginning of the 1930s, the development of polyphonic choral singing started. The example of choral singing as a form of social activity was taken over from the Baltic Germans among whom a movement of choral societies cultivating polyphonic men- or mixed choruses was widespead on direct influence of German culture. In Germany it was one expression of the national need of Germans to become one nation. In Estonia, in Põlva already in 1855 and 1857 several choruses performed together on what was called a "song-holiday", but the first song-holiday of a county that had a wider response was organised by the local priest Martin Köber in 1863 in Anseküla, where 500 singers participated. In North-Estonia, the first song festival was held two years later in Jõhvi, and in June 1869 the first Estonian nationwide song festival was held in Tartu after two years of pursuing a permission from the authorities. It has been even claimed that Estonians sung themselves into a nation. Since then, song festivals have regularly been taking place.The song festival is a folk festival, being at the same time both a ritual and a spectacle. The song festival creates a situation where cultural identity and national unity can be demonstrated. The mechanism of this festival is social mobilisation, people come to the festival with their families and friends, more important than the choral experience is communicating with those from close and afar, the need to experience reblendation into the society in a wider sense, the sense of unity with the nation, its history and cultural heritage. Artistic organised performances taking place during the festival that are aimed at the audience demonstrate cultural devotions of the particular community, carrying at the same time three main purposes: the social function to organise the community; the psychological

  19. Jurassic to Present Evolution of the Arctic Ocean Region: Questions for IPY (United States)

    Lawver, L. L.; Gahagan, L. M.; Childers, V. A.; Brozena, J. M.; Grantz, A.


    Superchron around 120 Ma. A brief review of the tectonic history of Arctic Ocean will be used to formulate a list of unknowns that IPY and subsequent work might investigate. We see a three or more stage opening of the Amerasian Basin. First stage is rifting between the Arctic Alaska/Chukokta block from the Canadian Arctic Islands with rotation of the Chukchi Borderland/Northwind Ridge out of the North Chukchi Basin similar to present motion in the Afar region and rotation of the Danakil block. This first stage was followed by a reorganization and the final stage is a rotational opening about a pole east of Fairbanks, AK. The Northwind Ridge was originally along the Sverdrup Basin margin of Canada. Timing of the stages is inexact due to a lack of correlatable magnetics but the final stage had to end prior to the start of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron because the gravity anomaly that marks the abandoned spreading center is flanked by magnetic anomalies.

  20. Collaboratory for support of scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.


    Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ``collaboratory`` refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries [1],[2]. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ``as good as being there`` is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote [3] Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative

  1. Peridotite xenoliths from Ethiopia: inferences on mantle processes from Plume to Rift settings (United States)

    Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Ellam, Robert Mark; Natali, Claudio; Santato, Alessandro; Siena, Franca; Stuart, Finlay


    agreement with the respective bulk rock chemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb on separeted clinopyroxenes are 87Sr/86Sr 0.70220-0.70310, 143Nd/144Nd 0.51301-0.51379, 206Pb/204Pb 18.38-19.34 for lherzolites, and 87Sr/86Sr 0.70268-0.70326, 143Nd/144Nd 0.51275-0.51305, 206Pb/204Pb 18.46-18.52 for harzburgites, thus ranging in composition between the DM and HIMU mantle end-members. These data suggest variably carbonated alkali-silicate melt(s) as the main metasomatic agent(s) of southern MER xenoliths in agreement with what observed in other mantle xenolith occurrences set along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifted continental margins which radiate from the Afar triple point. The decidedly different types of metasomatic agents recorded in Ethiopian mantle xenoliths, from the CFB area to the Rift system, clearly reflect distinct tectonomagmatic settings, i.e. the plume-related Oligocene subalkaline magmatism and the Neogene rift-related alkaline volcanism.

  2. 迷走神经兴奋对内毒素休克兔生命体征的影响%Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on endotoxic shock in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑崇明; 左祥荣; 刘少华; 曹权; 徐鑫荣


    Objective To study the effects of electrical stimulation of efferent vagus nerve on the endotoxic shock in rabbits. Method Sixteen Newzealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely group S as the stimulation group and group C as the control group). Rabbits were subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy and had challenge with intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. COLI O111: B4 , DIFCO, USA) in a dose of 600 μg/kg. The distal end of the left vagus nerve trunk was connected to an electric stimulator with bipolar electrode and controlled by an acquisition system. Stimuli with stable voltage (10 V,5 Hz,5 ms) were applied twice to the nerve for 10 minutes just before and after the administration of LPS in group S. At the time before and after the infusion of LPS 30 min,60 min, 120 min, 180 min,240 min and 300 min respectively, the heart rate(HR)and the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in each animal were recorded, and blood samples were taken for measuring serum tumor necrosis factor-αa(TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Results Compared with group C,the electrical stimulation of efferent vagus nerve could significantly attenuated the LPS-induced hypotension and de-creased the contents of TNF-α[(38.12±7.85) pg/mL vs. (55.12±7.89) pg/mL, P <0.01], but increased the contents of IL-10[(55.12±9.37)pg/mL vs. (40.15±5.44) pg/mL, P <0.01]afar LPS challenge. Conclusions The stimulation of the efferent vagus nerve can down-regulate systemic TNF-α, production and attenu-ate the development of shock after LPS challenge.%目的 探讨电刺激迷走神经对内毒素(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)休克兔生命体征变化的影响.方法 16只兔随机分为刺激组(S组)和对照组(C组).两组均切断舣侧颈迷走神经干,按600μg/kg静注大肠杆菌LPS.S组选择左迷走神经近心端接刺激电极,在注射LPS前后各持续电刺激(电压10 V,频率5 Hz,波宽5 ms)10 min.分别于输注LPS前及后30,60,120,180,240和300 min记录

  3. Using thermodynamic data to reproduce main seismic features of transition zone (United States)

    Fomin, Ilya; Saukko, Anna; Edwards, Paul; Schiffer, Christian


    Most of the seismic tomography studies nowadays are based on comprehensive models with optimization of lots of parameters. These models are able to resolve very subtle features of the Earth's mantle, but the influence of each specific parameter is not seen directly. In our research we try to minimize the number of processed parameters to produce simple synthetic cases. The main goals of our model are to see how water content influences the depth of the transition zone, and if melting at the transition zone is plausible. We also attempt to see how water content and the presence of melts influence the signal strength of the transition zone in receiver functions. Our MATLAB-code calculates phase assemblage according to specific temperature and pressure within 2D numerical domain (e.g. 300x700 km). Phase properties are calculated with database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni [2011], with corrections for water impact on elastic constants according to Liu et al., [2012]. We use the mantle phase composition 55% garnet and 45% olivine-polymorph, soliduses by Ohtani et al. [2004] and melt properties by Sakamaki et al. [2006]. These data are used to calculate seismic velocities and, furthermore, receiver functions with standard routines (e.g.[Schiffer et al., 2012]). Model predicts Vs within 5 to 5.5 km/s and Vp around 9.5-10 km/s within transition zone (Vp/Vs = 1.84-1.87), which is close to standard values. The presence of water enlarges the wadsleyite region, but also dampens the peak of receiver functions down to background level. Increase in water content causes melting at much shallower depths. Using a normal thermal gradient, we can get up to 10% of melt at depths around 390 km with 80% of water saturation, shown by a negative anomaly on receiver functions. This result is similar to data obtained for Afar Plateau [Thompson et al., 2015]. With cratonic thermal gradient, the olivine-wadsleyite transition and corresponding melt layer appear at depths around 350 km

  4. Et in Arcadia Ego: El Mausoleo de Castle Howard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz


    spatial point of view, the most closed, the emptiest, the most inaccessible and the closest. This circular building can be watched with emotion  from afar, but also encouraged to approach their limits, to almost physically feel the vitality of who lives inside that cage of stone, and dwells there forever reminding us that, as stated  Erwin Panofsky, death is the real subject of the existence in the Arcadian landscape.

    Key words

    Castle Howard, paysage, mausoleum, Hawksmoor, arcadia, death, Panofsky


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor SÎRBU


    Full Text Available În afară de vinovăţie, care este obligatorie în toate cazurile, pentru existenţa componenţei de infracţiune legiuitorul poate să mai stabilească (explicit sau implicit anumite cerinţe esenţiale necesare pentru întregirea laturii subiective. Un exemplu în acest sens este infracţiunea de huliganism. Deşi legiuitorul nu a prevăzut expres în dispoziţia art.287 CP RM motivele huliganice printre cauzele interne ale actului de conduită, acestea decurg din materialitatea faptei incriminate, considerent din care motivele infracţiunii de huliganism trebuie să constituie obiect al probatoriului. În contradicţie, în practica de urmărire penală şi în cea judiciară de cele mai dese ori nu se ţine cont de această realitate juridică. Mai mult ca atât, în actele procedurale emise de subiecţii oficiali de aplicare a legii penale se relevă că făptuitorul actelor de huli-ganism săvârşeşte fapta fără careva motive. Astfel, în prezentul demers ştiinţific, conceput din perspectivă teoretico-practică, autorul aduce argumente pertinente în vederea înlăturării acestei viziuni stereotipice, apelând la diferite sisteme de referinţe: psihologic, criminologic şi juridic. De asemenea, în studiul de faţă se probează că tocmai motivele huliga-nice prin natura lor sunt incompatibile cu alte motive care pot să impulsioneze conduita infracţională.SIGNIFICANCE AND ROLE OF THE HOOLIGAN CRIMINAL REASONS IN THE REALM OF THE CRIMINAL OFFENCE PROVIDED IN THE ARTICLE 287 CRIMINAL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVAIn the realm of subjective side of the criminal offence (the element of Mens Rea not only the item of culpability must be established, in such a manner the legislator explicitly or implicitly institutes also respecting of other substantial requirements which fulfillment is necessary for Mens Rea. A relevant example constitutes the criminal offence of hooli-ganism. Despite the fact that the legislator has provided in

  6. A Brief Overview of Early History of Iranian Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Bonakdarpour


    Jacobson of New York. Dr. Jacobson was a great teacher and a pioneer in Skeletal Radiology. Dr. Fateh was a very good diagnostic radiologist.The late Dr. Issa Yaghmai was at Tehran University and he was a founder of the Iranian Radiology Society without any financial benefit from the society.Dr. Yaghmai was a good skeletal radiologist and a member of the International Skeletal Society.The late Dr. Seyed Majid Rooholamini of Shafa Rehabilitation Hospital was a superb diagnostic radiologist and a founder of the Iranian Radiology Society without any financial benefit from the society. Dr. Rooholamini had his residency at Yale University with Dr. Richard Greenspan and his fellowship at the University of California with Dr. Herbert Abrams before he became Chairman of Radiology at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital of Harvard University. Dr. Rooholamini served the Iranian radiology selflessly all of his professional life. He was a highly ethical person and must be given a grade A for his service to Iranian radiology.Dr. Rassoul Sedaghat, the current president, Dr. Jalal Jalalshokoohi the current secretary and Dr. Ameri the past-president of the Iranian radiology Society as well as Dr. Karim Vessal the truly academic radiologist of Shiraz University and the editor of the Radiology Journal of the Iranian Radiology Society, and also Dr. Davoodi a radiologist from Mashad University, all have served the Iranian radiology very efficiently. They all deserve to be honorably mentioned in the history of Iranian Radiology.The late Professor Mahmoud Hessabi should be given credit for his pioneering work in making the radiology equipment in Iran and doing basic radiological research in the country. I did not have the pleasure and honor of knowing and working with Professor Mahmoud Hessabi. Nevertheless, he was one of the most prominent and dedicated Iranian scientists of his time.There are other radiologists that I have not mentioned their names, either because I did not know them or I did not

  7. Guest Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Obaidat


    Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Networks on “Performance Modeling and Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems” includes extended versions of selected best papers accepted and presented at the 2010 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS 2009. Six papers were selected based on their excellent review scores. Their authors were invited to submit extended versions which have undergone a second review process. This selection addresses a variety of topics related to the Performance Modeling and Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems. The first paper “Software Performance Modeling using the UML: a Case Study”, by Issa Traore, Isaac Woungang, Ahmed Awad El Sayed Ahmed and Mohammad S. Obaidat, describes the design of annotated UML (Unified Modeling Language performance models for the performance analysis of distributed software systems, based on the UML profile for Schedulability, Performance and Time. An approach previously proposed by the same authors, named Model-Driven SPE (MDSPE, is used. An outline of system performance models and metrics is provided and a case study of a business system is used to validate the stated goal. The second paper is “User-centric Mobility for Multimedia Communications: Experience and Evaluation from a Live Demo”, authored by Raffaele Bolla, Riccardo Rapuzzi and Matteo Repetto. Session migration, a key issue in pervasive communications, is evaluated with a user-centric vision. Users’ feelings are evaluated with a user-centric networking mobility framework based on the concept of Personal Address. The user evaluation is carried out by a live demo open to a large heterogeneity of potential users at a national science exhibition, through written questionnaires and direct interviews, with the support of a psychologist skilled in this field. General indications for the whole research community about user’s expectations

  8. 中国城市居民最低生活保障制度实施情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  9. 中国完善城镇社会保障体系改革试点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. 为中国城市居民最低生活保障事业可持续发展提供支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  11. 加强社会保障制度建设促进经济社会协调发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  12. 全国社保基金投资经营管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  13. 中国社会保障的可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  14. 中国工会积极推动社会保障制度的建立和完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  15. 积极稳妥地推进中国新型农村合作医疗制度建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. Service-Oriented Cluster Software Middleware%基于服务的机群中间件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淘英; 王磊


    机群操作系统为使用机群系统和开发机群应用提供平台,是机群系统的核心.但是机群系统有别于普通的分布式计算环境,传统的分布式构件技术无法完全满足构造机群操作系统所面临的新的挑战.本文提出一种基于服务的机群软件体系结构ISSA(Integrated Service-based Software Architecture),并简要介绍了一种用于构造机群操作系统的机群构件平台Clustone.Clustone采用基于服务的设计思想,为机群服务提供丰富的底层通讯手段,各种服务管理机制,和实时检查点支持,同时提供可选的安全特性,具有良好的开放性、可扩展性.

  17. Effect of Dust Mite Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy Combined with Standardized Management on Prognosis of Asthmatic Children%粉尘螨特异性免疫治疗联合规范化防治在哮喘控制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永强; 曹兰芳; 沈瑾; 陈柳; 叶桂云; 徐决平


    Objective To evaluate the effect of dust mite allergen - specific immunotherapy combined with standardized management on prevention and therapeutic effect in children with asthma. Methods Ninety - five children with established diagnosis of allergic asthma to dust mite were enrolled in this study from Apr. 2005 to Jun. 2010 ,of whom 54 children received treatment with specific immunotherapy(SIT)combined with standardized management (treatment group)for 2- 3 years,and the other 41 cases served as the control group, who received only standardized management( inhaled corticosteroids) at the same time. The clinical symptom and acute episode of the asthmatic children,peak expiratory flow(PEF) and children asthma control test (Ch -CACT), the frequency of respiratory tract infection were detected before and after the treatment,especially the season with high attack rate in 1 year afar the treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. Results Compared with control group, the frequency of acute episode, the degree of stable phase of asthma, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids in treatment group after treatment for 1 year were significantly decreased. The PEF and Ch - CACT in both groups were obviously improved and the frequency of respiratory tract infection in both groups after treatment for 1 year were obviously decreased. But the PEF and Ch - CACT in control group were obviously dropped in the season with high attack rate after treatment for 1 year and the average duration of respiratory tract infection in control group were obviously prolonged. Conclusions The dust mite allergen - specific immunotherapy combined with standar-dized management can obviously reduce the frequency and degree of acute episode of asthma, improve the pulmonary function of asthmatic children ,decrease the the frequency and the average duration of respiratory tract infection.%目的 评价粉尘螨特异性免疫治疗联合规范化防治在儿童支气管哮喘(

  18. Rapid high-silica magma generation in basalt-dominated rift settings (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Deegan, Frances M.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Ellis, Ben S.; Krumbholz, Michael; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.


    crustal recycling as a key process. Our results therefore provide a mechanism and a time-scale for rapid, voluminous silicic magma generation in modern and ancient basalt-dominated rift setting, such as Afar, Taupo, and potentially early Earth. The Neogene plume-related rift flank setting of NE-Iceland may thus constitute a plausible geodynamic and compositional analogue for generating silicic (continental) crust in the subduction-free setting of a young Earth (e.g. ≥3 Ga [14]). [1] Bunsen, R. 1851. Ann. Phys. Chem. 159, 197-272. [2] MacDonald R., et al., 1987. Mineral. Mag. 51, 183-202. [3] Jonasson, K., 2007. J. Geodyn. 43, 101-117. [4] Martin, E., et al., 2011. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 311, 28-38. [5] Charreteur, G., et al., 2013.Contrib. Mineral. Petr. 166, 471- 490. [6] Willbold, E., et al., 2009. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 279, 44-52. [7] Reimink, J.R., et al., 2014. Nat. Geosci. 7, 529-533. [8] Gústafsson, L.E., et al., 1989. Jökull 39, 75-89. [9] Meade, F.C., et al., 2014. Nat. comm. 5. [10] Óskarsson, B.V., Riishuus, M.S., 2013. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res. 267, 92-118. [11] Carley, T.L., et al., 2014. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 405, 85-97. [12] Trail, D., et al., 2007. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.8, Q06014. [13] Harrison, T.M. et al., 2008. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.268, 476-486. [14] Kamber, B. S., et al., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 276-290.

  19. Influence of TCM Eucommia-Achyranthes Compatibility on Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats%中药杜仲-牛膝配伍对去卵巢大鼠骨质疏松症的干预实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卫辉; 向艳华; 刘云; 邓桂明; 林洁; 林王森枝; 贺瑶


    目的:探讨杜仲-牛膝配伍组对去卵巢骨质疏松大鼠模型的干预作用。方法将84只大鼠随机分为正常对照组12只,假手术组12只,剩余60只造模成功后随机分为:模型组、阳性对照组(阿法骨化醇组)、杜仲组、牛膝组、杜仲-牛膝组共5组各12只。给药3个月后,检测各组大鼠的血清 E2、钙离子、磷离子、碱性磷酸酶和骨密度(the bone mineral density,BMD)。结果与正常对照组相比,模型组大鼠血清中雌二醇(estradiol,E2)、钙离子、磷离子及 BMD 值明显降低(P<0.01),血清中碱性磷酸酶含量明显增高(P<0.05)。与模型组相比,牛膝组、杜仲-牛膝组大鼠血清中 E2的含量明显升高(P<0.05);杜仲组、牛膝组、杜仲-牛膝组、阳性对照组大鼠 BMD 值及血清中钙离子、磷离子均明显升高(P<0.01)。杜仲组、牛膝组、杜仲-牛膝组、阳性对照组大鼠血清中碱性磷酸酶含量均明显降低(P<0.05);杜仲-牛膝组血碱性磷酸酶明显低于杜仲组、牛膝组(P<0.05)。结论杜仲-牛膝药对抗骨质疏松作用有增强趋势,其作用可能与提高血清钙离子、磷离子浓度,提高BMD 有关。%〔Abstract〕 Objective To investigate the interventional effect of Eucommia-Achyranthes compatibility on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Methods Eighty-four rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=12), sham-operation group (n=12), and the remaining 60 rats after the success of the modeling were randomly divided into model group, positive control group (group afar ossification alcohol), eucommia bark group, achyranthes group, eucommia-achyranthes group, 12 rats in each group. After given medicine for 3 months, the serum estradiol (E2), calcium ion, phosphate ion, alkaline phosphatase and the bone mineral density (BMD) were detected. Results Compared with normal control group, the serum E2, calcium ion, phosphate ion

  20. Introduction of ASIS%美国工业安全协会(ASIS)简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1综述与简介 美国涉及安防行业的各种协会和团体数以百计,如:报警业研究教育基金会(AIREF)、美国工业安全协会(ASIS)、美国锁匠联合会(ALOA)、自动消防报警协会(AFAA)、中心站报警协会(CSAA)、闭路电视制造厂家协会(CCTMA)、计算机安全协会(CSI)、电子系统技术员培训协会、电子设计及安装承接商协会(CEDIA)、门与五金件协会(DHI)、电子业协会(EIA)、家庭自动化协会(HAA)、信息系统安全协会(ISSA)、国际计算机系统安全协会(IACSS)、国际鉴定协会(IAI)、国际职业安全顾问协会(IAPSC)、美国珠宝商安全联合会(JSA)、美国装甲车协会(NACA)、美国消防设备分销商协会、美国保安公司协会(NASCO)、美国防盗及火灾报警协会(NBFAA)、美国调查及安全服务理事会(NCISS)、美国电气制造商协会(NEMA)、美国系统承包商协会(NSCA)、安防行业协会(SIA)等.

  1. Backgrond Material about SIA%背景链接:SIA介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 美国涉及安防行业的各种协会和团体数以百计,如:安防行业协会(SIA)、报警业研究教育基金会(AIREF)、美国工业安全协会(ASIS)、美国锁匠联合会(ALOA)、自动消防报警协会(AFAA)、中心站报警协会(CSAA)、闭路电视制造厂家协会(CCTMA)、计算机安全协会(CSI)、电子系统技术员培训协会、电子设计及安装承接商协会(CEDIA)、门与五金件协会(DHI)、电子业协会(EIA)、家庭自动化协会(HAA)、信息系统安全协会(ISSA)、国际计算机系统安全协会(IACSS)、国际鉴定协会(IAI)、国际职业安全顾问协会(IAPSC)、美国珠宝商安全联合会(JSA)、美国装甲车协会(NACA)、美国消防设备分销商协会、美国保安公司协会(NASCO)、美国防盗及火灾报警协会(NBFAA)、美国调查及安全服务理事会(NCISS)、美国电气制造商协会(NEMA)、美国系统承包商协会(NSCA)等.

  2. A novel deletion mutation in ASPM gene in an Iranian family with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    . Microcephaly: genetic counselling and antenatal diagnosis after the birth of an affected child. Am JMed Genet 1987;27583-94.4. Cowie V. The genetics and sub-classification of microcephaly. J Ment Defic Res 1960;4:42-7. 5. Woods C. Human microcephaly. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2004;14(1:112-7.6. Kaindl AM PS, Kumar P, Kraemer N, Issa L, Zwirner A, Gerard B, Verloes A MS,et al.Many roads lead to primary autosomal recessive microcephaly. Prog Neurobiol 2010;90:363-83.7. Kumar A BS, Babu M, Markandaya M, Girimaji SC. Genetic analysis of primary microcephaly in Indian families: novel ASPM mutations. Clin Genet 2004;66:341-8.8. Jackson AP, Eastwood H, Bell SM, Adu J, Toomes C, Carr IM, et al. Identification of microcephalin, a protein implicated in determining the size of the human brain. The American Journal of Human Genetics 2002;71(1:136-42.9. Roberts E, Jackson AP, Carradice AC, Deeble VJ, Mannan J, Rashid Y, et al. The second locus for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH2 maps to chromosome 19q13. 1-13.2. European journal of human genetics: EJHG  1999;7(7:815.10. Kousar R, Hassan MJ, Khan B, Basit S, Mahmood S, Mir A, et al. Mutations in WDR62 gene in Pakistani families with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. BMC neurology 2011;11(1:119.11. Evans PD, Vallender EJ, Lahn BT. Molecular evolutionof the brain size regulator genes CDK5RAP2and CENPJ. Gene 2006;375:75-9.12. Nagase T, Nakayama M, Nakajima D, Kikuno R, Ohara O. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. DNA research 2001;8(2:85-95. 13. Jamieson CR GC, Abramowicz MJ. Primary autosomal recessive microcephaly: homozygosity mapping of MCPH4 to chromosome 15. Am J Hum Genet 1999;65:1465-9.14. Genin A, Desir J, Lambert N, Biervliet M, Van Der Aa N, Pierquin G, et al. Kinetochore KMN network gene CASC5 mutated in Primary Microcephaly. Human molecular genetics 2012.15. Bond J

  3. 'Fragilization and Resistance' and 'Neighborhood and Shechina'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha L. Ettinger


    Full Text Available Com-passion involves transformational affects, and among them these major three: primary fascinance (that precedes or is in parallel to fascinum and might counter-balance control and submission by its transformational value, primary compassion (that precedes and might counter-balance abjection and abandonment, and primary awe (that might counter-balance shame and fear. These affects are primordial accesses to the other and to the Cosmos. Through them the other and the Cosmos do not turn into objects - their dynamic difference is preserved during cognizing. By way of these affects, the subtle human subjectivizing processes and the early positions are not "schizophrenic-paranoid". To be a subject without turning the other and the Cosmos into an object ― that is the question.

  4. Stitch and hem and line and flight (United States)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  5. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is and what a genre does. Therefore, genre is a central concept in many areas of scholarship today and is interlinked with many other central scholarly concepts, but its core function is still a subject of debate, and its connections with other core concepts remain sorely under-examined. Genre and … explores...... these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  6. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  7. Science and Technology and Counterterorrism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J


    Major scientific and technological breakthroughs played a pivotal role in our ability to win the Cold War. The possibility of a different type of war, in response to terrorism, has long been recognized. Indeed, countermeasures to address specific terrorist acts have been developed and are deployed, for example, at special sporting and political events. The current threat environment, however, has created an intense and compelling set of concerns; consequently, the challenge to the scientific Community to develop new concepts and products on an accelerated timeframe is clear. Also, the spectrum of terrorist threats is broad. It includes the use of conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear and radiological weapons, not to mention cyber-based attacks. The imperatives for advances have been amplified now that attacks are clearly possible within the U.S. borders. For example, advanced sensors and detectors that are able to monitor the proliferation of all the above warfare agents and their movement at entry points into the U.S. are clearly needed. The investments over the last decades in research and development efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories in nonproliferation have led unique technologies and detection capabilities that have proved useful; yet, many challenges remain. In particular, the development of accurate, robust, and low cost techniques that are easily deployable by first responders, law enforcement agencies, and military personnel is urgently needed. Advancements are needed in radiation, nuclear proliferation, and next-generation biological detection, as well as photonics and optics for global surveillance, information. science to convert data into useful forms, and forensic attribution. Current research and development efforts highlighting technical challenges, especially to the materials science community, will be presented.

  8. Sigríður Dúna Kristmundsdóttir: Ólafía - ævisaga Ólafíu Jóhannsdóttur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auður Styrkársdóttir


    Full Text Available Fimm ár eru liðin frá því bók Sigríðar Dúnu Kristmundsdóttur um Björgu C. Þorláksson kom út og sópaði til sín bæði lesendum og verðlaunum. Margir hafa beðið næstu bókar með eftirvæntingu, en ljóst var að hún myndi borin saman við Björgu og kannski dæmd af því fyrst og fremst - með réttu eða röngu. Og nú er bókin semsé komin. Hún er hálft sjötta hundrað blaðsíður og fylgir settum reglum um fræðilegan frágang sem truflar þó ekkert textann. Pappírinn í bókinni er mjög lesvænn og metnaður af hálfu útgáfunnar augljóslega mikill. Ljósmyndir eru fjölmargar og setja skemmtilegan svip á bókina. Kápumynd er einföld og grípandi og ljósmyndin sem prýðir hana er vel valin. Um varir konunnar leikur hálfgert Mónu Lísu bros - eins og hún viti eitthvað merkilegt og sé rétt í þann mund að opinbera þá vitneskju. Bókin Ólafía býður upp á nánari kynni af margbrotinni persónu, sem einnig var afar brothætt og farnaðist misvel í lífsins ólgusjó.

  9. Kinetics and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ahmadi


    Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.

  10. Fun and Games and Boredom. (United States)

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe


    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.

  11. Diet and Nutrition and HIV (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... code here Enter ZIP code here Living with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson for Veterans ...

  12. Prescription and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón-Guzmán


    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011 was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.

  13. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi


    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  14. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua


    [1]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.2 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1992, 1-116.[2]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.3 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 1-175.[3]Xu Dongyu, Chen Zongtuan, Meng Xiangying, Late Cenozoic Palaeoenvironments and Events in the Central Pacific Ocean (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 1-11.[4]Bischoff, J. L., Heath, G. R., Leinen, M., Geochemistry of deep-sea sediments from the Pacific manganese nodule province: Domes, A, B and C, in: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province (eds. Bischoff, J. L., Piper, D. Z.), New York: Plenum Press, 1979, 397-436.[5]Riech, V., Grafenstein, R. V., Sedimentological and geochemical trends in deep-sea sedimentation of the Clarion-Chipperton block southeast of Hawaii since the early Miocene, in: Manganese Nodules and Sediments in the Equatorial North Pacific Ocean, Sonne Cruise SO25, 1982 (eds. Von Stackelberg, U., Beiersdorf, H.), Hannover: Burdesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Geologischelandes(a)mster in der Bundesrepublic Deutschland, 1987, 71-104.[6]Johnson, G. C., Toole, J. M., Flow of deep and bottom water in the Pacific at 10°N, Deep-Sea Reseach, 1993, 40(2): 371-394.[7]Marine Geology Department of Tongji University, Introduction to Palaeo-oceanography (in Chinese), Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1989, 45-147.[8]Seibold, E., Berger, W. H., The Sea Floor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993, 97-125.[9]Rea, D. K., The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Rev. Geophys., 1994, 32: 159-195.[10]Menard, H. W., Marine Geology of the Pacific, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.[11]Chamley, H., Clay Sedimentology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989, 259-289.[12]Piper, D. Z., Rare earth

  15. Diet and Nutrition and HIV (United States)

    ... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery ... meats to soups, salads, and sauces. Add dried milk powder or egg white powder to foods (like ...

  16. Apples and Oranges and Bananas (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    Private high schools have higher test scores than public schools. Does this mean they are better? Most studies of public versus private schools have explored the full range of income and achievement, one recently finding little if any difference that could not be accounted for by demographic differences. In this article, the author discusses the…

  17. Fun and games and boredom (United States)

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious vide...

  18. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  19. Cat and Dog Bites (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  20. Ignorance and Science: Dilemmas, Perspectives, and Prospects. (United States)

    Smithson, Michael


    Discusses scientific ignorance and uncertainty. Highlights include approaching knowledgeable ignorance, including a taxonomy of ignorance and uncertainty frameworks and measures; social constructivism, subjectivity, and scientific realism; strategies for working with scientific ignorance; and frameworks for ignorance representation. (Contains 43…

  1. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph


    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  2. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server


    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  3. Aging and training and development willingness: employee and supervisor mindsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Dalhoeven, B.A.G.W.; de Pater, I.E.


    In this study, we examined individual and situational factors that impact the relationship between age and employee training and development willingness. We proposed that the relationship between age and training and development willingness would be moderated by employees' entity self-theory and per

  4. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... (United States)


    ... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products containing the... cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products...

  5. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation. (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael


    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  6. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  7. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  8. Advertising and Adulation:East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the United States, Americans are constantly focusing their attention and admiration on successful people. Everyone avidly reads about and talks about popular stars, musicians and heroes. Michael Phelps, Madonna, and President Barack

  9. Shape classification and analysis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fona



  10. Dick and Jane and Technology Education. (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Science education and technology education have a common lineage. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, technology involves both process and content. It cuts across and unifies curricula and should be taught across all grade levels. (JOW)

  11. Laser and photonic systems design and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Nof, Shimon Y; Cheng, Gary J


    New, significant scientific discoveries in laser and photonic technologies, systems perspectives, and integrated design approaches can improve even further the impact in critical areas of challenge. Yet this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research arenas. Laser and Photonic Systems: Design and Integration brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to increase understanding of the ways in which systems perspectives may influence laser and photonic innovations and application integration.By bringing together chapters from leading scientists and technologists, ind

  12. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Bøgh Andersen, Lotte; Bro, Louise Ladegaard;


    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance....... Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  13. Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars


    , 2008 and 2011: Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Futures, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, Science and Public Policy, and Foresight. Methodologically, the paper draws on the principles of Elsevier’s Scopus and Thompson Reuter’s Web of Science. The chapter concludes...

  14. Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris


    The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.

  15. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy


    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  16. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni


    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  17. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  18. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno


    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  19. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.


    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  20. Diabetes and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  1. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  2. Depression and Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  3. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  4. Healthy Eating and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  5. Diet and cancer (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  6. Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gurfil, Pini


    This volume is designed as an introductory text and reference book for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of astronomy, astrodynamics, satellite systems, space sciences and astrophysics. The purpose of the book is to emphasize the similarities between celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and to present recent advances in these two fields so that the reader can understand the inter-relations and mutual influences. The juxtaposition of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics is a unique approach that is expected to be a refreshing attempt to discuss both the mechanics of space flight and the dynamics of celestial objects. “Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics: Theory and Practice” also presents the main challenges and future prospects for the two fields in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. The book presents homogenous and fluent discussions of the key problems, rendering a portrayal of recent advances in the field together with some basic concepts and essential in...

  7. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics. (United States)

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L


    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  8. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K


    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  9. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo


    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  10. Cognitive hacking and intelligence and security informatics (United States)

    Thompson, Paul


    This paper describes research on cognitive and semantic attacks on computer systems and their users. Several countermeasures against such attacks are described, including a description of a prototype News Verifier system. It is argued that because misinformation and deception play a much more significant role in intelligence and security informatics than in other informatics disciplines such as science, medicine, and the law, a new science of intelligence and security informatics must concern itself with semantic attacks and countermeasures.

  11. [SOX2 defect and anophthalmia and microphthalmia]. (United States)

    Ye, Fu-xiang; Fan, Xian-qun


    As a severe congenital developmental disorder, anophthalmia and microphthalmia are usually accompanied with vision impairment and hypoevolutism of the orbit in the affected side. Many genes are involved in anophthalmia and microphthalmia, in which, SOX2 is an important one. The defect of SOX2 causes multiple system disorders, including anophthalmia and microphthalmia. We describe the relationship between the SOX2 defect and anophthalmia/microphthalmia, in order to offer some proposals for the differential diagnosis, treatment and research of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.



    Katsaras,George; Kourlaba, Georgia


    Introduction: The episodes of violence and aggression in schools is a common and growing in frequency phenomenon. Research has shown that the engagement with school bullying is a major risk factor as far as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are concerned. The aim was to review literature about school bullying and cyberbullying as well as the suicidality in children and adolescents.  Material and Methods: It was used bibliography search in the databases PubMed and Scopus, reviews of the l...

  13. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  14. 77 FR 20417 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain cameras and mobile...

  15. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Pride and Prejudice is Jane Austen’s great masterpiece. It discusses love and marriage between middle class and upper class in Britain in 19th century. This thesis aims at analyzing love and marriage in Pride and Prejudice. There are three chapters in this thesis. Chapter one portrays the social background of the author and the social background of Pride and Prejudice. Chapter two describes the concept of love and marriage in Britain in 19th century and four marriages in the novel. Chapter three analyses Jane Austen’s concept of love and marriage:love and marriage are closely connected with property and social status;however, an ideal marriage should be based on true love. Marriages that based on money and social status can not lead to a happy life.

  16. Library and information sciences trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ronald


    This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site....

  17. Particle and Field Symmetries and Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, A


    The development of Noncommutative Geometry is creating a reworking and new possibilities in physics. This paper identifies some of the commutation and derivation structures that arise in particle and field interactions and fundamental symmetries. The requirements of coexisting structures, and their consistency, produce a mathematical framework that underlies a fundamental physics theory. Among other developments in Quantum theory of particles and fields are the symmetries of gauge fields and the Fermi-Bose symmetry of particles. These involve a gauge covariant derivation and the action functionals; and commutation algebras and Bogoliubov transforms. The non commutative Theta form introduces an additional and fundamental structure. This paper obtains the interrelations of various structures, and the conditions for the symmetries of Fermionic/Bosonic particles interacting with Yang Mills gauge fields. Many example physical systems are being solved, and the mathematical formalism is being created to understand t...

  18. Promise and Peril: Assessment and Urban Universities. (United States)

    Cole, John C.; Nettles, Michael J.


    Provides an historical review of state-level assessment research and practice and discusses current objectives and outcomes of state-level assessment policies throughout the United States. Considers possible explanations for the gap between assessment policy objectives and outcomes, and implications for urban institutions of higher education.…

  19. Singularity and Community: Levinas and Democracy (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    This article explores and extends Levinas's ideas of singularity and community as multiplicity and argues that his identification of language and discourse as the means to create ethical communities provides tangible possibilities for rebuilding genuine democracy in a humane world. These ideas help us reimagine school and classroom as communities…

  20. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development....

  1. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  2. Teaching and Learning through Story and Dialogue. (United States)

    Rice, Suzanne


    Reviews "Stories Lives Tell," Carol Witherell and Nel Noddings; and "Turning the Soul," Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon, which include autobiographical accounts of participation in narrative and dialogical activities in formal and extra-school contexts. The books raise questions about the benefits and limitations of this approach for educational…

  3. Sport and Tourism Between Modernity and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Michał


    Full Text Available The text presents and analyses manifestations of modernity and postmodernity in the field of competitive and recreational sport, physical education, leisure, and tourism. The paper builds upon an extensive literature survey and presents the concept and key features of postmodern societies and the modernity-postmodernity debate in sports with reference to postmodern tendencies in tourism. We have attempted to determine the proportions of tradition, modernity, and postmodernity in contemporary sport and tourism, keeping in mind that, similarly to contemporary societies as a whole, sport is undoubtedly a mixture of traditional, modern, and Fordist elements with postmodern and post-Fordist features. We present and discuss the prevailing belief that the key elements of leisure sport are mostly postmodern and focused on the notion of individualisation and freedom expressed especially in alternative sports, while commercialised mainstream sport follows the regular mass-media show-business development path, maintaining a significant amount of modern concepts, such as the importance of national identities. Special attention is also paid to the Olympic Games as a specific and very efficient mixture of modernity and postmodernity. More so than at any point in the past, and despite the actual proportions of modernity and postmodernity that it contains, contemporary sport has become an integral part of postmodern societies and their lifestyle, with technology-determined individualisation of sport consumption and leisure sport participation.

  4. Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. (United States)

    Reid Chassiakos, Yolanda Linda; Radesky, Jenny; Christakis, Dimitri; Moreno, Megan A; Cross, Corinn


    Today's children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan ( that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use.

  5. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K


    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  6. Project campus and maternal and child clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra


    Full Text Available This article aims to illustrate the activities of the process of cooperation between the University of Pavia , Italy and the Juan de Castellanos de Tunja University Foundation . The first involved the signing of an agreement in April 2012, related to the formulation of hypotheses to project the new University Campus and some preliminary ideas for the construction of a Mother and Child University Hospital , level IV , hinged to the campus ; projects then emerged from anthropological reflections on creating spaces provided to address structural elements in a culture in this case to: create, teach , learn and apply science with other knowledge and related health and disease. This experience , still ongoing , is part of the main aims of cooperation , which is an opportunity for scientific research and methodological experimentation and innovation , both in terms of architectural solutions and technical control of the project. In fact , it appears that any architectural project in territorial contexts (climate, soil, subsoil and culture , environmental, social and diverse climate , requires a study and knowledge of the resources and potential of the place where you go to work, to enrich and value the traditions and local identities and transformations stays mixed . Through this activity , it was possible to gather and exchange processes experiment applied between experts from different disciplines and thesis students , thus consolidating an interesting interplay of scientific competition between two universities , which enriches professional , academic and social heritage.

  7. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  8. Quality and reliability management and its applications

    CERN Document Server


    Integrating development processes, policies, and reliability predictions from the beginning of the product development lifecycle to ensure high levels of product performance and safety, this book helps companies overcome the challenges posed by increasingly complex systems in today’s competitive marketplace.   Examining both research on and practical aspects of product quality and reliability management with an emphasis on applications, the book features contributions written by active researchers and/or experienced practitioners in the field, so as to effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and address new research challenges in reliability and quality management in practice.    Postgraduates, researchers and practitioners in the areas of reliability engineering and management, amongst others, will find the book to offer a state-of-the-art survey of quality and reliability management and practices.

  9. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) (United States)

    ... interventions that focus on the interplay between emotional, mental, social, spiritual, and behavioral factors and their influence on health. Examples include prayer, tai chi, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, and yoga. Some techniques that were considered CAM in the ...

  10. Identity and integration in Israel and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiftach Millo


    Full Text Available Expression of non-conforming sexual orientation and gender identitydepends on social, legal, cultural and political opportunities whichprovide space for exploration and the emergence of new identities.People’s protection will also depend on these.

  11. Chapter and Verse: Books, Poetry and Booktalking. (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara


    Discusses the ways in which poetry can be used to highlight literary aspects of children's books, such as characterization, locale, mood and archetypes. Suggestions are offered for the selection and use of poetry by teachers and librarians. (23 references) (CLB)

  12. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  13. Establishment and development political and electoral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Valeria Alexe


    Full Text Available Political marketing is a whole set of theories and methods that can serve to political organizations and public authorities, both to define the objectives and programs and to influence public behavior. Political marketing proves its usefulness from organizing political structures, continuing to benefit political market and going in governance. Besides, grinding, political offers or programs or people, the best political marketing can provide the best way of promoting and refining human resources as appropriate communication tactics.

  14. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)


    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  15. Society and High Skills: contributions and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Aline Casseb da Silva


    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to investigate and understand the importance of investing in high-skilled individual and how the family influences that context. For this, we seek the concepts of intelligence and high ability / giftedness to determine the characteristics of this individual and also to demonstrate through a literature and society and the family influence the behavior of a gifted person.

  16. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan


    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  17. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M


    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 ...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  18. Words and Music: Oral and Literary


    Joe Allard


    Most scholarly and critical work concerning medieval Icelandic literature over the past one hundred and fifty years has assumed that the eleventh and twelfth centuries witnessed a shift in the practice and mode of learning in Iceland from an oral tradition, what Walter Ong terms ‘primary orality’ (Ong 1982: 13), to a mainly literate and literary one. The argument goes that with the invention and development of a method of writing Old Norse/Icelandic after the advent of Christianity, Ic...

  19. Guided Imagery and Music - And Beyond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music.......4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music....

  20. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel


    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting ...... in the absence of wasting and even in overweight children. Thus, food supplementation should be used with caution in populations where stunting is not associated with wasting and low fat stores....

  1. Creativity and destructiveness in art and psychoanalysis


    Marsden, P. M.


    This paper focuses on the creativity of the patient in analysis and compares it to that of the artist. Taking artists’ descriptions of their practices as its starting point, the paper suggests that the relationship between patient and analyst parallels that between artist and medium. Psychoanalysis and artistic process can both be seen in terms of a complex interplay between oneness and separateness in which aggression and destructiveness play an essential part. The paper includes a discussio...

  2. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server


    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  3. Multimedia encryption and watermarking encryption and watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko; Socek, Daniel


    ""Multimedia Encryption and Watermarking"" presents a comprehensive survey of contemporary multimedia encryption and watermarking techniques, which enable a secure exchange of multimedia intellectual property. Part I, Digital Rights Management (DRM) for Multimedia, introduces DRM concepts and models for multimedia content protection, and presents the key players. Part II, Multimedia Cryptography, provides an overview of modern cryptography, with the focus on modern image, video, speech, and audio encryption techniques. This book also provides an advanced concept of visual and audio sharing tec

  4. Gifts and exchanges problems, frustrations, and triumphs

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S; Denning, Catherine


    This important book explores the many questions challenging librarians who work with gifts and exchanges (G&E) as part of their daily responsibilities. Too often, because of shrinking library budgets, library gifts are considered burdensome and unprofitable drains on both financial and personnel resources. However, Gifts and Exchanges: Problems, Frustrations, . . . and Triumphs gives you solutions that will allow you to embrace your library's gifts as rewards. In this book, you will discover the latest ways of disposing unwanted materials, planning and holding book sales and auctions, and oper

  5. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I


    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  6. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others


    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  7. Growth and development: hereditary and mechanical modulations. (United States)

    Mao, Jeremy J; Nah, Hyun-Duck


    Growth and development is the net result of environmental modulation of genetic inheritance. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and fibrogenic cells: the first 2 are chiefly responsible for endochondral ossification, and the last 2 for sutural growth. Cells are influenced by genes and environmental cues to migrate, proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize extracellular matrix in specific directions and magnitudes, ultimately resulting in macroscopic shapes such as the nose and the chin. Mechanical forces, the most studied environmental cues, readily modulate bone and cartilage growth. Recent experimental evidence demonstrates that cyclic forces evoke greater anabolic responses of not only craniofacial sutures, but also cranial base cartilage. Mechanical forces are transmitted as tissue-borne and cell-borne mechanical strain that in turn regulates gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and matrix synthesis, the totality of which is growth and development. Thus, hereditary and mechanical modulations of growth and development share a common pathway via genes. Combined approaches using genetics, bioengineering, and quantitative biology are expected to bring new insight into growth and development, and might lead to innovative therapies for craniofacial skeletal dysplasia including malocclusion, dentofacial deformities, and craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate and craniosynostosis, as well as disorders associated with the temporomandibular joint.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudinei Lombardi


    Full Text Available Education and teaching are determined by the mode of production of material life. The way the men make their material life, and their relationships in this context – the relations of production and the productive forces - are essential to learn the way the men live, think, and transmit their thoughts and knowledge that they have about life and about natural and social reality. This is the premise present in Marx and Engel’s works that must guide the scholars of education in the effort to situate it in the Capitalist mode of production of existence.

  9. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else


    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  10. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  11. Childhood Overweight and Obesity (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  12. Institutionalism "Old" and "New." (United States)

    Selznick, Philip


    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  13. Carbohydrates and Depression. (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.


    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  14. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  15. Hypnosis and the Child. (United States)

    Place, Maurice


    Discusses the nature and value of hypnosis; rating scales and their clinical relevance; the role of self-hypnosis; and clinical studies related to anxiety, hysteria, enuresis, asthma, and pain and painful procedures. (RH)

  16. Estrogen and Bazedoxifene (United States)

    ... frequent and stop and women may experience other symptoms and body changes). Estrogen and bazedoxifene tablets are also used to prevent osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ...

  17. Spaying and Neutering (United States)

    ... of unwanted dogs and cats, including puppies and kittens, are euthanized. The good news is that responsible ... to prevent the birth of unwanted puppies and kittens. Spaying and neutering prevent unwanted litters and may ...

  18. Model Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mangani, P


    This title includes: Lectures - G.E. Sacks - Model theory and applications, and H.J. Keisler - Constructions in model theory; and, Seminars - M. Servi - SH formulas and generalized exponential, and J.A. Makowski - Topological model theory.

  19. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  20. Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Kissal


    Full Text Available Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findings of abuse. Health professionals who support elder-especially nurse- shouldn’t only deal with this subject but also they should be educated about diagnosing, reporting and attempting. This paper’s aim is to inform people about the evaluation of risk-factors, findings and prevention of elder abuse and neglect and to increase sensitivity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 357-364