WorldWideScience

Sample records for afars and issas

  1. Phosphorus recovery and leaching of trace elements from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Le; Li, Jiang-Shan; Guo, Ming Zhi; Cheeseman, C R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Donatello, Shane; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-02-01

    Chemical extraction of phosphorus (P) from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is adversely influenced by co-dissolution of metals and metalloids. This study investigated P recovery and leaching of Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Ni from ISSA using inorganic acids (sulphuric acid and nitric acid), organic acids (oxalic acid and citric acid), and chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP)). The aim of this study was to optimize a leaching process to recover P-leachate with high purity for P fertilizer production. The results show that both organic and inorganic acids extract P-containing phases but organic acids leach more trace elements, particularly Cu, Zn, Pb and As. Sulphuric acid was the most efficient for P recovery and achieved 94% of total extraction under the optimal conditions, which were 2-h reaction with 0.2 mol/L H 2 SO 4 at a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1. EDTA extracted only 20% of the available P, but the leachates were contaminated with high levels of trace elements under optimum conditions (3-h reaction with EDTA at 0.02 mol/L, pH 2, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1). Therefore, EDTA was considered an appropriate pre-treatment agent for reducing the total metal/metalloid content in ISSA, which produced negligible changes in the structure of ISSA and reduced contamination during subsequent P extraction using sulphuric acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organization Spotlight: The Power of an Association in Early Childhood Education and Care: ISSA--An Engine for Advocacy, Capacity Building, and Creating a Growing Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The International Step by Step Association (ISSA) is an association that believes in learning from each other across cultures and borders, building on each other's strengths, and tapping into the power of a network. Building on the strong legacy of the Open Society Foundations' Step by Step program, ISSA has nurtured a culture of belonging to a…

  3. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  4. Formal and informal land tenure systems in Afar region, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial agriculture, land investments and development projects. Using data obtained ... tenure systems in Afar region, 2) to analyse the dynamics in land use and land administration from ..... According to the information obtained from the .... and land administration that take into account differences in economic, socio-.

  5. PCR Based Microbial Monitor for Analysis of Recycled Water Aboard the ISSA: Issues and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Gail H.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Glass, John I.

    1995-01-01

    added to a PCR assay; There are not likely to be contaminants in ISSA recycled water that would inhibit PCR resulting in false-negative results; The TaqMan PCR product detection system is the most promising method for developing a rapid, highly automated gene-based microbial monitoring system. The method is inherently quantitative. NASA and other government agencies have invested in other technologies that, although potentially could lead to revolutionary advances, are not likely to mature in the next 5 years into working systems; PCR-based methods cannot distinguish between DNA or RNA of a viable microorganism and that of a non-viable organism. This may or may not be an important issue with reclaimed water on the ISSA. The recycling system probably damages the capacity of the genetic material of any bacteria or viruses killed during processing to serve as a template in a PCR desinged to amplify a large segment of DNA (less than 650 base pairs). If necessary, vital dye staining could be used in addition to PCR, to enumerate the viable cells in a water sample; The quality control methods have been developed to insure that PCR's are working properly, and that reactions are not contaminated with PCR carryover products which could lead to the generation of false-positive results; and The sequences of the small rRNA subunit gene for a large number of microorganisms are known, and they consititue the best database for rational development of the oligonucleotide reagents that give PCR its great specificity. From those gene sequences, sets of oligonucleotide primers for PCR and Taqman detection that could be used in a NASA microbial monitor were constructed using computer based methods. In addition to space utilization, a microbial monitior will have tremendous terrestrial applications. Analysis of patient samples for microbial pathogens, testing industrial effluent for biofouling bacteria, and detection biological warfare agents on the battlefield are but a few of the diverse

  6. Visuality, mobility and the cosmopolitan: inhabiting the world from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Urry, John

    2006-03-01

    In earlier publications based on the research discussed in this article (e.g. Szerszynski and Urry 2002), we argued that an emergent culture of cosmopolitanism, refracted into different forms amongst different social groups, was being nurtured by a widespread 'banal globalism'--a proliferation of global symbols and narratives made available through the media and popular culture. In the current article we draw on this and other empirical research to explore the relationship between visuality, mobility and cosmopolitanism. First we describe the multiple forms of mobility that expand people's awareness of the wider world and their capacity to compare different places. We then chart the changing role that visuality has played in citizenship throughout history, noting that citizenship also involves a transformation of vision, an absenting from particular contexts and interests. We explore one particular version of that transformation--seeing the world from afar, especially in the form of images of the earth seen from space--noting how such images conventionally connote both power and alienation. We then draw on another research project, on place and vision, to argue that the shift to a cosmopolitan relationship with place means that humans increasingly inhabit their world only at a distance.

  7. Barriers and facilitators to accessing skilled birth attendants in Afar region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rosemary; Jackson, Ruth; Dietsch, Elaine; Hailemariam, Asseffa

    2015-05-01

    to explore barriers and facilitators that enable women to access skilled birth attendance in Afar Region, Ethiopia. researchers used a Key Informant Research approach (KIR), whereby Health Extension Workers participated in an intensive training workshop and conducted interviews with Afar women in their communities. Data was also collected from health-care workers through questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. fourteen health extension workers were key informants and interviewers; 33 women and eight other health-care workers with a range of experience in caring for Afar childbearing women provided data as individuals and in focus groups. participants identified friendly service, female skilled birth attendants (SBA) and the introduction of the ambulance service as facilitators to SBA. There are many barriers to accessing SBA, including women׳s low status and restricted opportunities for decision making, lack of confidence in health-care facilities, long distances, cost, domestic workload, and traditional practices which include a preference for birthing at home with a traditional birth attendant. many Afar men and women expressed a lack of confidence in the services provided at health-care facilities which impacts on skilled birth attendance utilisation. ambulance services that are free of charge to women are effective as a means to transfer women to a hospital for emergency care if required and expansion of ambulance services would be a powerful facilitator to increasing institutional birth. Skilled birth attendants working in institutions need to ensure their practice is culturally, physically and emotionally safe if more Afar women are to accept their midwifery care. Adequate equipping and staffing of institutions providing emergency obstetric and newborn care will assist in improving community perceptions of these services. Most importantly, mutual respect and collaboration between traditional birth attendants (Afar women׳s preferred caregiver), health

  8. HIV-1 seroprevalence and subtypes in police recruits from Afar regional state, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zewde, Ayele; Bahiru, Seifu; Sanders, Eduard; Tilahun, Tesfaye; Beyene, Asfaw; Alebachew, Mengiste; Schaap, Ab; Wolday, Dawit; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2002-01-01

    Surveillance for HIV-1 prevalence and subtypes in Afar Region, Ethiopia was performed among police recruits in the year 2000, by unlinked anonymous testing. Of 408 samples tested, 26 (6.4%) appeared positive for HIV-1 antibodies. There was a trend for higher HIV-1 seroprevalence in women (9.5%,

  9. Launching an Interdisciplinary "International Summer School on Ageing" (ISSA): Aims, Methodology, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbabella, F.; Chiatti, C.; Di Rosa, M.; Lamura, G.; Martin-Matthews, A.; Papa, R.; Svensson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability of gerontological training programs, knowledge of their contents, characteristics, methods, and outcomes remains limited. However, the transition from multidisciplinarity to interdisciplinary orientations is now fundamental to such training, providing participants from diverse academic orientations and…

  10. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2017-07-05

    The Afar people inhabit the sub-arid and arid part of Ethiopia. Recurrent drought and invasive encroaching plants are taking out plants that have cultural importance, and threaten the biodiversity and the associated traditional knowledge. Thus, the aim of the current study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document medicinal and edible plants in Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state. A cross-sectional ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight kebeles of Yalo Woreda from October 2015 to December 2016. One hundred sixty informants were selected using purposive sampling. The data on diseases, medicinal and edible plants were collected using semi-structure interview and group discussion. The statistical methods, informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and preference ranking were conducted to analyze the data. One hundred and six plants were reported; gender and age differences had implication on the number of plants reported by informants. The knowledge of medicinal plants among informants of each kebele was not different (p medicinal and edible plants affects the traditional use of plants in the Yalo Woreda. The conservation of the plants in the home garden and natural habitat and integration of edible plants into agroforestry development programs in sub-arid and arid regions has to be encouraged to conserve plants of medical and economic importance.

  11. Governance, Identity, and Counterinsurgency: Evidence from Ramadi and Tal Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    can represent disen- franchised Sunnis.”65 39 It is telling that Ramadi remained among the most obstinate of the Sunni-dominated areas in coming to...also efforts to provide jobs for Ramadi’s thousands of unemployed military-age males. Interviewees differed on the ex- tent to which unemployment ...grievances that fueled the insur- gency had far more to do with a deep sense of disen- franchisement within Iraq’s Sunni community and the related fear of

  12. Family planning use and associated factors among pastoralist community of afar region, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Lemma, Hailemariam; Abrha, Kidan; Adama, Yohannes; Fisseha, Girmatsion; Yebyo, Henock; Gebeye, Ejigu; Negash, Kassahun; Yousuf, Jemal; Fantu, Tigist; Gebregzabher, Tesfay; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha

    2016-07-18

    Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with a total fertility rate (TFR) of 4.8 children per a woman and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 29 %. The overall prevalence of modern family planning in a pastoralist community, like Afar region, is low (9.1 %). This study aimed to assess family planning utilization and associated factors among married women of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10-28, 2013 among 602 women. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Descriptive and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were done to isolate independent predictors on utilization of family planning using SPSS 20. The overall prevalence of family planning utilization in Afar region was 8.5 % (6.2-10.7). Majority of the women (92.2 %) had used injectable. The most common reasons mentioned in the non-use of family planning methods were religion-related (85.3 %), desire to have more children (75.3 %), and husband's objection (70.1 %). Women who had a positive attitude towards family planning utilization (AOR = 4.7, 95 % CI: 2.1, 10.3), owning radio (AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.02, 4.18), and literate (AOR = 4.4, 95 % CI: 1.80, 11.08) were more likely to use family planning methods as compared to their counterparts. The increase of monthly income was also associated with the likelihood of family planning methods utilization. The odds of using family planning methods were higher among those with monthly income of $27-$55.5 (AOR = 2. 0, 95 % CI: 1.9, 4.7) and > $55 (AOR = 4. 6, 95 % CI: 1.23-17.19) as compared to women with the lowest category of monthly income ($27 and less). The low coverage of family planning in the region could be due to the influence of husband, religious and clan leader. Attitude of women towards family planning methods, possession of radio, monthly income, and educational status could influence family

  13. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  14. Upper mantle structure of shear-waves velocities and stratification of anisotropy in the Afar Hotspot region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.-P.; Cara, M.; Stutzmann, E.; Debayle, E.; Lépine, J.-C.; Lévêque, J.-J.; Beucler, E.; Sebai, A.; Roult, G.; Ayele, A.; Sholan, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Afar area is one of the biggest continental hotspots active since about 30 Ma. It may be the surface expression of a mantle "plume" related to the African Superswell. Central Africa is also characterized by extensive intraplate volcanism. Around the same time (30 Ma), volcanic activity re-started in several regions of the African plate and hotspots such as Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar and Mount Cameroon, characterized by a significant though modest volcanic production. The interactions of mantle upwelling with asthenosphere, lithosphere and crust remain unclear and seismic anisotropy might help in investigating these complex interactions. We used data from the global seismological permanent FDSN networks (GEOSCOPE, IRIS, MedNet, GEO- FON, etc.), from the temporary PASSCAL experiments in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia and a French deployment of 5 portable broadband stations surrounding the Afar Hotspot. A classical two-step tomographic inversion from surface waves performed in the Horn of Africa with selected Rayleigh wave and Love wave seismograms leads to a 3D-model of both S V velocities and azimuthal anisotropy, as well as radial SH/ SV anisotropy, with a lateral resolution of 500 km. The region is characterized by low shear-wave velocities beneath the Afar Hotspot, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and East of the Tanzania Craton to 400 km depth. High velocities are present in the Eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The results of this study enable us to rule out a possible feeding of the Central Africa hotspots from the "Afar plume" above 150-200 km. The azimuthal anisotropy displays a complex pattern near the Afar Hotspot. Radial anisotropy, although poorly resolved laterally, exhibits S H slower than S V waves down to about 150 km depth, and a reverse pattern below. Both azimuthal and radial anisotropies show a stratification of anisotropy at depth, corresponding to different physical processes. These results suggest that the Afar hotspot has a different and

  15. The lithosphere of the East African Rift and Plateau (Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) : insights from Integrated 3-D density modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Woldetinsae, Girma

    2005-01-01

    The area encompassing the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS: Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) and associated plateaux is an ideal region to investigate extension and magmatism associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Ethiopia covers an important part of the EARS. It contains the major section of the ca. 5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield and the Mozambique Belt. A compilation of over 45000 onshore and offshore gravity stati...

  16. Mapping Current and Potential Distribution of Non-Native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wakie, Tewodros T.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclim...

  17. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  18. Understanding resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability in the Southern Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Mekuyie

    Full Text Available Change in climate and climate extremes are acknowledged as a vital challenge to pastoral production systems. Alternative systems that are accessible to a household in order to make a living could determine the household’s resilience at a given point in time. This study was conducted in the Southern Afar region in Ethiopia to understand the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. A household questionnaire survey and focus group discussions were employed to collect primary data at household level. A total of 250 pastoral households were sampled using stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. The resilience of households to climate shocks and stresses was determined using a two-step modelling approach by clustering households into livelihood groups, gender and districts. The results indicated that agro-pastoral households were more resilient than pastoralists to climate-induced shock. Furthermore, households in the Gewane district were more resilient than those in the Amibara district. Female-headed households were less resilient than male-headed households. Enhancing livestock assets and productivity, social safety nets, access to market, credit, extension services and education, improving irrigation crop farming, and providing farm inputs significantly enhanced the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. Keywords: Asset, Livelihood, Climate shock, Pastoralist, Resilience

  19. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamo Gezahegne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in pastoral communities of Afar. Methods Between March and May 2009, a community-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 818 randomly selected healthy individuals was conducted in pastoral communities of Afar region. Moreover, two focus group discussions (FGDs, one with men and one with women, were conducted in each of the study area to supplement the quantitative study. Results The majority (95.6% of the interviewees reported that they have heard about PTB (known locally as "Labadore". However, the participants associated the cause of PTB with exposure to cold air (45.9%, starvation (38%, dust (21.8% or smoking/chewing Khat (Catha edulis (16.4%. The discussants also suggested these same factors as the cause of PTB. All the discussants and the majority (74.3% of the interviewees reported that persistent cough as the main symptom of PTB. About 87.7% of the interviewees and all the discussants suggested that PTB is treatable with modern drugs. All the discussants and the majority (95% of the interviewees mentioned that the disease can be transmitted from a patient to another person. Socio-cultural practices, e.g. sharing cups (87.6%, and house type (59.8% were suggested as risk factors for exposure to PTB in the study areas, while shortage of food (69.7% and chewing khat (53.8% were mentioned as factors favouring disease development. Almost all discussants and a considerable number (20.4% of the

  20. Geodetic measurements and numerical models of the Afar rifting sequence 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Calais, E.; Hamling, I. J.; Wright, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rifting episodes are characterized by magma migration and dike intrusions that perturb the stress field within the surrounding lithosphere, inducing viscous flow in the lower crust and upper mantle that leads to observable, transient surface deformation. The Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting episode that occurred in the Afar depression between 2005 and 2010 is the first such episode to unfold fully in the era of satellite geodesy, thus providing a unique opportunity to probe the rheology of lithosphere at a divergent plate boundary. GPS and SAR measurements over the region since 2005 show accelerated surface deformation rates during post-diking intervals [Wright et al., Nature Geosci., 2012]. Using these observations in combination with a numerical model, we estimate model parameters that best explain the deformation signal. Our model accounts for three distinct processes: (i) secular plate spreading between Nubian and Arabian plates, (ii) time dependent post-rifting viscoelastic relaxation following the 14 dike intrusions that occurred between 2005 and 2010, including the 60 km long mega dike intrusion of September 2005, and (iii) magma accumulation within crustal reservoirs that feed the dikes. To model the time dependent deformation field, we use the open-source unstructured finite element code, Defmod [Ali, 2011, http://defmod.googlecode.com/]. Using a gradient-based iterative scheme [Ali and Feigl, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 2012], we optimize the fit between observed and modeled deformation to estimate parameters in the model, including the locking depth of the rift zone, geometry and depth of magma reservoirs and rheological properties of lower crust and upper mantle, along with their formal uncertainties.

  1. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  2. Fluid inclusion and stable isotopes studies of epithermal gold-bearing veins in the SE Afar Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, N.; Boiron, M. C.; Grassineau, N.; Fouquet, Y.; Le Gall, B.; Mohamed, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Afar rift results from the interaction of a number of actively-propagating tectono-magmatic axes. Recent field investigations in the SE Afar rift have emphasized the importance of hydrothermal system in rift-related volcanic complexes. Mineralization occur as gold-silver bearing veins and are associated with felsic volcanism. Late carbonate veins barren of sulfides and gold are common. The morphologies and textures of quartz show crustiform colloform banding, massive and breccias. Microthermometric measurements were made on quartz-hosted two phases (liquid + vapor) inclusions; mean homogenization temperature range from 150°C to 340°C and ice-melting temperatures range from -0.2° to 1.6°C indicating that inclusion solutions are dilute and contain 0.35 to 2.7 equivalent wt. % NaCl. Furthermore, δ18O and δ13C values from calcite range from 3.7 to 26.6 ‰ and -7.5 to 0.3‰, respectively. The presence of platy calcite and adularia indicate that boiling condition existed. This study shows that precious-metal deposition mainly occurred from hydrothermal fluids at 200°C at around 300 and 450 m below the present-day surface in a typical low-sulphidation epithermal environment.

  3. Assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning in the Afar Triple Junction: Dobe and Hanle grabens, Ethiopia and Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polun, S. G.; Stockman, M. B.; Hickcox, K.; Horrell, D.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    As the only subaerial exposure of a ridge - ridge - ridge triple junction, the Afar region of Ethiopia and Djibouti offers a rare opportunity to assess strain partitioning within this type of triple junction. Here, the plate boundaries do not link discretely, but rather the East African rift meets the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts in a zone of diffuse normal faulting characterized by a lack of magmatic activity, referred to as the central Afar. An initial assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning is based on faulted landforms in the Dobe - Hanle graben system in Ethiopia and Djibouti. These two extensional basins are connected by an imbricated accommodation zone. Several fault scarps occur within terraces formed during the last highstand of Lake Dobe, around 5 ka - they provide a means of calibrating a numerical model of fault scarp degradation. Additional timing constraints will be provided by pending exposure ages. The spreading rates of both grabens are equivalent, however in Dobe graben, extension is partitioned 2:1 between northern, south dipping faults and the southern, north dipping fault. Extension in Hanle graben is primarily focused on the north dipping Hanle fault. On the north margin of Dobe graben, the boundary fault bifurcates, where the basin-bordering fault displays a significantly higher modeled uplift rate than the more distal fault, suggesting a basinward propagation of faulting. On the southern Dobe fault, surveyed fault scarps have ages ranging from 30 - 5 ka with uplift rates of 0.71, 0.47, and 0.68 mm/yr, suggesting no secular variation in slip rates from the late Plestocene through the Holocene. These rates are converted into horizontal stretching estimates, which are compared with regional strain estimated from velocities of relatively sparse GPS data.

  4. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros T Wakie

    Full Text Available We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC. Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94, while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95. Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  5. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  6. Quantifying strain partitioning between magmatic and amagmatic portions of the Afar triple junction of Ethiopia and Djibouti through use of contemporary and late Quaternary extension rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polun, S. G.; Hickcox, K.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    The central Afar rift in Ethiopia and Djibouti is a zone of accommodation between the onshore propagations of the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea oceanic spreading centers forming part of the Afar triple junction that divides the Arabia, Nubia, and Somalia plates. While extension in the onshore magmatic propagators is accommodated through magmatism and associated faulting, extension in the central Afar is accommodated solely by large and small faults. The contributions of these major faults to the overall strain budget can be well characterized, but smaller faults are more difficult to quantify. Sparse GPS data covering the region constrain the total extension budget across the diffuse triple junction zone. Late Quaternary slip rates for major faults in Hanle, Dobe, Guma, and Immino grabens were estimated using the quantitative analysis of faulted landforms. This forms a nearly complete transect from the onshore propagation of the Red Sea rift in Tendaho graben and the onshore propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift at Manda Inakir. Field surveying was accomplished using a combination of electronic distance measurer profiling and low altitude aerial surveying. Age constraints are provided from the Holocene lacustrine history or through terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating of the faulted geomorphic surface. Along this transect, late Quaternary slip rates of major faults appear to accommodate 25% of the total horizontal stretching rate between the southern margin of Tendaho graben and the Red Sea coast, as determined from published GPS velocities. This constrains the proportion of total extension between Nubia and Arabia that is accommodated through major faulting in the central Afar, compared to the magmatism and associated faulting of the magmatic propagators elsewhere in the triple junction. Along the transect, individual fault slip rates decrease from the southeast to the northwest, suggesting a `Crank-Arm' model may be more applicable to explain the regional

  7. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in north eastern. Ethiopia ... farmers get value for their stock rather than the middlemen. However ..... of West African long-legged and West African dwarf sheep in Northern Ghana.

  8. Indigenous Governance among the Southern Afar (ca.1815- 1974 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    consequence on the indigenous governance of the relatively stable Afar communities. .... the relative political stability and order through the resolution of conflicts by balanced ...... properly. That in turn results in the prevalence of instability.

  9. Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in the Issa valley, Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Warren, Katarina; Sommer, Volker; Piel, Alex K; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Issa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1-16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants. The exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. ISSAS guidelines. Reference report for IAEA SSAC advisory service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    All comprehensive safeguards agreements between the IAEA and Member States concluded on the basis of INFCIRC/153 (Corrected) require the Member State to establish and maintain a system of accounting for and control of nuclear material subject to safeguards. In the years following the negotiation of INFCIRC/153, the IAEA's Secretariat and a large group of experts from Member States collaborated in the production of a set of guidelines to assist Member States in establishing their State system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials (SSAC). These guidelines, termed 'Guidelines for States' Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials', were published in 1980 as part of the IAEA's information series on the then developing safeguards system (IAEA/SG/INF/2). However, events over the past decade have changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The IAEA, with support and assistance from Member States, embarked on an extensive multiyear effort to strengthen the safeguards system by increasing the IAEA's capability to detect undeclared nuclear material and activities. The centre-piece of this effort is the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements (referred to as the 'additional protocol' and contained in INFCIRC/540 (Corrected)) approved by the Board of Governors in May 1997. The central components of strengthened safeguards and the additional protocol are increased access to information and increased physical access. The effective and efficient implementation of the strengthened safeguards system requires the SSACs to be effective and to cooperate closely with the IAEA. To achieve this aim the IAEA is, inter alia, revising IAEA/SG/INF/2, providing training and equipment to SSAC Authorities and providing an advisory service to Member States known as the IAEA SSAC Advisory Service (ISSAS). Accounting for and control of nuclear material is also key for nuclear security. General Conference resolutions (e.g. GC(48)/RES

  11. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betton, P.J.; Civetta, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. (orig.)

  12. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betton, P.J. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Civetta, L. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)

    1984-11-01

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio.

  13. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  14. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  15. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Tadesse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  16. Surface Deformation Associated With a Historical Diking Event in Afar From Correlation of Space and Air-Borne Optical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J.; Peltzer, G.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.; Kasser, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present new measurements of the surface deformation associated with the rifting event of 1978 in the Asal-Ghoubbet rift, Republic of Djibouti. The Asal-Ghoubbet rift forms a component of the Afar Depression, a broad extensional region at the junction between the Nubia, Arabia, and Somalia plates, which apart from Iceland, is the only spreading center located above sea-level. The 1978 rifting event was marked by a 2-month sequence of small to moderate earthquakes (Mb ~3-5) and a fissural eruption of the Ardukoba Volcano. Deformation in the Asal rift associated with the event included the reactivation of the main bordering faults and the development of numerous open fissures on the rift floor. The movement of the rift shoulders, measured using ground-based geodesy, showed up to 2.5 m of opening in the N40E direction. Our data include historical aerial photographs from 1962 and 1984 (less than 0.8 m/pixel) along the northern border fault, three KH-9 Hexagon(~8 m/pixel) satellite images from 1973, and recently acquired ASTER (15 m/pixel) and SPOT5 (2.5 m/pixel) data. The measurements are made by correlating pre- and post-event images using the COSI-Corr (Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation) software developed at Caltech. The ortho-rectification of the images is done with a mosaic of a 10 m resolution digital elevation model, made by French Institut Geographique National (IGN), and the SRTM and GDEM datasets. Correlation results from the satellite images indicate 2-3 meters of opening across the rift. Preliminary results obtained using the 1962 and 1984 aerial photographs indicate that a large fraction of the opening occurred on or near Fault γ, which borders the rift to the North. These preliminary results are largely consistent with the ground based measurements made after the event. A complete analysis of the aerial photograph coverage will provide a better characterization of the spatial distribution of the deformation throughout the rift.

  17. Close up and From Afar: Clues for Reflecting on Image and Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Daou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the image in Geography and in particular photography with regard to the role given to visual experience in the constitution of the discipline. In addition to the literature on the importance of image in the production, dissemination and teaching of geographical knowledge, a dialogue is established with authors who question the use of photography in the context of fieldwork and research in Social Sciences. The discussion from the perspective of the use of images suggests a tension that permeates Geography, whose research procedures vary from completely controlling sensory experience at one extreme to giving priority to distinct experiences related to space at the other extreme.

  18. Genetic variation of Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase genes (AFAR) in human tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praml, Christian; Schulz, Wolfgang; Claas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    AFAR genes play a key role in the detoxification of the carcinogen Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In the rat, Afar1 induction can prevent AFB(1)-induced liver cancer. It has been proposed that AFAR enzymes can metabolise endogenous diketones and dialdehydes that may be cytotoxic and/or genotoxic. Furth...... many aldo-keto reductases. This polarity change may have an effect on the proposed substrate binding amino acids nearby (Met(47), Tyr(48), Asp(50)). Further population analyses and functional studies of the nine variants detected may show if these variants are disease-related....

  19. Anisotropic Signature of the Afar plume in the Upper Mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Lepine, J.

    2002-12-01

    Plumes remain enigmatic geological objects and it is still unclear how they are formed and whether they act independently from plate tectonics. The role of plumes in mantle dynamics can be investigated by studying their interaction with lithosphere and crust and their perturbations on flow pattern in the mantle. The flow pattern can be derived from seismic anisotropy. An anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa was performed. The choice of the experiment in the Horn of Africa is motivated by the the presence of the Afar hotspot, one of the biggest continental hotspot. In the framework of the mantle degree 2 pattern, the Afar hotspot is the antipode of the Pacific superswell, but its origin at depth and its geodynamic importance are still debated. Data were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. We completed our data base with a French deployment of portable broadband stations surrounding the Afar Hotspot. Path average phase velocities are obtained by using a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al.,2002). A correction of the data is applied according to the a priori 3SMAC model (Nataf and Ricard, 1996). 3D-models of velocity, radial and azimuthal anisotropies are inverted for. Down to 250km, low velocities are found beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the South East of the Tanzania Craton, the Afar hotspot. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. These results are in agreement with the isotropic model of Debayle et al. (2002). The anisotropy model beneath Afar displays a complex pattern. The azimuthal anisotropy shows that the Afar plume might be interpreted as feeding other hotspots in central Africa. Deeper in the asthenosphere, a wide stem of positive radial anisotropy (VSH > VSV) comes up, where we might expect the reverse sign. The same observation was made below Iceland (Gaherty, 2001) and Hawaii (Montagner

  20. K-Ar and TL volcanism chronology of the southern ends of the Red Sea spreading in Afar since 300 ka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahite, P.; Coulie, E.; Gillot, P.Y.; Kidane, T.

    2001-01-01

    Continental rift segments linked to the propagation of the Red Sea plate boundary in Afar are dated using thermoluminescence and potassium-argon dating techniques. These new results constrain the mechanism of the two moderate extensional structures located at the southern ends of the propagator: the Manda Hararo and the Dadar graben. Ages obtained show that their internal floor are about 30 and 100 kyr old, respectively, and that the deduced vertical rate of fault scarps display values lower than those linked to the Gulf of Aden propagation. The lower deformation accommodated by the Red Sea structures, their youthfulness and the greater distance to the mature oceanic ridges could justify this contrast of evolution. (authors)

  1. The European Union Building Peace Near and Afar: Monitoring the Implementation of International Peace Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máire Braniff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU support and contribution to international peace and security continues to develop with involvement in the Balkans, South Caucasus, Africa, Middle East and South Asia (Council of the European Union 2005. Within the broad range of civilian and military interventions under the Common Security and Defence policy (CSDP there have been two monitoring missions that have emerged from peace agreements, in Aceh (2005-2006 and in Georgia (2008 to date. This article maps the evolution EU’s role in international peace building by focusing on how this role is increasingly constructed by the scope of monitoring missions which it has embarked upon outside of its borders. A thematic analysis of literature is used to explore how the EU’s monitoring role has evolved regarding the different degrees of intervention, time-frame and size of the monitoring mission which have resulted in a multi-level impact regarding societal transition. The article finds that political will, shadows of past and future missions and intergovernmental concerns dominates how the EU’s monitoring missions unfurl, affecting the practice of monitors and other EU actors in local conflict settings and contemplates scenarios for future monitoring missions.

  2. Household Food Insecurity, Underweight Status, and Associated Characteristics among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Assayita District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Jemal; Kahssay, Molla; Gebremedhin, Merhawi

    2018-01-01

    Poor nutritional status of women has been a serious problem in Ethiopia. Rural women are more likely to be undernourished than urban women. Afar region is the most likely to be undernourished (43.5%). Despite the humanitarian and food aid, food insecurity and maternal underweight are very high in the region. Household food insecurity is not adequately studied in Afar region. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of household food insecurity and underweight status and its association among reproductive age women. The study was conducted in Assayita district in June 2015. Community-based cross-sectional study design was used among nonpregnant women. Household data was collected using structured questionnaire. Multistage cluster sampling procedure was applied. Two pastoral and two agropastoral Kebeles have been selected by simple random sampling. Systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. The total sample size was 549 households. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and anthropometric data were used to determine food insecurity and underweight, respectively. Multivariate regression models were used to measure associations. Prevalence of HFIAS was 70.4 with a mean of 7.0 (3.6 ± SD); 26.1%, 30.20%, and 14.1% were mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. Underweight prevalence (BMI 2 children below five years of age were statistically associated with household food insecurity and maternal underweight. Household food insecurity and maternal underweight were very high. Age, parity, and having ≥2 children below five years of age were associated with household food insecurity. Maternal underweight was associated with maternal age, marital status, parity, number of children below 5 years, household food insecurity, and vocation of the respondents.

  3. The 3rd ACR in TAL'AFAR: Challenges and Adaptations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCone, David R; Scott, Wilbur J; Mastroianni, George R

    2008-01-01

    .... Bristling with hi-tech weapons systems, its prototypical mission in conventional settings is to serve as a higher commander's eyes and ears by crossing the line of demarcation in search of enemy armor...

  4. Fossil Cercopithecidae from the Hadar Formation and surrounding areas of the Afar Depression, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Stephen R; Delson, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Hadar is well known as one of the most productive early hominin sites in the world. Between 1972 and 1994 a large sample of fossil cercopithecid specimens was collected from Hadar and the nearby sites of Geraru, Ahmado, and Leadu. At least five, and possibly six, species are present in the sample, including two chronological subspecies of Theropithecus oswaldi. T. o. cf. darti is known from the Middle Pliocene deposits in the Hadar area, along with Parapapio cf. jonesi, cf. Rhinocolobus turkanaensis, and a new species of Cercopithecoides, C. meaveae. There are also isolated molars from the Middle Pliocene of a large colobine which most likely represent cf. R. turkanaensis, but may also represent another large colobine known from the nearby site of Maka in the Middle Awash. T. o. oswaldi is represented from younger deposits of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene age, along with the large colobine Cercopithecoides kimeui. Throughout the sequence Theropithecus oswaldi is by far the most abundant cercopithecid, with the other taxa being comparatively rare. The Parapapio material from Hadar is important as the only securely identifiable material of the genus in the East African Pliocene. Furthermore, the Hadar material includes the only associated postcranial remains for the genus. If the tentative identification of Rhinocolobus is correct, then the Hadar sample is the only known occurrence outside of the Turkana Basin. Cercopithecoides meaveae is a new species, currently only known from the Hadar region, most importantly by the associated partial skeleton from Leadu. It appears to show adaptations for terrestrial locomotion. Finally, Cercopithecoides kimeui, a very large colobine previously known from Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Rawi is recorded from the uppermost part of the Formation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar thermo-chronology and lithospheric mechanisms. Methodological and applied approach: the Kunlun range (Asia) and the Afar triple junction area (East Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, C.

    1998-01-01

    A 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronological study has been carried out for two contrasted geodynamic settings: - the Eastern Kunlun range (Northern Tibet), in order to characterize the lithospheric deformation mechanisms related to the India-Asia collision; - the Afar triple junction area (East Africa), in order to constrain the timing of mantle plume-related basement uplift in Ethiopia and Yemen, which will indicate whether rifting was active or passive. In the Kunlun, the cooling event (9-15 deg.C/Ma) outlined at 30 Ma for the granitoids (Bt = 128-138 Ma; Kf = 102-147 Ma) reflects a denudation event (0.2-0.3 km/Ma), related to ramp stacking and normal faulting with associated uplift. This unroofing period is coeval with the great Asian strike-slip faults. This suggests that 30 Ma ago, the India-Asia collision was accommodated by lateral extrusion along great strike-slip faults, which might have led to local crustal thickening because of the formation of anticlines from major thrusts 'branching' from the Kunlun fault. In the Afar area the Panafrican basement (granitoids = 462-678 Ma;metamorphic rocks 505-750 Ma) has undergone a reheating event during the Cenozoic; its temperature is estimated around 138-177 deg.C over the last 50 Ma for a depth of 2 km, implying a thermal gradient of 69-88 deg./km. This reheating event results from both heat conduction, related to the mantle plume. and heat advection. because of magma transfer. However, it was not possible to define the timing of the mantle plume-related basement uplift. This study outlines the important thermal effect of continental flood basalts on the crust and suggests that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronology does not allow to characterize the denudation of the lithosphere for an extension-type geodynamic setting. Finally, some of the results suggest that diffusion in the laboratory and in nature may be different. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronological analysis thus might be tricky, especially in investigating geologic

  6. News from Afar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    in Denmark immediately following the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, and a second wave erupted in the summer of 1944 after the Normandy landings. In other words, knowledge of the war at large was an important aspect of life in German-controlled Europe in the 1940s, but remains somewhat understudied......News filtering through about the changing fortunes of the Axis had a direct impact on public opinion in occupied Europe during the war years, not only affecting morale but also at times triggering mass popular action. For example, a wave of protests against the German occupation broke out...... theater of war by writers of diaries in Denmark. It can be tentatively concluded that while reporting on the Pacific was relatively neutral in tone and did not, to a systematic extent, exaggerate Japanese victories, the Danish public especially paid attention to that theater of war in 1941 and 1942...

  7. Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.

  8. New Crustal Thickness for Djibouti, Afar, Using Seismic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugda, Mulugeta; Bililign, Solomon

    2008-10-01

    Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for the seismic station ATD in Djibouti, Afar, has been investigated using two seismic techniques (H-κ stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities). Both techniques give consistent results of crustal thickness 23±1.5 km and Poisson's ratio 0.31±0.02. We also determined a mean P-wave velocity (Vp) of ˜6.2 km/s but ˜6.9-7.0 km/s below a 2 - 5 km thick low velocity layer at the surface. Previous studies of crustal structure for Djibouti reported that the crust is 6 to 11 km thick while our study shows that the crust beneath Djibouti is between 20 and 25 km. This study argues that the crustal thickness values reported for Djibouti for the last 3 decades were not consistent with the reports for the other neighboring region in central and eastern Afar. Our results for ATD in Djibouti, however, are consistent with the reports of crustal thickness in many other parts of central and eastern Afar. We attribute this difference to how the Moho (the crust-mantle discontinuity) is defined (an increase of Vp to 7.4 km/s in this study vs. 6.9 km/s in previous studies).

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants in Awash-Fentale District of Afar Region of Ethiopia and in vivo evaluation of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nega Alelign

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document plants used in traditional treatment of malaria in the Awash-Fentale District, the Afar Region of Ethiopia, and to evaluate antimalarial activity of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected informants in the District to gather information on plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria. Standard procedures were used to investigate acute toxicity and a four-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of the two most frequently cited plants [Aloe trichosantha (A. trichosantha and Cadaba rotundifolia (C. rotundifolia] against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. Results: The informants cited a total of 17 plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Awash-Fentale District. Plant parts were prepared as infusions or decoctions. Leaf was the most commonly cited (44% plant part, followed by stem (22%. Shrubs were the most frequently cited (63% medicine source followed by trees (21%. Of the 17 plants, C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha were the most frequently mentioned plants in the district. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha suppressed P. berghei parasitaemia significantly accounting for 53.73% and 49.07%, respectively at 900 mg/kg. The plants were found to be non-toxic up to a dose of 1 500 mg/kg. Conclusions: Seventeen plant species were reported to be used for treatment of malaria in the Awash Fentale Distinct, among which A. trichosantha and C. rotundifolia were the most preferred ones. P. berghei suppressive activity of these plants may partly explain their common use in the community.

  10. Stress field during early magmatism in the Ali Sabieh Dome, Djibouti, SE Afar rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Christian; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Ali Sabieh range, SE Afar rift, exhibits an atypical antiform structure occurring in the overall extensional tectonic context of the Afar triple junction. We dynamically analyzed the brittle deformation of this specific structural high using four different methods in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this key-area in the Afar depression. Paleostress inversions appear highly consistent using the four methods, which a posteriori validates this approach. Computed paleostress fields document two major signals: an early E-W extensional field, and a later transcurrent field, kinematically consistent with the previous one. The Ali Sabieh range may have evolved continuously during Oligo-Miocene times from large-scale extensional to transcurrent tectonism, as the result of probable local stress permutation between σ1 and σ2 stress axes.

  11. Continental rift formation and transition to ocean sea floor spreading : A case study of the Afar triple junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavecchia, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Lithosphere extension, thinning and breakup are fundamental processes in geodynamics. During rift development, both the lithosphere and the mantle are involved in a coupled system, in which the main mechanisms and the forces associated with them often vary during the rift evolution. Furthermore, the

  12. Investigation of volcanic gas analyses and magma outgassing from Erta' Ale lava lake, Afar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1980-05-01

    The analyses of 18 volcanic gas samples collected over a two-hour period at 1075/sup 0/C from Erta' Ale lava lake in December 1971 and of 18 samples taken over a half-hour period at 1125 to 1135/sup 0/C in 1974 display moderately to intensely variable compositions. These variations result from imposed modifications caused by (1) atmospheric contamination and oxidation, (2) condensation and re-evaporation of water during collection, (3) analytical errors, and (4) chemical reactions between the erupted gases and a steel lead-in tube. Detailed examinations of the analyses indicate the erupted gases were at chemical equilibrium before collection. This condition was partially destroyed by the imposed modifications. High-temperature reaction equilibria were more completely preserved in the 1974 samples. Numerical procedures based on thermodynamic calculations have been used to restore each analysis to a composition representative of the erupted gases. These procedures have also been used to restore the anhydrous mean compositions reported for two series of collections taken at the lava lake in January 1973.

  13. Identifying Hot Spots of Critical Forage Supply in Dryland Nomadic Pastoralist Areas: A Case Study for the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; van Wesenbeeck, C.F.A.; Georgis, Kidane; Beyene, Fekadu; Urbano, Ferdinando; Meroni, Michele; Leo, Olivier; Yimer, Merkebu; Abdullatif, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a methodology to identify hot spots of critical forage supply in nomadic pastoralist areas, using the Afar Region, Ethiopia, as a special case. It addresses two main problems. First, it makes a spatially explicit assessment of fodder supply and demand extracted from a data poor

  14. A new model for the development of the active Afar volcanic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pik, Raphaël; Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic passive margins, that represent more than the three quarters of continental margins worldwide, are privileged witnesses of the lithospheric extension processes thatform new oceanic basins. They are characterized by voluminous amounts of underplated, intruded and extruded magmas, under the form of massive lavas prisms (seaward-dipping reflectors, or SDR) during the course of thinning and stretching of the lithosphere, that eventually form the ocean-continent transition. The origin and mechanisms of formation of these objects are still largely debated today. We have focussed our attention in the last few years on the Afar volcanic province which represents an active analogue of such volcanic margins. We explored the structural and temporal relationships that exist between the development of the major thinning and stretching structures and the magmatic production in Central Afar. Conjugate precise fieldwork analysis along with lavas geochronology allowed us to revisit the timing and style of the rift formation, since the early syn-rift period of time in the W-Afar marginal area to present days. Extension is primarily accommodated over a wide area at the surface since the very initial periods of extension (~ 25 Ma) following the emplacement of Oligocene CFBs. We propose in our reconstruction of central Afar margin history that extension has been associated with important volumes of underplated mafic material that compensate crustal thinning. This has been facilitated by major crustal-scale detachments that help localize the thinning and underplating at depth. In line with this 'magmatic wide-rift' mode of extension, we demonstrate that episodic extension steps alternate with more protracted magmatic phases. The production of syn-rift massive flood basalts (~ 4 Ma) occurs after early thinning of both the crust and the lithosphere, which suggests that SDR formation, is controlled by previous tectonic event. We determined how the melting regime evolved in

  15. New geodetic measurements in central Afar constraining the Arabia-Somalia-Nubia triple junction kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Lewi, E.; Grandin, R.; Calais, E.; Wright, T. J.; Bendick, R. O.; Pagli, C.; Peltzer, G.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Ibrahim Ahmed, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Afar Depression is an extraordinary submerged laboratory where the crustal mechanisms involved in the active rifting process can be studied. But the crustal movements at the regional scale are complicated by being the locus of the meeting of three divergent plate boundaries: the oceanic spreading ridges of the Red Sea and the Aden Ridge and the intra-continental East-African Rift (EAR). We present here the first GPS measurements conducted in a new network in Central Afar, complementing existing networks in Eritrea, around the Manda-Harraro 2005-2010 active segment, in the Northern part of the EAR and in Djibouti. Even if InSAR data were appropriate for mapping the deformation field, the results are difficult to interpret for analyzing the regional kinematics because of the atmospheric conditions, the lack of complete data catalogue, the acquisition configuration and the small velocity variations. Therefore, our measurements in the new sites are crucial to obtain an accurate velocity field over the whole depression, and focus specifically on the spatial organization of the deformation to characterize the tripe junction. These first results show that a small part of the motion of the Somalia plate with respect to the Nubia plate or the Arabia plate (2-3 mm/yr) occurs south of the Tadjura Gulf and East of the Adda-do segment in Southern Afar. The complex kinematic pattern involves a clockwise rotation of this Southeastern part of the Afar rift and can be related to the significant seismic activity regularly recorded in the region of Jigjiga (northern Somalia-Ethiopia border). The western continuation of the Aden Ridge into Afar extends West of the Asal rift segment and does not reach the young active segment of Manda-Inakir (MI). A slow gradient of velocity is observed across the Dobi Graben and across the large systems of faults between Lake Abhe and the MI rift segment. A striking change of the velocity direction occurs in the region of Assaïta, west of Lake

  16. Global Trend In The Qualifications Of Medical Educators | Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NPMCN) or its equivalents is the highest educational and professional qualification of clinical Medical Educators in Nigeria while PhD is the acceptable highest qualification for their basic medical sciences counterparts. This had been the status ...

  17. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) strip for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in Hassoba school children, Afar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele B.; Erko B.; Legesse M.; Hailu A.; Medhin G.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 206 urine samples collected from Hassoba Elementary schoolchildren, Afar, Ethiopia, a low Schistosoma haematobium endemic setting, was diagnosed to evaluate the performance of CCA strip using double references, urine filtration technique and urinalysis dipstick (Combur 10 Test®) that detect schistosome eggs and blood in urine, respectively. The former was used as a gold standard reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the CCA were 52%...

  18. A LREE-depleted component in the Afar plume: Further evidence from Quaternary Djibouti basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Mohamed A.; Maury, René C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Taylor, Rex N.; Le Gall, Bernard; Guillou, Hervé; Cotten, Joseph; Rolet, Joël

    2010-02-01

    Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data and unspiked K-Ar ages are presented for Quaternary (0.90-0.95 Ma old) basalts from the Hayyabley volcano, Djibouti. These basalts are LREE-depleted (La n/Sm n = 0.76-0.83), with 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70369 to 0.70376, and rather homogeneous 143Nd/ 144Nd ( ɛNd = + 5.9-+ 7.3) and Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb/ 204Pb = 18.47-18.55, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.52-15.57, 208Pb/ 204Pb = 38.62-38.77). They are very different from the underlying enriched Tadjoura Gulf basalts, and from the N-MORB erupted from the nascent oceanic ridges of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Their compositions closely resemble those of (1) depleted Quaternary Manda Hararo basalts from the Afar depression in Ethiopia and (2) one Oligocene basalt from the Ethiopian Plateau trap series. Their trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope systematics suggest the involvement of a discrete but minor LREE-depleted component, which is probably an intrinsic part of the Afar plume.

  19. Tectonic-Volcanic Interplay in the Dabbahu Segment of the Afar Rift from Cosmogenic 3He Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Lahitte, P.; Yirgu, G.; Adem, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Afar Rift in Ethiopia is one of the only subaerial locations in the world where the transition from continental break-up to oceanic-spreading can be observed. Extension and volcanism in the Afar is concentrated in tectono-magmatic segments (TMS), similar in size and morphology to those that characterise spreading ridges. The Dabbahu TMS is the southernmost of the western Afar and has recently been the site of significant activity. A massive seismic event in late 2005, triggered by the injection of an 8-m wide dyke, heralded the onset of a new rifting period in the Dabbahu TMS. Volcanic activity associated with the periods of magma-driven extension, which have recurred at 4-8 mth intervals, has been both silicic (explosive) and basaltic (fissural). The most recent activity in the Afar thus testifies to the close interplay of tectonics and magmatism in rifting environments. In an effort to decipher the long-term structural and volcanic evolution of Dabbahu TMS we have employed the cosmogenic nuclide dating technique to provide chronological data for the segment. This method has advantages over other geochronological tools in that we can target both volcanic and tectonic surfaces of a few Kyr to several Myr age. Baddi Volcano, located off-axis on the western margin of the TMS, is a bimodal central stratovolcano typical of the Afar TMS. Late-stage basaltic lava flows cap an acidic base, which has been dated at 290 ± 4 ka using the K-Ar technique (Lahitte et al., 2003). Following preliminary sampling in 2007, we have determined a cosmogenic 3He age of 53.4 ± 3.7 ka from multiple samples from one of the basaltic flows on the NW flank of Baddi. These data show a significant time gap (240 Kyr) between the final phase of acidic volcanism and the onset of basaltic activity at the central volcanoes, presumably related to the rate of magma chamber replenishment. To test whether the spectacular shift to basaltic activity at 53 ka represents replenishment of the entire sub

  20. Magnitude of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Luelseged; Alemayehu, Mussie; Debie, Ayal

    2018-03-02

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia. Overall, 35.2% of women delivered at health facilities. Women who had good knowledge AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.32, 4.87), Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.55, 6.63), resided in a place where distance to reach at the nearby health facilities takes delivery place (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.49, 5.07) were more likely to deliver at health facility. Therefore, strengthening ANC services, improving maternal knowledge, involving husbands in decision of delivery place and expanding health facilities in the community would enhance institutional delivery.

  1. Present-day kinematics of the Danakil block (southern Red Sea-Afar) constrained by GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladron de Guevara, R.; Jonsson, S.; Ruch, J.; Doubre, C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Ogubazghi, G.; Floyd, M.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.

    2017-12-01

    The rifting of the Arabian plate from the Nubian and Somalian plates is primarily accommodated by seismic and magmatic activity along two rift arms of the Afar triple junction (the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts). The spatial distribution of active deformation in the Afar region have been constrained with geodetic observations. However, the plate boundary configuration in which this deformation occurs is still not fully understood. South of 17°N, the Red Sea rift is composed of two parallel and overlapping rift branches separated by the Danakil block. The distribution of the extension across these two overlapping rifts, their potential connection through a transform fault zone and the counterclockwise rotation of the Danakil block have not yet been fully resolved. Here we analyze new GPS observations from the Danakil block, the Gulf of Zula area (Eritrea) and Afar (Ethiopia) together with previous geodetic survey data to better constrain the plate kinematics and active deformation of the region. The new data has been collected in 2016 and add up to 5 years to the existing geodetic observations (going back to 2000). Our improved GPS velocity field shows differences with previously modeled GPS velocities, suggesting that the rate and rotation of the Danakil block need to be updated. The new velocity field also shows that the plate-boundary strain is accommodated by broad deformation zones rather than across sharp boundaries between tectonic blocks. To better determine the spatial distribution of the strain, we first implement a rigid block model to constrain the overall regional plate kinematics and to isolate the plate-boundary deformation at the western boundary of the Danakil block. We then study whether the recent southern Red Sea rifting events have caused detectable changes in observed GPS velocities and if the observations can be used to constrain the scale of this offshore rift activity. Finally, we investigate different geometries of transform faults that

  2. Determinants of Desire for Children among HIV-Positive Women in the Afar Region, Ethiopia: Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimetu Mohammed

    Full Text Available The desire for a child in Ethiopian society is normal. Among HIV positive women, due to the risk of MTCT, it is imperative to understand factors influencing women's desire for children. This study aimed at assessing factors associated with desire for children among HIV-positive women in two selected hospitals of Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.A facility based case-control study was conducted among 157 cases (with a desire and 157 controls of HIV positive individuals registered in the selected health facilities. The participants were selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using face-to-face interview and was analyzed using logistic regression.Factors found to be independently associated with desire for children were age categories of 20-24 years (OR = 6.22, 1.29-10.87 and 25-29 years (OR = 14.6, 3.05-21.60, being married (OR = 5.51, 2.19-13.54, Afar ethnicity (OR 6.93, 1.19-12.14, having HIV-positive children (OR 0.23, 0.09-0.63, duration on ART more than one year (3.51, 1.68-9.05, CD4 count greater than 350 (OR 4.83, 1.51-7.27 and discussion of reproductive health issues with health providers (OR 0.31, 0.12-0.51.Women who were young, married, Afar, those who received ART more than one year, and had CD4 count >350 were more likely to have a desire for children.Health care workers at ART clinic should openly discuss about the reproductive options for the women living with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Rhyolites associated to Ethiopian CFB: Clues for initial rifting at the Afar plume axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Siena, Franca

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive tectono-magmatic model based on new geochemical and field data is discussed in order to highlight the significance of the high-TiO 2 bimodal picrite basalt/rhyolite association in the north-eastern sector of the Ethiopian Plateau, which is considered to be the axial zone of the 30 Ma Continental Flood Basalt activity related to the Afar plume (Beccaluva et al., 2009). In this area the volcanic sequence consists of approximately 1700 m of high TiO 2 (4-6.5%) picrite basalts, covered by rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, with an average thickness of 300 m, which discontinuously extend over an area of nearly 13,500 km 2 (ca. 3600 km 3). Petrogenetic modelling, using rock and mineral chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE and MELTS, indicates that: 1) picrite basalts could generate rhyolitic, sometimes peralkaline, residual melts with persistently high titanium contents (TiO 2 0.4-1.1%; Fluorine 0.2-0.3%; H 2O 2-3%; density ca. 2.4) corresponding to liquid fractions 9-16%; 2) closed system fractional crystallisation processes developed at 0.1-0.3 GPa pressure and 1390-750 °C temperature ranges, under QFM fO 2 conditions; 3) the highest crystallisation rate - involving 10-13% of Fe-Ti oxide removal - in the temperature range 1070-950 °C, represents a transitory (short-lived) fractionation stage, which results in the absence of erupted silica intermediate products (Daly gap). The eruption of low aspect ratio fluorine-rich rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas capping the basic volcanics implies a rapid change from open- to closed-system tectono-magmatic conditions, which favoured the trapping of parental picrite basalts and their fractionation in upwardly zoned magma chambers. This evolution resulted from the onset of continental rifting, which was accompanied by normal faulting and block tilting, and the formation of shallow - N-S elongated - fissural chambers parallel to the future Afar Escarpment. The eruption of large volumes of rhyolitic

  4. Mentoring from Afar: Nurse Mentor Challenges in the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Laura D M

    2015-06-01

    There is an integral connection between leadership, mentoring and professional career progression within the nursing profession. The purpose of this article is to examine recommendations and best practices from the literature and provide a basis to construct a formalized successful mentoring dyad program with guidelines on establishing and maintaining a productive mentoring relationship over long distance. Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) nurses practice within a unique domain both domestically and abroad. The military environment incorporates many aspects of mentoring that could benefit significantly by distance interchange. Supported through examining literature within nursing, CAF publications and other professions along with contrasting successful distance mentoring programs, the findings suggest that a top-down, leadership-driven formal mentoring program could be beneficial to CAF nurses. The literature review outlines definitions of terms for mentorship and distance mentoring or e-mentoring. A cross section of technology is now embedded in all work environments with personal communication devices commonplace. Establishing mentoring relationships from afar is practical and feasible. This article provides a guided discussion for nursing leaders, managers and grassroots nurses to implement mentoring programs over distances. The recommendations and findings of this article could have universal applications to isolated nursing environments outside of Canadian military operational frameworks. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Magma-driven antiform structures in the Afar rift: The Ali Sabieh range, Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Maury, René C.; Rolet, Joël; Guillou, Hervé; Sue, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The Ali Sabieh Range, SE Afar, is an antiform involving Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and synrift volcanics. Previous studies have postulated a tectonic origin for this structure, in either a contractional or extensional regime. New stratigraphic, mapping and structural data demonstrate that large-scale doming took place at an early stage of rifting, in response to a mafic laccolithic intrusion dated between 28 and 20 Ma from new K-Ar age determinations. Our 'laccolith' model is chiefly supported by: (i) the geometry of the intrusion roof, (ii) the recognition of roof pendants in its axial part, and (iii) the mapping relationships between the intrusion, the associated dyke-sill network, and the upper volcanic/volcaniclastic sequences. The laccolith is assumed to have inflated with time, and to have upwardly bent its sedimentary roof rocks. From the architecture of the ˜1 km-thick Mesozoic overburden sequences, ca. 2 km of roof lifting are assumed to have occurred, probably in association with reactivated transverse discontinuities. Computed paleostress tensors indicate that the minimum principal stress axis is consistently horizontal and oriented E-W, with a dominance of extensional versus strike-slip regimes. The Ali Sabieh laccolith is the first regional-scale magma-driven antiform structure reported so far in the Afro-Arabian rift system.

  6. First evidence of epithermal gold occurrences in the SE Afar Rift, Republic of Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, N.; Fouquet, Y.; Le Gall, B.; Caminiti, A. M.; Rolet, J.; Bohn, M.; Etoubleau, J.; Delacourt, C.; Jalludin, M.

    2012-06-01

    The geology of the Republic of Djibouti, in the SE Afar Triangle, is characterized by intense tectonic and bimodal volcanic activity that began as early as 25-30 Ma. Each magmatic event was accompanied by hydrothermal activity. Mineralization generally occurs as gold-silver bearing chalcedony veins and is associated with felsic volcanism. Eighty samples from mineralized hydrothermal chalcedony, quartz ± carbonate veins and breccias were studied from ten sites representing four major volcanic events that range in age from early Miocene to the present. The most recent veins are controlled by fractures at the edges of grabens established during the last 4 Myr. Gold in excess of 200 ppb is present in 30% of the samples, with values up to 16 ppm. Mineralogical compositions allowed us to identify different types of mineralization corresponding to different depths in the hydrothermal system: (1) surface and subsurface mineralization characterized by carbonate chimneys, gypsum, silica cap and quartz ± carbonate veins that are depleted in metals and Au; (2) shallow banded chalcedony ± adularia veins related to boiling that contain up to 16 ppm Au, occurring as native gold and electrum with pyrite, and tetradymite; (3) quartz veins with sulfides, and (4) epidote alteration in the deepest hydrothermal zones. Samples in which pyrite is enriched in As tend to have a high Au content. The association with bimodal volcanism, the occurrence of adularia and the native Au and electrum in banded chalcedony veins are typical of epithermal systems and confirm that this type of mineralization can occur in a young intracontinental rift system.

  7. Lake Afrera, a structural depression in the Northern Afar Rift (Red Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Enrico; Gasperini, Elia; Vigliotti, Luigi; Lupi, Luca; Vaselli, Orlando; Polonia, Alina; Gasperini, Luca

    2017-05-01

    The boundary between the African and Arabian plates in the Southern Red Sea region is displaced inland in the northern Afar rift, where it is marked by the Red Sea-parallel Erta Ale, Alaita, and Tat Ali volcanic ridges. The Erta Ale is offset by about 20 and 40 km from the two en echelon ridges to the south. The offset area is highly seismic and marked by a depression filled by lake Afrera, a saline body of water fed by hydrothermal springs. Acoustic bathymetric profiles show ≈80 m deep canyons parallel to the NNW shore of the lake, part of a system of extensional normal faults striking parallel to the Red Sea. This system is intersected by oblique structures, some with strike-slip earthquakes, in what might evolve into a transform boundary. Given that the lake's surface lies today about 112 m below sea level, the depressed (minus ≈190 m below sea level) lake's bottom area may be considered the equivalent of the "nodal deep" in slow-slip oceanic transforms. The chemistry of the lake is compatible with the water having originated from hydrothermal liquids that had reacted with evaporites and basalts, rather than residual from evaporation of sea water. Bottom sediments include calcitic grains, halite and gypsum, as well as ostracod and diatom tests. The lake's level appears to have dropped by over 10 m during the last ≈50 years, continuing a drying up trend of the last few thousand years, after a "wet" stage 9,800 and 7,800 years before present when according to Gasse (1973) Lake Afrera covered an area several times larger than at present. This "wet" stage corresponds to an early Holocene warm-humid climate that prevailed in Saharan and Sub Saharan Africa. Lake Abhé, located roughly 250 km south of Afrera, shows similar climate-driven oscillations of its level.

  8. Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tim J; Ebinger, Cindy; Biggs, Juliet; Ayele, Atalay; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Keir, Derek; Stork, Anna

    2006-07-20

    Seafloor spreading centres show a regular along-axis segmentation thought to be produced by a segmented magma supply in the passively upwelling mantle. On the other hand, continental rifts are segmented by large offset normal faults, and many lack magmatism. It is unclear how, when and where the ubiquitous segmented melt zones are emplaced during the continental rupture process. Between 14 September and 4 October 2005, 163 earthquakes (magnitudes greater than 3.9) and a volcanic eruption occurred within the approximately 60-km-long Dabbahu magmatic segment of the Afar rift, a nascent seafloor spreading centre in stretched continental lithosphere. Here we present a three-dimensional deformation field for the Dabbahu rifting episode derived from satellite radar data, which shows that the entire segment ruptured, making it the largest to have occurred on land in the era of satellite geodesy. Simple elastic modelling shows that the magmatic segment opened by up to 8 m, yet seismic rupture can account for only 8 per cent of the observed deformation. Magma was injected along a dyke between depths of 2 and 9 km, corresponding to a total intrusion volume of approximately 2.5 km3. Much of the magma appears to have originated from shallow chambers beneath Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes at the northern end of the segment, where an explosive fissural eruption occurred on 26 September 2005. Although comparable in magnitude to the ten year (1975-84) Krafla events in Iceland, seismic data suggest that most of the Dabbahu dyke intrusion occurred in less than a week. Thus, magma intrusion via dyking, rather than segmented normal faulting, maintains and probably initiated the along-axis segmentation along this sector of the Nubia-Arabia plate boundary.

  9. The ISSAS Model: Understanding the Information Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…

  10. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buren, David Van

    1995-01-01

    We searched for bow shock-like objects like those known around Oph and a Cam near the positions of 183 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 micron emission we identify 56 new candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with that of their proper motion vectors indicates that these two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  11. “Let’s get those queers!” : Homophobia and heteronormativity within young male sporting cultures in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnes Elling; Froukje Smits

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at ISSA Conference 2016 (International Sport Sociology Association): "Based on predominantly qualitative research, socio-critical sports sociologists from various (western) countries have in the past argued convincingly that heteronormativity and homophobia form early influences in

  12. Tectonic-magmatic interplay during the early stages of oceanic rifting: temporal constraints from cosmogenic 3He dating in the Dabbahu rift segment, Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Medynski, S.; Yirgu, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Afar Rift in Ethiopia is one of the only subaerial locations in the world where the transition from continental break-up to oceanic-spreading can be observed. Extension and volcanism in the Afar is concentrated in tectono-magmatic segments (TMS), similar in size and morphology to those that characterize mid-ocean ridge systems. However, unlike their submarine equivalents, the Afar TMS contain large silicic central volcanoes, implying that magma differentiation plays an important role in the early evolution of the oceanic rifts. The Dabbahu TMS at the south of the western Afar rift system has recently been the site of significant activity. A massive seismic event in late 2005, triggered by dyke injection, heralded the onset of new rifting period. Volcanism associated with the periods of magma-driven extension has been both silicic (explosive) and basaltic (fissural). The most recent activity in the Afar thus testifies to the close interplay of tectonics and magmatism in rifting environments. In an effort to decipher the long-term structural and volcanic evolution of Dabbahu TMS, we combine cosmogenic 3He dating with geological interpretation of ASTER images and major and trace element analyses of the main volcanic units present. The cosmogenic dating method has advantages over other geochronological tools in that we can target both volcanic and tectonic surfaces of a few Kyr to several Myr age. At Baddi Volcano, an off-axis stratovolcano located west of the Dabbahu rift-axis, basaltic lava flows overlie an acidic base, previously dated at 290 ka using the K-Ar technique (Lahitte et al., 2003). Following preliminary sampling in 2007, we determined cosmogenic 3He ages of 57 ka and 45 ka for two basaltic flows on the flanks of Baddi. We now investigate whether this presumed replenishment of the Baddi magma chamber represents a replenishment of the entire sub-rift plumbing system, and how this in turn relates to the onset and maintenance of surface deformation

  13. Application of individual behavioral models to predict willingness to use modern contraceptives among pastoralist women in Afar region, Northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Znabu Hadush Kahsay

    Full Text Available Use of modern contraceptive methods reduces the risk of unwanted pregnancy, and is influenced by individual-level factors. Willingness to use modern contraceptive methods maybe a useful metric when considering health outcomes as it could predict health behaviors. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the willingness of women to use modern contraceptives in Afar pastoralist communities.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2016. Three hundred forty-five women of childbearing age (15-49 years were systematically sampled with proportionate allocation from seven randomly selected kebeles (neighborhoods in Aballa District of Afar Region, Ethiopia. All women meeting the inclusion criteria in each selected household were interviewed at home using a semi-structured questionnaire. Construct validity was assured using factor analysis. A combination of individual behavioral models were applied in order to measure willingness to use modern contraceptive methods. Multiple logistic regressions were utilized to identify factors associated with willingness to use contraceptive at P-value of less than 0.05.Three hundred twenty-two women participated in the study, for a response rate of 93.3%. The mean age of respondents was 27 (±6 years. About one-third (N = 106, 32.9% of the participants reported that they were willing to use modern contraceptives. Orthodox Christians (AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.94-8.92, women aged 19 or older at first marriage (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.16-7.23, and women who had never experienced a stillbirth (AOR = 3.85, 95%CI 1.37-10.78 were more likely to report being willing to use modern contraceptives. Additionally, perceived severity of an unwanted pregnancy (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.93 and perceived self-efficacy to use contraceptives (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.65 were positively associated with the willingness. Women who had never had an abortion were less likely to express willingness to use modern

  14. Application of individual behavioral models to predict willingness to use modern contraceptives among pastoralist women in Afar region, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Znabu Hadush; Tegegne, Dessie; Mohammed, Ebrahim; Kiros, Getachew

    2018-01-01

    Use of modern contraceptive methods reduces the risk of unwanted pregnancy, and is influenced by individual-level factors. Willingness to use modern contraceptive methods maybe a useful metric when considering health outcomes as it could predict health behaviors. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the willingness of women to use modern contraceptives in Afar pastoralist communities. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2016. Three hundred forty-five women of childbearing age (15-49 years) were systematically sampled with proportionate allocation from seven randomly selected kebeles (neighborhoods) in Aballa District of Afar Region, Ethiopia. All women meeting the inclusion criteria in each selected household were interviewed at home using a semi-structured questionnaire. Construct validity was assured using factor analysis. A combination of individual behavioral models were applied in order to measure willingness to use modern contraceptive methods. Multiple logistic regressions were utilized to identify factors associated with willingness to use contraceptive at P-value of less than 0.05. Three hundred twenty-two women participated in the study, for a response rate of 93.3%. The mean age of respondents was 27 (±6) years. About one-third (N = 106, 32.9%) of the participants reported that they were willing to use modern contraceptives. Orthodox Christians (AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.94-8.92), women aged 19 or older at first marriage (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.16-7.23), and women who had never experienced a stillbirth (AOR = 3.85, 95%CI 1.37-10.78) were more likely to report being willing to use modern contraceptives. Additionally, perceived severity of an unwanted pregnancy (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.93) and perceived self-efficacy to use contraceptives (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.65) were positively associated with the willingness. Women who had never had an abortion were less likely to express willingness to use modern

  15. The Axum-Adwa basalt-trachyte complex: a late magmatic activity at the periphery of the Afar plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, C.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Siena, F.

    2013-08-01

    The Axum-Adwa igneous complex consists of a basalt-trachyte (syenite) suite emplaced at the northern periphery of the Ethiopian plateau, after the paroxysmal eruption of the Oligocene (ca 30 Ma) continental flood basalts (CFB), which is related to the Afar plume activity. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages, carried out for the first time on felsic and basaltic rocks, constrain the magmatic age of the greater part of the complex around Axum to 19-15 Ma, whereas trachytic lavas from volcanic centres NE of Adwa are dated ca 27 Ma. The felsic compositions straddle the critical SiO2-saturation boundary, ranging from normative quartz trachyte lavas east of Adwa to normative (and modal) nepheline syenite subvolcanic domes (the obelisks stones of ancient axumites) around Axum. Petrogenetic modelling based on rock chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE (Boudreau 1999) shows that low-pressure fractional crystallization processes, starting from mildly alkaline- and alkaline basalts comparable to those present in the complex, could generate SiO2-saturated trachytes and SiO2-undersaturated syenites, respectively, which correspond to residual liquid fractions of 17 and 10 %. The observed differentiation processes are consistent with the development of rifting events and formation of shallow magma chambers plausibly located between displaced (tilted) crustal blocks that favoured trapping of basaltic parental magmas and their fractionation to felsic differentiates. In syenitic domes, late- to post-magmatic processes are sometimes evidenced by secondary mineral associations (e.g. Bete Giorgis dome) which overprint the magmatic parageneses, and mainly induce additional nepheline and sodic pyroxene neo-crystallization. These metasomatic reactions were promoted by the circulation of Na-Cl-rich deuteric fluids (600-400 °C), as indicated by mineral and bulk rock chemical budgets as well as by δ18O analyses on mineral separates. The occurrence of this magmatism post-dating the

  16. Contribution of traditional birth attendants to the formal health system in Ethiopia: the case of Afar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesgen, Tedla Mulatu; Umer, Jemal Yousuf; Buda, Dawit Seyoum; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu

    2012-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have been a subject of discussion in the provision of maternal and newborn health care. The objective of this study was to assess the role of trained traditional birth attendants in maternal and newborn health care in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. A qualitative study was used where 21 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with health service providers, trained traditional birth attendants, mothers, men, kebele leaders and district health personnel. The findings of this study indicate that trained traditional birth attendants are the backbone of the maternal and child health development in pastoralist communities. However, the current numbers are inadequate and cannot meet the needs of the pastoralist communities including antenatal care, delivery, postnatal care and family planning. In addition to service delivery, all respondents agreed on multiple contributions of trained TBAs, which include counselling, child care, immunisation, postnatal care, detection of complication and other social services. Without deployment of adequate numbers of trained health workers for delivery services, trained traditional birth attendants remain vital for the rural community in need of maternal and child health care services. With close supportive supervision and evaluation of the trainings, the TBAs can greatly contribute to decreasing maternal and newborn mortality rates.

  17. From Afar to Zulu: A Dictionary of African Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jim; Biondi, Joann

    This resource provides information on over 30 of Africa's most populous and well-known ethnic groups. The text concisely describes the history, traditions, environment, social structure, religion, and daily lifestyles of these diverse cultures. Each entry opens with a map outlining the area populated by the group and a list of key data regarding…

  18. Observing the Earth from afar with NASA's Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. M.; Boller, R. A.; King, B. A.; Baynes, K.; Rice, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Worldview interactive web map application delivers global, near real-time imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. Within hours of satellite overpass, discover where the latest wildfires, severe storms, volcanic eruptions, dust and haze, ice shelves calving as well as many other events are occurring around the world. Near real-time imagery is made available in Worldview through the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) via the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This poster will explore new near real-time imagery available in Worldview, the current ways in which the imagery is used in research, the news and social media and future improvements to Worldview that will enhance the availability and viewing of NASA EOS imagery.

  19. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA strip for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in Hassoba school children, Afar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele B.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 206 urine samples collected from Hassoba Elementary schoolchildren, Afar, Ethiopia, a low Schistosoma haematobium endemic setting, was diagnosed to evaluate the performance of CCA strip using double references, urine filtration technique and urinalysis dipstick (Combur 10 Test® that detect schistosome eggs and blood in urine, respectively. The former was used as a gold standard reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the CCA were 52%, 63.8%, 56.7% and 59% respectively, with reference to urine filtration technique whereas these parameters were 50.4%, 62.4%, 55.6% and 57.5% respectively, with reference to Combur 10 Test®. 47 S. haematobium egg-positive children were found negative by CCA strip while 38 egg-negative children were found positive by CCA strip. Moreover, among the pre-tests done in duplicate, inconsistent results were also recorded. Assays were also compared with regard to the cost of equipment and reagents, speed and simplicity of use. Though CCA strip was found to be rapid and could be performed with minimal training, it was found to be expensive (US $ 4.95 per test to use it for large-scale field use even if its diagnostic value would have been satisfactory. Further development and standardization of the CCA strip are required for its applicability for field use. It is also recommended that its cost per strip should be substantially cut down if it is to be used in poor schistosomiasis endemic countries.

  20. Characteristics and metal leachability of incinerated sewage sludge ash and air pollution control residues from Hong Kong evaluated by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Xue, Qiang; Fang, Le; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-06-01

    The improper disposal of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and air pollution control residues (APCR) from sewage sludge incinerators has become an environmental concern. The physicochemical, morphological and mineralogical characteristics of ISSA and APCR from Hong Kong, and the leachability and risk of heavy metals, are presented in this paper. The results showed that a low hydraulic and pozzolanic potential was associated with the ISSA and APCR due to the presence of low contents of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaO and high contents of P, S and Cl (especially for APCR). Although high concentrations of Zn and Cu (especially for ISSA) followed by Ni, Pb and As, Se were detected, a low leaching rate of these metals (especially at neutral and alkaline pH) rendered them classifiable as non-hazardous according to the U.S. EPA and Chinese national regulatory limits. The leached metals concentrations from ISSA and APCR were mainly pH dependent, and metals solubilization occurred mainly at low pH. Different leaching tests should be adopted based on the simulated different environmental conditions and exposure scenarios for assessing the leachability as contrasting results could be obtained due to the differences in complexing abilities and final pH of the leaching solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemistry of Metavolcanics and Granitic Intrusive from Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the Afar Depression. The Arabian-Nubian Shield covers vast terrain to the north and northwest of the Afar Depression and in eastern Eritrea (Beyene and Abdelsalam, 2005 and references therein). ... great interest because it may represent the complete sequence of rocks spanning from the Late. Proterozoic to the present ...

  2. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Lin, Deng-Fong

    2009-02-15

    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the influences of admixtures on the soil properties, tests of the pH value, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength, and triaxial compression were performed on those samples. The study shows that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with the ISSA/cement addition was improved to approximately 3-7 times better than that of the untreated soil; furthermore, the swelling behavior was also effectively reduced as much as 10-60% for those samples. In some samples, the ISSA/cement additive improved the CBR values by up to 30 times that of untreated soil. This suggests that ISSA/cement has many potential applications in the field of geotechnical engineering.

  3. Large-scale landslide triggering mechanisms in Debre Sina area, Central Ethiopian Highlands at the western Afar rift margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiros, T.; Wohnlich, S.; Hussien, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Highlands of Ethiopia have repeatedly experiencing large-scale landslide events. Debre Sina area is one of the most landslide prone areas located along the western Afar rift margin of Ethiopia, which is frequently affected by large-scale and deep-seated landslides. Despite that, urban and rural development is currently taking place in almost all constricted valleys as well as on the imposing cliffs. Therefore, understanding the major triggering factors and failure mechanisms in the Debre Sina area and surroundings is of critical importance. In the present study, we investigate the landslide in the area using geological and topographic analysis, structural settings, geophysical investigation (seismic refraction), rainfall data and seismicity. Furthermore, petrographical as well as X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis are conducted to explain the mineral composition of parent rock and its weathering products. The topographic analysis result revealed that the slope range from 100 - 400, with elevation of 1,800 - 2,500m, with aspect to east and southeast are highly prone to landslide. The seismic refraction method identified four main layers of geomaterials which contained a subsurface landslides anomaly within the layers. The results consist of clay, loosely cemented colluvial sediments and highly weathered agglomerates (1000-1500m/s) 7-15m, highly to moderately fractured porphyritic basalt, ignimbrite, rhyolite/trachyte and volcanic ash (1500-2500m/s) 10-30m, moderately to slightly fractured ignimbrite, rhyolite/trachyte and basalt (2500-3500m/s) 30-50m and very strong, massive, fresh rock/bed rock (>3500m/s) from 45m depth. The large-scale and deep-seated landslides problem in the study area appears to be caused by heavy rainfall, complex geology and rugged topography, the presence of geological structures oriented parallel to the rift margin N-S fault (NNE-SSW trending) of the central Ethiopian highlands and coinciding with the head scarp of the slides and

  4. A comparative molecular survey of malaria prevalence among Eastern chimpanzee populations in Issa Valley (Tanzania) and Kalinzu (Uganda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Burgunder, J.; Dadáková, E.; Brožová, K.; Hrazdilová, K.; Stewart, F. A.; Piel, A. K.; Vallo, P.; Fuehrer, H.-P.; Hashimoto, C.; Modrý, David; Qablan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, AUG 19 (2016), č. článku 423. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Malaria * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * Plasmodium spp. * Laverania * Cyt-b gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  5. “Monstrous Betrayal”: On the Sources of the Controversy around the Film Adaptation of Dolina Issy [The Issa Valey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kaniecki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to identify the origins of the famous argument between Miłosz and Konwicki about the film adaptation of Dolina Issy. Konwicki created a film which, although it is an adaptation of the novel, clearly belongs to his own creative output, focused on axiological uncertainty after The Second World War. Konwicki’s work is a record of a quest for enduring points of reference, a quest conducted with realisation that such points cannot be found by a person who feels lost in the modern world. Such a world-view was not acceptable for Miłosz, and it is difficult to expect that the poet would accept an adaptation of his novel created from such a point of view.

  6. Surface Deformation During a Magmatic Intrusion: the Example of the Dabba'hu Rift Crisis of 2005-2006 (Afar, Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, R.; Socquet, A.; Binet, R.; Jacques, E.; Klinger, Y.; de Chabalier, J.; King, G.; Tait, S.; Tapponnier, P.; Delorme, A.; Elissalde, C.

    2007-12-01

    In September 2005, a magmato-tectonic episode initiated in Western Afar (Ethiopia) when a swarm of moderate magnitude earthquakes (Mpre-crisis aerial photographs and post-crisis high-resolution Quickbird images, combined with SAR coherence images, we are able to map the structures that were reactivated during the crisis, and show extensive evidence of newly exposed fractures in recent basalts. The motion on a large number of en echelon faults and fissures could be observed with much greater detail than during the main rifting event. Using a DEM of the area, generated using SPOT images, the relation between faulting and rift morphology is addressed. Concentric subsidence and/or uplift occurred at various stages of the crisis on distinct volcanic edifices, pointing to a complex scenario for the possible connection between shallow and deep magmatic chambers. The estimated extension rate of 15 mm/year across the plate boundary [Vigny et al., 2006] yields a recurrence time of the order of 500 years for events of this magnitude. Surprisingly, despite the large volume of magma intruded during the September 2005 event (~ 15 km2), no basalt flows were observed.

  7. Geometry of the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary into Afar: Preliminary Results from the Seismic Profile Across the Asal Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Doubre, C.; Mohamed, K.; Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Afar Depression, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift in Djibouti is a young segment on land at the propagating tip of the Aden Ridge. This segment represents an ideal laboratory to observe the mechanisms of extension and the structural evolutions involved, from the continental break-up to the first stage of oceanic spreading. However, we lack first order information about the crustal and upper mantle structure in this region, which for example prevent detailed numerical modeling of the deformations observed at the surface from GPS or InSAR. Moreover the current permanent network is not well suited to precisely constrain the ratio of seismic/aseismic deformation and to characterize the active deformation and the rifting dynamics. Since November 2009 we have maintained a temporary network of 25 seismic stations deployed along a 150 km-long profile. Because we expect rapid variations of the lithospheric structure across the 10 km-wide central part of the rift, we gradually decreased the inter-stations spacing to less than 1 km in the middle section of the profile. In order to obtain a continuous image of the plate boundary, from the topographic surface to the upper mantle, several techniques and methods will be applied: P and S wave receiver functions, tomographies based on body waves, surface waves and seismic noise correlation, anisotropy, and finally a gravity-seismic joint inversion. We present some preliminary results deduced from the receiver functions applied to the data acquired during the first months of the experiment. We migrate several sets of receiver functions computed in various frequency bands to resolve both mantle interfaces and fine scale structures within the thin crust in the center of the rift. These first images confirm a rapid variation of the Moho depth on both sides of the rift and a very complex lithospheric structure in the central section with several low velocity zones within the top 50km that might correspond to magma lenses.

  8. A New Paradigm for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: The Use of Epigenetic Therapy to Sensitize Patients to Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and Gallo, R.L. (2012). Ultraviolet radiation damages self noncoding RNA and is detected by TLR3. Nat. Med. 18, 1286–1290. Bestor, T.H., and Tycko, B...dine (Aza) and 5-aza-20-deoxycytidine (Dac) are effective cancer therapies in hematologic neoplasms (Issa, 2005; Matei et al., 2012) and are Food and

  9. Assessing the sociology of sport : On critical sport sociology and sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, Annelies Knoppers, one of the leading scholars in understanding the culture of sport in organizational settings, considers how the critical lens of sociology can enhance and mesh with research on sport management. Knoppers argues that there have been

  10. English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate, from a student perspective, how English communication skills are taught in Oman's schools and higher education institutions. Previous research has documented the lack of communicative ability in English among school and higher education graduates in Oman (Al-Issa, 2007; Moody, 2009). However, the reasons…

  11. Acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months of the nomadic population in Hadaleala district, Afar region, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Woldu, Wondwoson; Bitew, Bikes Destaw

    2018-02-07

    Acute malnutrition to be a major health burden in the world, particularly in the developing world. Acute malnutrition is associated with more than one third of the global disease burden for children. Malnourished children are physically, emotionally and intellectually less productive and suffer more from chronic illnesses and disabilities. The nature, magnitude and determinants of acute malnutrition are determined among the general populations; however, there is a lack of evidence in the nomadic communities. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the magnitude and factors associated with acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Hadaleala district, Afar Region. A total of 591 under-five children were included in this study, and subjects were recruited by the multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and a simple anthropometric index so called mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with acute malnutrition on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p malnutrition was 11.8% (95% CI = 9.3, 14.8%). The highest prevalence (50%) of acute malnutrition occurred among children aged between 12.0-23.0 months. Childhood acute malnutrition was associated with the presence of two (AOR = 2.49, p childhood diarrheal disease (AOR = 2.72, p malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months was was higher than the national prevalence. The number of children in each household, drinking water sources, latrine availability, hand washing practice before food preparation and child feeding, childhood diarrheal disease, and child vaccination were identified as factors affecting the childhood acute malnutrition in the nomadic community. Protecting drinking water sources from possible contaminants, improving hand washing practices, utilization of latrine, preventing diarrheal diseases

  12. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  13. Protecting the Lives of Women and Children: an Innovative Approach to Addressing the Problem of Female Genital Mutilation through Social Change, Public Health and Youth Development in a Fragile Region

    OpenAIRE

    Masresha Andarge; Mieke van Riet; Patrick Martens

    2012-01-01

    The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice among the Afar communities of Eastern Ethiopia. FGM, as well as other harmful traditional practices, including early marriage, face branding with sharp tools and abduction, are common among the Afar communities of Eastern Ethiopia. This has been threatening the lives of women and children and remains very prevalent. The practice of FGM, although now illegal in Ethiopia, continues and has been sustained by deep-ro...

  14. A comparative molecular survey of malaria prevalence among Eastern chimpanzee populations in Issa Valley (Tanzania) and Kalinzu (Uganda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Burgunder, J.; Dadáková, E.; Brožová, K.; Hrazdilová, K.; Stewart, F. A.; Piel, A. K.; Vallo, Peter; Fuehrer, H.-P.; Hashimoto, C.; Modrý, D.; Qablan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 423 (2016), s. 423 ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cyt-b gene * Laverania * Malaria * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * Plasmodium spp Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  15. Beyond Our Borders: Perspective's from Afar: OE in Aoteoroa/New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, John

    2000-01-01

    There is a political push in New Zealand to merge outdoor education into an outdoor industry driven by recreational interests. Higher education funding and training emphasize recreation and tourism, and educational objectives are being overlooked. However, outdoor education associations are working toward clearer standards for leadership training,…

  16. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  17. Lessons from Afar: A Review of www.daisakuikeda.org, Official Website of Daisaku Ikeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Daisaku Ikeda (1928- ) is a Buddhist leader, peace builder, school founder, and poet. His own biography and lifework provide a model for how one can transform adversity into alternative opportunities for some of the most disenfranchised students. Scrutinizing Ikeda's official website (www.daisakuikeda.org) reveals an extensive collection of his…

  18. Questions from Afar: The Influence of Outsideness on Web-Based Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Craig; Edwards, Anthony; Gomez, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines the metaphor of outsideness in relation to web-based interaction. Outsideness is conceived of as a key influence in online academic conversation. In particular, through the sharing of cultural perspectives, asking questions to resolve doubt, and collaborative writing and re-writing as a basis for shaping ideas through reasoning.…

  19. Epidemiology of acute decompensated heart failure in India : The AFAR study (Acute failure registry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Seth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a paucity of data on acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF in Indian patients. We herein report the in-hospital and 6-month outcome of Indian patients admitted with ADHF. Methods: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with ADHF due to systolic dysfunction in the acute failure registry and followed them up for at least 6 months. We analyzed the data on death and hospitalization of the first 90 patients on death and hospitalization over 6-months. Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 53.5 ± 17. 7 years and the majority were male (63%. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 29.2± 11.9%. The in hospital mortality was 30.8%. Postdischarge 6-month major adverse event (re-hospitalization/mortality combined and mortality rates were 39.5% and 26.3%, respectively. Conclusions: These data from a single referral center provide insights into the current status of acute HF care in India. We report a higher in-hospital and follow-up mortality rates in ADHF patients who present at younger ages than reported in Western literature.

  20. Whistle from Afar: A Case of Endotracheal Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitoti Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal metastasis is a rare situation, usually associated with malignancies of breast and gastrointestinal tract, specially colon. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid commonly disseminates through lymphatic channels and tracheal involvement through vascular route is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of tracheal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid. The patient responded to external beam radiation therapy with cobalt 60 beams in a dose of 44 Gy followed by a 16 Gy boost. The patient is under followup and is presently asymptomatic. This paper adds to the repertoire of evidence in treatment of endotracheal metastasis.

  1. Research from Afar: Considerations for Conducting an Off-Site Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg Arthur; Hagerty, Bonnie M.; Hoyle, Kenneth; Yousha, Steven M.; Abdoo, Yvonne; Andersen, Curt; Engler, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Critical elements in the success of off-site research projects include the following: negotiation, attention to personnel issues, communication, participation of research subjects, data management, and concern for privacy issues. (SK)

  2. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  3. 2665-IJBCS-Article-Issa Chaibou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Saverys et al., 2007). En plus de ces aspects environnementaux, les agro carburants présentent des avantages socio-économiques certains pour les pays en développement. Le Niger veut s'engager dans le développement de la filière des ...

  4. 350-IJBCS-Article-Dr Nombre Issa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Une enquête "ethnoapicole" menée dans deux zones phytogéographiques du ... extension de l'apiculture moderne dans les zones rurales des pays africains. © 2009 International .... Bees for Development Journal, 65: 9-9. Nombré I. 2003.

  5. 2150-IJBCS-Article-BAGRE Issa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    La tuberculose, malgré l'existence d'un traitement efficace, demeure l'une des infections mortelles dans les pays en développement. D'après certaines études, la sensibilité de certains patients aux maladies infectieuses varie en fonction de leur phénotype d'Haptoglobine. Qu'en est-il des malades atteints de la tuberculose ...

  6. The advantages and disadvantages of different social welfare strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L H

    1994-01-01

    The following was delivered by the author to the High Level American Meeting of Experts on The Challenges of Social Reform and New Administrative and Financial Management Techniques. The meeting, which took place September 5-7, 1994, in Mar del Plata, Argentina, was sponsored by the International Social Security Association at the invitation of the Argentine Secretariat for Social Security in collaboration with the ISSA Member Organizations of that country.

  7. Genèse des magmas associés à l'ouverture d'un domaine océanique : Géochimie des laves du Nord-Est de l'Afrique (Mer Rouge-Afar) et d'Arabie

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat , Jean-Alix ,

    1991-01-01

    Mémoires et Documents du CAESS, n°48; L'existence d'un point chaud localisé en Afar est confirmée. Principalement deux composants mantelliques interviennent dans la genèse des laves du Sud de la Mer Rouge et d'Afar: un manteau appauvri en LREE et une source présentant des caractéristiques du pôle HIMU. Certains basaltes des plateaux éthiopiens et d'Afar (en particulier ceux émis avant l'ouverture du Golfe de Tadjoura) sont contaminés par la croûte continentale. Les résultats analytiques prése...

  8. Up Close from Afar: Using Remote Sensing To Teach the American Landscape. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Paul R., Ed.

    This teaching guide offers educators glimpses into the value of remote sensing, the process of observing and analyzing the earth from a distance. Remote sensing provides information in forms to see spatial patterns over large areas in a more realistic way than thematic maps and allows a macro-scale look at global problems. The six instructional…

  9. CORRELATION AMONG FLUORIDE AND METALS IN IRRIGATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  10. Camel Mastitis, associated Bacterial Pathogens and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted between September 2006 and April 2007 with the aim of assessing the occurrence of camel mastitis and bacterial causes associated with it and evaluating Fat and Protein content of camel milk in Gewane district, Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia. Lactating camels which are ...

  11. Geological and geochemical variations in Mid-Tertiary Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are characterized by relatively flat REE patterns and lower Ti and ... other hand show higher concentrations of incompatible elements and more fractionated REE ... Location map of NW Ethiopian Plateau, Afar Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift ( ..... some samples for Sr-Nd- isotopic measurements were leached with 6N HCl ...

  12. Assessment of Food Insecurity and Coping Mechanisms among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Agric. Sci. 23:145-156 (2013). Assessment of Food Insecurity and Coping. Mechanisms among Pastoral Households of Afar. National Regional State: The Case of Chifra .... practicing both farming and extensive livestock rearing. ..... trade, which is regulated by animal health certification system and which is becoming.

  13. Multimodal Integration of High Resolution EEG and Functional Magnetic Resonance: a Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    Luca Romani3, Paolo Maria Rossini2, and Febo Cincotti4 1 Dip. Fisiologia umana e Farmacologia, Università "La Sapienza", Rome, 2 “AFAR", Ospedale...Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Dip. Fisiologia umana e Farmacologia, Università "La Sapienza", Rome Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring

  14. 230Th/234U dating of coral limestones and vertical uplift at Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Hugues; Hoang, C.T.; Lalou, Claude

    1980-01-01

    Coral limestones sampled from marine terraces along the Afar coast have been dated by the 230 Th/ 234 U method. The ages confirm the stratigraphic unity of these formations and the existence of the paleo sea level dated 124 000 years ago in this region. These results permit to deduce the uplift rates of this littoral [fr

  15. Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti

  16. Synergy between Security and Safeguards in Uranium Concentrate Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soumana, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a proposal to the government of Niger and all national institutions involved in the ISSAS and INSSERV Missions held in Niger to optimally coordinate they activities in nuclear field. It is essential to notice that Niger has significant nuclear activities, mainly in uranium prospecting, mining, milling, and export. In Niger, there are also many radioactive sources in non nuclear use. The safeguards agreement of Niger, infcirc/664, is in force since 16 February 2005 and its relating additional protocol since 2 May 2007. For the safeguards implementation in Niger, Government has requested to the IAEA an ISSAS Mission which was completed in February 2008. A main recommendation of this mission is to consider an overall plan for security measures and in this regards, an INSSERV Mission was completed in December 2008. Nuclear safeguards conclusions focus on correctness and completeness of declarations provided by operators. Nuclear security activities (prevention, detection and response) are useful contributions to confirm safeguards conclusions specially, a good detection strategy at national level can help to confirm the absence of undeclared activities in a country like Niger. Many governmental institutions are involved in nuclear activities and there are lacks of communication between them. Creating a synergy between safeguards and security can federate the mechanisms of control at national level and have impact in many aspects specially in (i) awareness of decision makers (ii) optimal use of the equipments (iii) organizing training activities and human resource management and (iv) designing national strategic plans. The institution which hosted the two IAEA consultative missions (Directorate of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Techniques-DUPTN for the ISSAS Mission and Civil Defence for INSSERV Mission) in consultation with other national institutions had to create a framework for this synergy. This framework must be submitted to the IAEA for observation and

  17. ULUSLARARASI ÇALIŞMA ÖRGÜTÜ (ILO VE ULUSLARARASI SOSYAL GÜVENLİK TEŞKİLATI (ISSA TARAFINDAN YAYINLANAN ULUSLARARASI BELGELERDE SOSYAL GÜVENLİĞİN KAPSAMI VE TÜRKİYE AÇISINDAN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenkhan ALTINTAŞ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sosyal güvenlik hakkının, evrensel insan haklarından biri olarak kabul edilmesinden bu yana, sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının genişletilmesine yönelik çabalar giderek artmıştır. Uluslararası boyutlara varan bu çabalar, özellikle düşük gelire sahip bireylerin malullük, yaşlılık, ölüm, analık, hastalık, iş kazası ve meslek hastalığı gibi temel sosyal risklere karşı güvence altına alınması üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Uluslararası Çalışma Örgütü (ILO ve Uluslararası Sosyal Güvenlik Teşkilatı (ISSA, sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının genişletilmesi noktasında uluslararası düzeyde çalışmalar yapmakta ve ortaya koydukları parametrelerle sosyal güvenliğin kapsamına ilişkin olarak uluslararası standartlar geliştirmektedirler. Özellikle sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının sınırlı seviyede olduğu düşük ve orta gelire sahip ülkelerde sosyal güvenliğin kapsamının genişletilmesine yönelik bir takım tavsiyeleri de içeren bu tarz çalışmalar, ülkelerin sosyal güvenliğin kapsamını genişletme girişimlerine yardımcı olmakta ve bir nevi rehber olma niteliği taşımaktadır. Bu bağlamda, çalışmada öncelikle ILO ve ISSA’nın sosyal güvenliğin kapsamına ilişkin olarak uluslararası metinlerle ortaya koydukları kavramlar ve parametrelere yer verilmektedir. Diğer bir başlıkta ise Türkiye’de sosyal güvenliğin kapsamı ILO ve ISSA’nın ortaya koyduğu parametreler çerçevesinde ele alınmaktadır.

  18. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  19. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process

  20. Body Weight and Scrotal-Testicular Biometry in Three Indigenous Breeds of Bucks in Arid and Semiarid Agroecologies, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Eshetu Gemeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The body weight and testicular and epididymal parameters of Afar, Long-eared Somali (LES, and Woyto-Guji (WG breeds of goat were investigated. A total of 405 randomly selected bucks of Afar (n=135, Long-eared Somali (n=135, and Woyto-Guji (n=135 were included in this study. The overall mean scrotal circumference (SC, testicular volume (TV, testicular length (TL, testicular weight (TW, body weight (BW, epididymal weight (EW, body condition score, and testicular diameter (TD measurements in all bucks were 20.8±1.94 cm, 68.1±6.18, 4.96±0.79 cm, 70.0±5.66 g, 22.1±2.98 Kg, 9.09±1.88 g, 2.55±0.68, and 4.28±0.45 cm, respectively. Significant (p<0.05 breed differences in SC, TD, TL, TW, BW, EW, and TV were recorded. Long-eared Somali (LES breed was heaviest and Afar breed was the lightest and Woyto-Guji (WG had the average BW. In all breeds, the parameters were positively correlated. In Afar breed, the TW had a significant correlation with BW (r=0.90 and SC (r=0.65. In LES BW was highly correlated with TD (r=0.96 and TL (r=0.96. In WG, TW was significantly correlated with TD (r=0.94, EW (r=0.90, TL (r=0.89, and BW (r=0.82. In multiple regression analysis the linear combinations of BCS, SC, and BW significantly predicted TW, TL, TV, TD, and EW in all breeds. In conclusion, Long-eared Somali breed displayed greater BW and scrotal and testicular traits.

  1. Contribution to the study of the behavior of K, U and Th in magma evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheminee, J.L.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of K, U and Th in lava at different space and time levels was studied by geodynamic methods. Examples of well-defined volcanic series bond up with characteristic magmatic processes were chosen for this purpose. Various cases were studied, corresponding to either general or particular problems and distributed over three of the large structural domains of the earth's crust: oceanic zone (oceanic islands, Afar rift); insular volcanic arcs (Japan, the lesser Antilles); Continental zone (mediterranean volcanism, basalts and associated derivatives). K, U and Th averages are given for certain of the commonest types of lava found on the earth's surface. Certain hypotheses on the genesis of magmas are confirmed or invalidated and a structural model is proposed for the sub-Afar layers [fr

  2. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  3. Measuring positive and negative affect and physiological hyperarousal among Serbian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Laurent, Jeff; Lakic, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended previous cross-cultural work regarding the tripartite model of anxiety and depression by developing Serbian translations of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C), the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C), and the Affect and Arousal Scale (AFARS). Characteristics of the scales were examined using 449 students (M age = 12.61 years). Applying item retention criteria established in other studies, PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS translations with psychometric properties similar to English-language versions were identified. Preliminary validation of the scales was conducted using a subset of 194 students (M age = 12.37 years) who also completed measures of anxiety and depression. Estimates of reliability, patterns of correlations among scales, and age and gender differences were consistent with previous studies with English-speaking samples. Findings regarding scale validity were mixed, although consistent with existing literature. Serbian translations of the PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS mirror the original English-language scales in terms of both strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Getachew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L. Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if any in canopy closure. P. juliflora was recorded in all habitat types in highest density and observed affecting the plant diversity there in. Its growth characteristics and dense thicket formation restrict light to the ground flora and hence diminishes plant diversity. Leaf, bark and root aqueous extract of P. juliflora at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2 and 6% wereprepared and their effect studied on germination percentage and seedling growth of the study plant species. Germination of A. nilotica and A. tortilis was not affected by all aqueous extracts of different organ parts of P. juliflora while leaf and root extracts at higher concentrations inhibited germination of C. ciliaris and E. rupestris. Shoot and root growth of the study species were inhibited by leaf and root at higher concentrations. Seed germination of all species except A. nilotica was inhibited by soil amended with decaying plant parts and under canopy soil. The effect is species specific and annuals (grasses and herbs were affected more than perennials. Leaf seems to contain greater number/amount of inhibitors than does root and bark. Bark seems to contain the least. Heavy accumulation of toxic substances at under canopy soil of P. juliflora may be one of the reasons for its invasiveness and low plant diversity.

  5. On the effects of the evolution of microbial mats and land plants on the Earth as a planet. Photometric and spectroscopic light curves of paleo-Earths

    OpenAIRE

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; García-Muñoz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the spectral and photometric variability of the Earth and the rest of the solar system planets has become of the utmost importance for the future characterization of rocky exoplanets. As this is not only interesting at present times but also along the planetary evolution, we studied the effect that the evolution of microbial mats and plants over land has had on the way our planet looks from afar. As life evolved, continental surfaces changed gradually and non- uniformly from des...

  6. Evidence of hotspot paths below Arabia and the Horn of Africa and consequences on the Red Sea opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente de Gouveia, S.; Besse, J.; Frizon de Lamotte, D.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Lescanne, M.; Gueydan, F.; Leparmentier, F.

    2018-04-01

    Rifts are often associated with ancient traces of hotspots, which are supposed to participate to the weakening of the lithosphere. We investigated the expected past trajectories followed by three hotspots (Afar, East-Africa and Lake-Victoria) located around the Red Sea. We used a hotspot reference frame to compute their location with respect to time, which is then compared to mantle tomography interpretations and geological features. Their tracks are frequently situated under continental crust, which is known to strongly filter plume activity. We looked for surface markers of their putative ancient existence, such as volcanism typology, doming, and heat-flow data from petroleum wells. Surface activity of the East-Africa hotspot is supported at 110 Ma, 90 Ma and 30 Ma by uplift, volcanic activity and rare gas isotopic signatures, reminiscent of a deep plume origin. The analysis of heat-flow data from petroleum wells under the Arabian plate shows a thermal anomaly that may correspond to the past impact of the Afar hotspot. According to derived hotspot trajectories, the Afar hotspot, situated (at 32 Ma) 1000 km north-east of the Ethiopian-Yemen traps, was probably too far away to be accountable for them. The trigger of the flood basalts would likely be linked to the East-Africa hotspot. The Lake-Victoria hotspot activity appears to have been more recent, attested only by Cenozoic volcanism in an uplifted area. Structural and thermal weakening of the lithosphere may have played a major role in the location of the rift systems. The Gulf of Aden is located on inherited Mesozoic extensional basins between two weak zones, the extremity of the Carlsberg Ridge and the present Afar triangle, previously impacted by the East-Africa hotspot. The Red Sea may have opened in the context of extension linked to Neo-Tethys slab-pull, along the track followed by the East Africa hotspot, suggesting an inherited thermal weakening.

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of deformation at the Tendaho geothermal prospect, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, Tesfaye; Biggs, Juliet; Lewi, Elias; Hamling , Ian; Wright, Tim; Ayele, Atalay

    2018-01-01

    Observations of ground deformation in East Africa have been fundamental for unveiling the tectonics of continental rifting, assessing the seismic and volcanic hazard to development, and identifying geothermal resources. Here we investigate the active natural and anthropogenic processes in the Tendaho Graben, Afar using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) collected by the Envisat satellite in 2004–2010. We used the Poly-Interferometric Rate And time series Estimation (π-RATE) meth...

  8. Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic implication on poultry enterprises in Adamawa state, Nigeria. MR Ja'afar-Furo, HG Balla, B Yakubu. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (1) 2007: pp. 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjass.v6i1.2302 · AJOL African Journals ...

  9. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. “The guys told us crying that they saw how they were killing her and they could not do anything”: Psychosocial explorations of migrant journeys to the U.S.+

    OpenAIRE

    Sládková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine undocumented migrant experiences on their journeys to the U.S. Tens of thousands of Honduran migrants leave their homes in hopes to provide better for their families from afar. In in-depth interviews, 21 migrants from Honduras share the events they endure as they cross Guatemala, Mexico and the borders that divide them. I conducted narrative analyses and specifically used the analytical tools of high points and poises to locate the most salient experiences the migran...

  11. The Role of Health Extension Workers in Linking Pregnant Women With Health Facilities for Delivery in Rural and Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ruth; Hailemariam, Assefa

    2016-09-01

    Women's preference to give birth at home is deeply embedded in Ethiopian culture. Many women only go to health facilities if they have complications during birth. Health Extension Workers (HEWs) have been deployed to improve the utilization of maternal health services by bridging the gap between communities and health facilities. This study examined the barriers and facilitators for HEWs as they refer women to mid-level health facilities for birth. A qualitative study was conducted in three regions: Afar Region, Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region and Tigray Region between March to December 2014. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 45 HEWs, 14 women extension workers (employed by Afar Pastoralist Development Association, Afar Region) and 11 other health workers from health centers, hospitals or health offices. Data analysis was done based on collating the data and identifying key themes. Barriers to health facilities included distance, lack of transportation, sociocultural factors and disrespectful care. Facilitators for facility-based deliveries included liaising with Health Development Army (HDA) leaders to refer women before their expected due date or if labour starts at home; the introduction of ambulance services; and, provision of health services that are culturally more acceptable for women. HEWs can effectively refer more women to give birth in health facilities when the HDA is well established, when health staff provide respectful care, and when ambulance is available at any time.

  12. About furniture. Before and after Ptolomaeus Philadelphos' pavilion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calandra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The furniture is of primary importance towards the canopies definition, more than the architectonic structure: they  contribute, in fact, in creating and organizing the spaces, so that there is almost no distinction between furniture and structure, as it is possible to observe in the ancient sources of different periods (Herodotus, Euripides, Julius Caesar, Plutarchus, Athenaeus: the pavilions of Xerxes at Plataia, of Ion at Delphi, of Alexander after the Issa battle and at Susa, of Pompey at Pharsalos, as well as the Ptolomaeus's canopy at Alexandria. At the same time, the furniture language is studied, signifying the power and the force of the sovereign through the luxurious materials and surprising the spectators.      At the end, some hypotheses on the final destination of the furniture, after dismantling the Ptolomaeus' canopy, equiped for one year.

  13. CpG Island Methylation in Colorectal Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Curtin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a CpG island methylator phenotype, or CIMP, quickly became the focus of several colorectal cancer studies describing its clinical and pathological features after its introduction in 1999 by Toyota and colleagues. Further characterization of CIMP in tumors lead to widespread acceptance of the concept, as expressed by Shen and Issa in their 2005 editorial, “CIMP, at last.” Since that time, extensive research efforts have brought great insights into the epidemiology and prognosis of CIMP+ tumors and other epigenetic mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. With the advances in technology and subsequent cataloging of the human methylome in cancer and normal tissue, new directions in research to understand CIMP and its role in complex biological systems yield hope for future epigenetically based diagnostics and treatments.

  14. A Study on the Tracking and Position Predictions of Artificial Satellite (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil-Ho Park

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a software system called IODS (ISSA Orbit Determination System, which can predict the orbit of arbitrary artificial satellite using the numerical method. For evaluating the orbit prediction accuracy of IODS, the orbital data predicted for the meteorological satellite NOAA-11 and the stationary satellite INTELSAT-V are intercompared with those tracked at the Central Bureau of Meteorology and the Kum-San Satellites Communication Station. And the Perturbation affecting the orbit of these artificial satellites are quantitatively analyzed. The orbital variation and the eclipse phenomina due to the earth shadow are analyzed for a hypothetical geostationary satellite called KORSAT-1 which is assumed to be located in longitude 110°E.

  15. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of accumulation: how neoliberal primitive accumulation is planting the seeds of suicide · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Issa G. Shivji, 36-38 ...

  16. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of accumulation: how neoliberal primitive accumulation is planting the seeds of suicide · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Issa G. Shivji, 36-38 ...

  17. The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate contexts for aripithecus ramidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldegabriel, Giday [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ambrose, Stanley H [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Barboni, Doris [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bonneffille, Raymond [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bremond, Laurent [MONTPELLIER, FRANCE; Currie, Brian [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Degusta, David [STANFORD UNIV.; Hart, William K [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Murray, Alison M [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Renne, Paul R [UC/BERKELEY; Jolly - Saad, M C [NANTERRE, FRANCE; Stewart, Kathlyn M [CANADA; White, Tim D [UC/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    Sediments containing Ardipithecus ramidus were deposited 4.4 million years ago on an alluvial floodplain in Ethiopia's western Afar rift. The Lower Aramis Member hominid-bearing unit, now exposed across a >9-kilometer structural arc, is sandwiched between two volcanic tuffs that have nearly identical {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Geological data presented here, along with floral, invertebrate, and vertebrate paleontological and taphonomic evidence associated with the hominids, suggest that they occupied a wooded biotope over the western three-fourths of the paleotransect. Phytoliths and oxygen and carbon stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates provide evidence of humid cool woodlands with a grassy substrate.

  18. Mutual-Help among Afar Pastoralists of Ethiopia | Hundie | Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangshan; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-04-01

    The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb. In addition, the leaching of Pb from the monolithic samples was diffusion controlled, and increasing the ISSA addition in the samples led to a lower diffusion coefficient and thus an increase in the feasibility for "controlled utilization" of S/S soils. Furthermore, the proposed S/S method significantly decreased the amount of Pb associated with carbonates and increased the amount of organic and residual Pb in S/S soils, reflecting that the risk of Pb contaminated soils can be effectively mitigated by the incorporating of ISSA. Overall, the leachability of Pb was controlled by the combined effect of adsorption, encapsulation or precipitation in the S/S soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mediterranean extension and the Africa-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Faccenna, Claudio

    2000-12-01

    A number of tectonic events occurred contemporaneously in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East 30-25 Myr ago. These events are contemporaneous to or immediately followed a strong reduction of the northward absolute motion of Africa. Geological observations in the Neogene extensional basins of the Mediterranean region reveal that extension started synchronously from west to east 30-25 Myr ago. In the western Mediterranean it started in the Gulf of Lion, Valencia trough, and Alboran Sea as well as between the Maures massif and Corsica between 33 and 27 Ma ago. It then propagated eastward and southward to form to Liguro-Provençal basin and the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, extension started in the Aegean Sea before the deposition of marine sediments onto the collapsed Hellenides in the Aquitanian and before the cooling of high-temperature metamorphic core complexes between 20 and 25 Ma. Foundering of the inner zones of the Carpathians and extension in the Panonnian basin also started in the late Oligocene-early Miocene. The body of the Afro-Arabian plate first collided with Eurasia in the eastern Mediterranean region progressively from the Eocene to the Oligocene. Extensional tectonics was first recorded in the Gulf of Aden, Afar triple junction, and Red Sea region also in the Oligocene. A general magmatic surge occurred above all African hot spots, especially the Afar one. We explore the possibility that these drastic changes in the stress regime of the Mediterranean region and Middle East and the contemporaneous volcanic event were triggerred by the Africa/Arabia-Eurasia collision, which slowed down the motion of Africa. The present-day Mediterranean Sea was then locked between two collision zones, and the velocity of retreat of the African slab increased and became larger than the velocity of convergence leading to backarc extension. East of the Caucasus and northern Zagros collision zone the Afro-Arabian plate was still pulled by the slab

  1. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype-High Colorectal Cancers and Their Prognostic Implications and Relationships with the Serrated Neoplasia Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2017-01-15

    The concept of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first introduced by Toyota and Issa to describe a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) with concurrent hypermethylation of multiple CpG island loci. The concept of CIMP as a molecular carcinogenesis mechanism was consolidated by the identification of the serrated neoplasia pathway, in which CIMP participates in the initiation and progression of serrated adenomas. Distinct clinicopathological and molecular features of CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRCs have been characterized, including proximal colon location, older age of onset, female preponderance, and frequent associations of high-level microsatellite instability and BRAF mutations. CIMP-H CRCs arise in sessile or traditional serrated adenomas and thus tend to display the morphological characteristics of serrated adenomas, including epithelial serration, vesicular nuclei, and abundant cytoplasm. Both the frequent association of CIMP and poor prognosis and different responses of CRCs to adjuvant therapy depending on CIMP status indicate clinical implications. In this review, we present an overview of the literature documenting the relevant findings of CIMP-H CRCs and their relationships with the serrated neoplasia pathway.

  2. Effects of Glycosylation on Biodistribution and Imaging Quality of Necrotic Myocardium of Iodine-131-Labeled Sennidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Dongjian; Yang, Shengwei; Song, Shaoli; Li, Jindian; Wang, Qin; Wang, Cong; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-12-01

    Sennidins are necrosis-avid agents for noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability which is important for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, high accumulation of radioactivity in the liver interferes with the assessment of myocardial viability. In this study, we compared sennidins with sennosides to investigate the effects of glycosylation on biodistribution and imaging quality of sennidins. Sennidin A (SA), sennidin B (SB), sennoside A (SSA), and sennoside B (SSB) were labeled with I-131. In vitro binding to necrotic cells and hepatic cells and in vivo biodistribution in rats with muscular necrosis were evaluated by gamma counting, autoradiography, and histopathology. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images were acquired in rats with acute MI. The uptake of [ 131 I]SA, [ 131 I]SSA, [ 131 I]SB, and [ 131 I]SSB in necrotic cells was significantly higher than that in viable cells (p sennosides than those with [ 131 I]sennidins (p < 0.01). Autoradiography showed preferential accumulation of these four radiotracers in necrotic areas of muscle, confirmed by histopathology. SPECT/CT imaging studies showed better image quality with [ 131 I]SSB than with [ 131 I]SB due to less liver interference. Glycosylation significantly decreased the liver uptake and improved the quality of cardiac imaging. [ 131 I]SSB may serve as a promising necrosis-avid agent for noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability.

  3. The time dependent propensity function for acceleration of spatial stochastic simulation of reaction–diffusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    The inhomogeneous stochastic simulation algorithm (ISSA) is a fundamental method for spatial stochastic simulation. However, when diffusion events occur more frequently than reaction events, simulating the diffusion events by ISSA is quite costly. To reduce this cost, we propose to use the time dependent propensity function in each step. In this way we can avoid simulating individual diffusion events, and use the time interval between two adjacent reaction events as the simulation stepsize. We demonstrate that the new algorithm can achieve orders of magnitude efficiency gains over widely-used exact algorithms, scales well with increasing grid resolution, and maintains a high level of accuracy

  4. Proportional and scale change models to project failures of mechanical components with applications to space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Vidya S.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we develop the mathematical theory of proportional and scale change models to perform reliability analysis. The results obtained will be applied for the Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster valves on an orbiter. With the advent of extended EVA's associated with PROX OPS (ISSA & MIR), and docking, the loss of a thruster valve now takes on an expanded safety significance. Previous studies assume a homogeneous population of components with each component having the same failure rate. However, as various components experience different stresses and are exposed to different environments, their failure rates change with time. In this paper we model the reliability of a thruster valves by treating these valves as a censored repairable system. The model for each valve will take the form of a nonhomogeneous process with the intensity function that is either treated as a proportional hazard model, or a scale change random effects hazard model. Each component has an associated z, an independent realization of the random variable Z from a distribution G(z). This unobserved quantity z can be used to describe heterogeneity systematically. For various models methods for estimating the model parameters using censored data will be developed. Available field data (from previously flown flights) is from non-renewable systems. The estimated failure rate using such data will need to be modified for renewable systems such as thruster valve.

  5. [The dream as a tool in diagnosis, healing and life orientation in antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, F

    1994-10-01

    The dream is usually discussed in connection with the work of Freud und Jung and the dreamlore initiated by these two eminent dream scientists. Therefore the dream knowledge gathered by investigators of classical antiquity is almost forgotten, although the same diagnostic and therapeutic aims have been followed by them as they are by modern psychotherapy and medicine. Hippocrates and the other Greek physicians saw in dreams indications of bodily and psychosomatic disturbances. Dreams from the gods, especially Ascelepios, helped those who travelled from afar to be healed while sleeping in the temples. Popular dream interpretation availed itself of just as sophisticated an interpretative system as has been set up by modern depth psychologists. Dreams served to give orientation in life and warn of fateful future events. In spite of its elusive quality truth is sought in dreams today as it was in antiquity. Dream interpretation was then, and is now, one of the preferential techniques of existence.

  6. Parents and children in Second World War Germany: an inter-generational perspective on wartime separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaizey, Hester

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how the relationship between parents and their children were affected by the second world war in Germany. With fathers away from home for often as long as a decade, many children grew up without a father being physically present. The current historiography suggests that wartime separation caused a crisis in the family. But did the prolonged periods of time apart and the separate experiences of husbands at the Front and wives and children at home really destabilize family relationships? This article questions such a picture of families in ruin. It argues that family relationships were far more resilient in the face of wartime separation than has previously been credited. Indeed, it reveals the importance of children in keeping mothers and fathers focused on getting through the war. It further contends that, even from afar, fathers continued to play an important role in their children’s lives. And this in turn revises our understanding of the situation facing reuniting families.

  7. Long-term prospects: Mitigation of supernova and gamma-ray burst threat to intelligent beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirković, Milan M.; Vukotić, Branislav

    2016-12-01

    We consider global catastrophic risks due to cosmic explosions (supernovae, magnetars and gamma-ray bursts) and possible mitigation strategies by humans and other hypothetical intelligent beings. While by their very nature these events are so huge to daunt conventional thinking on mitigation and response, we wish to argue that advanced technological civilizations would be able to develop efficient responses in the domain of astroengineering within their home planetary systems. In particular, we suggest that construction of shielding swarms of small objects/particles confined by electromagnetic fields could be one way of mitigating the risk of cosmic explosions and corresponding ionizing radiation surges. Such feats of astroengineering could, in principle, be detectable from afar by advanced Dysonian SETI searches.

  8. The World Anti-Doping Agency and the challenges for political steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    Article submitted March 2007 for the Graduate Paper Award of the International Sociology of Sport Association. Presented as winner at "Sport in a Global World - past, present, future" the first joint world conference of ISSA & ISHPES at the University of Copenhagen, July 31st - August 5th 2007....

  9. The First Historic Eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from Thermal and UV Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealing, C. R.; Carn, S. A.; Harris, A. J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In June 2011, the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, took place at the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia. This eruption was the largest in what could be considered an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence, and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study were limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement using predominantly free, publicly available satellite data. We use MODIS and OMI data to examine rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission, and quantify the amount of erupted products. We also examine published images from other satellites, such as ALI and SEVIRI in order to understand the temporal evolution of the eruption. Synthesizing these data, we then attempt to infer the mechanisms through which the eruption progressed. Examination of satellite data reveals a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This was followed by a period of rapid effusion, producing a ~17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ~22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. This eruption of Nabro continued for nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. This type of work highlights the effectiveness and importance of accessible satellite remote sensing data for the study of active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  10. Characterizing the first historic eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from thermal and UV remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealing, Christine R.

    June 2011 saw the first historic eruption of Nabro volcano, one of an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Due to its remote location, little was known about this event in terms of the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study are limited. Using free, publicly available satellite data, I examined rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission in order to quantify the amount of erupted products and understand the temporal evolution of the eruption, as well as explore what information can be gleaned about eruption mechanisms using remote sensing data. These data revealed a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This gave way to a period of rapid effusion, producing a ˜17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ˜22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. The 2011 eruption of Nabro lasted nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. Work such as this highlights the importance of satellite remote sensing for studying and monitoring volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  11. Shear wave velocity structure of northern and North-Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, F.; Mammo, T.; Panza, G.F.; Vuan, A.; Costa, G.

    1995-10-01

    The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  12. S(eoul Search: The Changing Religious Landscape in Seoul and Its Implications for Defining “Asia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Kim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a saying that if one looks at Seoul at night from afar, one will see a large city covered with neon-lit red crosses. It is also said that a Christian church can be found on every other block in the streets of Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea (also known as South Korea. To be sure, this is not the case. Yet this embellished illustration of Seoul as a Christian symbol of a cross-covered city conveys the message that Christianity is no longer a foreign or a Western religion, but has, rather, become a major religious tradition in South Korea as represented in its capital. Christianity may not be the majority religion in terms of demographics, but it has certainly become a dominant religion in terms of social and political influence as well as economic power in South Korea.

  13. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Ruch, Joel; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma

  14. Antibiotic activity of two Anabaena species against four fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... algae (Issa, 1999 and Volk and Furkert, 2006), but there is no data about effects ... Ten microliters of the ethyl acetate fractions were applied on the plates and the ..... catfish and aquaculture ponds. Aquaculture 99: 203–211.

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    annual integrated courses for the candidates at the different. Surgical ... of program and different aspects, learning environments/opportunities, and suggestions on ..... 2. Issa BA, Yussuf AD, Olanrewaju GT, Oyewole AO. Stress in residency training as perceived by resident doctors in a nigerian university teaching hospital.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 808 ... AT Niba, K Yajima, AC Kudi, JD Beal, PH Brooks ... Vol 54, No 4 (2006), Livestock Owner\\'s Perception On Trypanosomosis And Associated ... Vol 52, No 4 (2004), Meat production potential of issa type camels under .... characteristics of broiler chickens exposed to crude petroleum flame and fumes.

  17. Case report of misdiagnosis of Avian Colibacillosis in laying Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two freshly dead 27 weeks old Issa brown laying birds from a population of about 3000 birds with history of blindness, greenish-whitish diarrhoea, symptomatic diagnosis of coccidiosis, treatment failure, reduced egg lay and increased mortality was presented for postmortem examination and diagnosis. Postmortem ...

  18. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATTAMAH C. O

    female ̅=3.50; difference in mean{dm} = -0.70). Male entrepreneurs ... with the variance more on lack of information facilities (male ̅= 2.28; female. ̅= 2.60; dm = -0.32). ..... Issa R. (2009). Climate Change and Livestock Production Frontier.

  19. Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d'Italianistica nell'Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serial killers in the antipodes: The case of Carlo Lucarelli and Paul Cleave · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B Pezzotti. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/issa.v24i1.66623 ...

  20. CERT Resilience Management Model, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    practice such as ISO 27000 , COBIT, or ITIL. If you are a member of an established process improvement community, particularly one centered on CMMI...Systems Audit and Control Association ISO International Organization for Standardization ISSA Information Systems Security Association IT

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shivji, Issa G. Vol 68 (2018) - Articles Trajectories of accumulation: how neoliberal primitive accumulation is planting the seeds of suicide. Abstract. ISSN: 1607-2820. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  2. factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    science education in some selected secondary and preparatory schools of Afar Region. ... Focusing on the Science and Technology Education is becoming common ... of their study while grade 11 is the stage at which students implement their ...

  3. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Occurrence of brucellosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    disease using Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) ... pasteurised milk and milk products originating from infected livestock ..... in four districts of Afar National Regional. State, northeast ...

  4. Glaciers between two drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that the monsoon is the dominant influence on Himalayan glaciers. However, a study now investigates the importance of the mid-latitude Westerlies and shows that glacier changes can be triggered from afar.......It is assumed that the monsoon is the dominant influence on Himalayan glaciers. However, a study now investigates the importance of the mid-latitude Westerlies and shows that glacier changes can be triggered from afar....

  5. Linking seasonal home range size with habitat selection and movement in a mountain ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Granados, José Enrique; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús M; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Burón, Daniel; Fandos, Guillermo; Aguado, María Ángeles Párraga; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2018-01-01

    Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica . We used GPS collars to track ibex across the year in two different geographical areas of Sierra Nevada, Spain, and measured habitat variables related to forage and roost availability. By using integrated step selection analysis (iSSA), we show that habitat selection was important to explain space use by ibex. As a consequence, movement was constrained by habitat selection, as observed displacement rate was shorter than expected under null selection. Selection-independent movement, selection strength and resource availability were important drivers of seasonal home range size. Both displacement rate and directional persistence had a positive relationship with home range size while accounting for habitat selection, suggesting that individual characteristics and state may also affect home range size. Ibex living at higher altitudes, where resource availability shows stronger altitudinal gradients across the year, had larger home ranges. Home range size was larger in spring and autumn, when ibex ascend and descend back, and smaller in summer and winter, when resources are more stable. Therefore, home range size decreased with resource availability. Finally, males had larger home ranges than females, which might be explained by differences in body size and reproductive behaviour. Movement, selection strength, resource availability and intrinsic factors related to sex determined home range size of Iberian ibex. Our results highlight the need to integrate

  6. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  7. Alpha antagonists and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: A spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A Issa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharif A Issa, Omar H Hadid, Oliver Baylis, Margaret DayanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKBackground: To determine occurrence of features of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-antagonists (AA.Methods: We prospectively studied patients on AA and who underwent phacoemulsification. The following were recorded: pupil diameter preoperatively, iris flaccidity, iris prolapse and peroperative miosis.Results: We studied 40 eyes of 31 subjects. Mean age was 78 years. Overall, 14 eyes (13 patients showed signs of IFIS: 9/13 (69% eyes of patients on tamsulosin, 1/18 (6% eyes in the doxazosin group, 2/2 prazosin patients, 1/4 eyes in the indoramin group, and 1/2 eyes in two patients on a combination of doxazosin and tamsulosin. Most cases (92% had only one or two signs of IFIS. Bilateral cataract surgery was undertaken in 9 patients but only one patient (on tamsulosin had features of IFIS in both eyes, while 4 patients (2 on tamsulosin and 2 on other AA showed signs of IFIS in one eye only, and 4 patients did not show IFIS in either eye.Conclusion: Most AA were associated with IFIS, but it tends to present as a spectrum of signs rather than full triad originally described. Tamsulosin was most likely to be associated with IFIS; however, its intake does not necessarily mean that IFIS will occur. For patients on AA, the behavior of the iris intraoperatively in one eye is a poor predictor of the other eye. Surgeons should anticipate the occurrence of IFIS in any patient on AA.Keywords: alpha blocker, alpha antagonist, cataract surgery, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome, tamsulosin.

  8. Nabro and Mallahle Volcanoes, Eritrea and Ethiopia, SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth

  9. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. I. DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS OF THE RAYLEIGH-JEANS COLOR EXCESS METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Nidever, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The Milky Way (MW) remains a primary laboratory for understanding the structure and evolution of spiral galaxies, but typically we are denied clear views of MW stellar populations at low Galactic latitudes because of extinction by interstellar dust. However, the combination of Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) near-infrared (NIR) and Spitzer-IRAC mid-infrared (MIR) photometry enables a powerful method for determining the line-of-sight reddening to any star: the sampled wavelengths lie in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the spectral energy distribution of most stars, where, to first order, all stars have essentially the same intrinsic color. Thus, changes in stellar NIR-MIR colors due to interstellar reddening are readily apparent, and (under an assumed extinction law) the observed colors and magnitudes of stars can be easily and accurately restored to their intrinsic values, greatly increasing their usefulness for Galactic structure studies. In this paper, we explore this 'Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess' (RJCE) method and demonstrate that use of even a simple variant of the RJCE method based on a single reference color, (H -[4.5μ]), can rather accurately remove dust effects from previously uninterpretable 2MASS color-magnitude diagrams of stars in fields along the heavily reddened Galactic midplane, with results far superior to those derived from application of other dereddening methods. We also show that 'total' Galactic midplane extinction looks rather different from that predicted using 100μ emission maps from the IRAS/ISSA and COBE/DIRBE instruments as presented by Schlegel et al. Instead, the Galactic midplane extinction strongly resembles the distribution of 13 CO (J = 1→0) emission. Future papers will focus on refining the RJCE method and applying the technique to understand better not only dust and its distribution but also the distribution of stars intermixed with the dust in the low-latitude Galaxy.

  10. Typology of the Author's Status: Two Experiences – Cz. Miłosz and G. von Rezzori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Basniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of typological coincidences in the texts of the Polish-American writer Cz. Miłosz, a Nobel prize winner and German classic G. Von Rezzori are considered. The work of these authors is a result of the crisis of the twentieth century, tragic decline of the traditional culture that was associated with the status of a writer in exile. Biographical background appears very organic for their texts , and in this case it almost coincides: the parents of both future artists “temporarily” left their land when the the situation in the empires was not stable – the Austria-Hungarian (in the case of Rezzori and Russian ( in the case of Miłosz. Both writers lived in exile. In their opinion, topos of childhood tragically detached from the future life events, generated separate thematic and anthropological link in their creative work . In this sense “The Issa Valley” (“Dolina Issy” 1955 by Cz. Miłosz and “The Snows Of Yesteryear” (“Blumen im Schnee” 1989 by Rezzori are the most exemplary. The works of a number of other representatives of the European literature of the twentieth century (e.g., “Others shores” by V. Nabokov . The problem discussed is still relevant. Tendence to autobiographism as genre sign of their texts, and, in addition, the source of many images – primarily children and adolescent characters is evident. The most obvious typological parallels emerge in several dimensions: the perspective of ideological clichés (negation Nietzschean ideas of nihilism by each writer, specific system of images (including images of nannies Cassandra and Antonina, relection the typical paradigm , which presents a complete image of “the world of childhood”, besides – in relation to the issue of “language as poetic phenomenon” (Miłosz’s definition, that mirrors the multinational palette the lost homeland.

  11. Determination of Dioxins in Soil Samples from industrial and burned forest sites in Syria Using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.; Abu-Alnaser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty soil samples were collected from three industrial locations and burnt forest locution of Syria, namely, Banyas refinery and the Thermal Electricity Generation Station area (7 samples), Central factory area, Tartous (11 samples), AlFrunlok Forest, Lattakia (22 samples), Alwaer and Oil refinery area in Homs (20 samples) Dioxin presence in these samples was determined using a specific ELIZA Kit, Results indicate the absence of any detectable levels of Dioxins from any of the samples collected in Banyas refinery, Electricity Generation Station of Banyas, Central factory and the area of Hsain AlBaher, Mazrahat AlArous in Tartous. Likewise, all samples (22 samples) taken from AlFrunlok forest area were free of Dioxin contamination except the samples taken from the road to Nubu Issa, and Shahrura, where 8 samples (36.36%) and 6 samples (27.27%) contained concentration of Dioxin ranging between 5-15 and 15-25 PPT respectively. Results showed the presence of Dioxins in samples collected at AlWa-er area, Homs (17 sample) at high concentration in comparison with samples collected in other areas. Three of those samples (17.6%) and four samples (23.5%) contained Dioxins at levels ranging between 15-25 and 15-25 PPT respectively. (58.8%) of all samples (10 samples) collected in this area, contained Dioxins at levels exceeding the maximum level detectable by the ELIZA kit (i.e. 50 PPT). The results reported in the present study justify a follow up and detailed study in AlWa-er area. (author)

  12. The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Huchon, Philippe; McClay, Ken

    2005-10-01

    We here summarize the evolution of the greater Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system, which includes the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden marine basins and their continental margins, and the Afar region. Plume related basaltic trap volcanism began in Ethiopia, NE Sudan (Derudeb), and SW Yemen at ˜31 Ma, followed by rhyolitic volcanism at ˜30 Ma. Volcanism thereafter spread northward to Harrats Sirat, Hadan, Ishara-Khirsat, and Ar Rahat in western Saudi Arabia. This early magmatism occurred without significant extension, and continued to ˜25 Ma. Much of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region was at or near sea level at this time. Starting between ˜29.9 and 28.7 Ma, marine syn-tectonic sediments were deposited on continental crust in the central Gulf of Aden. At the same time the Horn of Africa became emergent. By ˜27.5-23.8 Ma a small rift basin was forming in the Eritrean Red Sea. At approximately the same time (˜25 Ma), extension and rifting commenced within Afar itself. At ˜24 Ma, a new phase of volcanism, principally basaltic dikes but also layered gabbro and granophyre bodies, appeared nearly synchronously throughout the entire Red Sea, from Afar and Yemen to northern Egypt. This second phase of magmatism was accompanied in the Red Sea by strong rift-normal extension and deposition of syn-tectonic sediments, mostly of marine and marginal marine affinity. Sedimentary facies were laterally heterogeneous, being comprised of inter-fingering siliciclastics, evaporite, and carbonate. Throughout the Red Sea, the principal phase of rift shoulder uplift and rapid syn-rift subsidence followed shortly thereafter at ˜20 Ma. Water depths increased dramatically and sedimentation changed to predominantly Globigerina-rich marl and deepwater limestone. Within a few million years of its initiation in the mid-Oligocene the Gulf of Aden continental rift linked the Owen fracture zone (oceanic crust) with the Afar plume. The principal driving force for extension

  13. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. Population A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Main outcome measures Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5–24.99 kg/m2) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Conclusions Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities are recommended interventions to reduce the prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers in Ethiopia. PMID:25872935

  14. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-04-14

    To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers was 22.1% (95% CI 21.13% to 23.03%). The highest prevalence was 48.7% (95% CI 40.80% to 56.62%) found in the Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5-24.99 kg/m(2)) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities are recommended interventions to reduce the prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers in

  15. Imaging the lithosphere and underlying mantle of the South Atlantic, South America and Africa using waveform tomography with massive datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, N. L.; Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Ravenna, M.; Gaina, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent growth in global seismic station coverage has created dense data sampling of the previously poorly constrained lithosphere and underlying mantle beneath the South Atlantic, South America and Africa. The new data enable us to image the vast region at a new level of detail and address important open questions regarding its lithospheric architecture and mantle dynamics. In order to fully exploit the data sampling, we use an efficient, multimode waveform tomography scheme that enables the extraction of structural information from millions of seismograms and use the inherent data redundancy to minimize effects of errors in the data. Our tomographic model is constrained by waveform fits of over 1.2 million vertical-component seismograms, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S- and multiple S-waves. Each successful seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations within approximate sensitivity volumes, with respect to a 3D reference model. We then combine all equations into a large linear system and invert jointly for a model of S- and P-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We are now able to image the detailed structure of various African shields. For example, in West Africa, two clearly separate high-velocity units underlay the Reguibat and Man-Léo Shields; in the Congo area, a single high-velocity body, formed by three main units correspond to the Gabon-Cameroon, Bomu-Kibali and Kasai Shields. Strong low-velocity anomalies underlay the Afar Hotspot and the East African Rift; pronounced low velocities are also seen beneath parts of the Sahara Desert. We discuss the shape of the deep Afar anomaly and its possible relationships with the Saharan volcanism and the neighboring Tanzania Craton. In the South Atlantic, we retrieve fine-scale velocity structure along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), indicative of hotspot-ridge interactions. Major hotspots show

  16. Full seismic waveform inversion of the African crust and Mantle - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Ermert, Laura; Staring, Myrna; Trampert, Jeannot; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the progress of a continental-scale full-waveform inversion (FWI) of Africa. From a geodynamic perspective, Africa presents an especially interesting case. This interest stems from the presence of several anomalous features such as a triple junction in the Afar region, a broad region of high topography to the south, and several smaller surface expressions such as the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo Basin. The mechanisms behind these anomalies are not fully clear, and debate on their origin spans causative mechanisms from isostatic forcing, to the influence of localized asthenospheric upwelling, to the presence of deep mantle plumes. As well, the connection of these features to the African LLSVP is uncertain. Tomographic images of Africa present unique challenges due to uneven station coverage: while tectonically active areas such as the Afar rift are well sampled, much of the continent exhibits a severe dearth of seismic stations. As well, while mostly surrounded by tectonically active spreading plate boundaries (a fact which contributes to the difficulties in explaining the South's high topography), sizeable seismic events (M > 5) in the continent's interior are relatively rare. To deal with these issues, we present a combined earthquake and ambient noise full-waveform inversion of Africa. The noise component serves to boost near-surface sensitivity, and aids in mitigating issues related to the sparse source / station coverage. The earthquake component, which includes local and teleseismic sources, aims to better resolve deeper structure. This component also has the added benefit of being especially useful in the search for mantle plumes: synthetic tests have shown that the subtle scattering of elastic waves off mantle plumes makes the plumes an ideal target for FWI [1]. We hope that this new model presents a fresh high-resolution image of sub-African geodynamic structure, and helps advance the debate regarding the causative mechanisms of its surface

  17. Factors associated with socio-demographic characteristics and antenatal care and iron supplement use in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Allison; Reed, Barbara A; Lumumba, Jude B; Kung'u, Jacqueline K

    2018-02-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) offers remarkable opportunities to reach a large number of women with effective nutrition and health interventions, including iron (Fe) supplementation. However, all women do not equally seek nor benefit from ANC. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with ANC and Fe use among women in hard-to-reach areas in Afar, Ethiopia; Sedhiou and Kolda, Senegal; and Kakamega, Kenya. Women who gave birth within 1 year preceding the survey (n = 4,575) from 15 different sub-regions were randomly selected and surveyed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations of socio-demographic characteristics with ANC and Fe use. Factors that showed positive associations with ANC uptake included education, income, possession of a mobile phone, and the occupation of the mother or another household member. Beginning ANC in the first trimester associated positively with achievement of 4 or more ANC visits, and having any ANC visits related positively with Fe intake. Distance to the nearest health facility was negatively associated, and type of nearest facility and counselling and health education were positively associated with some outcomes. The results from these surveys demonstrate the need to ensure access of services across all population groups and can help identify ANC programming needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A New Therapeutic Paradigm for Breast Cancer Exploiting Low Dose Estrogen-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Miyazawa K, Shiokawa M, Nakamaru Y, Hiroi E, Hiura K, Kameda A, Yang NN, Hakeda Y, Kumegawa M (1997) Estrogen inhibits bone resorption by directly...cancer 528 Yoshiaki Ito and Khay Guan Yeoh 46. Small-bowel tumors: molecular mechanisms and targeted therapy 537 Allan Spigelman and Janindra...USA Jean-Pierre Issa University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Yoshiaki Ito, MD PhD Cancer Science Institute, National

  19. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (27th).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    2BT UK 19 -P Studies of Extratropical Cyclonic Peter V. Hobbs Storms ; The CYCLES Project Department of Atmospheric AFOSR-ISSA-83-00018 Sciences...and has been a key focus area for several years. With the planning for, and advent of, the National " STORM " Program (outlined recently by a UCAR...United States, Europe and Japan has established that direct fluorination is the most generally applicable technique for the synthesis of novel fluorine

  20. Measuring the Utility of a Cyber Incident Mission Impact Assessment (CIMIA) Process for Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    different definitions of risk. According to ISO /IEC 27000 , risk is the “combination of the probability of an event and its consequence” (p.4). NIST...security management systems — Overview and vocabulary. ISO /IEC 27000 . Geneva, Switzerland. ISSA. (2005). Miller, J.L. (2011), “An...computer, server, or network). In International Organization for Standardization ( ISO )/ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Information

  1. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  2. Mantle upwellings and convective instabilities revealed by seismic tomography and helium isotope geochemistry beneath eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Jean-Paul; Marty, Bernard; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Sicilia, Déborah; Cara, Michel; Pik, Raphael; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Roult, Geneviève; Beucler, Eric; Debayle, Eric

    2007-11-01

    The relationship between intraplate volcanism and continental tectonics has been investigated for North and East Africa using a high resolution three-dimensional anisotropic tomographic model derived from seismic data of a French experiment ``Horn of Africa'' and existing broadband data. The joint inversion for seismic velocity and anisotropy of the upper 400 km of the mantle, and geochemical data reveals a complex interaction between mantle upwellings, and lithosphere. Two kinds of mantle upwellings can be distinguished: The first one, the Afar ``plume'' originates from deeper than 400 km and is characterized by enrichment in primordial 3He and 3He/4He ratios higher than those along mid-ocean ridges (MOR). The second one, associated with other Cenozoic volcanic provinces (Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar, Cameroon), with 3He/4He ratios similar to, or lower than MOR, is a consequence of shallower upwelling. The presumed asthenospheric convective instabilities are oriented in an east-west direction, resulting from interaction between south-north asthenospheric mantle flow, main plume head and topography on the base of lithosphere.

  3. Self-Organization and Human Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Lucas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans are rather funny things, we often tend to imagine that we are so ?special?, so divorced by our supposed ?intelligence? from the influences of the ?natural world? and so unique in our ?abstracting? abilities. We have this persistent delusion, evident since ancient Greek times, that we are ?rational?, that we can behave as ?disinterested observers? of our world, which manifests in AI thought today in a belief that, in a like manner, we can ?design?, God like, from afar, our replacements, those ?super-robots? that will do everything that we can imagine doing, but in much ?better? ways than we can achieve, and yet can avoid doing anything ?nasty?, i.e. can overcome our many human failings - obeying, I suppose, in the process, Asimov?s three ?laws of robotics?. Such human naiveté proves, in fact, to be quite amusing, at least to those of us ?schooled? in AI history. When we look at the aspirations and the expectations of our early ?pioneers?, and compare them to the actual reality of today, then we must, it seems, re-discover the meaning of the word ?humility?. Enthusiasm, good as it may be, needs to be moderated with a touch of ?common sense?, and if our current ways of doing things in our AI world don?t really work as we had hoped, then perhaps it is time to try something different (Lucas, C., 1999?

  4. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2013-01-01

    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two...... different ISSAs; one rich in Al (67g/kg) and the other in Fe (58g/kg). The difference related to P precipitation at the waste water treatment facilities. Another major difference between the ashes was that flue gas purification products were mixed into the first ash and it contained about 5% activated.......Formation of a high amount of gypsum crystals in both ashes after extraction in H2SO4 was seen by SEM–EDX. H2SO4 is the cheapest mineral ash, but the gypsum formation must be taken into account when either finding possibility for using the remaining ash in e.g. construction materials or if the choice is deposition...

  5. Oath Ceremonies in Spain and New Spain in the 18th century: A Comparative Study of Rituals and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on a comparative study of the royal oath ceremonies in Spain and New Spain starting with the 16th century, when the ritual was established, to later consider some examples from the 18th century. A process of consolidating a Latin American and Hispanic identity began in the 17th century and was reflected in religious and political festivals everywhere. The royal oath ceremony was a renewal of vows of loyalty to the Crown, which was especially important in a monarchy composed a variety of different kingdoms. This ritual was very important in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, where a king ruled from afar over subjects scattered throughout a vast territory that was ethnically and culturally very diverse. The ceremony was therefore used in the 18th century to assert matters of identity through ritual gestures and the images that adorned the ephemeral architecture created for it. Accounts of festivities and prints depicting the event as it took place in places like Lisbon, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Mexico and Lima will be studied from a comparative point of view.

  6. Feasibility and Usability of Tele-interview for Medical Residency Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Ali; Lee, Hayoung; Fair, Malika; Maloney, Kaylah; Caggiula, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Every year in the United States, medical students and residency programs dedicate millions of dollars to the residency matching process. On-site interviews for training positions involve tremendous financial investment, and time spent detracts from educational pursuits and clinical responsibilities. Students are usually required to fund their own travel and accommodations, adding additional financial burdens to an already costly medical education. Similarly, residency programs allocate considerable funds to interview-day meals, tours, staffing, and social events. With the rapid onslaught of innovations and advancements in the field of telecommunication, technology has become ubiquitous in the practice of medicine. Internet applications have aided our ability to deliver appropriate, evidence-based care at speeds previously unimagined. Wearable medical tech allows physicians to monitor patients from afar, and telemedicine has emerged as an economical means by which to provide care to all corners of the world. It is against this backdrop that we consider the integration of technology into the residency application process. This article aims to assess the implementation of technology in the form of web-based interviewing as a viable means by which to reduce the costs and productivity losses associated with traditional in-person interview days. PMID:29383060

  7. Feasibility and Usability of Tele-interview for Medical Residency Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourmand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year in the United States, medical students and residency programs dedicate millions of dollars to the residency matching process. On-site interviews for training positions involve tremendous financial investment, and time spent detracts from educational pursuits and clinical responsibilities. Students are usually required to fund their own travel and accommodations, adding additional financial burdens to an already costly medical education. Similarly, residency programs allocate considerable funds to interview-day meals, tours, staffing, and social events. With the rapid onslaught of innovations and advancements in the field of telecommunication, technology has become ubiquitous in the practice of medicine. Internet applications have aided our ability to deliver appropriate, evidence-based care at speeds previously unimagined. Wearable medical tech allows physicians to monitor patients from afar, and telemedicine has emerged as an economical means by which to provide care to all corners of the world. It is against this backdrop that we consider the integration of technology into the residency application process. This article aims to assess the implementation of technology in the form of web-based interviewing as a viable means by which to reduce the costs and productivity losses associated with traditional in-person interview days.

  8. Cooperation and tensions in multiethnic corporate societies using Teotihuacan, Central Mexico, as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla, Linda R

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan's collapse.

  9. Twitter expands the reach and engagement of a national scientific meeting: the Irish Society of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, G J; O'Kelly, F; Bouchier-Hayes, D; Quinlan, D M; Manecksha, R P

    2015-09-01

    Social media is the interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and web-based networks. This year, the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) expanded its involvement in social media with a preregistered Twitter hashtag (#ISU14) for the annual meeting. The aim of this study was to highlight the use of Twitter at an annual national meeting held in 2014. The Symplur healthcare analytics website was used to prospectively examine traffic related to the 2014 ISU Annual Meeting. This feature was used to generate statistics for the number of impressions, unique tweets (excluding retweets) and distinct contributors who used the indexing hashtag #ISU14. Individual tweets were assessed using the conference hashtag on the Twitter website. The total number of attendees at the conference was 119, and 99 individuals participated in Twitter using the conference hashtag (#ISU14). 31 % of attendees participated in tweeting at the conference. Over the course of the conference, a total of 798 unique tweets were generated, creating over 665,000 impressions in cyberspace. 590 (73.9 %) tweets were generated from attendees at the conference, while 26.1 % of tweets were from virtual followers. 702 (87.9 %) tweets were from urologists and 439 (55 %) tweets were of scientific nature. Tweet activity peaked during the guest lectures on both days. Twitter use at the ISU has been shown to facilitate interaction between delegates and allows users to follow as well as participate from afar.

  10. Telemedicine and robotics: paving the way to the globalization of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, S; Advincula, A P

    2005-12-01

    The concept of delivering health services at a distance, or telemedicine is becoming an emerging tool for the field of surgery. For the surgical services, telepresence surgery through robotics is gradually being incorporated into health care practices. This article will provide a brief overview of the principles surrounding telemedicine and telepresence surgery as they specifically relate to robotics. Where limitations have been reached in laparoscopy, robotics has allowed further steps forward. The development of robotics in medicine has been a progression from passive to immersive technology. In gynecology, the utilization of robotics has evolved from the use of Aesop, a robotic arm for camera manipulation, to full robotic systems such as Zeus, and the daVinci surgical system. These systems have not only been used directly for a variety of procedures but have also become a useful tool for conferencing and the mentoring of surgeons from afar. As this mode of technology becomes assimilated into the culture of surgery and medicine globally, caution must be taken to carefully navigate the economic, legal and ethical implications of telemedicine. Despite the challenges faced, telepresence surgery holds promise for more widespread applications.

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2018-05-01

    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  12. Present-day Opening of the Natron Rift: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, E.; Dalaison, M.; Saria, E.; Doubre, C.; Masson, F.

    2017-12-01

    The young Natron basin (system, is an important locale to study the initial stage of continental rifting. It was the locus of a rarely observed tectono-magmatic event in July 2007, with slow slip on an intra-basin normal fault followed by a 10 km-long dike intrusion underneath the Gelai shield volcano. Here we report on a series of GPS observations over a 20-site network spanning the basin, measured repeatedly since 2013. We observe a long wavelength ( 200 km wide) extension with a horizontal rate of about 2 mm/yr, consistent with recentlty published regional kinematic models, and a velocity gradient centered on the west-bounding fault of the Natron basin. Initial models show that the data is best fit by a normal fault dipping 60 degrees to the east and slipping at a rate of 6 mm/yr. Superimposed on this long wavelength extension, we observe a smaller scale ( 30 km wide) extensional signal in the middle of the basin, roughly coincident with the location of the Gelai volcano, which was the locale of the 2007 seismic-magmatic crisis. We investigate the relative importance of tectonic faulting, post-diking relaxation following the 2007 intrusion (as observed for instance in Afar or Iceland after similar events), and melt recharge of the intra-basin magmatic system in present-day extension across this young segment of the East African Rift.

  13. Applications of δ2H and δ18O to Understand the Groundwater System in the Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GebreEgziabher, Merhawi; Ayenew, Tenalem; Kebede, Seifu

    2011-01-01

    The study area is located in the northern part of Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. It is Bounded by NW Ethiopian plateau in the west and Afar rift to the east. The study area is intermountain with volcanic rock and the graben is covered with thick sediments. The average elevation for the highland is 2200 m a.s.l, where as average elevation for the central graben and eastern highland is 1600m a.s.l. Bimodal rainfall pattern is observed in the study area. The western highland is classified as humid and the central graben is semiarid climatic condition based on UNESCO, 1979. Primary data collected during the field work includes Rainfall samples, Lake Sample, Deep well samples, Hand dug well samples, and others. Systematic sampling of water for Isotopic analysis. Secondary Isotopic data is adopted from previous study Mamo, 2007. All samples were analysed by Liquid Water Isotope analyser for oxygen-18 and deuterium in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of Addis Ababa University.

  14. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  15. Using Tree-Rings and Remote Sensing to Investigate Forest Productivity Response to Landscape Fragmentation in Northeastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouini, N.; Lepley, K. S.; Messaoudene, M.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing and dendrochronology are valuable tools in the face of climate change and land use change, yet the connection between these resources remains largely unexploited. Research on forest fragmentation is mainly focused on animal groups, while our work focuses on tree communities. We link tree-rings and remotely-sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using seasonal correlation analysis to investigate forest primary productivity response to fragmentation. Tree core samples from Quercus afares have been taken from two sites within the Guerrouche Forest in northeastern Algeria. The first site is located within a very fragmented area while the second site is intact. Fragmentation is estimated to have occurred with the construction of a road in 1930. We find raw tree-ring width chronologies from each site reveal growth release in the disturbed site after 1930. The means of each chronology for the 1930 to 2016 period are statistically different (p < 0.01). Based on these preliminary results we hypothesize that reconstructed primary productivity (NDVI) will be higher in the fragmented site after fragmentation took place.

  16. "The guys told us crying that they saw how they were killing her and they could not do anything": Psychosocial explorations of migrant journeys to the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sládková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine undocumented migrant experiences on their journeys to the U.S. Tens of thousands of Honduran migrants leave their homes in hopes to provide better for their families from afar. In in-depth interviews, 21 migrants from Honduras share the events they endure as they cross Guatemala, Mexico and the borders that divide them. I conducted narrative analyses and specifically used the analytical tools of high points and poises to locate the most salient experiences the migrants narrated as well as identifying particular selves the migrants were presenting. The high points centered around the crossings of the Mexico-U.S. border, encounters with gangs and the police in Mexico, and travels on top of freight trains. Most of these events were highly charged with potential short and long-term effects on the migrants' health. In trying to make sense of their experiences, migrants presented themselves as heroes helping others, victims of the migration systems, good parents, or unaffected bystanders. This research provides insight into the rarely explored psychosocial aspects of undocumented migration, illuminates how Honduran migrants who attempt this journey make sense of their experiences, and proposes interventions to mitigate the potentially tragic consequences of this migration.

  17. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  18. Vrchnostenský plátenický mandl v Koloredově a zájmy místeckých měšťanů (1766–1854 // Seigneurial linen mangle at Koloredov and the interests of the Místek butghers (1766-1854

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Lipovski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the archive of the Central Directorate of the Archbishops’ Estates, where one finds position papers concerning land parcelling, leasing of processing facilities (mangles, fulling machines, bleaching works, catering and other facilities (such as Jewish restaurants. Proto-industrial textile production reigned supreme in Frýdek-Místek region by the end of the 18th century, but it was precisely because of this that a mangle in a new village was up against fierce competition. A fight broke out among the lessees of this originally ‘monopoly’ machine to counter efforts to set up a competitive facility right in the town of Místek, to beat off the competition on the Silesian side of the border, and to alleviate government pressures aiming to remove various barriers to doing business. The relationship between the town and the country is manifested on several levels: head-tohead competition, mutual dependence and necessary coexistence, because only people in the town were wealthy enough to lease emphyteutically the seigneurial operations, and there were thriving markets that attracted traders from afar.

  19. Range extension of the White-headed Buffalo Weaver Dinemellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the nominate form further north. The nominate subspecies is characterized by browner (rather than deep black) tones in the mantle feathers and more substantial white margins to the scapulars, tertials and greater coverts (del Hoyo et al. 2010). Based on the back colour and white edging (Fig. 1), the Afar individuals are ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 171 of 171 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2009), Supplementation of Graded Levels of Wheat Bran to Intact and Castrated Afar Sheep Fed Urea Treated Tef Straw: Effects on Feed Intake ... Vol 2, No 2 (2008), The Effect of Inclusion Rate of Cooked and Sun-dried Fish Offal Meal on Feed Intake, Growth and Feed Efficiency of Rhode ...

  1. Dynamics of Pastoralist Relations at Change: An Exploration into the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Above all, the marginalization of pastoralists from major political, economic and other considerations, and prejudices attributed to the pastoralist way of life has led to persistent social conflicts. Besides, memories of historical animosities between the Afar and Karrayu ethnic groups served as adhesive glues for the pervasive ...

  2. communicable diseases at health facilities in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    unsatisfactory and it varied between urban (34%) and rural (5%) health facilities. In general, cervical ... data for planning and monitoring scale-up intervention ... authority, Ethiopia, 2016. Regions. Number of facilities Percentage. Tigray. 42. 8. Afar. 38. 7. Amhara. 61. 11. Oromiya. 99. 18. Somali. 43. 8. Beni. Gumuz. 30. 5.

  3. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.

    2015-01-01

    on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Konka, Bheemalingeswara. Vol 8, No 1 (2016) - Articles A preliminary Geological and Generalized Stratigraphy of Western Margin of Northern Afar Depression, Dallol Area, Northern Ethiopia Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 2 (2017) - Articles Hydrothermal gold mineralization and structural controls near May Hibey, Northwestern ...

  5. What China Inc. Can Learn from American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, James

    2012-01-01

    From afar, the boom in China's higher education system seems to be one more indication of its ceaseless rise overall. Potentially it is the most significant sign, since a China that could rival the existing American and Western-democratic dominance of the world's research and educational establishment might enjoy many other advantages as well.…

  6. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science - Vol 8, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary Geological and Generalized Stratigraphy of Western Margin of Northern Afar Depression, Dallol Area, Northern Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Miruts Hagos, Bheemalingeswara Konka, Jemal Ahmed, 1-22.

  7. Signatures of the Invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    Strom, D

    2003-01-01

    On the Net it is possible to take a look at art from afar via Virtual Museums. One such exhibition was recently in the New York Museum of Modern Art's branch, PS1. Entitled 'Signatures of the Invisible' it was a collaborative effort between artists and physicists (1/2 page).

  8. The recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash as a raw material for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Yulei; Liang, Xuanye; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) into glass-ceramic materials by a two-stage sintering cycle of nucleation stage and crystallization stage without any pressure and binder is presented. The parent glasses were subjected to the following nucleation/crystallization temperature and time level: (A) 790°C, 1.0 h/870°C, 1.0-3.0 h; (B) 790°C, 1.0 h/945°C, 1.0-3.0 h and (C) 790°C, 1.0 h/1065°C, 1.0-3.0 h. X-ray power diffraction analysis results revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass-ceramic materials and the crystalline phase compositions were more affected by crystallization temperature than crystallization time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed an interlocking microstructure of glass phases and crystals with different sizes and spatial distribution. The glass-ceramics crystallized at 945°C for 2.0 h exhibited optimal properties of density of 2.88±0.08 g/cm3, compression strength of 247±12 MPa, bending strength of 118±14 MPa and water absorption of 0.42±0.04. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals were far lower than the limits required by the regulatory standard of EPA. This paper provides a feasible, low-cost and promising method to produce ISSA-based glass-ceramics and highlights the principal characteristics that must be taken into account to use ISSA correctly in glass-ceramics.

  9. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  10. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  11. Official (ISC)2 guide to the CISSP exam

    CERN Document Server

    Hansche, Susan; Hare, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Candidates for the CISSP exam can now go directly to the source for study materials that are indispensable in achieving certification. The Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP Exam is derived from the actual CBK review course created and administered by the non-profit security consortium (ISC)2. In addition to being an invaluable study guide, this book is detailed enough to serve as an authoritative information security resource. Both of the guide's co-authors are CISSPs, and the entire text has been reviewed and approved by Hal Tipton, Co-Founder and Past President of ISSA and Co-Founder of (I

  12. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and evolution of the Somaliland-Yemen conjugate margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have used biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells to determine the tectonic subsidence history of the Somaliland (northwestern Somalia)-Yemen conjugate margin, a poorly known margin in the central part of the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data suggest the Gulf of Aden is a young feature that formed following the rifting apart and breakup of the African and Arabian plates ~32 Ma. Our tectonic subsidence data suggest, however, that the present-day Gulf of Aden developed on an earlier Mesozoic rift system. The oldest episode of rifting initiated at ~156 Ma and lasted for ~10 Ma and had a NW-SE trend. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the breakup of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. At ~80 Ma, there is evidence of an intermediate rift event which correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The combined effect of all three rifting events has been to thin the crust and upper mantle by up to a factor of 2. The amount of thinning deduced from the wells is in accord with the crustal structure inferred from available seismic refraction data and process-oriented gravity and flexure modeling. The margin is asymmetric with a steeper gradient in the Moho on the Yemen side than the Somaliland side. The main discrepancy is on the Yemen side where the gravity-derived Moho is 10 km deeper than the well-derived Moho. We attribute the discrepancy to the addition of material at the base of the crust since rifting, possibly magma sourced from the Afar plume.

  13. On the Effects of the Evolution of Microbial Mats and Land Plants on the Earth as a Planet. Photometric and Spectroscopic Light Curves of Paleo-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; García Munõz, A.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the spectral and photometric variability of the Earth and the rest of the solar system planets has become of utmost importance for the future characterization of rocky exoplanets. As this is not only interesting at present times but also along the planetary evolution, we studied the effect that the evolution of microbial mats and plants over land has had on the way our planet looks from afar. As life evolved, continental surfaces changed gradually and non-uniformly from deserts through microbial mats to land plants, modifying the reflective properties of the ground and most likely the distribution of moisture and cloudiness. Here, we used a radiative transfer model of the Earth, together with geological paleo-records of the continental distribution and a reconstructed cloud distribution, to simulate the visible and near-IR radiation reflected by our planet as a function of Earth's rotation. We found that the evolution from deserts to microbial mats and to land plants produces detectable changes in the globally averaged Earth's reflectance. The variability of each surface type is located in different bands and can induce reflectance changes of up to 40% in period of hours. We conclude that by using photometric observations of an Earth-like planet at different photometric bands it would be possible to discriminate between different surface types. While recent literature proposes the red-edge feature of vegetation near 0.7 μm as a signature for land plants, observations in near-IR bands can be equally or even better suited for this purpose.

  14. ON THE EFFECTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MICROBIAL MATS AND LAND PLANTS ON THE EARTH AS A PLANET. PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC LIGHT CURVES OF PALEO-EARTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; García Munõz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the spectral and photometric variability of the Earth and the rest of the solar system planets has become of utmost importance for the future characterization of rocky exoplanets. As this is not only interesting at present times but also along the planetary evolution, we studied the effect that the evolution of microbial mats and plants over land has had on the way our planet looks from afar. As life evolved, continental surfaces changed gradually and non-uniformly from deserts through microbial mats to land plants, modifying the reflective properties of the ground and most likely the distribution of moisture and cloudiness. Here, we used a radiative transfer model of the Earth, together with geological paleo-records of the continental distribution and a reconstructed cloud distribution, to simulate the visible and near-IR radiation reflected by our planet as a function of Earth's rotation. We found that the evolution from deserts to microbial mats and to land plants produces detectable changes in the globally averaged Earth's reflectance. The variability of each surface type is located in different bands and can induce reflectance changes of up to 40% in period of hours. We conclude that by using photometric observations of an Earth-like planet at different photometric bands it would be possible to discriminate between different surface types. While recent literature proposes the red-edge feature of vegetation near 0.7 μm as a signature for land plants, observations in near-IR bands can be equally or even better suited for this purpose.

  15. Foraging and ingestive behaviors of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in response to chemical stimulus cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Alistair D M

    2015-02-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, display a number of behaviors that suggest these animals can locate food from afar, as well as identify and discriminate between food items. However, their intractably large size and relative rarity in the field has so far prevented direct studies of their behavior and sensory capability. A small population of aquarium-held whale sharks facilitated direct studies of behavior in response to chemical stimulus plumes. Whale sharks were exposed to plumes composed of either homogenized krill or simple aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is associated with krill aggregations and is used by several pelagic species as a food-finding stimulus. Whale sharks exhibited pronounced ingestive and search behaviors when exposed to both types of stimuli, compared to control trials. Ingestive behaviors included open mouth swimming and active surface feeding (gulping). These behaviors were stronger and more prevalent in response to krill homogenate plumes than to DMS plumes. Both chemical stimuli also increased visitation rate, and krill homogenate plumes additionally affected swimming speed. Whale sharks use chemosensory cues of multiple types to locate and identify palatable food, suggesting that chemical stimuli can help direct long-range movements and allow discrimination of different food items. There appears to be a hierarchy of responses: krill metabolites directly associated with food produced more frequent and intense feeding responses relative to DMS, which is indirectly associated with krill. DMS is used to find food by a number of pelagic species and may be an important signaling molecule in pelagic food webs. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  16. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also...... it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  17. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J D; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Gambela to 72% in the Somali region. The multivariate analysis showed women living in the Somali, Afar and Benishangul-Gumuz regions had significantly higher odds of having avoidable birth risk compared to those in Addis Ababa after controlling for observed covariates. The trend analysis showed there was a significant drop in the proportion of births from women above 34 years between 2000 and 2011. There was no significant decline in births to women less than 18 years between 2000 and 2011. A majority of births in Ethiopia fall in one of the risk categories, with substantial region-to-region variation in the percentage of births with avoidable risk factors, Somali and Afar having the highest burden. The analysis indicated that births in the three regions had significantly higher odds of having one of the avoidable risk factors compared to Addis Ababa, and we suggest family planning programmes need to identify differentials of modern contraceptive use at the sub-national level in order to better address coverage and equity issues.

  18. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Shiferaw

    2015-11-01

    births, with wide regional variation from 55% in Gambela to 72% in the Somali region. The multivariate analysis showed women living in the Somali, Afar and Benishangul-Gumuz regions had significantly higher odds of having avoidable birth risk compared to those in Addis Ababa after controlling for observed covariates. The trend analysis showed there was a significant drop in the proportion of births from women above 34 years between 2000 and 2011. There was no significant decline in births to women less than 18 years between 2000 and 2011. Conclusions: A majority of births in Ethiopia fall in one of the risk categories, with substantial region-to-region variation in the percentage of births with avoidable risk factors, Somali and Afar having the highest burden. The analysis indicated that births in the three regions had significantly higher odds of having one of the avoidable risk factors compared to Addis Ababa, and we suggest family planning programmes need to identify differentials of modern contraceptive use at the sub-national level in order to better address coverage and equity issues.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of deformation at the Tendaho geothermal prospect, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Tesfaye; Biggs, Juliet; Lewi, Elias; Hamling, Ian; Wright, Tim; Ayele, Atalay

    2018-05-01

    Observations of ground deformation in East Africa have been fundamental for unveiling the tectonics of continental rifting, assessing the seismic and volcanic hazard to development, and identifying geothermal resources. Here we investigate the active natural and anthropogenic processes in the Tendaho Graben, Afar using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) collected by the Envisat satellite in 2004-2010. We used the Poly-Interferometric Rate And time series Estimation (π-RATE) method to calculate displacement in satellite line-of-sight, and a least-square inversion to decompose the line-of-sight displacement into vertical and rift perpendicular components. We observe two zones of deformation: a 20 km wide circular region of subsidence located 10 km northeast of the town of Semera with a maximum displacement rate of ∼5 cm/yr; and elongated zone (50 km) of subsidence in the area of the geothermal prospect, maximum rate of ∼4 cm/yr. The temporal characteristics of subsidence varies between these zones, with an increase in subsidence rate observed in the circular region in August 2008. We used a Bayesian inversion to find the best fitting source models and compared this to locations of seismicity and other geophysical observations. The pattern of deformation is consistent with a combination of magmatic and geothermal processes, but there does not appear to be a direct link to a sequence of dyke intrusions during 2005-2010 at Manda Hararo graben ∼60 km away, but dynamic stress changes or deep crustal flow could account for the observations.

  20. AMS, a particle spectrometer in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Ren, Z.L.; Santos, D.; Thuillier, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed for extraterrestrial study of anti-matter, matter and dark matter. A precursor flight and on the STS-91 flight of the shuttle is planned to take place on May 1998. AMS will be installed on the International Space Station in January 2002 where it will be operated next, for three to five years. The contributions of the ISN to the project on the shuttle (aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter) as well as the steps to build a RICH detector for AMS on the ISSA are explained here below. (authors)

  1. Lessoning of radiation exposure. Radiation effect on humans and points to be noticed learned by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the process of medical measures taken along with the time after the Accident in the title (Mar. 12, 2011) and the present state (June, 2013) of Fukushima. The author at first presents the fundamental knowledge of radiation like unit, natural/medical doses, and the scale of the Accident compared with Chernobyl Accident (1986) involving observed diseases like thyroid cancer. On the day before the Accident, the Earthquake and Tsunami attacked Fukushima, and the University Hospital built up an anti-disaster medical headquarter. Until 15th, the hospital accepted about 500 persons for their contamination survey and subsequent de-contamination, then played a role for relaying 1,300 patients to other facilities and accepted 125 hospitalizations, during which communication by phone had been scarcely available, leading to complication and confusion. The radioisotope subjected to be noted was radioiodine earlier and then radiocesium. Emergent medical supports were conducted for various evacuation areas involving 20-30 km zone from the Plant by pediatric and infection teams with joint doctors from Thailand. The University had been defined to be the secondary emergent, expertized medical facility since 2001 and began to conduct the long-term project Fukushima Health Management Survey after the Accident for the fundamental and detailed studies of residents. The secondary facility at the emergency was inevitably the center of medicare as the primary hospitals were mostly in the radiological evacuation area and tertiary ones located afar. The University Hospital is now revising the formal manual for medical response to exposure. In Fukushima City, 60 km distant from the Plant, the ambient dose is about 0.5 mc-Sv and external exposure dose is lowering to 2-4 mSv/y. Decrease of medical staff like doctors and nurses is significant in the prefecture. (T.T.)

  2. Pluriannual variability of sedimentation on mudflats in a macrotidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvilliez, A.; Lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Massei, N.; Langlois, E.; Sakho, I.

    2010-12-01

    Antoine Cuvilliez1, Robert Lafite2, Julien Deloffre2, Nicolas Massei2, Estelle Langlois 3 and Issa Sakho2 1 Université du Havre, FRE 3102, Laboratoire d’ondes et milieux complexes, Université du Havre, 76058 Le Havre cedex, France 2 Université de Rouen, UMR 6143, Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France. 3 Université de Rouen, ECODIV , Etude et Compréhension de la Biodiversité, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France.

  3. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.; McCabe, Matthew; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Ló pez-Moreno, J. I.; Robaa, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  4. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.

    2016-06-27

    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  5. The evolution of magma during continental rifting: New constraints from the isotopic and trace element signatures of silicic magmas from Ethiopian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Gleeson, Matthew L. M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Blundy, Jon D.; Ferguson, David J.; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Millar, Ian L.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Finch, Adrian A.

    2018-05-01

    Magma plays a vital role in the break-up of continental lithosphere. However, significant uncertainty remains about how magma-crust interactions and melt evolution vary during the development of a rift system. Ethiopia captures the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea-floor spreading and has witnessed the eruption of large volumes of silicic volcanic rocks across the region over ∼45 Ma. The petrogenesis of these silicic rocks sheds light on the role of magmatism in rift development, by providing information on crustal interactions, melt fluxes and magmatic differentiation. We report new trace element and Sr-Nd-O isotopic data for volcanic rocks, glasses and minerals along and across active segments of the Main Ethiopian (MER) and Afar Rifts. Most δ18 O data for mineral and glass separates from these active rift zones fall within the bounds of modelled fractional crystallization trajectories from basaltic parent magmas (i.e., 5.5-6.5‰) with scant evidence for assimilation of Pan-African Precambrian crustal material (δ18 O of 7-18‰). Radiogenic isotopes (εNd = 0.92- 6.52; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7037-0.7072) and incompatible trace element ratios (Rb/Nb productivity or where crustal structure inhibits magma ascent). This has important implications for understanding the geotectonic settings that promote extreme melt evolution and, potentially, genesis of economically-valuable mineral deposits in ancient rift-settings. The limited isotopic evidence for assimilation of Pan-African crustal material in Ethiopia suggests that the pre-rift crust beneath the magmatic segments has been substantially modified by rift-related magmatism over the past ∼45 Ma; consistent with geophysical observations. We argue that considerable volumes of crystal cumulate are stored beneath silicic volcanic systems (>100 km3), and estimate that crystal cumulates fill at least 16-30% of the volume generated by crustal extension under the axial volcanoes of the MER and Manda Hararo

  6. A large scale evacuation. Tasks of evacuator. Collapse of medical system at the time of areal indication for large scale indoor refuge and problems for restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    About the evacuation from disasters of quake/tsunami on Mar. 11, 2011, and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 12-15), described are its social background, influence on the local society, medicare and works of medical staff. The disaster immediately blocked means of communication and transportation in Minamisoma City, and the Japan government indicated the indoor refuge of residents in the zone at 3 km distance from the Plant, then at 20 km on 12th and 30 km on 15th. About 123 thousands residents nearby had to evacuate after all: the largest scale of evacuation by the nuclear accident in Japan. Author's Minamisoma Citizens' Hospital (MCH) was located at 23 km from the Plant. Residents could know about the government indications through various media before their official announcements, and many had begun to evacuate. MCH accepted >100 victims, and measured their contamination as well as the ambient dose, using GM counter from 12th. The highest dose was 16 mc-Sv/h on 20th. Following the hydrogen explosion of no.3 reactor on 14th, residents were bewildered by the indication of indoor refuge, which impacted social activities like stoppage of commerce and brought about residents' mental conflict and solitary. Movement of all 107 hospitalized patients to neighboring facilities in Niigata prefecture started on 18th and actually completed on 20th with help from Self Defense Force. Children, pregnant women and certain patients were prohibited to enter the newly defined emergent evacuation preparation (EEP) zone on Apr. 11, within 30 km afar from the Plant, which inhibited the areal restoration and medicare. At present that 1.5 years have passed since the disaster, the number of medical stuff is quite insufficient near the old EEP zone. There, now 2/3 of population before the disaster are beginning their life, and most are elderly, suggesting the necessity of rearrangement of medical systems which were seemingly once collapsed. (T.T.)

  7. Air quality impacted by local pollution sources and beyond - Using a prominent petro-industrial complex as a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Lin, Wen-Dian; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chiu, Ching-Jui; Chiang, Hung-Chi; Fan, Chen-Lun; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S

    2018-05-01

    The present study combines high-resolution measurements at various distances from a world-class gigantic petrochemical complex with model simulations to test a method to assess industrial emissions and their effect on local air quality. Due to the complexity in wind conditions which were highly seasonal, the dominant wind flow patterns in the coastal region of interest were classified into three types, namely northeast monsoonal (NEM) flows, southwest monsoonal (SEM) flows and local circulation (LC) based on six years of monitoring data. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was chosen as an indicative pollutant for prominent industrial emissions. A high-density monitoring network of 12 air-quality stations distributed within a 20-km radius surrounding the petrochemical complex provided hourly measurements of SO 2 and wind parameters. The SO 2 emissions from major industrial sources registered by the monitoring network were then used to validate model simulations and to illustrate the transport of the SO 2 plumes under the three typical wind patterns. It was found that the coupling of observations and modeling was able to successfully explain the transport of the industrial plumes. Although the petrochemical complex was seemingly the only major source to affect local air quality, multiple prominent sources from afar also played a significant role in local air quality. As a result, we found that a more complete and balanced assessment of the local air quality can be achieved only after taking into account the wind characteristics and emission factors of a much larger spatial scale than the initial (20 km by 20 km) study domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessment of AMC (Advanced measurement and control systems). Survey of information security vulnerabilities in AMC.; Risikovurdering av AMS. Kartlegging av informasjonssikkerhetsmessige s#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#rbarheter i AMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnes, Line Maria [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Johansen, Gorm Idar [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); S#Latin Small Letter Ae#le, Hanne [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    SINTEF has carried out an overall assessment of Advanced measurement and control Systems (AMC) for Norway Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). The assessment includes mainly AMC basis functions, which are record measurement data in customer and transfer these to the network, as well as wrestling / throttling power outlet in the each measuring point. Adjoining IT systems with network companies are considered only to a limited degree. The focus in analysis has been measuring point by geographical location, and the opportunity for both consumption and feed. Mobile devices such as measuring the charging of electric vehicles have not been touched upon in the analysis. It must be noted that this report provides an overall risk assessment related to general AMC technology and infrastructure. Each grid company must prepare their own risk assessments for their systems. The report describes a general AMC infrastructure with the refinements that have been made for this analysis. Then it is made an assessment on the basis of an information security perspective, the confidentiality, integrity and availability are the most important aspects. Different scenarios and events are presented and discussed, and the events that are judged to be at highest risk, one or more of the following elements out: - Unwanted shutdown of many customers - Software Error - Central system fails or used in the attack - Unfaithful servant's own employee misuses of knowledge and / or legitimate accesses In addition, a scenario with many gauges inoperative once considered to be critical, without cause need to be a targeted attack. This is because the consequences will incur substantial costs for repair and / or replacement of equipment. Malicious software could be causing, or a tool in several of events, especially at the onset that run from afar (remote connection). It is recommended that the Emergency Regulations should apply to AMC, because the risk assessment has been done shows that

  9. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    analysed to calculate possible long range trajectories [Weisbin 99] for the rover. Provided the rover is given a predefined "ideal rock" definition, the same DEMs can be used to classify rocks in the surrounding area and identify any which meet the ideal rock criteria, meaning that, during long-range traverses potentially scientifically rich rocks would not be missed. The technique can also be used identify the approach trajectory for the arm given the orientation of the rock surface. 1 If several ideal rocks have been identified the rover could then use a rock reachability map to prioritise the rocks for sampling, this would consider: rock classification; the amount of energy required to reach the rock; and the number of instruments that can be placed on the surface. Autonomously identifying ideal rocks and calculating instrument position reduces the rover waiting time and operator input, and increases the scientific return. 1. Shaw A.J. and Barnes D.P., Landmark recognition for localisation and navigation of aerial vehicles. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Las Vegas, October 2003. CD-ROM Proceedings. 2. Weisbin, Charles R. Rodriguez Guillermo, Schenker Paul S., Das Hari, Hayati Samad A., Baumgartner Eric T., Maimone Mark, Nesnas Issa A., Volpe Richard A. Autonomous rover technology for mars sample return, Pages 1-10 of: 1999 International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, ISAIRAS99. 2

  10. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    What kind of knowledges, skills and competences may be required by Techno-Anthropology engaging with health informatics? If we understand Techno-Anthropology to mean conducting anthropological analyses of the interwoven and mutually shaping relationship between organizing, technologies and actors...... professions and organizations; and skilled in generating analyses and proposing new solutions. Also, people with insight into how action, technologies and organizing are interwoven and redistribute competences, responsibilities and risks are invaluable: Look at from afar, technologies seem to cause...

  11. Faith-Based Diplomacy: A Pathway to Marginalizing Al-Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    contrast to the Islamist governments 12 that have risen to power since early 2011. The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt , for example, has advocated a more...Zarqawi who had been misbehaving, and he says, brother, we notice from afar X, Y, and Z is happening. Based on our experience in Egypt and around the...theory: “Al Qaeda is not a traditional hierarchical organization, with a pyramid -style organizational structure, and it does not exercise full command

  12. THE EVOLUTION AND FUTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN AFRICA: AN ACTUARIAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Badat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently experienced several years of civil war and extreme economic hardships, have begun to improve benefit structures and amounts, which include national medical benefits. The attention being provided to social security and how it fits into a nation’s plans to lift itself out of poverty is increasingly involving the actuarial profession from international organisations such as ILO and ISSA as well as consulting actuaries and academics. Assessing and ensuring sustainability of social security benefits requires actuarial valuations to take long-term consequences involving demographic changes into account in the face of providing the benefits in the short term; asset liability modelling to ensure adequate resources are held; ensuring that results are appropriately reported and communicated to key stakeholders; as well as developing long-term strategic plans and dynamic systems surrounding all of these issues. In this paper, the role of actuaries is brought to the centre of the increasingly changing face and evolving culture of social security in taking Africa closer to poverty alleviation. La Seguridad Social en la mayoría de los países africanos ha evolucionado significativamente en cuanto a perspectivas, motivos, gobernanza, así como en innovación en las prestaciones y la adminsitración. Los países africanos están comenzando a reevaluar el papel de la Seguridad Social en la eliminación de determinados problemas sociales. Los programas de acción y los

  13. Anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J. P.; Debayle, E.; Leveque, J. J.; Cara, M.; Lepine, J. C.; Beucler, E.; Sebai, A.

    2003-04-01

    One of the largest continental hotspot is located in the Afar Depression, in East of Africa. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell, which is the antipode of the Pacific Superswell in the framework of the mantle degree 2 pattern. We performed an anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa in order to image the seismic structure beneath the region. Data were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. We supplemented our data base with a French deployment of 5 portable broadband stations surrounding the Afar Hotspot. Path average phase velocities are obtained using a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2002). The data are corrected from the effect of the crust according to the a priori 3SMAC model (Nataf et Ricard, 1996). 3D-models of velocity, radial and azimuthal anisotropies are inverted for. We find low velocities beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the South East of the Tanzania Craton, the Hotspot and Central Africa. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. These results are in agreement with the anisotropic model of Debayle et al.(2002). The flow pattern can be derived from fast axis directions of seismic anisotropy. The anisotropy model beneath Afar displays a complex pattern, in which the hotspot seems to play a perturbating role. The azimuthal anisotropy shows that the Afar plume might be interpreted as feeding other hotspots in central Africa. The directions of fast axis are in good agreement with the results of previous SKS studies performed in the region (Gao et al., 1997; Wolfe et al., 1999; Barruol and Ismail, 2001).

  14. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 4, April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Nigerian journalists have speculated that the group now exists on a franchise basis, and that some attacks on Christians, murderous as they are...March 7, 2012 (IRAQ): A car bomb exploded outside a restaurant in a Shi`a area of Tal Afar, Ninawa Province. As people gathered to help the wounded...at the time of the strike. – AP, March 30 March 31, 2012 (KENYA): An assailant threw a hand grenade into a crowded restaurant in Mombasa, injuring

  15. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John

    2006-01-01

    . In addition to Mars and the Asteroid belt, it is possible to nudge the orbits of NEOs to provide convenient transport to other destinations. Resources to support life on these long voyages may be gathered from the host asteroid itself. As asteroids travel over a wide range of inclinations and ranges, they offer possible platforms to perform scientific investigations. These include unique vantage point observations of the sun and planets. These observations can help us to understand solar activity and space weather. They also afford us an opportunity to see how the earth looks from afar with different perspectives. When we look for planets outside of our solar system, these observations will help us to calibrate our data. Asteroids may also be used as platforms to support very long baseline interferometry with unprecedented angular resolutions.

  16. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  17. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  18. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  19. Spatio-temporal variability and trends of precipitation and extreme rainfall events in Ethiopia in 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummadi, Sridhar; Rao, K. P. C.; Seid, Jemal; Legesse, Gizachew; Kadiyala, M. D. M.; Takele, Robel; Amede, Tilahun; Whitbread, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes the results from an analysis conducted to investigate the spatio-temporal variability and trends in the rainfall over Ethiopia over a period of 31 years from 1980 to 2010. The data is mostly observed station data supplemented by bias-corrected AgMERRA climate data. Changes in annual and Belg (March-May) and Kiremt (June to September) season rainfalls and rainy days have been analysed over the entire Ethiopia. Rainfall is characterized by high temporal variability with coefficient of variation (CV, %) varying from 9 to 30% in the annual, 9 to 69% during the Kiremt season and 15-55% during the Belg season rainfall amounts. Rainfall variability increased disproportionately as the amount of rainfall declined from 700 to 100 mm or less. No significant trend was observed in the annual rainfall amounts over the country, but increasing and decreasing trends were observed in the seasonal rainfall amounts in some areas. A declining trend is also observed in the number of rainy days especially in Oromia, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambella regions. Trends in seasonal rainfall indicated a general decline in the Belg season and an increase in the Kiremt season rainfall amounts. The increase in rainfall during the main Kiremt season along with the decrease in the number of rainy days leads to an increase in extreme rainfall events over Ethiopia. The trends in the 95th-percentile rainfall events illustrate that the annual extreme rainfall events are increasing over the eastern and south-western parts of Ethiopia covering Oromia and Benishangul-Gumuz regions. During the Belg season, extreme rainfall events are mostly observed over central Ethiopia extending towards the southern part of the country while during the Kiremt season, they are observed over parts of Oromia, (covering Borena, Guji, Bali, west Harerge and east Harerge), Somali, Gambella, southern Tigray and Afar regions. Changes in the intensity of extreme rainfall events are mostly observed over south

  20. The Volcanic Myths of the Red Sea - Temporal Relationship Between Magmatism and Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, D. F.; Bosworth, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic Red Sea is one of the premier examples of continental rifting and active break-up. It has been cited as an example for both prototypical volcanic, pure shear rift systems with limited crustal stretching as well as magma-poor simple-shear rifting and highly asymmetric rift margins characterized by low-angle normal faults. In light of voluminous Oligocene continental flood basalts in the Afar/Ethiopian region, the Red Sea has often been viewed as a typical volcanic rift, despite evidence for asymmetric extension and hyperextended crust (Zabargad Island). An in-depth analysis of the timing, spatial distribution, and nature of Red Sea volcanism and its relationship to late Cenozoic extensional faulting should shed light on some of the misconceptions. The Eocene appearance of the East African super-plume was not accompanied by any recognized significant extensional faulting or rift-basin formation. The first phase of volcanism more closely associated with the Red Sea occurred in northern Ethiopia and western Yemen at 31-30 Ma and was synchronous with the onset of continental extension in the Gulf of Aden. Early Oligocene volcanism has also been documented in southern and central Saudi Arabia and southern Sudan. However, this voluminous Oligocene volcanism entirely predates Red Sea extensional faulting and rift formation. Marking the onset of Red Sea rifting, widespread, spatially synchronous intrusion of basaltic dikes occurred at 24-21 Ma along the entire Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift and continuing into northern Egypt. While the initiation of lithospheric extension in the central and northern and central Red Sea and Gulf of Suez was accompanied by only sparse basaltic volcanism and possible underplating, the main phase of rifting in the Miocene Red Sea/Gulf of Suez completely lacks any significant rift-related volcanism, suggesting plate-boundary forces probably drove overall separation of Arabia from Africa. During progressive rifting, there is also no

  1. Promoting Local Ownership: Lessons Learned from Process of Transitioning Clinical Mentoring of HIV Care and Treatment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet M. Kassie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFocus on improving access and quality of HIV care and treatment gained acceptance in Ethiopia through the work of the International Training and Education Center for Health. The initiative deployed mobile field-based teams and capacity building teams to mentor health care providers on clinical services and program delivery in three regions, namely Tigray, Amhara, and Afar. Transitioning of the clinical mentoring program (CMP began in 2012 through capacity building and transfer of skills and knowledge to local health care providers and management.ObjectiveThe initiative explored the process of transitioning a CMP on HIV care and treatment to local ownership and documented key lessons learned.MethodsA mixed qualitative design was used employing focus group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, and review of secondary data. The participants included regional focal persons, mentors, mentees, multidisciplinary team members, and International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH staff. Three facilities were selected in each region. Data were collected by trained research assistants using customized guides for interviews and with data extraction format. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. Open Code software was used for coding and categorizing the data.ResultsA total of 16 focus group discussions and 20 individual in-depth interviews were conducted. The critical processes for transitioning a project were: establishment of a mentoring transition task force, development of a roadmap to define steps and directions for implementing the transition, and signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU between the respective regional health bureaus and I-TECH Ethiopia to formalize the transition. The elements of implementation included mentorship and capacity building, joint mentoring, supportive supervision, review meetings, and independent mentoring supported by facility-based mechanisms: multidisciplinary team

  2. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  3. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  4. A comparative study on different burning method of sewage sludge ash in mortar brick with eggshell powder as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Doh Shu; Azed, Muhammad Aizat; Chin, Siew Choo

    2017-11-01

    Population growth that increase every year has led to the increasing amount of waste generated annually. The content of heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) represent the biggest concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge waste which can be the source of pollution. Furthermore, the excessive disposal of eggshells waste to landfills may attract rats and worms due to the organic protein matrix that may pose health problem to the public. In the last decade, the demand on cement mortar brick has increased has resulted in higher cement production. However, cement plant is one of the major contributors of carbon dioxide emission. Hence, this research focuses on the production of environmental friendly cement with sewage sludge since there is occurrence of pozolonic material in Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA). From the initial finding, the major components of SSA are Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), Calcium oxide (CaO), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Iron (III) Oxide (Fe2O3), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Potassium oxide (K2O), Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Iron (II) Oxide (FeO). Sewage sludge needed to be incinerated to remove the heavy metal before it can be used as cement replacement in mortar brick production. The sewage sludge were treated using two methods namely incineration and microwave. Both types of sewage sludge were then added with eggshell powder as additive. Eggshell powder act as additive in this research due to its high content of calcium carbonate and has nearly same composition of limestone used in the production of cement. Different percentages of Eggshell Powder (ESP) (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) and 10% fixed of Microwaved Sewage Sludge Ash (MSSA) and Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash (ISSA) as optimum dosage partially replacing the cement used to test the brick mortar properties in term of compressive strength, flexural strength and also water absorption. Result showed that ISSA with 5% of ESP is the most optimum brick with highest compressive strength and flexural strength

  5. Major and micro seismo-volcanic crises in the Asal Rift, Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.; Tomic, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Asal-Ghoubbet Rift is located on the eastern branch of the Afar triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia tectonic plates. The last major seismo-volcanic crisis on this segment occurred in November 1978, involving two earthquakes of mb=5+, a basaltic fissure eruption, the development of many open fissures across the rift and up to 80 cm of vertical slip on the bordering faults. Geodetic leveling revealed ~2 m of horizontal opening of the rift accompanied by ~70 cm of subsidence of the inner-floor, consistent with models of the elastic deformation produced by the injection of magma in a system of two dykes. InSAR data acquired at 24-day intervals during the last 12 years by the Canadian Radarsat satellite over the Asal Rift show that the two main faults activated in 1978 continue to slip with periods of steady creep at rates of 0.3-1.3 mm/yr, interrupted by sudden slip events of a few millimeters, in 2000 and 2003. Slip events are coincident with bursts of micro earthquakes distributed around and over the Fieale volcanic center in the eastern part of the Asal Rift. In both cases (the 1978 crisis and micro-slip events), the observed geodetic moment released by fault slip exceeds by a few orders of magnitude the total seismic moment released by earthquakes over the same period. Aseismic fault slip is likely to be the faults response to a changing stress field associated with a volcanic process and not due to dry friction on faults. Sustained injection of magma (1978 crisis) and/or crustal fluids (micro-slip events) in dykes and fissures is a plausible mechanism to control fluid pressure in the basal parts of faults and trigger aseismic slip. In this respect, the micro-events observed by InSAR during a 12-year period of low activity in the rift and the 1978 seismo-volcanic episode are of same nature.

  6. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  7. Preliminary geological investigation of the Bir Hayzan diatomite deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a section on selected physical properties and implications for future geophysical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J.W.; Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A 2.2-m-thick lake bed composed entirely of diatomite was found in the southwestern arm of the Nafud sand sea, about 67 km east of Tayma in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Its stratigraphic position above eolian sand and below a large barchanoid dune indicates deposition during an exceptional period of pluvial climate in an otherwise arid sand desert. Radiocarbon-dated carbonate lake beds found in similar stratigraphic settings in other parts of the Nafud suggest that the diatomite was deposited in the late Pleistocene epoch sometime between 32,000 and 20,000 years ago. Diatomite of the same pluvial episode has also been found in the Afar region of Ethiopia. Four samples of the diatomite were analyzed for major chemical components and 32 minor and trace elements. Two of the samples appeared to be representative of the lake bed. These samples contained about 85 percent SiO2, 2.34 percent Fe2O3, 1 4 percent Al2O3, and 8.27 percent ignition loss, with only traces of CaO, P2O5, MgO, Na2O, and TiO2. The high content of silica and low contents of alumina, iron oxide, lime, and other constituents indicate low contamination. Analyses of samples from the two atypical units indicate a small amount of contamination, probably clay or mica, in the basal unit and addition of iron oxide and carbonate by ground water in an isolated green-colored unit. Chemically the Bi'r Hayzan diatomite compares favorably with commercial deposits from other parts of the world. Low bulk densities of 0.64 g/cm3 (30-40 lbs/ft3) and an average porosity of 63 percent for five samples also suggest the deposit is of industrial grade. Further studies are recommended to determine: (1) the size and extent of the deposit and (2) the suitability of the diatomite for commercial applications. As means to these ends, electrical-resistivity surveys following winter rains are suggested to determine both the extent and thickness of the lake bed beneath the overlying sand dunes. A complete species identification of the

  8. High-resolution magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of Ethiopian traps-related products in Oligocene sediments from the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Yannick; Rochette, Pierre; Aubry, Marie Pierre; Michard, Annie

    2003-02-01

    Volcanic traps correspond typically to aerial emissions of more than 10 6 km 3 of magma over 1 Myr periods. The potential global impact of such emissions makes the precise correlation of traps with the global magnetobiochronologic timescale an important task. Our study is focused on the Ethiopian traps which correspond to the birth of the Afar hotspot at the triple junction between the Red Sea, Aden Gulf and East-African rift. The Ethiopian traps have a significant acidic component (about 10% of the traps by volume) which enables more efficient stratospheric aerosol diffusion than for the main basaltic eruptions. Furthermore, a magnetostratigraphy is well established for the traps: traps activity began in Chron C11r.2r and ended in Chron C11r.1r or C10r, with well clustered 40Ar/ 39Ar ages at 30±0.5 Ma. Four tephra layers, marked by prominent magnetic susceptibility peaks, occur in Oligocene sections of sites from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 115, drilled in the southern Indian Ocean near Madingley Rise, 2600 km away from the Ethiopian traps. In order to demonstrate that these tephra layers are related to the Ethiopian traps, a high-resolution study of sites 709 and 711 was undertaken, involving magnetostratigraphy and nannofossil stratigraphy, together with isotopic and geochemical characterization of the tephra. Geochemical analyses and isotope ratios of the glass shards indicate the same acid continental source for these tephras which is compatible with the Ethiopian signature. Moreover, Hole 711A provides a reliable magnetostratigraphy for the Oligocene (Chrons 13-9). The tephra layers occur in the interval spanning Chrons C11n.2n-C11n.1n which agrees with the positions of acidic layers in the traps. Calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy confirms the magnetostratigraphic interpretation, with the NP23/24 zonal boundary occurring within the interval containing the tephra layers. Hole 709B supports the results from Hole 711A. Thus, the Ethiopian traps can be

  9. Synthetic aggregates from combustion ashes using an innovative rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P J; Cresswell, D J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a number of different combustion ashes to manufacture synthetic aggregates using an innovative rotary 'Trefoil' kiln. Three types of combustion ash were used, namely: incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA); municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA-- referred to here as BA); and pulverised fuel ash (Pfa). The fine waste ash fractions listed above were combined with a binder to create a plastic mix that was capable of being formed into 'green pellets'. These pellets were then fired in a Trefoil kiln to sinter the ashes into hard fused aggregates that were then tested for use as a replacement for the natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Results up to 28 days showed that these synthetic aggregates were capable of producing concretes with compressive strengths ranging from 33 to 51 MPa, equivalent to between 73 and 112% of that of the control concrete made with natural aggregates.

  10. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  11. Geodynamics of the East African Rift System ∼30 Ma ago: A stress field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ge; Hou, Guiting

    2018-06-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is thought to be an intra-continental ridge that meets the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the Ethiopian Afar as the failed arm of the Afar triple junction. The geodynamics of EARS is still unclear even though several models have been proposed. One model proposes that the EARS developed in a local tensile stress field derived from far-field loads because of the pushing of oceanic ridges. Alternatively, some scientists suggest that the formation of the EARS can be explained by upwelling mantle plumes beneath the lithospheric weak zone (e.g., the Pan-African suture zone). In our study, a shell model is established to consider the Earth's spherical curvature, the lithospheric heterogeneity of the African continent, and the coupling between the mantle plumes and the mid-ocean ridge. The results are calculated via the finite element method using ANSYS software and fit the geological evidence well. To discuss the effects of the different rock mechanical parameters and the boundary conditions, four comparative models are established with different parameters or boundary conditions. Model I ignores the heterogeneity of the African continent, Model II ignores mid-ocean spreading, Model III ignores the upwelling mantle plumes, and Model IV ignores both the heterogeneity of the African continent and the upwelling mantle plumes. Compared to these models is the original model that shows the best-fit results; this model indicates that the coupling of the upwelling mantle plumes and the mid-ocean ridge spreading causes the initial lithospheric breakup in Afar and East Africa. The extension direction and the separation of the EARS around the Tanzanian craton are attributed to the heterogeneity of the East African basement.

  12. Imaging rifting at the lithospheric scale in the northern East African Rift using S-to-P receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J. M.; Leroy, S. D.; Doubre, C.

    2017-12-01

    The lithosphere is modified during rifting by a combination of mechanical stretching, heating and potentially partial melt. We image the crust and upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath the northern East African Rift System (EARS), a unique tectonically active continental rift exposing along strike the transition from continental rifting in the Main Ethiopian rift (MER) to incipient seafloor spreading in Afar and the Red Sea. S-to-P receiver functions from 182 stations across the northern EARS were generated from 3688 high quality waveforms using a multitaper technique and then migrated to depth using a regional velocity model. Waveform modelling of data stacked in large conversion point bins confirms the depth and strength of imaged discontinuities. We image the Moho at 29.6±4.7 km depth beneath the Ethiopian plateaux with a variability in depth that is possibly due to lower crustal intrusions. The crust is 27.3±3.9 km thick in the MER and thinner in northern Afar, 17.5±0.7 km. The model requires a 3±1.2% reduction in shear velocity with increasing depth at 68.5±1.5 km beneath the Ethiopian plateaux, consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We do not resolve a LAB beneath Afar and the MER. This is likely associated with partial melt near the base of the lithosphere, reducing the velocity contrast between the melt-intruded lithosphere and the partially molten asthenosphere. We identify a 4.5±0.7% increase in velocity with depth at 91±3 km beneath the MER. This change in velocity is consistent with the onset of melting found by previous receiver functions and petrology studies. Our results provide independent constraints on the depth of melt production in the asthenosphere and suggest melt percolation through the base of the lithosphere beneath the northernmost East African rift.

  13. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-12-09

    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  14. MicroASC instrument onboard Juno spacecraft utilizing inertially controlled imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Jørgensen, Andreas Härstedt; Benn, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This contribution describes the post-processing of the raw image data acquired by the microASC instrument during the Earth-fly-by of the Juno spacecraft. The images show a unique view of the Earth and Moon system as seen from afar. The procedure utilizes attitude measurements and inter......-calibration of the Camera Head Units of the microASC system to trigger the image capturing. The triggering is synchronized with the inertial attitude and rotational phase of the sensor acquiring the images. This is essentially works as inertially controlled imaging facilitating image acquisition from unexplored...

  15. Change in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARREC, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    With the constant increase in industrial and agricultural activities since the beginning of the 20. Century, human societies have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere both in their immediate vicinity and further afar. The most preoccupying problem today is the increase in the so-called greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CFC, O 3 ). Indeed, these pollutant gases generally have long life cycles and consequently have for the first time produced a change in the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale inducing deferred effects such as a likely change in the earth's climate. (author)

  16. Four Easy Steps to Drastically Improve Your Phone-Based Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Spencer; Beimes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Japan is renowned for impeccable customer service (as anyone who's watched an apple get wrapped up like a crown jewel in a Tokyo grocery store will tell you). The Japanese concept of kaizen (constant improvement) is a fundamental reason for this, and for the enduring success of conglomerates such as Toyota, Honda, and Sony. From afar, you may think this trait is caused by something in the waters from Mt. Fuji, but many in the know credit the work of an American engineer named W. Edwards Deming as the catalyst for this movement. If his ideas could transform a nation, there's no question they can improve the patient satisfaction rates at your practice.

  17. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  18. Preliminary isotopic study of Lake Asal system (Republic of Djibouti)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.C.; Zuppi, G.M.; Florkowski, T.; Pouchan, P.

    1979-01-01

    The saline Lake Asal at 155 m below sea level in the Afar Rift (Republic of Djibouti) is fed mainly by sea water. In spite of the intense evaporation (about 3 m annually), the 18 O and deuterium enrichments of the lake water are relatively low, because of the reduced activity of water as a consequence of the high salt content. Isotopic balance of the lake, as well as lithium and sulphate balances, support the hypothesis of leakages from the lake of about 15 to 20% of the inflow. (author)

  19. Distance management – a challenge in participatory interventions in virtual organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    Virtual organizations challenge the first line managers as they have to be able to manage from afar as distance managers. Investigating distance management in participatory multi-level interventions this paper presents a case study of four SMEs which have applied the multi-level participatory Po......WRS program (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) over a six month period. Interviews were conducted with employees, in-house process facilitators, project managers and first line managers. The results show that distance managers are even more challenged in interventions especially regarding coordination...

  20. Constructing a popular subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo Errejón Galván

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, Iñigo Errejón describes his intense political career, which starts in an anti- Franco family of political activists, followed by his experience  of the decade of progressive governments in Latin America whilst observing Spanish politics from afar. This is a conversation with the young political scientist who set out the Podemos Hypothesis and has become the Political Secretary of the new party that promises to put an end to the two-party system in Spain in 2015.

  1. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    -21. Prosdocimi, M., Tarolli, P., Cerdà, A. 2016b. Mulching practices for reducing soil water erosion: A review, Earth-Science Reviews, 161: 191-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.006 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keestra, S.D., Prosdocimi, M., Brings, C., Marzen, M., Ramos, M.C., Senciales, J.M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016a. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 565, 1165-1174. Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Morvan, X., Malam Issa, O., Naisse, C., Keesstra, S.D., Cerdà, A., Prosdocimi, M., Arnáez, J., Lasanta, T., Ramos, M.C., Marqués, M.J., Ruiz Colmenero, M., Bienes, R., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. 2016b. Soil erosion processes in European vineyards: a qualitative comparison of rainfall simulation measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology 3, 6. Rodrigo Comino, J., Quiquerez, A., Follain, S., Raclot, D., Le Bissonnais, Y., Casalí, J., Giménez, R., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S.D., Brevik, E.C., Pereira, P., Senciales, J.M., Seeger, M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Ries, J.B., 2016c. Soil erosion in sloping vineyards assessed by using botanical indicators and sediment collectors in the Ruwer-Mosel valley. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 233, 158-170. Rodrigo Comino, J., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Senciales González, J.M., Guerra-Merchán, A., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. 2016d. High variability of soil erosion and hydrological processes in Mediterranean hillslope vineyards (Montes de Málaga, Spain). Catena 145, 274-284.

  2. Helium and carbon isotope systematics of Rungwe geothermal gases and fluids; southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    P. H. BARRY1*, D. R. HILTON1, T. P. FISCHER2, J. M. DE MOOR2, F. MANGASINI3 C. RAMIREZ4 1 Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA (*Correspondence: pbarry@ucsd.edu) 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. 3 Department of Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 35131, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. 4 Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Geologicas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. The East African Rift (EAR) is the largest modern example of continental rifting, extending from the Afar depression in the north to the Rungwe region in southern Tanzania. EAR volcanism is attributed to the presence of one or more mantle plumes [1]. Late Miocene to recent volcanism and geothermal activity mark the Rungwe region [2], with mafic eruptions as recently as 200 years ago. Our aim is to delineate the southern geographical extent of plume influence on the propagating EAR by investigating the He-CO2 characteristics of geothermal fluids in the Rungwe region. We report new helium (He) and carbon (C) isotopes (3He/4He, δ13C) and relative abundance (CO2/3He) characteristics for a suite of 20 geothermal gas and fluid samples from 11 different localities in the Rungwe region. He-isotopes are in good agreement with previous reports [3], and range from ~1 RA to ~7 RA (MORB-like values), indicating admixture between upper mantle He and variable proportions of radiogenic He. C-isotopes ranges from -2.8 to -6.5 ‰ (vs. PDB) with all falling in the MORB range (~4.5 ± 2‰). CO2/3He ratios vary over 5 orders of magnitude from ~3 x 10^9 (MORB-like) to higher values (up to ~3 x 10^13) normally associated with crustal lithologies. Taken together, the He-CO2 data can be explained by 2-component mixing of a deep-seated mantle source with crustal component(s). There are no

  3. Comparison of water soil erosion on Spanish Mediterannean abandoned land and agricultural fields under vine, almond, olives and citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Martínez-Hernández, Carlos; Iserloh, Thomas; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    ández-Gálvez, J., Fister, W., Geißler, C., Gómez, J.A., Gómez-Macpherson, H., Kuhn, N.J., Lázaro, R., León, F.J., Martínez-Mena, M., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., Marzen, M., Mingorance, M.D., Ortigosa, L., Peters, P., Regüés, D., Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D., Scholten, T., Seeger, M., Solé-Benet, A., Wengel, R., Wirtz, S., 2013. European small portable rainfall simulators: A comparison of rainfall characteristics. Catena 110, 100-112. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2013.05.013 Keesstra, S., Geissen, V., Mosse, K., Piiranen, S., Scudiero, E., Leistra, M., van Schaik, L., 2012. Soil as a filter for groundwater quality. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain., Terrestrial systems 4, 507-516. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2012.10.007 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Morvan, X., Malam Issa, O., Naisse, C., Keesstra, S.D., Cerdà, A., Prosdocimi, M., Arnáez, J., Lasanta, T., Ramos, M.C., Marqués, M.J., Ruiz Colmenero, M., Bienes, R., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016. Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology 3, 6. doi:10.3390/hydrology3010006 Smith, P., Cotrufo, M.F., Rumpel, C., Paustian, K., Kuikman, P.J., Elliott, J.A., McDowell, R., Griffiths, R.I., Asakawa, S., Bustamante, M., House, J.I., Sobocká, J., Harper, R., Pan, G., West, P.C., Gerber, J.S., Clark, J.M., Adhya, T., Scholes, R.J., Scholes, M.C., 2015. Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils. SOIL 1, 665-685. doi:10.5194/soil-1-665-2015 Vanmaercke, M., Poesen, J., Maetens, W., de Vente, J., Verstraeten, G., 2011. Sediment yield as a desertification risk indicator. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 1715-1725. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.01.034

  4. Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: Implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrajehi, Abdullah; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Daoud, Mohamed; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Ergintav, Semih; Gomez, Francisco; Sholan, Jamal; Bou-Rabee, Firyal; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Haileab, Biniam; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Mahmoud, Salah; Rayan, Ali; Bendik, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Five years of continuously recording GPS observations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia together with new continuous and survey-mode GPS observations broadly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula provide the basis for substantially improved estimates of present-day motion and internal deformation of the Arabian plate. We derive the following relative, geodetic Euler vectors (latitude (°N), longitude (°E), rate (°/Myr, counterclockwise)) for Arabia-Nubia (31.7 ± 0.2, 24.6 ± 0.3, 0.37 ± 0.01), Arabia-Somalia (22.0 ± 0.5, 26.2 ± 0.5, 0.40 ± 0.01), Arabia-India (18.0 ± 3.8, 87.6 ± 3.3, 0.07 ± 0.01), Arabia-Sinai (35.7 ± 0.8, 17.1 ± 5.0, 0.15 ± 0.04), and Arabia-Eurasia (27.5 ± 0.1, 17.6 ± 0.3, 0.404 ± 0.004). We use these Euler vectors to estimate present-day stability of the Arabian plate, the rate and direction of extension across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and slip rates along the southern Dead Sea fault south of the Lebanon restraining bend (4.5-4.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, left lateral; 0.8-1.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr extension) and the Owens fracture zone (3.2-2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr, right lateral, increasing from north to south; 1-2 mm/yr extension). On a broad scale, the Arabian plate has no resolvable internal deformation (weighted root mean square of residual motions for Arabia equals 0.6 mm/yr), although there is marginally significant evidence for N-S shortening in the Palmyride Mountains, Syria at ≤ 1.5 mm/yr. We show that present-day Arabia plate motion with respect to Eurasia is consistent within uncertainties (i.e., ±10%) with plate tectonic estimates since the early Miocene when Arabia separated from Nubia. We estimate the time of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting from present-day Arabia motion, plate tectonic evidence for a 70% increase in Arabia-Nubia relative motion at 13 Ma, and the width of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and find that rifting initiated roughly simultaneously (±2.2 Myr) along the strike of the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez to the Afar

  5. Geochemical study of the Sakalol-Harralol geothermal field (Republic of Djibouti): Evidences of a low enthalpy aquifer between Manda-Inakir and Asal rift settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Boschetti, Tiziano; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Baudron, Paul; Kawalieh, Ali Dirir; Dabar, Omar Assowe; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Ahmed, Samaleh Idriss; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Egueh, Nima Moussa; Mohamed, Jalludin

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-six sodium bicarbonate to sodium chloride hot springs and four water wells in the Tadjourah Region of Djibouti were investigated for major, minor (B, Br, F, Sr, Li) chemistry and isotope composition of water and dissolved components (87Sr/86Sr, 11B/10B, 13C/12C and 14C of DIC, 34S/32S and 18O/16O of sulfate). The deep saline Na-Cl reservoir at 143 °C shows affinity with the shallow geothermal water from the "active" Asal rift. Asal water is a diluted and recycled seawater component with the major cation composition obliterated by equilibration with Stratoid basalt. Locally, the deep reservoir is differentiated in term of recharge, and re-equilibration with rocks and mixing. In particular, two spring groups reveal contributions from evaporites typical of the "passive" graben setting of the Afar. A model on 34S/32S and 18O/16O demonstrates the isotope imprint of magmatic SO2 disproportionation on dissolved and solid sulfate, whose values probably persists in a sedimentary environment without trace of seawater. On the other hand a seawater signature, modified by mixing and secondary fractionation effects, is partially maintained according to the boron isotope composition (up to + 27.4‰). Temperature estimation in low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs is notoriously difficult, especially where mixing with fluids of differing genesis and/or conduction cooling take place. From a geothermometric point of view, the multi-method approach followed in this study (up-to-date theoretical and thermodynamic equations, ad-hoc silica geothermometers inferred from local rocks, checking of the results on a 18Oαsulfate-water vs. temperature diagram) provides some insights and perspectives on how to tackle the problem. Table S2. Sampling locations, T, pH, EC, TDS and hydrochemical types of the sampled waters. Table S3. Chemical analyses of thermal and cold waters from Sakalaol-Haralol geothermal field. Table S4. Mineral saturation indices of SHGF hot springs waters calculated

  6. Trends in disability benefit recipient rates in post industrialised countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    This working paper is part of a study organized by International Social Security Association (ISSA). The study is called Trends in disability benefit recipient rates in post-industrial societies. The other countries participating in the study are Sweden, United States, United Kingdom, The Netherl......This working paper is part of a study organized by International Social Security Association (ISSA). The study is called Trends in disability benefit recipient rates in post-industrial societies. The other countries participating in the study are Sweden, United States, United Kingdom...

  7. Reservoir engineering assessment of Dubti geothermal field, Northern Tendaho Rift, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, A.; Ferragina, C. [Aquater S.p.A. (ENI Group), San Lorenzo in Campo (Italy); Yiheyis, A.; Abatneh, W. [Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Calore, C. [International Institute for Geothermal Research, Pisa (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    Following on from surface exploration surveys performed during the 1970s and early 1980s, exploration drilling was carried out in the Tendaho Rift, in Central Afar (Ethiopia), from October 1993 to June 1995. Three deep and one shallow well were drilled in the central part of the Northern Tendaho Rift to verify the existence of a geothermal reservoir and its possible utilisation for electric power generation. The project was jointly financed by the Ethiopian Ministry of Mines and Energy and the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Project activities were performed by the Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys and Aquater SpA. The main reservoir engineering data discussed in this paper were collected during drilling and testing of the above four wells, three of which are located inside the Dubti Cotton Plantation, in which a promising hydrothermal area was identified by surface exploration surveys. Drilling confirmed the existence of a liquid-dominated shallow reservoir inside the Dubti Plantation, characterised by a boiling -point-for-depth temperature distribution down to about 500 m depth. The main permeable zones in the Sedimentary Sequence, which is made up of lacustrine deposits, are located in correspondence to basalt lava flow interlayerings, or at the contact between volcanic and sedimentary rocks. At depth, the basaltic lava flows that characterise the Afar Stratoid Series seem to have low permeability, with the exception of fractured zones associated with sub-vertical faults. Two different upflows of geothermal fluids have been inferred: one flow connected to the Dubti fault feeds the shallow reservoir crossed by wells TD-2 and TD-4, where a maximum temperature of 245{sup o}C was recorded; the second flow seems to be connected with a fault located east of well TD-1, where the maximum recorded temperature was 270{sup o}C. A schematic conceptual model of the Dubti hydrothermal area, as derived from reservoir engineering studies integrated with geological

  8. Analogue modelling of microcontinent formation: a case study from the Danakil Block, southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Nicolas; Cruden, Alexander; Betts, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The kinematic evolution of the Danakil Block is well constrained but the processes responsible for the formation of an isolated continental segment around 13 Ma ago with an independent pole of rotation are still matter of debate. We performed three-dimensional analogue experiments of rotational continental extension containing a pre-existing linear weakness zones in the lithospheric mantle to investigate the formation of the Red Sea, including the Danakil Block. We imposed a rotational extensional boundary condition that simulates the progressive anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate with respect to the Nubia Plate over the last 13-15 Ma and we simulated the presence of a narrow thermal anomaly related to the northward channelling of Afar plume by varying the viscosity of the model lithospheric mantle. The results from experiments containing a linear zone of weakness oriented at low angles with respect to the rift axis show that early stages of deformation are characterised by the development of two rift sub-parallel compartments that delimit an intra-rift block in the vicinity of the weak lithosphere boundary zone, which are analogous to the two rift branches that confine the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea. The imposed rotational boundary condition creates a displacement gradient along the intra-rift block and prevents the nucleation of the early rift compartments to the north of the block, enhancing the formation of an independently rotating intra-rift segment. Comparison with geodetic data supports our modelling results, which are also in agreement with the "crank-arm" model of Sichler (1980. La biellette Danakile: un modèle pour l'évolution géodynamique de l'Afar. Bull. la Société Géologique Fr. 22, 925-933). Additional analogue models of i) orthogonal extension with an identical lithospheric mantle weakness and, ii) rotational extension with a homogeneous lithosphere (i.e., no lithospheric mantle weakness) show no evidence of developing

  9. Retraction RETRACTION of "Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer" by Y. Ji, H.H. Jin, M.D. Wang, W.X. Cao, J.L. Bao - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028261 (2016) - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028261.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y; Jin, H H; Wang, M D; Cao, W X; Bao, J L

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Ji Y, Jin HH, Wang MD, Cao WX, et al. (2016). Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15028261. There are significant parts of this article (particularly, in the discussion section) that are copied from "Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancer is associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation is associated with outcome", by Jia Xu, Priya B Shetty, Weiwei Feng, Carol Chenault, Robert C Bast Jr, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Susan G Hilsenbeck and Yinhua Yu, published in BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 243. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-243. The first paragraphs of both discussions are identical. This is concerning. The abstract and introduction sections have much of their text plagiarized. Overall, there is high plagiarism detected. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  10. Integration issues of a plasma contactor Power Electronics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; York, Kenneth W.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1995-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is baselined on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for spacecraft charge control. The plasma contactor system consists of a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), a power electronics unit (PEU), and an expellant management unit (EMU). The plasma contactor has recently been required to operate in a cyclic mode to conserve xenon expellant and extend system life. Originally, a DC cathode heater converter was baselined for a continuous operation mode because only a few ignitions of the hollow cathode were expected. However, for cyclic operation, a DC heater supply can potentially result in hollow cathode heater component failure due to the DC electrostatic field. This can prevent the heater from attaining the proper cathode tip temperature for reliable ignition of the hollow cathode. To mitigate this problem, an AC cathode heater supply was therefore designed, fabricated, and installed into a modified PEU. The PEU was tested using resistive loads and then integrated with an engineering model hollow cathode to demonstrate stable steady-state operation. Integration issues such as the effect of line and load impedance on the output of the AC cathode heater supply and the characterization of the temperature profile of the heater under AC excitation were investigated.

  11. IRAS Colors of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Shipman, R. F.; Clark, F. O.

    1996-01-01

    We present large scale images of the infrared emission of the region around the Pleiades using the ISSA data product from the IRAS mission. Residual Zodiacal background and a discontinuity in the image due to the scanning strategy of the satellite necessitated special background subtraction methods. The 60/100 color image clearly shows the heating of the ambient interstellar medium by the cluster. The 12/100 and 25/100 images peak on the cluster as expected for exposure of small dust grains to an enhanced UV radiation field; however, the 25/100 color declines to below the average interstellar value at the periphery of the cluster. Potential causes of the color deficit are discussed. A new method of identifying dense molecular material through infrared emission properties is presented. The difference between the 100 micron flux density and the 60 micron flux density scaled by the average interstellar 60/100 color ratio (Delta I(sub 100) is a sensitive diagnostic of material with embedded heating sources (Delta I(sub 100) less than 0) and cold, dense cores (Delta I(sub 100) greater than 0). The dense cores of the Taurus cloud complex as well as Lynds 1457 are clearly identified by this method, while the IR bright but diffuse Pleiades molecular cloud is virtually indistinguishable from the nearby infrared cirrus.

  12. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Tom L

    2010-08-13

    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale.

  13. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  14. Health care globalization: a need for virtual leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J Brian; Malvey, Donna; Fottler, Myron D

    2009-01-01

    As health care organizations expand and move into global markets, they face many leadership challenges, including the difficulty of leading individuals who are geographically dispersed. This article provides global managers with guidelines for leading and motivating individuals or teams from a distance while overcoming the typical challenges that "virtual leaders" and "virtual teams" face: employee isolation, confusion, language barriers, cultural differences, and technological breakdowns. Fortunately, technological advances in communications have provided various methods to accommodate geographically dispersed or "global virtual teams." Health care leaders now have the ability to lead global teams from afar by becoming "virtual leaders" with a responsibility to lead a "virtual team." Three models of globalization presented and discussed are outsourcing of health care services, medical tourism, and telerobotics. These models require global managers to lead virtually, and a positive relationship between the virtual leader and the virtual team member is vital in the success of global health care organizations.

  15. Cuba's Urban Landscape Needs a Second Round of Innovation for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Cuba's economy spiraled downward in the 1990s, reeling from the collapse of European socialism and a tightened US embargo. To mitigate the crash's drastic effects, measures were adopted that transformed our urban landscape, especially in large cities such as Havana, paradoxically linking the period to nascent health-promoting options. One of the most important was the introduction of bicycle lanes on city streets, paths daily ridden by people on the over one million bicycles imported to offset the nearly nonexistent public transport caused by fuel shortages. Second, urban gardens began to sprout up, involving urban dwellers in production of their own food, particularly vegetables. Without minimizing the impact of the crisis, these two seemingly disparate phenomena meant people were getting more exercise, consuming fewer fats and carbohydrates and more fresh vegetables. People were even breathing fresher air, with fewer CO2-belching trucks, old cars and buses on the streets and less diesel used to transport produce in from afar.

  16. Resurrection, Re-Imagination, Reconstruction: New Viewpoints on the Hereford Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Lepine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hereford Screen is one of the most complex and intricate choir screens of the Victorian era. Positioned in the gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum’s main entrance, its glistening metalwork, brass, and terracotta effect surfaces, incrustations of wrought floral forms, Gothic Revival lettering, and semi-precious stones combine with delicate slivers of glinting glass that wink at each of the museum’s visitors, whether they journey up the stairs to gaze at this monument up close or regard it from afar on their way to the galleries beyond. The Hereford Screen is one of a family of screens produced by the architect George Gilbert Scott and the metalwork firm of Francis Skidmore for British cathedrals in the mid- to late nineteenth century. The Hereford Screen was perceived by many to be the pinnacle of Victorian Gothic Revival metalwork. Before its installation in Hereford Cathedral it was shown at the 1862 International Exhibition in London.

  17. Remote Operation of the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barov, Nikolai

    2002-01-01

    The recognition that a new major HEP facility must receive international support and that its execution would benefit from worldwide interaction from design through operation has given rise to the term Global Accelerator Network (GAN). A welcome consequence has been a more permissive attitude toward remote operation of existing facilities.For roughly thirty years, the computer has been the principal operator interface to the beam,and, through the development of the Internet, the operator can be literally anywhere. In this note, the authors describe their approach to enabling a sufficient degree of operation of the photoinjector from afar in order to carry out investigations in beam physics. The goal was to do so on a time scale of a few months and at minimal cost. At this writing, remote shifts are routinely scheduled involving DESY and LBL, limited in frequency only by the requests of the collaborators and by the need for time to interpret the data

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 462 ... LA Selim, MS Zaki, HA Hussein, SN Saleem, AS Kotoury, MY Issa ... Amira Messadi, Aymen Tezeghdenti, Mouna Ben Azaiez, Hatem Ben Abdallah, ... Wael Abd Elrazek, Manal Safan, Tarek Abd El-Hakim, Hala El-Said.

  19. Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d'Italianistica nell'Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ricordare per interrogare: Percorsi della memoria in Primo Levi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Poeti, 13-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/issa.v20i2.52142 ...

  20. Introduzione / Introduction | Guzzetta | Italian Studies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Introduzione / Introduction. G Guzzetta. Abstract. Identità Italiane In Movimento. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/issa.v21i1-2.43947 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. The East African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  2. Mantle convection patterns reveal the enigma of the Red Sea rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, Alexey; Kaban, Mikhail; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-04-01

    Initiation and further development of the Red Sea rift (RSR) is usually associated with the Afar plume at the Oligocene-Miocene separating the Arabian plate from the rest of the continent. Usually, the RSR is divided into three parts with different geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, but the nature of this partitioning is still debatable. To understand origin and driving forces responsible for the tectonic partitioning of the RSR, we have developed a global mantle convection model based on the refined density model and viscosity distribution derived from tectonic, rheological and seismic data. The global density model of the upper mantle is refined for the Middle East based on the high-resolution 3D model (Kaban et al., 2016). This model based on a joint inversion of the residual gravity and residual topography provides much better constraints on the 3D density structure compared to the global model based on seismic tomography. The refined density model and the viscosity distribution based on a homologous temperature approach provide an initial setup for further numerical calculations. The present-day snapshot of the mantle convection is calculated by using the code ProSpher 3D that allows for strong lateral variations of viscosity (Petrunin et al., 2013). The setup includes weak plate boundaries, while the measured GPS velocities are used to constrain the solution. The resulting mantle flow patterns show clear distinctions among the mantle flow patterns below the three parts of the RSR. According to the modeling results, tectonics of the southern part of the Red Sea is mainly determined by the Afar plume and the Ethiopian rift opening. It is characterized by a divergent mantle flow, which is connected to the East African Rift activity. The rising mantle flow is traced down to the transition zone and continues in the lower mantle for a few thousand kilometers south-west of Afar. The hot mantle anomaly below the central part of the RSR can be

  3. Improvement of Safeguards Practices in Armenia Through Implementation of Advanced Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkumyan, A.; Amirjanyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic Armenia (RA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in connection with Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed on 23.09.1993 and the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement was ratified on 28.06.2004. In 2007 the RA invited the IAEA ISSAS mission that made recommendations the majority of which have been implemented. The Law of the RA on Safe Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes establishes the provisions related to the safeguards implementation on state and facility levels, as well as provisions related to preparation and conduct of SG inspections at nuclear facilities and LOFs, preparation and submission of accounting reports and other. The Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority is responsible for the safeguards implementation on the state level. The ANRA also maintains the general ledger for LOFs, prepares the accounting reports and submits them to the IAEA. To improve the SG practices and provide with the efficient and continuous control over the nuclear materials, the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (ANRA’s TSO) developed an electronic database NUCMAT to maintain an accurate inventory, record all changes and provide recoverable history of all activities related to the nuclear materials present in the RA. The NUCMAT provides with automated access to the information on NM and is aimed to assist in efficient implementation of accounting and control of NM, storing data, generating the accounting reports in the format that meets the IAEA requirements, as well tables and maps and quick access to the data. At present the NUCMAT is in trial use by the ANRA specifically in relation to implementation of the accounting and control of nuclear materials in the LOFs. (author)

  4. Project Freebird: An orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneses, Carlos A.; Blanchette, Ryan L.; Brann, David M.; Campos, Mario J.; Cohen, Lisa E.; Corcoran, Daniel J., III; Cox, James F.; Curtis, Trevor J.; Douglass, Deborah A.; Downard, Catherine L.

    1994-08-01

    Freebird is a space-based orbital transfer vehicle designed to repair and deorbit orbital assets. Freebird is based at International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) at an inclination of 51.6 deg and is capable of three types of missions: crewed and teleoperated LEO missions, and extended robotic missions. In a crewed local configuration, the vehicle can visit inclinations between 30.8 deg and 72.4 deg at altitudes close to 390 km. Adding extra fuel tanks extends this range of inclination up to 84.9 deg and down to 18.3 deg. Furthermore, removing the crew module, using the vehicle in a teleoperated manner, and operating with extra fuel tanks allows missions to polar and geosynchronous orbits. To allow for mission flexibility, the vehicle was designed in a semimodular configuration. The major system components include a crew module, a 'smart box' (which contains command, communications, guidance, and navigation equipment), a propulsion pack, extra fuel tanks, and a vehicle storage facility (VSF) for storage purposes. To minimize risk as well as development time and cost, the vehicle was designed using only proven technology or technology which is expected to be flight-qualified in time for the intended launch date of 2002. And, because Freebird carries crew and operates near the space station, it must meet or exceed the NASA reliability standard of 0.994, as well as other standard requirements for such vehicles. The Freebird program was conceived and designed as a way to provide important and currently unavailable satellite repair and replacement services of a value equal to or exceeding operational costs.

  5. Review of meningitis surveillance data, upper West Region, Ghana 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuoh, Robert Domo; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Nortey, Priscilla; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Lwanga, Noora Charles; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Nuolabong, Culbert; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Wurapa, Fredrick; Afari, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The Upper West region of Ghana is within the meningitis belt. Analysis of long term surveillance data is necessary for understanding changes in the disease occurrence. We analyzed five years of surveillance data to describe by person, place and time and to determine trends in meningitis. Meningitis surveillance data from Ghana Health Service in the Upper West Region, from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Data was obtained from District-Health Information Management System and line list from the Disease Control Unit. Population figures (denominators) and rainfall data were also analyzed. Within the period 980 cases of meningitis were reported in the region, 507(52%) females and 473(48%) males. The mean age of cases was 20.1years and standard deviation 18.8 years with, 77.6 %( 761/980) cases occurring in persons aged under 30 years. Children under five years were 19.3% (190/980). Attack rates ranged from 6.1/100,000 population in the Daffiama-bussei-Issa-district to 47.5/100,000 in Jirapa. Overall case fatality rate of meningitis was 12.2% with 14deaths/100,000 population. Bacterial agents were isolated from 35% (245/702) of CSF. Majority were Streptococcus pneumonia 48.2 % ( 122/258), and N. meningitides Y/W 135 40.3% (102/258). Meningitis was found to be seasonal with peaks in the dry season. Meningitis in the region is seasonal, and showed a decreasing trend. Jirapa, Lawra, Nadowli and Wa West districts had the highest burden. Control effort of the disease should focus on vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia and N. meningitis W135 especially within crowded settlements such as boarding schools.

  6. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  7. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  8. DNA recovery from wild chimpanzee tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A Stewart

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals. We used commercially available forensic DNA kits to show that termite-fishing by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii leaves behind detectable chimpanzee DNA evidence on tools. We then quantified the recovered DNA, compared the yield to that from faecal samples, and performed an initial assessment of mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to identify individuals. From 49 termite-fishing tools from the Issa Valley research site in western Tanzania, we recovered an average of 52 pg/μl chimpanzee DNA, compared to 376.2 pg/μl in faecal DNA extracts. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes could be assigned to 41 of 49 tools (84%. Twenty-six tool DNA extracts yielded >25 pg/μl DNA and were selected for microsatellite analyses; genotypes were determined with confidence for 18 tools. These tools were used by a minimum of 11 individuals across the study period and termite mounds. These results demonstrate the utility of bio-molecular techniques and a primate archaeology approach in non-invasive monitoring and behavioural reconstruction of unhabituated primate populations.

  9. LATAR BELAKANG KARAKTERISTIK RESPONDED DALAM PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT SHIGELLA/DISENTRI YANG DILAKUKAN OLEH MASYARAKAT DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Handayani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Research was conducted in North Jakarta and Selected 2 district in Jakarta North that is Tanjung Priok and Koja district as a research region. About 300 respondents which include 140 men and 151 woman from Tanjung Priok district. In Koja district was taken 200 respondents that consist of 101 men and 99 woman. Data processing done with double entry, by using program ISSA (Integrated Survey Analysis and Analysis Data used SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science. The Research shown 88,7%-89,2% prevent spicy food can overcome dysentery disease of, 55.2% improving clean water can be temporary prevention of dysentery disease, and 56,4%-56,6% personal hygiene able to handle dysentery disease forever. By repairing bathroom (usually used for bath, wash, dump faeces 57.1%-58.4% and fixing garbage 56,2%-57,2% can prevent dysentery disease temporary, while 97,2%-97,4% of drinking traditional medicine (jamu also happen the same thing with dysentery disease. Based on respondents, 96,5%-96,6% using its own medicine/ingredient will prevent dysentery disease. According respondents habit on wash hand about 84.4% respondents wash their hand firstly in the morning and 74.2% washing band before sleep but 64.4% respondents who never wash their band before get dressed. From this research inferential respondents belief to prevent eat spicy food, improving readily clean water, bathroom, garbage place, efficacious of traditional drink, ingredients, washing band habit can be major factors that can prevent community from dysentery disease. The research is part of social Behavior Culture in Overcome Shigella Disease in Jakarta. Keywords: Respondent, Preventing, Shigella Disease

  10. Icelandic organizational culture; Clear strategic direction and intent but lack of coordination and integration Íslensk vinnustaðamenning. Skýr og markviss stefna en skortur á samhæfingu og samþættingu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Dalmann Aðalsteinsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of development gained hegemonic status in the middle of the 20th century as a way of understanding the relationship between different parts of the world. Even though debated how development would best be achieved, the idea as such was generally not critically assessed. Development institutions were seen as objective institutions with the technological knowledge necessary to move one society to the next level of development. The collection of data of these institutions in the so-called underdeveloped parts of the world involved the most intimate aspects of societies,and gave the idea of development content and meaning. The article looks at the origin of Icelandic development aid and aims at contextualizing it within international ideas of aid. The discussion starts with overview of historical appearance of international development globally and its hegemonic position. It focuses then on how the idea of development takes shape in an Icelandic context at a particular period and how it was shaped by international discourses, as is for example reflected in increased pressure on the Icelandic government to initiate an aid institution. The establishment of Iceland’s first governmental institutions focusing on aid in 1971 reflects still little interest by the Icelandic government at that time in international development. The article also shows how these international discourses become entangled with Icelandic nationalism,and thus the emphasis that the Icelandic nation-state would be engaged in international development.Hugtakið vinnustaðamenning hefur verið mikið til umræðu síðustu áratugi innan stjórnunar- og skipulagsfræða. Hugtakið er flókið og erfitt er að henda reiður á því. Í þessari grein er gerð ítarleg grein fyrir hugtakinu og greint frá mörgum ólíkum skilgreiningum þess. Fjallað er um íslenskar rannsóknir á vinnustaðamenningu og helstu einkenni íslensks stjórnunarstíls. Sérstökum sjónum er

  11. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 178 ... Harama, D · Harissou, Y · Haro, H · Haro, Moïse · Harouna, Maman Sani Ladan · Harouna Issa, Amadou · Haruna, A K · Haruna, AK · Haruna, T · Hash, C. Tom · Hassan, AA · Hassan, Ahmat Djefil · Hassan, AS · Hassan, HS · Hassan, SW · Hassanali, A · Haubruge, Eric · Hazra, A · Hedji, Carine Christiane

  12. The role of tephra studies in African paleoanthropology as exemplified by the Sidi Hakoma Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Endale, Tamrat; White, Tim D.; Thouveny, Nicolas; Hart, William K.; Renne, Paul R.; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, geological and paleoanthropological exploration of the Ethiopian rift system's basins have led to the discovery and assembly of the most comprehensive record of human biological and technological change during the last 6 million years. The hominid fossils, including partial skeletons, were primarily discovered in the Afar Rift, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and in the Omo Basin of the broadly rifted zone of SW Ethiopia. The paleoanthropological research areas within the SW Afar Rift that have yielded many diverse hominid species and the oldest stone tools are, from north to south, Woranso-Mille (aff. Ardipithecus and Au. afarensis), Hadar (Au. afarensis, Homo sp.), Dikika (Au. afarensis), Gona (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, H. erectus, and oldest stone tools), Middle Awash (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. garhi, H. erectus, H. rhodesiensis, H. sapiens idaltu, and the oldest paleo-butchery locality), and Galili (Au. afarensis). Additional hominid remains were discovered at Melka Kunture on the banks of the Awash River near its source along the western margin of the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (H. erectus), at Konso (H. erectus and A. boisei), and at the southern end of the MER, and in the Omo Basin (Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. aethiopicus, Au. boisei, H. habilis, and H. erectus). Distal and sometimes proximal tephra units interbedded within fossilifeous sedimentary deposits have become key elements in this work by providing chronological and correlative control and depositional contexts. Several regional tephra markers have been identified within the northern half of the eastern African rift valley in Ethiopia and Kenya, and in marine sediments of the Gulf of Aden Rift and the NW Indian Ocean. Out of the many regional tephra stratigraphic markers that range in age from the early Pliocene (3.97 Ma) to the late Pleistocene (0.16 Ma), the Sidi Hakoma Tuff (SHT) has been more widely identified and thoroughly

  13. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    -based hyperspectral infrared measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption J. Geophys. Res. 117 D00U16 Wiart P and Oppenheimer C 2005 Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano Bull. Volcanol. 67 99-115

  14. Crustal structure of an exhumed IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS): the Mekele Basin in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, T. B.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekele Sedimentary Basin (MSB) in Ethiopia is a Paleozoic-Mesozoic IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS) exposed due to Cenozoic domal and rift flank uplift associated with the Afar mantle plume and Afar Depression (AD). ICONS are formed over stable lithosphere, and in contrast to rift and foreland basins, show circular-elliptical shape in map view, saucer shaped in cross section, and concentric gravity minima. Surface geological features of the MSB have been shown to exhibit geologic characteristics similar to those of other ICONS. We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate subsurface-crustal structure of the MSB. We also used 2D power spectrum analysis and inversion of the gravity field to estimate the Moho depth. Our results show the Bouguer anomalies of the WGM 2012 ranges between 130 mGal and - 110 mGal with the highest values within the AD. Despite the effect of the AD on the gravity anomalies, the MSB is characterized by the presence of gravity low anomaly that reaches in places -110 mGal, especially in its western part. The Moho depth estimates, from both spectral analysis and inversion of the gravity data, is between 36 and 40 km depth over most of the western and southern margins of the MSB. However, as the AD is approached, in the eastern margins of the MSB, crustal thickness estimates are highly affected by the anomalously thin and magmatic segment of the AD, and the Moho depth range between 30 and 25 km. Our results are consistent with that of seismic studies in areas far from the MSB, but within the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau where the MSB is located. Those studies have reported an abrupt decrease in Moho depth from 40 km beneath the Northwestern plateau, to 20 km in the adjacent AD. Though the MSB is small (100 kmX100 km) compared to other ICONS, and affected by the neighboring AD, it is characterized by elliptical gravity minima and a relatively thicker crust that gradually thickens away from the rift. In addition, seismic imaging

  15. Two-dimensional, average velocity field across the Asal Rift, Djibouti from 1997-2008 RADARSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, J.; Doubre, C.; Peltzer, G.

    2009-12-01

    Located at the western end of the Aden ridge, the Asal Rift is the first emerged section of the ridge propagating into Afar, a region of intense volcanic and tectonic activity. We construct a two-dimensional surface velocity map of the 200x400 km2 region covering the rift using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data acquired from ascending and descending passes of the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent troposphere conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. We combine the ascending and descending pass LOS velocity fields with the Arabia-Somalia pole of rotation adjusted to regional GPS velocities (Vigny et al., 2007) to compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal, GPS-parallel components of the velocity over the rift. The vertical velocity field shows a ~40 km wide zone of doming centered over the Fieale caldera associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. Differential movement between shoulders and floor is accommodated by creep at 6 mm/yr on Fault γ and 2.7 mm/yr on Fault E. The horizontal field shows that the two shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift to the plate motion rate of ~11 mm/yr. Part of the opening is concentrated on faults γ (5 mm/yr) and E (4 mm/yr) and about 4 mm/yr is distributed between Fault E and Fault H in the southern part of the rift. The observed velocity field along a 60 km-long profile across the eastern part of the rift can be explained with a 2D mechanical model involving a 5-9 km-deep, vertical dyke expanding horizontally at a rate of 5 cm/yr, a 2 km-wide, 7 km-deep sill expanding vertically at 1cm/yr, and down-dip and opening of faults γ and E. Results from 3D rift models describing along-strike velocity decrease away from the Goubbet Gulf and the effects of a pressurized magma chamber will be

  16. Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigny, Christophe; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Huchon, Philippe; Feigl, Kurt L.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Asfaw, Laike; Kanbari, Khaled

    2007-06-01

    Since most of Tadjoura-Asal rift system sits on dry land in the Afar depression near the triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia plates, it is an ideal natural laboratory for studying rifting processes. We analyze these processes in light of a time series of geodetic measurements from 1978 through 2003. The surveys used triangulation (1973), trilateration (1973, 1979, and 1981-1986), leveling (1973, 1979, 1984-1985, and 2000), and the Global Positioning System (GPS, in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003). A network of about 30 GPS sites covers the Republic of Djibouti. Additional points were also measured in Yemen and Ethiopia. Stations lying in the Danakil block have almost the same velocity as Arabian plate, indicating that opening near the southern tip of the Red Sea is almost totally accommodated in the Afar depression. Inside Djibouti, the Asal-Ghoubbet rift system accommodates 16 ± 1 mm/yr of opening perpendicular to the rift axis and exhibits a pronounced asymmetry with essentially null deformation on its southwestern side and significant deformation on its northeastern side. This rate, slightly higher than the large-scale Arabia-Somalia motion (13 ± 1 mm/yr), suggests transient variations associated with relaxation processes following the Asal-Ghoubbet seismovolcanic sequence of 1978. Inside the rift, the deformation pattern exhibits a clear two-dimensional pattern. Along the rift axis, the rate decreases to the northwest, suggesting propagation in the same direction. Perpendicular to the rift axis, the focus of the opening is clearly shifted to the northeast, relative to the topographic rift axis, in the "Petit Rift," a rift-in-rift structure, containing most of the active faults and the seismicity. Vertical motions, measured by differential leveling, show the same asymmetric pattern with a bulge of the northeastern shoulder. Although the inner floor of the rift is subsiding with respect to the shoulders, all sites within the

  17. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-04

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. التناص القرآني في شعر النقائض الأموية

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. A. Rawajbeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The poets of opposites poems take their knowledge from multi-springs of knowledge. So, the direction of Islamic values were added to the knowledge that take from the past and its literature, and from present Islam and its acquaintances, so the poetic culture was colored with the color of the culture which they take. It was the way for the best poets to serve their purpose and to deliver their messages. There is no doubt that the Quran was afar distance of both recipient and poet for his eloquence this type of poem has been associated with the name of obscenity because of the large number insults and exposure of the taboos. This article came to reveal the relationship between the poetic text and the Quranic text in the poem of the three Umayyad poets and to wipe the dust of obscenity which knighted him and to identify the impact of the holy Quran upon its simple, compound and inspiration system and address the extent of correlation of poetic text and overlap with the Holy Quran.

  19. [Epidemiologic aspects of 42 cases of human brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G; Prigent, D; Baudet, J M; Banoita, S; Daoud, W

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis is an ubiquitous anthropozoonoses in the Republic of Djibouti, but it has only been studied in the City of Djibouti. This retrospective study of 42 cases of human brucellosis diagnosed between April 1993 and April 1995 was carried out at the Peltier Hospital in Djibouti to obtain epidemiological data concerning brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and positive immunologic tests (Rose Bengal test > 100 UI and Wright serology > 1/80). The following information was obtained for each patient: nationality, ethnic origin, place of residence, age, sex, and risk factors for exposure to infected animals or products. There were 30 men and 12 women including 38 Djiboutis, 3 Somalis, and 1 Ethiopian. Ethnic origin was Afar in 32 cases, Somali in 6 cases, and undetermined in 4 cases. Mean age was 31.6 years. Of the 38 Djiboutis, 15 lived in the district of Djibouti, 17 in the district of Tadjourah, 3 in the district of Obock, and none in districts located in the Southern part of the country. In 18 cases brucellosis involved cattle raisers from the Northern part of the country. In five cases no risk factor could be identified. The incidence of brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti appears to be comparable to that observed in other highly endemic countries. Further study is needed to determine the exact incidence in man and animals and ascertain the need and feasibility of preventive measures.

  20. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2016-05-11

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  1. Modelling of spatial prediction of fire ignition risk in the Antalya-Manavgat district

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    Coşkun Okan Güney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the fire ignition risk for Manavgat-Antalya District to enable the planning of firefighting sources in a more qualified way. From sites within the study area, where forest fires broke out or not during the past five years, we obtained geographical coordinates, climate data, topographical data and variables like bedrock, stand types, settlement areas, roads and power lines and prepared them with geographical information systems. For all variables we performed Wilcoxon rank-sum test, interspecific correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis and obtained 4 different models. When ROC analysis was applied to these models, model 4 was determined as the most significant model and therefore used to prepare the fire ignition risk map for the Manavgat-Antalya District. According to this map, ignition risk within the study area was highest in and around settlement areas where roads and power lines concentrate and Turkish red pine is distributed, but it was lowest afar of settlement areas without roads and where species apart from Turkish red pine are distributed. According to the results some suggestions were made.

  2. Magmatic architecture within a rift segment: Articulate axial magma storage at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbin; Rivalta, Eleonora; Li, Xing

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the magmatic systems beneath rift volcanoes provides insights into the deeper processes associated with rift architecture and development. At the slow spreading Erta Ale segment (Afar, Ethiopia) transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading is ongoing on land. A lava lake has been documented since the twentieth century at the summit of the Erta Ale volcano and acts as an indicator of the pressure of its magma reservoir. However, the structure of the plumbing system of the volcano feeding such persistent active lava lake and the mechanisms controlling the architecture of magma storage remain unclear. Here, we combine high-resolution satellite optical imagery and radar interferometry (InSAR) to infer the shape, location and orientation of the conduits feeding the 2017 Erta Ale eruption. We show that the lava lake was rooted in a vertical dike-shaped reservoir that had been inflating prior to the eruption. The magma was subsequently transferred into a shallower feeder dike. We also find a shallow, horizontal magma lens elongated along axis inflating beneath the volcano during the later period of the eruption. Edifice stress modeling suggests the hydraulically connected system of horizontal and vertical thin magmatic bodies able to open and close are arranged spatially according to stresses induced by loading and unloading due to topographic changes. Our combined approach may provide new constraints on the organization of magma plumbing systems beneath volcanoes in continental and marine settings.

  3. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  4. Young rift kinematics in the Tadjoura rift, western Gulf of Aden, Republic of Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Mohamed A.; Le Gall, Bernard; Maury, René C.; Rolet, JoëL.; Huchon, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The Tadjoura rift forms the westernmost edge of the westerly propagating Sheba ridge, between Arabia and Somalia, as it enters into the Afar depression. From structural and remote sensing data sets, the Tadjoura rift is interpreted as an asymmetrical south facing half-graben, about 40 km wide, dominated by a large boundary fault zone to the north. It is partially filled up by the 1-3 Myr old Gulf Basalts which onlapped the older Somali Basalts along its shallower southern flexural margin. The major and trace element analysis of 78 young onshore lavas allows us to distinguish and map four distinct basaltic types, namely the Gulf, Somali, Goumarre, and Hayyabley Basalts. These results, together with radiometric age data, lead us to propose a revised volcano-stratigraphic sketch of the two exposed Tadjoura rift margins and to discriminate and date several distinct fault networks of this oblique rift. Morphological and statistical analyses of onshore extensional fault populations show marked changes in structural styles along-strike, in a direction parallel to the rift axis. These major fault disturbances are assigned to the arrest of axial fault tip propagation against preexisting discontinuities in the NS-oriented Arta transverse zone. According to our model, the sinistral jump of rifting into the Asal-Ghoubbet rift segment results from structural inheritance, in contrast with the en échelon or transform mechanism of propagation that prevailed along the entire length of the Gulf of Aden extensional system.

  5. Volcanic Eruptions in the Southern Red Sea During 2007–2013

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-04-03

    The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.

  6. Volcanic Eruptions in the Southern Red Sea During 2007–2013

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon; Xu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.

  7. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOUT: A HOSPITAL CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUN SC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gout is an increasingly common medical problem. The traditional risk factors of male sex and high red meat or alcohol consumption have been joined with newer risks such as increased life expectancy, and the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, truncal obesity. Methods: This was a retrospective study to determine the epidemiology, clinical features, associated conditions as well as renal related conditions in existing gout patients followed-up in Rheumatology outpatient clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja’afar, Seremban. Results: Over a three month period, we identified 54 gouty patients on our follow-up, the majority being male, Malay ethnicity, withthe age of onset in the third and fourth decades of life. Commonly associated risk factors were hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. However, underlying history of diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, and family history were not commonly associated with gout in our group of patients. Half of our patients had at least two or more joints involvement. About half of the patients with tophaceous gout had renal impairment. Conclusion: Our series of gout patients highlight the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The high prevalence of tophi and renal impairment is a cause for concern.

  8. Quantitative remote visual inspection in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    A borescope is an instrument that is used within the power industry to visually inspect remote locations. It is typically used for inspections of heat exchangers, condensers, boiler tubes, and steam generators and in many general inspection applications. The optical system of a borescope, like the human eye, does not have a fixed magnification. When viewing an object close up, it appears large; when the same object is viewed from afar, it appears small. Humans, though, have two separate eyes and a brain that process information to calculate the size of an object. These attributes are considered secondary information. Until now, making a measurement using a borescope has been an educated guess. There has always been a need to make accurate measurements from borescope images. The realization of this capability would make remote visual inspection a quantitative nondestructive testing method versus a qualitative one. For nuclear power plants, it is an excellent technique for maintaining radiation levels as low as reasonably achievable. Remote visual measurement provides distance and limits the exposure time needed to make accurate measurements. The design problem, therefore, was to develop the capability to make accurate and repeatable measurements of objects or physical defects with a borescope-type instrument. The solution was achieved by designing a borescope with a novel shadow projection mechanism, integrated with an electronics module containing the video display circuitry and a measurement computer

  9. The E-pistolary Novel: Print Screens of Media-driven Thoughts in David Llewellyn’s Eleven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Celia GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary literature seems to have reconciled the idea that everything valuable has already been said and done and, as such, has wilfully inscribed itself in a never-ending cycle of narratives about narratives, in a process of recycling and updating the past, which some love to name postmodernist. What is left at stake is simply the consumerist need to produce an oxymoronic ‘original copy’: to launch that piece of literature unseen and unheard of before on a crowded book market. A recipe for success seems to be the ability to combine the novelty of the architectural design – the formal innovation – with the thematisation of the present. It is precisely what the young Welsh novelist and scriptwriter, David Llewellyn, achieves with his debut novel, Eleven. In an attempt to translate the old into the new, Eleven is constructed following the design of the early modern epistolary novels, yet making use of a contemporary mode of writing: the email. Thematically, it is an exploration of patterns of individual thinking shaped by the media, against the background of an event with global consequences, which is, nevertheless, viewed from afar, without the inherent trauma so visible in American post-9/11 fiction. The present paper aims at analysing the construction of the novel, including the linguistic transformations it employs, and at accounting for the identitaryrevolt that transpires from the e mails exchanged between various character-narrators on an apparently ordinary day: September 11, 2001.

  10. Sublithospheric flows in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, V. G.; Sokolov, S. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    The estimated rates of upper mantle sublithospheric flows in the Hawaii-Emperor Range and Ethiopia-Arabia-Caucasus systems are reported. In the Hawaii-Emperor Range system, calculation is based on motion of the asthenospheric flow and the plate moved by it over the branch of the Central Pacific plume. The travel rate has been determined based on the position of variably aged volcanoes (up to 76 Ma) with respect to the active Kilauea Volcano. As for the Ethiopia-Arabia-Caucasus system, the age of volcanic eruptions (55-2.8 Ma) has been used to estimate the asthenospheric flow from the Ethiopian-Afar superplume in the northern bearing lines. Both systems are characterized by variations in a rate of the upper mantle flows in different epochs from 4 to 12 cm/yr, about 8 cm/yr on average. Analysis of the global seismic tomographic data has made it possible to reveal rock volumes with higher seismic wave velocities under ancient cratons; rocks reach a depth of more than 2000 km and are interpreted as detached fragments of the thickened continental lithosphere. Such volumes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean were submerged at an average velocity of 0.9-1.0 cm/yr along with its opening. The estimated rates of the mantle flows clarify the deformation properties of the mantle and regulate the numerical models of mantle convection.

  11. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-06

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The dangers of irradiate uranium in nuclear reactors; Les dangers de l'uranium irradie dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The danger of the uranium cans sur-activated by the use in the nuclear reactors is triple: - Irradiation from afar, during manipulations of the cans. - Contamination of air when decladding. - Contamination of air by fire of uranium in a reactor in function The first two dangers are usual and can be treated thanks to the rules of security in use in the atomic industry. The third has an accidental character and claimed for the use of special and exceptional rules, overflowing the industrial setting, to reach the surrounding populations. (authors) [French] Le danger des cartouches d'uranium suractive par utilisation dans les reacteurs nucleaires est triple: - Irradiation a distance, lors des manipulations des cartouches. - Contamination de l'air au moment de leur degainage. - Contamination de l'air par incendie d'uranium dans un reacteur en fonctionnement. Les deux premiers dangers sont habituels et peuvent etre traites grace aux regles de securite en usage dans l'industrie atomique. Le troisieme revet un caractere accidentel et reclame l'emploi de regles speciales et exceptionnelles, debordant le cadre industriel, pour atteindre celui des populations environnantes. (auteurs)

  13. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy.

  14. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy. PMID:29134106

  15. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 4. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 83, Issue 4. October 2014, pages 457-632. pp 457-471 Research Articles. Solitary wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics · Anwar Ja'afar Mohamad Jawad M Mirzazadeh Anjan Biswas.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 913 of 913 ... Z Idrus, H Zainuddin, A.D.M. Ja'afar. Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Special Issue: Part 4, Visual structure analysis of compound reliefs of milli hats used by men in Makriyan region, Abstract PDF. AA Yousofkand. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Voice over IP using sip server: Wide area network performance ...

  17. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... el Comportamiento, Parte 1 CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 1 Expert Briefings: Apathy or ... CareMAP: Caring from Afar CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 2 Dra. Claudia Martinez, MAPC - ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Day to Day? CareMAP: Is a Care Facility Needed? CareMAP: Caring from Afar CareMAP: Dressing CareMAP: ... Overview of Parkinson's Disease OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proc. Nilt. Acad. Sci., VoL 45, pp.578-S81,1959. ~. , !' Twinkle, twinkle, quasi-star,. Biggest puzzle from afar. How unlike the other ones,. Brighter than a trillion Suns. Twinkle, twinkle, quasi-star,. How I wonder what you are! - George Gamow.

  1. Promoting nuclear security: What the IAEA is doing. The Agency is implementing a comprehensive programme aimed at stemming the threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The threat to public safety and security posed by some form of nuclear terrorism is not new. But in the wake of recent highly organized terrorist attacks in Kenya, Tanzania, the US, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Morocco and numerous other nations, the international community has come to recognize that new and stronger measures must be taken to protect against and prepare for a diverse range of terrorist scenarios. Given the multiplicity of targets and scenarios for terrorists, States must consider a comprehensive approach to combating nuclear terrorism. Among the key priorities: Adequate physical protection of all nuclear materials, radioactive materials and facilities plus transport systems; Proper regulatory control of nuclear and radioactive material; Effective detection and interdiction of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials; Integration of nuclear safety and security systems for maximum benefits; and Readiness for implementing emergency response plans. The IAEA is assisting its Member States with these challenges in many ways. Through well-established activities, the Agency has been heavily involved in providing assistance and technical support to States in all these areas. The IAEA has established several advisory services to help Member States to assess the effectiveness and the need for improvement of their national physical oversight systems. The IAEA provides peer reviews in related areas such as regulatory or control infrastructures, and also supplies expert technical advice on the required upgrades. Several of these specialized services aim directly at protecting against terrorist threats. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service is a new initiative that is providing specialized services promoting enhanced nuclear security. The International SSAC Advisory Service (ISSAS) is another new initiative providing advice to Member States in strengthening their SSAC. The IAEA also offers the EPREV (Emergency Preparedness REView

  2. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  3. Centrifuge Facility for the International Space Station Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1994-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility planned for the International Space Station Alpha has under-one considerable redesign over the past year, primarily because the Station is now viewed as a 10 year mission rather than a 30 year mission and because of the need to simply the design to meet budget constraints and a 2000 launch date. The basic elements of the Centrifuge Facility remain the same, i.e., a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, a micro-g holding unit, plant and animal habitats, a glovebox and a service unit. The centrifuge will still provide the full range of artificial gravity from 0.01 a to 2 - as originally planned; however, the extractor to permit withdrawal of habitats from the centrifuge without stopping the centrifuge has been eliminated. The specimen habitats have also been simplified and are derived from other NASA programs. The Plant Research Unit being developed by the Gravitational Biology Facility will be used to house plants in the Centrifuge Facility. Although not as ambitious as the Centrifuge Facility plant habitat, it will provide much better environmental control and lighting than the current Shuttle based Plant Growth Facility. Similarly, rodents will be housed in the Advanced Animal Habitat being developed for the Shuttle program. The Centrifuge Facility and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform repeatable, high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies on both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The Centrifuge Facility will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will for the first time permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of micro-g from

  4. Steps of Ukrainian SSAC to Integrated Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strengthening of SSAC is a necessary condition for application of integrated safeguards. Ukrainian State System has been working since 1994 and passed several stages in its development: At the early stage it allowed us to conclude the first Safeguards Agreement; In 2003 SSAC covered also all nuclear material at locations outside facilities; In 2006 Additional Protocol (AP) entered into force. The significant contribution to strengthening of SSAC has been made by ISSAS mission carried out in Ukraine in 2007. The mission helped us to evaluate the State Safeguards System, provided us recommendations on improving of legislation, in particular to establish the system of personnel training. Cooperation between the IAEA and Ukrainian SSAC is carried out in following directions. Annual meeting of Safeguards Implementation Review Group takes place in Kiev. Participants discuss current tasks or problem issues of Safeguards implementation and work out Action Plan in order to resolve a problem or find a way for improving situation. Ukrainian State inspectors organize and take part in each IAEA inspection and complementary access. Ukraine has got considerable experience in the AP implementation, to a certain extent determined by peculiarities of Ukraine as a former part of a nuclear weapon state. For 5 years we have accumulated a significant amount of AP information and it became a problem to keep track of it. Due to Protocol Reporter software has limited possibilities there was a need to develop additional software for AP information management. The transmission of encrypted data on nuclear materials from surveillance systems installed at all NPPs directly to the IAEA Headquarters has started recently. Since September 2010 the IAEA plans to use these data for drawing conclusion of safeguards implementation that will allow to reduce the number of IAEA inspections to the Ukrainian NPPs. While implementing the AP we got a question about correspondence of efforts spent for

  5. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  6. Study on specificity of leukemia among the second generation of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The title specificity was studied and discussed for the leukemia (L) of 5 cases of the second generation who had lived in Osaka (Report 1977) in comparison with published statistic data of the second generation's 15 L cases in a life-span investigation (2003) and of 5,098 L cases in a nationwide report (2003). The A-bomb survivors were exposed in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The Osaka cases (4/5 boys) were morbid during 1958-1975, had acute L (myeloid L 3 cases, and unidentified type L 2) and died at ages of 10-19 y. Their parents were exposed to A-bomb directly (2 cases) or due to entrance in the city (3), and 1 father, 3 mothers and 1 couple of parents were exposed. Parent(s) in the life-span investigation were classified in high dose exposure (within 2 km distance from the city) and zero exposure (2.5 km afar from the city and other) groups. Their second generation (13/20 boys) were morbid during 1952-1969 at average age of 9.7 y (high dose group) and 8.3-7.2 y (zero group), and had acute myeloid L (8 cases), acute lymphocytic L (5) and other L. Exposure was to their 12 mothers, 4 fathers and 4 both parents. The nationwide statistics showed L of <18 years old pediatric patients (1986-2000) involving 56.7% boys, of morbid age peak of 3-4 y and of acute lymphocytic L in 68.8%. As above, it seemed that, in the second generation, their mothers were mostly exposed relative to fathers, the morbid sex ratio was higher in boys, morbid age was higher than general, and acute myeloid L was more frequent than general. L of the second generation thus seemed to be somehow specific, particularly in the higher age of morbidity and frequency of acute myeloid L. (T.T.)

  7. A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Gen; Kono, Reiko T; Katoh, Shigehiro; Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas

    2007-08-23

    With the discovery of Ardipithecus, Orrorin and Sahelanthropus, our knowledge of hominid evolution before the emergence of Pliocene species of Australopithecus has significantly increased, extending the hominid fossil record back to at least 6 million years (Myr) ago. However, because of the dearth of fossil hominoid remains in sub-Saharan Africa spanning the period 12-7 Myr ago, nothing is known of the actual timing and mode of divergence of the African ape and hominid lineages. Most genomic-based studies suggest a late divergence date-5-6 Myr ago and 6-8 Myr ago for the human-chimp and human-gorilla splits, respectively-and some palaeontological and molecular analyses hypothesize a Eurasian origin of the African ape and hominid clade. We report here the discovery and recognition of a new species of great ape, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, from the 10-10.5-Myr-old deposits of the Chorora Formation at the southern margin of the Afar rift. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first fossils of a large-bodied Miocene ape from the African continent north of Kenya. They exhibit a gorilla-sized dentition that combines distinct shearing crests with thick enamel on its 'functional' side cusps. Visualization of the enamel-dentine junction by micro-computed tomography reveals shearing crest features that partly resemble the modern gorilla condition. These features represent genetically based structural modifications probably associated with an initial adaptation to a comparatively fibrous diet. The relatively flat cuspal enamel-dentine junction and thick enamel, however, suggest a concurrent adaptation to hard and/or abrasive food items. The combined evidence suggests that Chororapithecus may be a basal member of the gorilla clade, and that the latter exhibited some amount of adaptive and phyletic diversity at around 10-11 Myr ago.

  8. Silicate Veining Above an Ascending Mantle Plume - Evidence from New Ethiopian Xenolith Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, T. O.; Furman, T.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2004-12-01

    Quaternary basaltic eruptions in the Debre Zeyit (Bishoftu) and Butajira regions of the Main Ethiopian Rift host Al-augite, norite and rare lherzolite xenoliths, xenocrysts and megacrysts. These explosive basaltic eruptions are located 20 km to the west of the main rift axis and are characterized by cinder cones and maars. The host basalt was generated as a small degree partial melt of fertile peridotite between 15 and 25 kb and host abundant Al-augite (Type II) xenoliths derived from pressures up to 10 kb. The central Main Ethiopian Rift lies in a transitional zone between the continental rifting of East Africa and the sea floor spreading associated with the Red Sea. Lithospheric and sub-lithospheric processes that occur during the transition from continental to oceanic magmatism may be investigated using these xenolith-bearing basalts. Neither carbonatitic nor hydrous (amphibole + phlogopite) metasomatism is evident in either the xenoliths or host basalts, suggesting that infiltration of silicate melts that produced Al-augite veining dominates the regional lower crust and lithospheric mantle. These veins are significantly hotter (200 - 300 ° C) than the lherzolite wall rock they intrude suggesting the thermal influence of the Afar plume. Recent geophysical tomography indicates that this veining is pervasive and segmented, supporting the association of these Al-augite veins with the formation of a proto-ridge axis. Al-augite xenoliths and megacrysts have been observed in other continental rift settings such as Durango (Luhr, 2001) and Lake Baikal (Litasov, 2000), indicating Al-augite silicate melt metasomatism is a fundamental process associated with continental rift development.

  9. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  10. Recent developments in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Even in the most experienced and competent hands, mineral exploration is an expensive, risky, and time-consuming business. Uranium exploration is no different from the above, its sole advantage being that the uranium can be detected from afar because it emits gamma radiation. Therefore, radiometric techniques are the most useful exploration methods. In developing countries that are interested in starting or that have started uranium exploration programmes there are other problems as well as those outlined above: Lack of, or difficulty in obtaining, the requisite number of qualified personnel for field and laboratory activities (lack of manpower); Lack of administrative and technological infrastructure needed to support an exploration effort (lack of technology); and Relatively small budget for a multi-year programme (lack of money). In view of the above it is very important that the time and resources available to an exploration programme are utilized wisely. This means selecting optimum methods of obtaining the information needed and avoiding unnecessary duplication of effort by government organizations. Such duplication of effort in exploration is common in developing countries. In some cases three government organizations have been discovered doing geological mapping of the same area. As the amount, quality and availability of geological information vary from place to place, and since the exploration programmes can have different sizes and objectives, following a standard procedure is difficult. The procedures or sequences outlined are suggested for areas that are being prospected for the first time. If carried out systematically, it will be possible to obtain both an inventory of the geology, and an assessment of the mineral potential of a given area with minimum investment and maximum efficiency

  11. Asthenosphere versus lithosphere as possible sources for basaltic magmas erupted during formation of the Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, R.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Baumann, A.

    1990-01-01

    Representative basalts from the axial trough of the Red Sea and from volcanic fields of the Arabian Peninsula ranging in composition from N-type MORB to basanite and in age from Early Miocene to Recent show a limited variation in their isotopic compositions: 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.70240-0.70361, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.040-19.634, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.496-15.666, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 37.808-39.710, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd = 0.513194-0.512670. There is a poorly constrained correlation between chemical composition and isotope ratios: with increasing alkalinity, Sr and Pb isotope ratios increase and the Nd isotope ratio tends to decrease. In Pb isotope variation diagrams most of the basalts plot significantly above the NHRLs, irrespective of tectonic setting, i.e. thickness of underlying crust and/or lithosphere. MORBs from the axial trough of the Red Sea have higher Pb isotope ratios for a given 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than MORBs from the Indian Ocean ridges, including the Carlsberg Ridge. It is therefore suggested that both spreading ridges tap different convective systems in the asthenosphere. The tectonic setting of the basalts is reflected in their Nd-Sr isotope characteristics. Basalts from areas where the continental lithosphere is drastically thinned or absent (i.e. Red Sea axial trough and coastal plain, Afar) plot along a reference line defined by N-type MORB and Tristan da Cunha. Basalts erupted in areas with Pan-African crust of normal thickness and moderately thinned lithospheric mantle (i.e. rift shoulder) are characterized by relative low 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios and plot below the reference line towards an EM I component which is also found in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. These differences in the Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of the basalts are independent of bulk-rock chemistry and are therefore controlled by tectonic setting alone. (orig./WL)

  12. Crustal Structure of Active Deformation Zones in Africa: Implications for Global Crustal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Bastow, I. D.; Whaler, K.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Ayele, A.; Miller, M. S.; Tiberi, C.; Hautot, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic East African rift (EAR), Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), and Atlas Mountains formed on the slow-moving African continent, which last experienced orogeny during the Pan-African. We synthesize primarily geophysical data to evaluate the role of magmatism in shaping Africa's crust. In young magmatic rift zones, melt and volatiles migrate from the asthenosphere to gas-rich magma reservoirs at the Moho, altering crustal composition and reducing strength. Within the southernmost Eastern rift, the crust comprises 20% new magmatic material ponded in the lower crust and intruded as sills and dikes at shallower depths. In the Main Ethiopian Rift, intrusions comprise 30% of the crust below axial zones of dike-dominated extension. In the incipient rupture zones of the Afar rift, magma intrusions fed from crustal magma chambers beneath segment centers create new columns of mafic crust, as along slow-spreading ridges. Our comparisons suggest that transitional crust, including seaward dipping sequences, is created as progressively smaller screens of continental crust are heated and weakened by magma intrusion into 15-20 km thick crust. In the 30 Ma Recent CVL, which lacks a hot spot age progression, extensional forces are small, inhibiting the creation and rise of magma into the crust. In the Atlas orogen, localized magmatism follows the strike of the Atlas Mountains from the Canary Islands hot spot toward the Alboran Sea. CVL and Atlas magmatism has had minimal impact on crustal structure. Our syntheses show that magma and volatiles are migrating from the asthenosphere through the plates, modifying rheology, and contributing significantly to global carbon and water fluxes.

  13. Transient deformation in the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift (Djibouti) since the 1978 diking event: Is deformation controlled by magma supply rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittarello, D.; Grandin, R.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Ibrahim Ahmed, S.

    2016-12-01

    Within the Afar Depression, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift (AG Rift)in Djibouti lies in the subaerial continuation of the Aden ridge system. This segment constitutes a natural laboratory to study rifting processes and mechanisms involved in continental breakup and oceanic spreading. In November 1978, an exceptional rifting event occurred in the AG Rift. Regularly upgraded and improved geodetic technology has been used to monitor this event and the postdiking deformation. In light of recent results obtained for the Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting event (2005-2010), we propose that the horizontal and vertical geodetic data can be modeled with a double source, involving a dike-like inflation component aligned along the rift axis and a spherical pressure source located at midsegment below the Fieale caldera. By revisiting the codiking data, we propose that the reservoir below Fieale could have fed, at least partially, the 1978 injection and the contemporaneous Ardoukoba eruption and potentially induced local subsidence due to magma draining out of the central reservoir. As an alternative to previously proposed viscoelastic relaxation models, we reinterpret postdiking observations using a purely elastic rheology. We determine the relative contribution of a midsegment reservoir inflation and a dike-like opening component, together with their respective time evolutions. Our results suggest that interactions between steadily accumulating tectonic strain and temporal variations in melt supply to the shallow magma plumbing system below the AG Rift may entirely explain the geodetic observations and that viscoelastic deformation processes played a minor role in the 30 years following the 1978 rifting event.

  14. Zoom in, zoom out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2011-03-01

    Zoom buttons on digital devices let us examine images from many viewpoints. They also provide an apt metaphor for modes of strategic thinking. Some people prefer to see things up close, others from afar. Both perspectives have virtues. But they should not be fixed positions, says Harvard Business School's Kanter. To get a complete picture, leaders need to zoom in and zoom out. A close-in perspective is often found in relationship-intensive settings. It brings details into sharp focus and makes opportunities look large and compelling. But it can have significant downsides. Leaders who prefer to zoom in tend to create policies and systems that depend too much on politics and favors. They can focus too closely on personal status and on turf protection. And they often miss the big picture. When leaders zoom out, they can see events in context and as examples of general trends. They are able to make decisions based on principles. Yet a far-out perspective also has traps. Leaders can be so high above the fray that they don't recognize emerging threats. Having zoomed out to examine all possible routes, they may fail to notice when the moment is right for action on one path. They may also seem too remote and aloof to their staffs. The best leaders can zoom in to examine problems and then zoom out to look for patterns and causes. They don't divide the world into extremes-idiosyncratic or structural, situational or strategic, emotional or contextual. The point is not to choose one over the other but to learn to move across a continuum of perspectives.

  15. Developments in clinical trials: a Pharma Matters report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, A; Nuskey, B; Rabasseda, X; Arias, E

    2014-08-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry strives to meet the ever-increasing complexity of drug development, new technology in clinical trials has become a beacon of hope. With big data comes the promise of accelerated patient recruitment, real-time monitoring of clinical trials, bioinformatics empowerment of quicker phase progression, and the overwhelming benefits of precision medicine for select trials. Risk-based monitoring stands to benefit as well. With a strengthening focus on centralized data by the FDA and industry's transformative initiative, TransCelerate, a new era in trial risk mitigation has begun. The traditional method of intensive on-site monitoring is becoming a thing of the past as statistical, real-time analysis of site and trial-wide data provides the means to monitor with greater efficiency and effectiveness from afar. However, when it comes to big data, there are challenges that lie ahead. Patient privacy, commercial investment protection, technology woes and data variability are all limitations to be met with considerable thought. At the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology this year, clinical trials on psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases were discussed in detail. This review of clinical research reports on novel therapies for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis reveals the impact of these diseases and the drug candidates that have been successful in phase II and III studies. Data-focused highlights of novel dermatological trials, as well as real-life big data approaches and an insight on the new methodology of risk-based monitoring, are all discussed in this edition of Developments in Clinical Trials. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  17. A New Structural Model for the Red Sea from Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Yao, Z.; Zahran, H. M.; El-Hadidy, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new structureal model for the Red Sea that shows opening on an east-dipping low-angle detachment fault. We measured phase velocities using Rayleigh-wave data recorded at recently-installed, dense broadband seismic stations in the Arabian shield and determined the shear-wave velocity structure. Our results clearly reveal a 300-km wide upper mantle seismic low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the western Arabian shield at a depth of 60 km and with a thickness of 130 km. The LVZ has a north-south trend and follows the late-Cenozoic volcanic areas. The lithosphere beneath the western Arabian shield is remarkably thin (60-90 km). The 130-km thick mantle LVZ does not appear beneath the western Red Sea and the spreading axis. Thus, the Red Sea at 20°- 26° N is an asymmetric rift, with thin lithosphere located east of the Red Sea axis, as predicted by the low-angle detachment model for rift development. Passive rifting at the Red Sea and extensional stresses in the shield are probably driven by slab pull from the Zagros subduction zone. The low shear-wave velocity (4.0-4.2 km/s) and the geometry of LVZ beneath the western shield indicate northward flow of hot asthenosphere from the Afar hot spot. The upwelling of basaltic melt in fractures or zones of localized lithospheric thinning has produced extensive late Cenozoic volcanism on the western edge of the shield, and the buoyant LVZ has caused pronounced topography uplift there. Thus, the evolution of the Red Sea and the Arabian shield is driven by subduction of the Arabian plate along its northeastern boundary, and the Red Sea opened on a east-dipping low-angle detachment fault.

  18. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A Álvarez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla, and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  19. Results of lung cancer screening in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masayo; Kato, Hironari; Inoue, Noriko; Naito, Kumiko; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Kira, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishida, Hajime; Maeda, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Risk of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors is reportedly increased. The screening in the title has been conducted since 1988 and this report summarizes its results of the latest 6-year term (2004-2009). The total number of subjects who visited authors' facility for the screening in the period was 39,147 men (average age 70.6 y) and 45,351 women (71.8 y), of the age range of 60-89 y. The screening results of the cancer were examined concerning with sex, age and exposure situation. As well, the relationship between the found cancer incidence and exposure in never, formerly and currently smoking subjects were also examined. Exposure situation was divided in 3 groups of the exposure by entrance in the city/by other reasons, within 2 km close (Close, C) to, and out of 2.1 km afar (Distant, D) from, the city. Statistic analysis was performed by Chi-squire and/or Fisher's exact test. The index of positive finding in the screening of the lung cancer per 1,000 subjects was the highest in C men of ages 70s, 2.88 subjects, which was statistically significant from 0.85 in D men of the same generation. In current smokers, the index 5.40 in C men of ages 70s was significantly higher than 0.90 in D men of the same generation. Overall, positive results tended to be high in survivors of C regardless to sex and smoking, and was significantly high in current smokers of C as above, both implying the particular necessity of promotion to stop smoking in survivors. (T.T.)

  20. Rapid Deployment of International Tele-Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig

    2016-02-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.

  1. Rapid Deployment of International Tele–Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country. PMID:26788827

  2. Pliocene bats (Chiroptera) from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K

    2018-04-05

    Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2015-10-22

    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  4. [Inpatient rehabilitation with balneotherapy in the elderly--our experience over the last 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, H; Kubota, K; Shirakura, T

    1997-02-01

    We describe 308 patients hospitalized for rehabilitation incorporating balneotherapy in our hospital between 1986 and 1996, with respect to age, place of residence, disease, duration of impairment, duration of hospitalization, reason for hospitalization, person taking care of the patient, and family size. Patients in eighth decade of life were the most common and 41% of the patients were residents of Kusatsu. Cerebral diseases were the most common (36%). The average length of hospitalization was 72 days. The reason for hospitalization, person taking care of patient and family size were compared between patients 60 to 79 years old and patients 80 years old or older. Many patients came from afar to our hospital with expectation of rehabilitation using balneotherapy. More than half of the patients 80 years old or older were admitted at their own request without a doctor's letter of introduction. The person who most often took care of a patient 80 years old or older was the patient's daughter in law. The average length of hospitalization of patients who were taken care of by their wife, husband, daughter, son, daughter in law, and nobody were 58, 71, 75, 114, 86, and 124 days, respectively. Many patients 60 to 79 years old lived alone or with another family member, but most of those 80 years old or older lived with at least 2 other family members. The lack of a definite goal for rehabilitation might have prolonged these patients' hospital stays. Balneotherapy might have given them an incentive to continue their rehabilitation and made their quality of life better.

  5. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  6. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  7. Feedback control policies employed by people using intracortical brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Pandarinath, Chethan; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Murphy, Brian A.; Memberg, William D.; Blabe, Christine H.; Saab, Jad; Walter, Benjamin L.; Sweet, Jennifer A.; Miller, Jonathan P.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Bolu Ajiboye, A.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. When using an intracortical BCI (iBCI), users modulate their neural population activity to move an effector towards a target, stop accurately, and correct for movement errors. We call the rules that govern this modulation a ‘feedback control policy’. A better understanding of these policies may inform the design of higher-performing neural decoders. Approach. We studied how three participants in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial used an iBCI to control a cursor in a 2D target acquisition task. Participants used a velocity decoder with exponential smoothing dynamics. Through offline analyses, we characterized the users’ feedback control policies by modeling their neural activity as a function of cursor state and target position. We also tested whether users could adapt their policy to different decoder dynamics by varying the gain (speed scaling) and temporal smoothing parameters of the iBCI. Main results. We demonstrate that control policy assumptions made in previous studies do not fully describe the policies of our participants. To account for these discrepancies, we propose a new model that captures (1) how the user’s neural population activity gradually declines as the cursor approaches the target from afar, then decreases more sharply as the cursor comes into contact with the target, (2) how the user makes constant feedback corrections even when the cursor is on top of the target, and (3) how the user actively accounts for the cursor’s current velocity to avoid overshooting the target. Further, we show that users can adapt their control policy to decoder dynamics by attenuating neural modulation when the cursor gain is high and by damping the cursor velocity more strongly when the smoothing dynamics are high. Significance. Our control policy model may help to build better decoders, understand how neural activity varies during active iBCI control, and produce better simulations of closed-loop iBCI movements.

  8. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Houmed Soulé, Aramis

    2018-01-01

    Au cours de son règne qui a duré plus d’une quarantaine d’années, en une période cruciale de l’histoire de la Corne de l’Afrique, Maḥammad Ḥanfaré parvient à préserver son sultanat, à défaut de l’ensemble du pays ‘Afar, des visées impérialistes d’où qu’elles viennent. Malheureusement, l’indépendance de cette entité politique ‘Afar ne lui survit pas, du moins sur le plan international. Des luttes fratricides pour sa succession qui opposent ses nombreux héritiers et dont les prémices apparaisse...

  9. Alpine Serpentinite Geochemistry As Key To Define Timing Of Oceanic Lithosphere Accretion To The Subduction Plate Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, M.; Scambelluri, M.; Agostini, S.; Godard, M.; Pettke, D. T.; Angiboust, S.

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic (Pb, Sr and B) and trace element (B, Be, As, Sb, U, Th) signatures of serpentinites are useful geochemical tools to assess element exchange and fluid-rock interactions in subduction zone settings. They help to unravel geological history and tectonic evolution of subduction serpentinites and associated meta-oceanic crust. Sedimentary-derived fluid influx within HP plate interface environments strongly enriches serpentinites in As, Sb, B, U and Th and resets their B, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. This HP metasomatic signature is preserved during exhumation and/or released at higher PT through de-serpentinization, fueling partial melting in the sub-arc mantle and recycling such fingerprint into arc magmas. This study focuses on the subduction recrystallization, geochemical diversity and fluid-rock interaction recorded by high- to ultra-high pressure (HP, UHP) Alpine serpentinites from the subducted oceanic plate (Cignana Unit, Zermatt-Saas Complex, Monviso and Lanzo Ultramafic Massifs). The As and Sb compositions of the HP-UHP Alpine ophiolitic rocks reveal the interaction between serpentinite and crust-derived fluids during their emplacement along the plate interface. This enables to define a hypothetical architecture of the Alpine subduction interface, considering large ultramafic slices. In this scenario, the Lanzo peridotite and serpentinite retain an As-Sb composition comparable to DM and PM: i.e. they experienced little exchange with sediment-derived fluids. Lanzo thus belonged to sections of the subducting plate, afar from the plate interface. Serpentinites from the Lago di Cignana Unit and Monviso and Voltri are richer in As and Sb, showing moderate to strong interaction with sediment- and crust-derived fluids during subduction (i.e. they behaved as open systems). These serpentinite slices accreted at the plate interface and exchanged with slab-derived fluids at different depths during Alpine subduction: Voltri accreted at shallower conditions (50

  10. سيميولوجيا النمط الإدراكي للُغة العُنف في المَسرح

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علي عبد الامير عباس

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, Violence is in its different and various forms is considered one of the concepts that play the biggest role in the world and the Iraqi arena, in particular, represented in all political, economic, literary, cultural and philosophical levels across the history Which is full of pains as a result for its abused uses through life, The concept became closely linked to the daily life of human beings as a whole after the uses of psychological and physical abuse. After the precence aggravation of this term in the daily lives of Iraqis and the results of conditions and in particular after 2003,Some phenomena Started to be veru clear which were hidden before afore mentioned date under various names, visual culture played the most prominent role in the emergence of phenomena that would overlap with the educational perceptions of the Iraqi social struct, which its incoming resulted in great impact on the Socila structure of the national components and the impact in the current search will learn to formats indications and signs of symbols that we infer through its presence to attend concept manifested patterns of knowledge and cogetation,It is a method Which is followed by a person or group to express what lies in their inside of sense and needs towards the others. The media also played a prominent role in highlighting this phenomenon publically from the recipients of the practice in general, and played a major role in the reduction of actions that will reduce the prevalence of this practice, als the theater which was represented by the its context and stage has good effectiveness in highlighting the phenomenon textual handling it by script the on stage, This entry has become unique in its search of Iraqi style and the phenomenon of violence was reprsented through the entry speech of the Iraqi play , which is immediately started to deal with every nook and cranny enter the body of Iraqi life, whether from close or from afar alike, conflicts and wars

  11. Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; King, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the

  12. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  13. Geodetic constraints on continental rifting along the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R.; McClusky, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.; Ghebreab, W.; Ogubazghi, G.; Al-Aydrus, A.

    2006-12-01

    We are using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor and quantify patterns and rates of tectonic and magmatic deformation associated with active rifting of the continental lithosphere and the transition to sea floor spreading in the Red Sea. Broad-scale motions of the Nubian and Arabian plates indicate coherent plate motion with internal deformation below the current resolution of our measurements (~ 1-2 mm/yr). The GPS-determined Euler vector for Arabia-Nubia is indistinguishable from the geologic Euler vector determined from marine magnetic anomalies, and Arabia-Eurasia relative motion from GPS is equal within uncertainties to relative motion determined from plate reconstructions, suggesting that Arabia plate motion has remained constant (±10%) during at least the past ~10 Ma. The approximate agreement between broad-scale GPS rates of extension (i.e., determined from relative plate motions) and those determined from magnetic anomalies along the Red Sea rift implies that spreading in the central Red Sea is primarily confined to the central rift (±10-20%). Extension appears to be more broadly distributed in the N Red Sea and Gulf of Suez where comparisons with geologic data also indicate a relatively recent (between 500 and 125 kyr BP) change in the motion of the Sinai block that is distinct from both Nubia and Arabia. In the southern Red Sea, GPS results are beginning to define the motion of the "Danakil micro-plate". We investigate and report on a model involving CCW rotation of the Danakil micro-plate relative to Nubia and magmatic inflation below the Afar Triple Junction that is consistent with available geodetic constraints. Running the model back in time suggests that the Danakil micro-plate has been an integral part of rifting/triple junction processes throughout the history of separation of the Arabian and Nubian plates. On the scale of Nubia-Arabia-Eurasia plate interactions, we show that new area formed at spreading centers roughly equals that

  14. Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need

  15. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. Third Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic,as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period. With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need

  16. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  17. Birth in a health facility--inequalities among the Ethiopian women: results from repeated national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ali Yesuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uptake of health facilities for delivery care in Ethiopia has not been examined in the light of equality. We investigated differences in institutional deliveries by urbanity, administrative region, economic status and maternal education. METHODS: This study was based on nation-wide repeated surveys undertaken in the years 2000, 2005, and 2011. The surveys used a cluster sampling design. Women of reproductive age were interviewed on the place of their last delivery. Data was analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the weighted association between birth in a health facility and study's predictors. RESULTS: Utilization of health institutions for deliveries has improved throughout the study period, however, rates remain low (5.4%,2000 and 11.8%,2011. Compared with women from rural places, women from urban areas had independent OR of a health facility delivery of 4.9 (95% CI: 3.4, 7.0, 5.0 (95% CI: 3.6, 6.9, and 4.6 (95% CI: 3.5, 6.0 in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. Women with secondary/higher education had more deliveries in a healthcare facility than women with no education, and these gaps widened over the years (OR: 35.1, 45.0 and 53.6 in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. Women of the upper economic quintile had 3.0-7.2 times the odds of healthcare facility deliveries, compared with the lowest quintile, with no clear trend over the years. While Addis-Ababa and Dire Dawa remained with the highest OR for deliveries in a health facility compared with Amhara, other regions displayed shifts in their relative ranking with Oromiya, SNNPR, Afar, Harari, and Somali getting relatively worse over time. CONCLUSIONS: The disparity related to urbanity or education in the use of health facility for birth in Ethiopia is staggering. There is a small inequality between most regions except Addis Ababa/Dire Dawa and sign of abating inequity between economic strata except for the richest households.

  18. Technological advances in cosmogenic neutron detectors for measuring soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreda, M. G.; Schrön, M.; Köhli, M.

    2017-12-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron probe is used for measuring area-average soil water content at the hectometer scale. Early work showed a simple exponential decrease with distance of the instrument's sensitivity and a footprint 300 m in radius. Recent research suggested a much higher sensitivity to local neutrons and reduced footprint. We show results confirming the high sensitivity to local neutrons, describe two ways to reduce local and increase far-field effects, and propose ways of measuring neutrons at different spatial scales. Measurements with moderated detectors across a 10-m-wide creek and a 2-m-wide water tank show a decrease by 30% and 20%, respectively, of neutron intensity over water compared to that over land nearby. These results mean that the detector is sensitive to meter-scale heterogeneities of water content. This sensitivity can be reduced by rising the detector or by shielding it from local neutrons. The effect of local water distributions on the measured neutron intensity decreases with height. In the water tank experiment it disappeared almost completely at the height of 2 m, leading to the conjecture that the height roughly equal to the horizontal scale of heterogeneity would eliminate the sensitivity. This may or may not be practical. Shielding the detector below by a hydrogenous material removes a substantial fraction of the local neutrons. The shielded detector has a reduced count rate, reduced sensitivity to local neutrons and increased sensitivity to neutrons farther afield, and a larger footprint. Such a detector could be preferable to the current cosmogenic-neutron probe under heterogeneous soil water conditions. The shielding experiments also inspired the development of a local-area neutron detector. It has hydrogenous neutron shields on all sides except the bottom, substantially blocking the neutrons coming from afar, while allowing the neutrons coming directly from below. Its footprint is equal to its physical dimension when the detector is

  19. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepro NB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  20. New Pleomagnetic Evidence for Counter Clockwise Rotation of the Dofan Magmatic Segment Linked to Variation in Fault Slip Directions Along the Different Fault Systems, Main Ethiopian Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, T. K.; Nugsse, K.

    2017-12-01

    Twenty-six paleomagnetic sites were sampled from basalt, trachyte and ignimbrite flows of the Dofan magmatic segment, Southern Afar Depression. The samples were then cut in to 200 standard and their Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) directions were measured using the JR6A Spinner Magnetometer, of Addis Ababa University. Twin specimens from same sample were subjected to stepwise alternative field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetizations respectively with the corresponding directional measurements done at each step. Directional analysis of individual specimens revealed either one or two components of NRM; the first is isolated below a temperature of 300°C or AF field below 20mT; the second is isolated above those steps and defined straight lines directed towards the origin, which were interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during cooling. Rock magnetic experiments on representative specimens indicated that the dominant magnetic minerals are titanium poor titanomagnetite with few cases of titanohematites. The overall mean directions calculated for the 24 stable polarity sites of Dofan is Dec=351.8°, Inc=11.5° (N=24, K=21.4, α95=6.5°). When these values are compared with the 1.5 Ma mean expected geomagnetic dipole reference field directions Dec=1.0°, Inc=16.4° (N=32, K=105.6, α95=2.3°) obtained from African Apparent Polar Wander Path Curve (Besse & Courtillot, 1991, 2003); a difference in declination DD=-9.2°± 5.6° and inclination DI=4.9°±5.5° are determined. This declination difference is interpreted as counterclockwise rotation of the Dofan segment about vertical axis and it is consistent with previous paleomagnetic reports in Fentale area (Kidane et al., 2009) and also with the recent analogue models of RE-Orientation of extension directions and pure extensional faulting at the oblique rift margins of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) (Corti et al., 2013).

  1. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    tectonic structures: (1) stable zones of continental and oceanic crust, and (2) mobile geotectonic belts. First type is characterized by homogeneous character of gravity field pattern (for instance, East Arabian Craton), whereas second type is characterized by mosaic and variable behavior of gravity field (especially, active rift zones). It should be noted that 'youngest' mobile structure (Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and active rift systems of the Red Sea - East Africa) significantly differs in the gravity field pattern from the Mesozoic terrane belt and Neoproterozoic belt. In this investigation six satellite gravity transforms (SGT) are described: multidimensional statistical analysis (MSA) by the use of sliding window, low-pass filtering, informational approach, gradient operator, entropy processing by sliding window of adaptive form, and 3D inverse methods. Application of the MSA enabled not only to delineate geodynamical parameters of the studied region (collision zone at the boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates, and active rift zones between the Arabian, Nubian and Somalian Plates, etc.), but also to estimate generalized properties of the Earth's crust. Results of MSA employment clearly show zone of development of the oceanic crust of the Easternmost Mediterranean and zone of oceanic crust of the Gulf of Aden and eastern (oceanic) part of the Somalian Plate. Besides this, in this map the Arabian and East African active rift zones and collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates are visibly traced. Applied low-pass gravity field filtering enabled to recognize the most contrast crust-mantle structures. For example, the Afar triangle zone is clearly detected. Zones of the Neotethys closing Eastern Mediterranean, Persian Gulf, Zagros Fault Zone and South Caspian Basin can be easily identified. Subduction zones associated with the plate boundaries are reflected by elongated gradient pattern. These nonstable zones are conjugated with large mobile

  2. Time since plantation is the most important determining factor for soil erosion rates in vineyards. A case study in the valley of Les Alcusses valley, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrígo Comino, Jesús; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; García Díaz, Andrés; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    simulated rainfall events. Soil Res, 54, 2, 154-165 DOI: 10.1071/SR15092 Keesstra S, Pereira P, Novara A, Brevik EC, Azorin-Molina C, Parras-Alcántara L, Jordán A, Cerdà A. 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552: 357-366. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Novara, A., A. Cerdà, D. Carmelo, L. P. Giuseppe, S. Antonino, and G. Luciano. 2015. Effectiveness of Carbon Isotopic Signature for Estimating Soil Erosion and Deposition Rates in Sicilian Vineyards. Soil and Tillage Research 152: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.still.2015.03.010. Novara, A., L. Gristina, F. Guaitoli, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà. 2013. Managing Soil Nitrate with Cover Crops and Buffer Strips in Sicilian Vineyards. Solid Earth 4 (2): 255-262. doi:10.5194/se-4-255-2013. Novara, A., L. Gristina, S. S. Saladino, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà. 2011. Soil Erosion Assessment on Tillage and Alternative Soil Managements in a Sicilian Vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117: 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007. Prosdocimi, M., A. Cerdà, and P. Tarolli. 2016a. Soil Water Erosion on Mediterranean Vineyards: A Review. Catena 141: 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.010. Prosdocimi, M., A. Jordán, P. Tarolli, S. Keesstra, A. Novara, and A. Cerdà. 2016b. The Immediate Effectiveness of Barley Straw Mulch in Reducing Soil Erodibility and Surface Runoff Generation in Mediterranean Vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 547: 323-330. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076. Rodrigo Comino J, Iserloh T, Morvan X, Malam Issa O, Naisse C, Keesstra SD, Cerdà A, Prosdocimi M, Arnáez J, Lasanta T, Ramos MC, Marqués MJ, Ruiz Colmenero M, Bienes R, Ruiz Sinoga JD, Seeger M, Ries JB 2016a. Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology, 3 (1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology3010006 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S

  3. On the importance of debate in (geo-)scientific research (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V.

    2012-04-01

    It is of course a great honor to receive the Holmes medal from EGU. As past (founding) treasurer and later president of EUG, the medal carries special significance for me. It may be a good time to look back on the scientific path I have followed, pursuing research in the geosciences, with outstanding support from a number of family members (foremost my wife Michèle), mentors, colleagues and students. Chance, not planning, led me to attend a French school that trained mining engineers, then a US University that made me fall in love with geophysics and plate tectonics at a time when this scientific revolution was still going on, and finally the marvelous Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), where I have spent the rest of my career to this day. To pursue on this path, I selected the rather separate fields of paleomagnetism (then linked to geology) and geomagnetism (then linked to physics). I have devoted much of my time to make sure that the two specialties would closely interact, including in the structure of our groups at IPGP. Geo- and paleo-magnetism have turned out (in a way reminiscent of geochemistry) to be powerful tools to explore a broad range of exciting scientific questions. Equipped with them, I have had the pleasure and good fortune to navigate from the discovery of geomagnetic secular variation impulses (with Jean-Louis Le Mouël), now inelegantly called "geomagnetic jerks", to that of propagating rifting of continents in the Afar depression, to fascinating work on the India-Asia collision in the Tibetan plateau and the Cenozoic paleogeography of the Indian ocean bordering continents, to the reconstruction of synthetic apparent polar wander paths for major continental masses (with Jean Besse) that have been widely used, to the understanding of the significance of the volume, age and short duration of massive flood basalt volcanism in the Deccan traps of India and their potential link to the biological mass extinction at the Cretaceous

  4. Obituary: John Louis Africano III, 1951-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edwin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Technical Conference whose attendance expanded dramatically during his tenure. John moved to the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in 1998 to work full time on orbital debris projects including the 3.0 meter Liquid Mirror Telescope and the CCD Debris Telescope in Cloudcroft, New Mexico. In 2000 he moved back to Colorado Springs, Colorado, to be closer to his family. From there he continued to support both the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) and AMOS. John was very instrumental in establishing cooperative programs between the ODPO and AMOS, which will benefit both organizations for many years to come. John left an indelible mark on his programs and all those who knew and loved him. The impact of his untimely departure will reverberate for many years. As John's wife Linda put it, "John is now visiting the stars and galaxies he adored from afar." John is survived by his wife, Linda Ann Africano; two sons, James Keith and Brian Michael; a daughter, Monica Lynn Africano; a sister, Diana Smith; and four grandchildren. The author acknowledges valuable input from Brian Africano (University of Colorado at Colorado Springs), Eugene Stansbery (NASA), Mark Mulrooney (NASA contractor), Tom Kelecy (Boeing LTS, Inc.), Paul Sydney (Boeing LTS, Inc.), Kira Abercromby (NASA contractor), and Patrick Seitzer (University of Michigan).

  5. A qualitative study exploring contextual challenges to surgical care provision in 21 LMICs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykar, Nakul P; Yorlets, Rachel R; Liu, Charles; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Kotagal, Meera; Goldman, Roberta; Roy, Nobhojit; Meara, John G; Gillies, Rowan D

    2015-04-27

    ). Regional variation did exist on some matters, particularly related to prevalence of patient-provider mistrust and supply chain failures. Everywhere, providers have created innovative workarounds to overcome some of these barriers, such as clever financing mechanisms for planned surgery (eg, raising donated farm animals for cash in Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, and India), provision in scheduling and accommodations to facilitate patients from afar, reduction of cost and waste through re-sterilisation of disposable supplies, and locally sourcing consumables (eg, hand cleaning solution made of alcohol from the local distillery in India). Although some variation exists between countries, the challenges to surgical care provision are largely consistent and based on local resource availability; underfunded rural hospitals faced similar challenges worldwide. Global efforts to scale-up surgical services can focus on these commonalities (eg, investments in infrastructure, workforce), while local governments can tailor solutions to key contextual differences (eg, community-based outreach, supply chains, professional management, and interhospital coordination). None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collaboratory for support of scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ''collaboratory'' refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries [1],[2]. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ''as good as being there'' is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote [3] Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative

  7. Crustal structure of the Arabian plate: new constraints of receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Pei, S.

    2013-12-01

    We perform P-wave receiver function analysis across Saudi Arabia to constrain crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio to investigate the role of Afar super plume, on-going sea-floor spreading and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We include analysis of data from 132 stations, many of them new stations to improve upon previous analysis from a sparse array (30 stations). We first select 201 earthquakes with high signal-to-noise seismogram, using IRIS-station RAYN as reference to pick the events, recorded on 101 stations operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) during 2007-2011. SGS continually deploys stations every year and we added a second data set of 96 earthquakes on 30 newly deployed stations in 2012, again station RAYN is used as reference for picking high quality recordings. Two way, 4th order band-pass Butterworth filter with pass band of 0.01 - 3 Hz is applied to eliminate low-frequency noise, then deconvolution is performed in time-domain. We deploy the slant stack method to determine both the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio at each station; this method combines the later multiples (PpPs and PpSs+PsPs) with the Moho Ps converted phase to mitigate the trade-off between the Moho depth and crustal Poisson's ratio. Average crustal P wave velocities of 6.5km/s for Arabian Shield and 6.1 km/s for Arabian Platform are assigned, respectively. In addition, we add the semblance parameter through semblance analysis into the objective function of the slant stack method to suppress the incoherent noise. Our results show that Moho depth is 38-42 km at the central boundary between the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform, where the crust is not extended and there is little sediment deposited. To the east beneath the Arabian Platform the crust thickens to 43-46 km, then decreases to 37-41km against the Persian Gulf. To the west the crust gradually thins to 33-35 km over a distance of approximately 400-500 km. Farther east, toward the Red Sea

  8. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    have taken place under cultivation, in Yemen or Afar Depression. A representative of P. sativum subsp. elatius was revealed, the F1 hybrids of which with the Abyssinian pea as a seed parent had fully fertile pollen. P. abyssinicum × P. fulvum crosses provide the best hybrid seed outcome among remote crosses conducted, so that P. abyssinicum can be used as a ‘bridge’ for gene introgression from P. fulvum to P. sativum. Rather a high level of reproductive isolation of the Abyssinian pea from other representatives of the genus conforms the biological species concept, however the disposition of P. abyssinicum accessions as a small cluster among accessions of P. sativum subsp. elatius on molecular phylogeny reconstructions violates the phylogenetic species concept. Most authors assume the Abyssinian pea as a species, Pisum abyssinicum, some as a subspecies, P. sativum subsp. abyssinicum (A. Br. Berger. Perhaps it would be most correct to consider it as a hybridogenic species. Because of the recent subsuming of the genus Pisum L. into the genus Lathyrus and with respect to the existing name Lathyrus abyssinicus A. Br. (a synonym of L. sativus L., the Abyssinian pea was given a new name Lathyrus schaeferi (A. Braun Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 167. 2017 (pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Braun, in honour of Hanno Schaefer, who substantiated the revision of tribe Fabeae by molecular reconstruction of its phylogeny. The paper here translated contained new combinations of Lathyrus sectio Pisum (L. Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 168. 2017 and Lathurus fulvus (Sibthrop et Smith Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 168. 2017.

  9. Using thermodynamic data to reproduce main seismic features of transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Ilya; Saukko, Anna; Edwards, Paul; Schiffer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Most of the seismic tomography studies nowadays are based on comprehensive models with optimization of lots of parameters. These models are able to resolve very subtle features of the Earth's mantle, but the influence of each specific parameter is not seen directly. In our research we try to minimize the number of processed parameters to produce simple synthetic cases. The main goals of our model are to see how water content influences the depth of the transition zone, and if melting at the transition zone is plausible. We also attempt to see how water content and the presence of melts influence the signal strength of the transition zone in receiver functions. Our MATLAB-code calculates phase assemblage according to specific temperature and pressure within 2D numerical domain (e.g. 300x700 km). Phase properties are calculated with database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni [2011], with corrections for water impact on elastic constants according to Liu et al., [2012]. We use the mantle phase composition 55% garnet and 45% olivine-polymorph, soliduses by Ohtani et al. [2004] and melt properties by Sakamaki et al. [2006]. These data are used to calculate seismic velocities and, furthermore, receiver functions with standard routines (e.g.[Schiffer et al., 2012]). Model predicts Vs within 5 to 5.5 km/s and Vp around 9.5-10 km/s within transition zone (Vp/Vs = 1.84-1.87), which is close to standard values. The presence of water enlarges the wadsleyite region, but also dampens the peak of receiver functions down to background level. Increase in water content causes melting at much shallower depths. Using a normal thermal gradient, we can get up to 10% of melt at depths around 390 km with 80% of water saturation, shown by a negative anomaly on receiver functions. This result is similar to data obtained for Afar Plateau [Thompson et al., 2015]. With cratonic thermal gradient, the olivine-wadsleyite transition and corresponding melt layer appear at depths around 350 km

  10. Et in Arcadia Ego: El Mausoleo de Castle Howard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    spatial point of view, the most closed, the emptiest, the most inaccessible and the closest. This circular building can be watched with emotion  from afar, but also encouraged to approach their limits, to almost physically feel the vitality of who lives inside that cage of stone, and dwells there forever reminding us that, as stated  Erwin Panofsky, death is the real subject of the existence in the Arcadian landscape.

    Key words

    Castle Howard, paysage, mausoleum, Hawksmoor, arcadia, death, Panofsky

  11. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2553. Nishigaki, T., M. Shibata, S. Sugihara, A. D. Mvondo-Ze, S. Araki, and S. Funakawa. 2016. Effect of Mulching with Vegetative Residues on Soil Water Erosion and Water Balance in an Oxisol Cropped by Cassava in East Cameroon. Land Degradation and Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2568. Novara, A., L. Gristina, S. S. Saladino, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà. 2011. Soil Erosion Assessment on Tillage and Alternative Soil Managements in a Sicilian Vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117: 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007. Ochoa, P. A., A. Fries, D. Mejía, J. I. Burneo, J. D. Ruíz-Sinoga, and A. Cerdà. 2016. Effects of Climate, Land Cover and Topography on Soil Erosion Risk in a Semiarid Basin of the Andes. Catena 140: 31-42. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.01.011. Pereira, P., Giménez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R.E., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C., Cerdà A., 2015. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 12947-12985, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-12947-2015, 2015 Prosdocimi, M., A. Jordán, P. Tarolli, S. Keesstra, A. Novara, and A. Cerdà. 2016. The Immediate Effectiveness of Barley Straw Mulch in Reducing Soil Erodibility and Surface Runoff Generation in Mediterranean Vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 547: 323-330. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076. Rodrigo Comino J, Iserloh T, Morvan X, Malam Issa O, Naisse C, Keesstra SD, Cerdà A, Prosdocimi M, Arnáez J, Lasanta T, Ramos MC, Marqués MJ, Ruiz Colmenero M, Bienes R, Ruiz Sinoga JD, Seeger M, Ries JB (2016). Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology, 3 (1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology3010006 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S.D., Prosdocimi, M., Brings, C., Marzen, M., Ramos, M.C., Senciales, J.M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016

  12. Fukushima action plan 2015; Aktionsplan Fukushima 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-15

    Immediately after the reactor accident at the Japanese power plant (NPP) in Fukushima-Daiichi on 11{sup th} March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) took measures to verify the safety of Swiss NPPs which were formulated in 4 ordinances. In the first 3, immediate actions and additional verifications were required. They included the building of a common external emergency equipment storage facility for all Swiss NPPs and the required plant specific connections for accident management equipment as well as an update of ducts used for the external water supply to the fuel assembly storage pools. Object of additional scrutiny was the design of the Swiss NPPs as afar as earthquakes, external flooding and combination of both is concerned. Further, checking the coolant supply of the safety systems and fuel assembly storage pools was required. At the same time as the checks carried out by the plant operators, ENSI conducted inspections to examine the cooling systems of the fuel assembly storage pools, protection against external flooding and the filtered containment pressure-release systems. The inspections made in 2012 examined the strategies of the plant operators in the case of a long-lasting loss of electricity supply, the process and documents for the evaluation of external events and the premises foreseen in case of emergency. In 2013 the material for protection against radiation which is a fundamental condition for the mastering of a serious accident, was inspected at all NPPs. Radiation protection material is also essential for the long-lasting use of premises by the emergency organisation. The ENSI inspection results have confirmed that the Swiss NPPs show a high degree of protection against the effects of earthquakes, flooding and the combination of both, and that appropriate actions have been taken against loss of electricity supply and/or heat removal. All analysed accidents can be managed under consideration of the presently valid risk

  13. IMPLICACIÓN ESCOLAR DE ESTUDIANTES DE SECUNDARIA: LA INFLUENCIA DE LA RESILIENCIA, EL AUTOCONCEPTO Y EL APOYO SOCIAL PERCIBIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue doble: en primer lugar, analizar las relaciones entre la implicación escolar y la resiliencia, el autoconcepto y el apoyo social percibido. En segundo lugar, determinar variables predictoras de la implica- ción escolar. Participaron en el estudio 1250 estudiantes entre 12 y 15 años ( M =13.72, DT =1.09, de los cuales 612 eran chicos (49% y 638 (51% chicas, seleccionados aleatoriamente en el País Vasco. Se administraron los siguien- tes instrumentos de evaluación: Cuestionario de Implicación Escolar (SEM de Fredericks, Blumenfeld, Friedel, y Paris (2005, Escala de Resiliencia (CD- RISC de Connor y Davidson (2003, Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Dimensio- nal-33 (AUDIM-33 de Fernández-Zabala, Goñi, Rodríguez-Fernández y Goñi (2015, y Cuestionario de Apoyo Familiar y de Amigos (AFA-R de González y Landero (2014. Se hallaron correlaciones signi®cativas entre implicación escolar y resiliencia, autoconcepto y apoyo social. Todas las variables estudia- das fueron predictoras de las tres dimensiones de implicación escolar (con- ductual, emocional y cognitiva a excepción del autoconcepto, que se mostró como variable predictora de la implicación conductual y la implicación emo- cional, pero no de la implicación cognitiva.

  14. 'Fragilization and Resistance' and 'Neighborhood and Shechina'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha L. Ettinger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Com-passion involves transformational affects, and among them these major three: primary fascinance (that precedes or is in parallel to fascinum and might counter-balance control and submission by its transformational value, primary compassion (that precedes and might counter-balance abjection and abandonment, and primary awe (that might counter-balance shame and fear. These affects are primordial accesses to the other and to the Cosmos. Through them the other and the Cosmos do not turn into objects - their dynamic difference is preserved during cognizing. By way of these affects, the subtle human subjectivizing processes and the early positions are not "schizophrenic-paranoid". To be a subject without turning the other and the Cosmos into an object ― that is the question.

  15. Grace and Courtesy and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Taking up the cause of grace and courtesy across the planes of education, Pat Schaefer tells of the grace and courtesy of successive planes within a school culture and gives a glimpse of how the Montessori vision of a new society can look. Grace and courtesy go well beyond the practice of manners and into the topic of deep observation and…

  16. Formulation and evaluation and terbutaline sulphate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the use of low rugosity lactose, product of controlled crystallization of this carrier, in the formulation of terbutaline sulphate and beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder inhalers. The deposition patterns obtained with inhalation mixtures consisting of the modified lactose and each of the micronised drugs ...

  17. SYRUP AND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICD-UGL

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... ICD-UGL Food Safety and Nutrition Training Centre, Department of Nutrition and ... Potassium, the principal cation in body cells, was the most abundant mineral in ... and to facilitate farm/village level production of good quality palm sap ... and the percentage of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre ...

  18. Stitch and hem and line and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  19. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  20. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breads, muffins, biscuits, crackers oatmeal and cold cereals pasta potatoes rice Simple sugars are in: fresh or ... anemia. green leafy vegetables, whole grain breads and pastas, dried fruit, beans, red meat, chicken, liver, fish, ...

  1. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  2. Kinetics and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.

  3. and fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... was observed at a pH of 7 and temperature of 20°C. Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased ..... in the culture media, with M. canis causing the most significant .... the primary mode of inactivation by plant proteins is nucleic acid ...

  4. Geo- and cosmochemistry and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar samples were analyzed by fast-neutron, slow-neutron, and photon-activation for F, Cl, Br, I, U, Li, Te, Hg, Ru, Os, 204 Pb, Bi, Tl, and Zn. In mineralogical studies, the distribution of U, Th, Ba, and the rare earths in the calcium--aluminium-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite was studied by analyzing 15 Allende inclusions using neutron activation methods. (U.S.)

  5. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  6. Hearts and minds and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-03-01

    New research by social scientists is presenting a clearer picture of the factors that influence the public perception of nanotechnology and, as Chris Toumey reports, the results present challenges for those working to increase public acceptance of nanoscience and technology.See focus on public perceptions of nanotechnology.

  7. Identity and sortals (and Caesar)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klev, Ansten

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-16 ISSN 0165-0106 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : identity * neo-logicism * type theory * Julius Caesar problem Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  8. Fun and Games and Boredom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-08-01

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.

  9. AND COCOYAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laura

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Presented in Table 5 are the sensory attributes of the cookies produced. Taste panel ratings for all ... observed in the cookies is desirable to both the processor and health conscious individuals. ..... fruit pulp. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci.

  10. and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    judicial courts. INDECOPI's journey to become a respected authority figure is detailed in the .... excellent training ground for bright and ambitious university graduates. ... For example, it set up the Consumer Attention Service, which provides the ...

  11. AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szaradowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Presenting fashion in a museum involves not only technical but also methodological questions. For a long time, the presentation of clothing was dominated by a chronological approach which underlined stylistic changes. The 1980s and 1990s brought some change to the catwalks; designers from Japan suggested clothes which did not match the European canons. Many representatives of the Old Continent then followed in their footsteps. In order to describe those new phenomena, in the mid-1990s a new term appeared – deconstruction of fashion. This referred not only to aesthetics but also to the whole system. The way people wrote and spoke about fashion could not remain unaffected by such material changes, and the number of research perspectives increased quite rapidly. Recently, a trend which may be referred to as the turn towards materiality – focusing on the object and making it a starting point for discussion can be seen to gain strength. It has recently been summarised by Mida and Alexandra Kim in their book The Dress Detective. A Practical Guide to Object- Based Research in Fashion, which also discussed the practical side of research into clothing. The authors’ suggestions are also an incentive to look for new contexts for objects which have already been collected.

  12. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  13. CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The technological properties (mechanical strength, water absorption, ... melting compound − as compared to that of microcline or oligoclase, may have an ... Thin sections were prepared from feldspar rocks and examined by optical microscopy.

  14. Sex and Sexuality and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of blood or vaginal fluids entering your mouth. Plastic food wrap also can be used as a barrier. if either you or your ... a square) between your mouth and the anus. Plastic food wrap also can be used as a barrier. This barrier is to prevent ...

  15. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2008-01-01

    And Distant Learners’ Social Presence Perceptions In Videoconferencing Applications”, written by Mujgan BOZKAYA, from Open Education Faculty, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TURKEY. She tried to compare in her paper between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate that the predicted social presence score for distance instruction is slightly lower than for the on-site instruction for high nonverbal behavior while the reverse is true of low non verbal behaviors. Predicted social presence for face to face instruction is quite higher than for the distance instruction for the high verbal behaviors while the reverse is true of low verbal behaviors. It means that students’ social presence is predicted to be higher in the face to face setting comparing to the videoconferencing course in both models. In addition, when both nonverbal and verbal behaviors increase, the predicted social presence is facilitated, controlling for the grouping variable. The Thirteenth article is related with The Effects of Interactive Learning Environments On Cooperative Learning Achievement And Student Anxiety In Environmental Education subject. It is written by Soner YAVUZ, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, TURKEY. His study aimed to investigate the effect of distance education and technology assisted cooperative learning projects on students’ achievement and attitude in “Chemistry events and concepts in our life”. In the light of this aim, student achievement scores as outcomes of student cooperative learning projects were evaluated together with technology attitude scale. The fourteenth article is from JORDAN which is entitled as “E-Learning As A Knowledge Management Approach For Intellectual Capital Utilization” and written by Issa SHEHABAT, Saad A. MAHDI, Kamel KHOUALDI. This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e

  16. DOD Budget and Transformation: Challenges and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, David M

    2007-01-01

    ...., military, civilian, contractors) * Get the design and implementation of the NSPS right, including modernizing and integrating the DOD, Service, domain, unit, and individual performance measurement and reward systems...

  17. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2009-01-01

    administering a personal information form and a 31-item Likert questionnaire to 475 senior students of the Faculty of Education. Findings revealed that what were reported by instructors in the previous study seem somewhat different from what is being reported by their students in the current study. The eight article is came from Jordan. Titled article is on E-Learning s A Knowledge Management Approach For Intellectual Capital Utilization which is written by Issa SHEHABAT, Saad A. MAHDI from Philadelphia University and Kamel KHOUALDI from Al-Zaytoonah University, JORDAN. Their paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. The 9th article is arrived to us from The Open University of Sri Lanka, written by S. Anbahan ARIADURAI and Rajalingam MANOHANTHAN. The article is entitled as Reasons for Student Discontinuation in Engineering Degree Courses Offered At A Distance. The study concludes that increasing student numbers will not necessarily increase percentage of students completing the programme though the number of students completing is increased. It is found that students offering courses for the first time in the system of distance education in their academic career perform poorer because they are not conversant with distance education techniques. It is recommended that the Faculty must offer an orientation programme on distance education to all the students enrolling for the first time, before they commence their regular programmes. Next and the tenth article is written by Bong Chin WEI, Wawasan Open University, Malaysia. The paper is entitled as “A Multi-Channel Approach For Monitoring Off-Shore Outsourcing Projects for Distance Learning Material Development”. She introduces the outsourcing process in WOU followed by some of the issues faced by

  18. Time and timelessness: inscription and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2009-04-01

    Time is a real dimension of the physical universe and a subjective matter of mind. Depending on their relationship to Eros and the Death Instinct, our feelings about time and timelessness may serve disparate ends- positive or negative, constructive or destructive. The conflicts that emerge between time and timelessness will be affected by and drawn into our conflicts between the reality principle and the pleasure principle and by our capacity to acknowledge and bear the losses, hurts, and disappointments with which life presents us and the hopes and possibilities that life may hold. The "making" and inscribing of time-i.e., articulating and ordering mental elements in the act of representation, symbolization, and verbal linkage of previously unrepresented and inchoate proto-mental elements and states-are central to psychic functioning and the psychoanalytic process. Clinical material will illustrate these processes and their relation to the binding and mastery of trauma: internal and external, massive and cumulative.

  19. Food and Beverage Stylist and Photography

    OpenAIRE

    BEKAR, Aydan; KARAKULAK, Çisem

    2016-01-01

    A food and beverage stylist makes food and beverage look appetizing by preaparing them properly in order to get customers’ attention. A food and beverage photographer gets the most impressive image by using different shooting techniques. Food and beverage stylists and phtographers prepare attractive and unusual menus ,brochures, banners and ads for food and beverage enterprises so that products can look better when customers see them. People see the works of food and beverage styling and phot...

  20. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  1. Aging and training and development willingness: employee and supervisor mindsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Dalhoeven, B.A.G.W.; de Pater, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined individual and situational factors that impact the relationship between age and employee training and development willingness. We proposed that the relationship between age and training and development willingness would be moderated by employees' entity self-theory and

  2. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  3. Electrical, instrumentation, and control codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranning, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    During recent years numerous documents in the form of codes and standards have been developed and published to provide design, fabrication and construction rules and criteria applicable to instrumentation, control and power distribution facilities for nuclear power plants. The contents of this LTR were prepared by NUS Corporation under Subcontract K5108 and provide a consolidated index and listing of the documents selected for their application to procurement of materials and design of modifications and new construction at the LOFT facility. These codes and standards should be applied together with the National Electrical Code, the ID Engineering Standards and LOFT Specifications to all LOFT instrument and electrical design activities

  4. European Food and Drink Wholesalers and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- The aim of this paper is to review and reflect on the sustainability agendas and achievements reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper begins with a short introduction to corporate sustainability, sustainability reporting and food and drinks wholesaling within Europe and the empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers' corporate websites. Findings- There are marked variations in the extent to which Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermine its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers' definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. More critically the authors argue that this approach is couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption Limitations- The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality- The role of Europe's wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature and this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing and employees and executives working in the distribution sector of the economy.

  5. Review and comparison of WWER and LWR Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, D.; Tashkinov, A.; Brynda, J.; Davies, L.M.; Cueto-Felgeueroso, C.; Detroux, P.; Bieniussa, K.; Guinovart, J.

    2003-01-01

    The results of work on a collaborative project on comparison of Codes and Standards used for safety related components of the WWER and LWR type reactors is presented. This work was performed on behalf of the European Commission, Working Group Codes and Standards and considers areas such as rules, criteria and provisions, failure mechanisms , derivation and understanding behind the fatigue curves, piping, materials and aging, manufacturing and ISI. WWERs are essentially designed and constructed using the Russian PNAE Code together with special provisions in a few countries (e.g. Czech Republic) from national standards. The LWR Codes have a strong dependence on the ASME Code. Also within Western Europe other codes are used including RCC-M, KTA and British Standards. A comparison of procedures used in all these codes and standards have been made to investigate the potential for equivalencies between the codes and any grounds for future cooperation between eastern and western experts in this field. (author)

  6. Teaching and Learning about Sexuality and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Bernita M.; Kelly, James J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experience in developing teaching and learning content on aging and sexuality. Suggestions for a course outline and experiential learning for students and a summary of findings, which has implications for educators in gerontology, are included. (Author)

  7. Medical instruments and devices principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, Steven; Peterson, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Medical Instruments and Devices: Principles and Practices originates from the medical instruments and devices section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition. Top experts in the field provide material that spans this wide field. The text examines how biopotential amplifiers help regulate the quality and content of measured signals. It includes instruments and devices that span a range of physiological systems and the physiological scale: molecular, cellular, organ, and system. The book chronicles the evolution of pacemakers and their system operation and discusses oscillometry, cardiac output measurement, and the direct and indirect methods of measuring cardiac output. The authors also expound on the mechanics and safety of defibrillators and cover implantable stimulators, respiration, and the structure and function of mechanical ventilators. In addition, this text covers in depth: Anesthesia Delivery Electrosurgical Units and Devices Biomedical Lasers Measuring Cellular Traction Forces Blood G...

  8. Science and Technology Metrics and Other Thoughts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harman, Wayne; Staton, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This report explores the subject of science and technology metrics and other topics to begin to provide Navy managers, as well as scientists and engineers, additional tools and concepts with which to...

  9. Development and Evaluation of Organoleptic Quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid scores ranged from 32 to 66% with Lysine, Leucine and Threonine as the most limiting ..... cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and colon cancer ..... helps to maintain the body's homeostatic and acid- ..... glucose and cognition.

  10. Problems and Prospects of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become a veritable tool being ... ICTs, poor source of power supply and high cost of software and hardware. It was therefore recommended that government and NGOs should collaborate to ...

  11. Fertilizer and briquetting and carbonisation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangachary, P T

    1984-11-14

    The fertilizer plant and the briquetting and carbonisation plant of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation's complex in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India, and the processes used in each to produce fertilizers, smokeless fuels and tar products are described.

  12. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Ladegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    . Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  13. Automated and connected vehicle implications and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Automated and connected vehicles (ACV) and, in particular, autonomous vehicles have captured : the interest of the public, industry and transportation authorities. ACVs can significantly reduce : accidents, fuel consumption, pollution and the costs o...

  14. Of Prepositions and Propositions: Sharing Experiences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Prepositions and Propositions: Sharing Experiences and Perspectives on ... and Africanist scholars, written by an African and an Africanist graduate student. ... in the long-standing dispute over FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) research.

  15. Postharvest biology and technology research and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... The applications of biological control agents in pre- and post-harvest operations and .... production, with regards to food safety, operator health and the ... and to work out sustainable compliance modalities for small-scale ...

  16. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods.

  17. Radiation protection and the laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Takuo

    1980-01-01

    In hospitals and clinics, when cobalt remote irradiation apparatuses, betatrons and linear accelerators are installed, the provisions of medical and radiation injury prevention laws and other related laws and regulations must be observed. The following matters are described: the laws and regulations concerning the prevention of radiation injuries, the definitions of the therapeutical equipments, the radiation protection standards for such facilities, radiation exposure dose and permissible dose, the procedures concerning the application before usage, the responsibilities of hospitals and clinics for radiation measurement and management, and shielding and shield calculations. (J.P.N.)

  18. Research and development and industrial informatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This book deals with research and development and industrial informatization with development of technology international trend, the present conditions of scientific technology in the major nations, politics of technical development and trend, process of national research and development, research for industrial research and development, strengthen cooperation for scientific technology among nations, current situation and development of technology by field such as energy, software and system, and technology for industrial informatization.

  19. Laser and photonic systems design and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Nof, Shimon Y; Cheng, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    New, significant scientific discoveries in laser and photonic technologies, systems perspectives, and integrated design approaches can improve even further the impact in critical areas of challenge. Yet this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research arenas. Laser and Photonic Systems: Design and Integration brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to increase understanding of the ways in which systems perspectives may influence laser and photonic innovations and application integration.By bringing together chapters from leading scientists and technologists, ind

  20. Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    , 2008 and 2011: Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Futures, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, Science and Public Policy, and Foresight. Methodologically, the paper draws on the principles of Elsevier’s Scopus and Thompson Reuter’s Web of Science. The chapter concludes...

  1. Photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis and photoreactors. Fundamentals and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavello, M [ed.

    1985-01-01

    During this conference 29 lectures were read on following subjects: materials for electrodes and photochemical cells, fundamentals of photochemistry and photocatalysis, design and modelling of photochemical reactors and reactions. The aim was to define the state of the art and of outlining perspectives, developments and practical utilization. (A.V.)

  2. Diasporas, Transnationalism and Global Engagement : Tamils and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diasporas, Transnationalism and Global Engagement : Tamils and Sinhalese in Canada and their links to Sri Lanka. This project will examine the role of diaspora funding and networking in ethno-political conflict in Sri Lanka by examining Tamil and Sinhala transnational community networks in Canada and their nexus in ...

  3. Annual review and directors' report and accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This annual report of Midlands Electricity PLC (MEB) presents a financial review of the Group and the directors' and auditors reports. Historical and current cost profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and cash flow statements are tabulated. The Group's financial history and regulatory accounts are also presented. (UK)

  4. Molecular simulations and visualization: introduction and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jonathan D; Glowacki, David R; Baaden, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide an introduction and overview of current progress in the field of molecular simulation and visualization, touching on the following topics: (1) virtual and augmented reality for immersive molecular simulations; (2) advanced visualization and visual analytic techniques; (3) new developments in high performance computing; and (4) applications and model building.

  5. Heidegger and Leibniz: Reason and Faith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Heidegger and Leibniz: Reason and Faith. Renato Cristin (1998). Heidegger and Leibniz: Reason and Faith. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hard Cover (130 pages + index) by Felicity Haynes. Cristin sets out to analyze. Heidegger's treatment and use of Leibniz, and in so doing presents a view of. Leibniz which ...

  6. Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris

    2004-10-30

    The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.

  7. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  8. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  9. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  10. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  11. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, www.fosep.org) was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  12. Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gurfil, Pini

    2016-01-01

    This volume is designed as an introductory text and reference book for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of astronomy, astrodynamics, satellite systems, space sciences and astrophysics. The purpose of the book is to emphasize the similarities between celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and to present recent advances in these two fields so that the reader can understand the inter-relations and mutual influences. The juxtaposition of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics is a unique approach that is expected to be a refreshing attempt to discuss both the mechanics of space flight and the dynamics of celestial objects. “Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics: Theory and Practice” also presents the main challenges and future prospects for the two fields in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. The book presents homogenous and fluent discussions of the key problems, rendering a portrayal of recent advances in the field together with some basic concepts and essential in...

  13. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  14. [SOX2 defect and anophthalmia and microphthalmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fu-xiang; Fan, Xian-qun

    2012-11-01

    As a severe congenital developmental disorder, anophthalmia and microphthalmia are usually accompanied with vision impairment and hypoevolutism of the orbit in the affected side. Many genes are involved in anophthalmia and microphthalmia, in which, SOX2 is an important one. The defect of SOX2 causes multiple system disorders, including anophthalmia and microphthalmia. We describe the relationship between the SOX2 defect and anophthalmia/microphthalmia, in order to offer some proposals for the differential diagnosis, treatment and research of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

  15. Purpose and Meaning, Ethnic Identity, and

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are primary facets of eudaimonic well-being, yet are understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in purpose and meaning, links with psychological and academic adjustment, links with ethnic identity, and the mediating role of purpose and meaning in associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences in purpos...

  16. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  17. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  18. Research and development and management of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Gil

    1989-04-01

    This book mentions current state of affairs on research and development and prospect : activity of business, field like information and materials, energy and resource, public welfare, general industry technology. It introduces policy on promotion of research and development such as propel of special research and development business, propel strategy for 10 priority tasks, reinforcement of basic research, promotion of information industry and propel for technical development of business.

  19. Essence and Personality in Grotowski and Gurdjieff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article establishes relationships between working words and concepts in the work of Grotowski and Gurdjieff. Particularly, it investigates concepts of essence and personality, common to Grotowski and Gurdjieff, relating them to the presence and quality of attention, such as the emergency of voluntary contact between these two aspects. Voluntary contact implies special conditions which are not natural, but artificial, and which can be created by human beings in their recurring and extraordinary interactions.

  20. Isolation and purification of psoralen and isopsoralen and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nude rat model of osteosarcoma was established; the rats were randomized into: normal saline group, psoralen low- and high-dose groups, isopsoralen low- and ... was used to observe heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and tumor histopathology; and electron microscopy was used to observe the fine structure of tumor cells.

  1. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and resources from NIDDK on obesity, weight control, physical activity, and related topics ... translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to ...

  2. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  3. Regulations And Control Of Food And Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuide, G.E.; Director General, National Agency For Food And Drugs Administration And Control, Federal Secretariat, Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria.

    1996-01-01

    Effective control of processed food and medicines is crucial for the maintenance of public health. Issues of wholesomeness, quality, efficacy and safety are of paramount concern to both consumers and regulatory agencies alike. Laws and regulatory are put in in place to ensure minimum standards of practice by the various operators in the food and pharmaceutical sub-sectors, such as will guarantee that the regulated products (food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, chemicals and bottled water) they deal in satisfy all the parameters of quality, wholesomeness, efficacy and safety. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) was established to enforce all relevant laws and regulations on food and drugs among other-regulated products. NAFDAC has put in place appropriate administrative structures and procedures in its efforts to fulfill its mandate. Finally, the agency is in the process of extending its regulatory and control activities to cover irradiated food products in order to safeguard public health

  4. Library and information sciences trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site....

  5. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  6. Science and technology and global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzavecchia, G.

    1992-01-01

    The impacts of R ampersand D and technological innovation on economic development are discussed with reference to the current and probable future status of various industrialized countries in highly competitive marketing areas such as micro- electronics. An assessment is made of international trends in approaches towards: corporate planning, organizing, sizing, on-the-job training and the modelling of employee attitudes; methods for dealing with risk and uncertainty in non-linear and complex global economic markets; research and development orientation and investment; and government policy making regarding education, economic growth and technological innovation

  7. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  8. Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Gordon W. F.; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Kato, Daiji; Karwasz, Grzegorz

    2018-03-01

    This topical issue on Atomic and molecular data and their applications was motivated by the 10th International Conference on Atomic and Molecular Data (ICAMDATA 2016), which was held from September 26 to 29, 2016 in Gunsan, Republic of Korea. The topics of this issue reflect those of the conference program. The scientific papers in the topical issue cover the fields of atomic and molecular structure, radiative transitions, scattering processes, data base development, and the applications of atomic and molecular data to plasma modeling. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  9. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat Research is concerned with measuring meat quality and quantity and investigating how production methods, processing, storage and transport, display for sale and methods of cooking influence quality. Quality must be defined as the requirements of the consumer, the market place and the processor. Take for example ...

  10. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1998-01-01

    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries [it

  11. Third World and disarmament: shadow and substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The progress of world nuclear and conventional disarmament is discussed in relation to Third World countries. Subjects covered include, the Test Ban Treaty, demiliterisation of the sea-bed, chemical and biological weapons, strategic arms limitation, the arms race, disarmament and development, and the attitudes of specific countries - France, China, Israel, Latin America, Southern Asia and Southern Africa towards disarmament. (U.K.)

  12. ICT and the paperboard and packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Sanna Kallioranta; Richard Vlosky

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the reasons for the development of ICT and e-business systems in the paper and paperboard packaging industry and to discuss future scenarios that may serve to guide forest- sector research in this topical area. The paper and paperboard packaging industry encompasses producers of primary paper and paperboard packaging materials...

  13. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...

  14. Heritability estimates and correlations between production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritablities and correlations were estimated between lamb body weight at different ages and reproductive traits in the Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed. Data and pedigree information for Lori-Bakhtiari sheep used in this study were 5826 records of body weight of lambs from 240 sires and 1627 dams, and 5741 records of ...

  15. Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in Fragile and Post Conflict States. Both the social science literature and policymakers tend to take for granted that poverty reduction, risk mitigation and democratization are mutually reinforcing. This basic assumption was first challenged ...

  16. Sport and Tourism Between Modernity and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The text presents and analyses manifestations of modernity and postmodernity in the field of competitive and recreational sport, physical education, leisure, and tourism. The paper builds upon an extensive literature survey and presents the concept and key features of postmodern societies and the modernity-postmodernity debate in sports with reference to postmodern tendencies in tourism. We have attempted to determine the proportions of tradition, modernity, and postmodernity in contemporary sport and tourism, keeping in mind that, similarly to contemporary societies as a whole, sport is undoubtedly a mixture of traditional, modern, and Fordist elements with postmodern and post-Fordist features. We present and discuss the prevailing belief that the key elements of leisure sport are mostly postmodern and focused on the notion of individualisation and freedom expressed especially in alternative sports, while commercialised mainstream sport follows the regular mass-media show-business development path, maintaining a significant amount of modern concepts, such as the importance of national identities. Special attention is also paid to the Olympic Games as a specific and very efficient mixture of modernity and postmodernity. More so than at any point in the past, and despite the actual proportions of modernity and postmodernity that it contains, contemporary sport has become an integral part of postmodern societies and their lifestyle, with technology-determined individualisation of sport consumption and leisure sport participation.

  17. Feminism and Multiculturalism: Parallels and Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, the psychological literature has begun to address both feminist and multicultural concerns, although these fields have rarely incorporated each others' diverse and vibrant ideas. This article explores the connections between feminist and multicultural psychology, and encourages the profession to more fully embrace and affirm both…

  18. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  19. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development....

  20. Information and Communication Technology and School Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication technology and school based assessment (SBA) is practice that broadens the form mode, means and scope of assessment in the school using modern technologies in order to facilitate and enhance learning. This study sought to ascertain the efficacy of Information and Communication ...

  1. Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2001 ... Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain. Couverture du livre Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America. Directeur(s):. Gary McMahon et Felix Remy. Maison(s) d'édition: Banque ...

  2. Landscape and Heritage: trajectories and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, David

    2015-01-01

    supporting and often parallel endeavour of academic, policy and popular inquiry that explores the significance of landscape and heritage as meaningful categories of an emergent and processual nature. Despite such a parallel trajectory, however, the actual practices of landscape and heritage studies still...

  3. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  4. Food quality and safety: traceability and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses food systems in general, their development over the past 120 years, and realities and problems faced by a world population of over 6 billion people. Various food and feed problems are mentioned, and the concept of "traceability" is discussed in the context of the broader and more useful approach of using "good practices" at all levels of the food chain.

  5. Monitoring and verification R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory W.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report outlined the Administration's approach to promoting the agenda put forward by President Obama in Prague on April 5, 2009. The NPR calls for a national monitoring and verification R and D program to meet future challenges arising from the Administration's nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament agenda. Verification of a follow-on to New START could have to address warheads and possibly components along with delivery capabilities. Deeper cuts and disarmament would need to address all of these elements along with nuclear weapon testing, nuclear material and weapon production facilities, virtual capabilities from old weapon and existing energy programs and undeclared capabilities. We only know how to address some elements of these challenges today, and the requirements may be more rigorous in the context of deeper cuts as well as disarmament. Moreover, there is a critical need for multiple options to sensitive problems and to address other challenges. There will be other verification challenges in a world of deeper cuts and disarmament, some of which we are already facing. At some point, if the reductions process is progressing, uncertainties about past nuclear materials and weapons production will have to be addressed. IAEA safeguards will need to continue to evolve to meet current and future challenges, and to take advantage of new technologies and approaches. Transparency/verification of nuclear and dual-use exports will also have to be addressed, and there will be a need to make nonproliferation measures more watertight and transparent. In this context, and recognizing we will face all of these challenges even if disarmament is not achieved, this paper will explore possible agreements and arrangements; verification challenges; gaps in monitoring and verification technologies and approaches; and the R and D required to address these gaps and other monitoring and verification challenges.

  6. Children and Adolescents and Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Chassiakos, Yolanda Linda; Radesky, Jenny; Christakis, Dimitri; Moreno, Megan A; Cross, Corinn

    2016-11-01

    Today's children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Rock and roll and neofolk music in Yugoslavia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Đurković, Miša

    2013-01-01

    Rock and roll (including pop-rock) and neo-folk are two the most dominant popular music genres of this region in the last half century. Five decades of living together have brought the different relationships between them and the different perceptions of these relationships. Unfortunately reflection of ideological discourse dominated in relation to objective and professional research and monitoring of the evolution of both genres, which would necessarily include the analysis of cross-overing,...

  8. Cancer chemotherapy and biotherapy: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chabner, Bruce; Longo, Dan L

    2011-01-01

    "Updated to include the newest drugs and those currently in development, Cancer Chemotherapy and Biotherapy, Fifth Edition is a comprehensive reference on the preclinical and clinical pharmacology of anticancer agents...

  9. Substandard and Counterfeit Antimicrobials: Recent Trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... trends in the availability of substandard and counterfeit antimicrobials in the global market ... Literature search using PubMed and Medline databases and Google search engine was conducted to identify related publications on the subject.

  10. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  11. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 003158.htm Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent To use the sharing features on this page, ... fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams. This may irritate ...

  12. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    Conveniently gathering formulas, analytical methods, and graphs for the design and selection of a wide variety of brakes and clutches in the automotive, aircraft, farming, and manufacturing industries, Clutches and Brakes: Design and Selection, Second Edition simplifies calculations, acquaints engineers with an expansive range of application, and assists in the selection of parameters for specific design challenges. Contains an abundance of examples, 550 display equations, and more than 200 figures for clear presentation of various design strategies Thoroughly revised throughout, the second edition offers… Additional chapters on friction drives and fluid clutches and retarders An extended discussion on cone brakes and clutches A simpler formulation of the torque from a centrifugal clutch Updated sections on automatic braking systems An analysis of variable-speed friction drives with clutch capability Analytical and computer-assisted design techniques.

  13. Interfacing and adopting ITIL and COBIT

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    IT is operationally critical and strategic to an enterprise's success. Implementing best professional management practices should be a management imperative. ITIL and COBIT are two of the most widely adopted frameworks for supporting IT governance and management improvement initiatives.

  14. Quality and reliability management and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Integrating development processes, policies, and reliability predictions from the beginning of the product development lifecycle to ensure high levels of product performance and safety, this book helps companies overcome the challenges posed by increasingly complex systems in today’s competitive marketplace.   Examining both research on and practical aspects of product quality and reliability management with an emphasis on applications, the book features contributions written by active researchers and/or experienced practitioners in the field, so as to effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and address new research challenges in reliability and quality management in practice.    Postgraduates, researchers and practitioners in the areas of reliability engineering and management, amongst others, will find the book to offer a state-of-the-art survey of quality and reliability management and practices.

  15. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  16. Normal and abnormal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... This article focuses on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and introduces a range of genetic ... spherical structures that are suspended in the plasma and whose ..... atherosclerosis. Table II suggests a simple classification of.

  17. Information and Communication Technologies and Management of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project has the double objective of supporting an action-research project on ... and communication technology (ICT) and natural resources management in Africa. More and more, P-GIS is being put forward as tool for development.

  18. Markets and organizations: individualism and economic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Economic theory depicts markets and organizations as opposite allocation mechanisms. Market allocation is based on mobility and organization on instruction. The paper argues that markets and organizations are complements in economies that grow through innovation. Diversity of organizations lies at

  19. Common SIDS and SUID Terms and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... media links Common SIDS and SUID Terms and Definitions Page Content Health care providers and others may ... NICHD Home Accessibility NICHD Contact Disclaimer NICHD Accounts: Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® ...

  20. Framelets and wavelets algorithms, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Marking a distinct departure from the perspectives of frame theory and discrete transforms, this book provides a comprehensive mathematical and algorithmic introduction to wavelet theory. As such, it can be used as either a textbook or reference guide. As a textbook for graduate mathematics students and beginning researchers, it offers detailed information on the basic theory of framelets and wavelets, complemented by self-contained elementary proofs, illustrative examples/figures, and supplementary exercises. Further, as an advanced reference guide for experienced researchers and practitioners in mathematics, physics, and engineering, the book addresses in detail a wide range of basic and advanced topics (such as multiwavelets/multiframelets in Sobolev spaces and directional framelets) in wavelet theory, together with systematic mathematical analysis, concrete algorithms, and recent developments in and applications of framelets and wavelets. Lastly, the book can also be used to teach on or study selected spe...

  1. Youth and Academic and Educational Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Zokaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The empirical studies undertaken on academic culture in Iran suggest an inefficient academic acculturation and students alienation from the structure and process of a desired academic culture. A sense of powerlessness, normlessness, anomie, social isolation and in general strangement from the self, educational processes, unverrsity camp, academic staff members and also from other students is increasingly growing in the minds and feelings of a considerable number of higher education students in humanities and social sciences. Drawing on a mixed methodology, the following paper aims to reconstruct the phenomenology of academic and educational alienation based on students personal lived experience and narrativity. Apart from accounting for internal and external social factors affecting this experience, we have proposed a typology of the types of alienation experienced by different groups of students and the strategies they have adopted to counter it. Results suggest that alienation is directly affected by culture politics and involves different social, psychological, and economic consequences in their lives.

  2. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  3. Biometric Authorization and Registration Systems and Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulfield, H

    2002-01-01

    Biometric authorization and registration systems and methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, the system preferably comprises a firearm that includes a biometric authorization system, a plurality of training computers, and a server...

  4. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegan eating patterns are healthy for infants and toddlers. Time and attention are necessary to help young children, vegetarian or not, get all the nutrients they need for normal growth and development. For the first six months, all babies do ...

  5. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  6. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. SUBHASIS ROYa, SOMNATH CHOUBEYa, SUMITAVA KHANa, KISHALAY BHARa,. PARTHA MITRAb and BARINDRA ...

  7. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas in humans and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S.; Korpershoek, E

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are described in several species. In humans and dogs they have many similarities: the excessive catecholamine release in hormonally active PCC causes similar clinical signs, the frequency of metastasis is similar, and they are histopathologically

  8. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  9. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have now been established worldwide and, as a result, many countries are pursuing R and D programmes to advance the technologies associated with P and T. In this context, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has organised a series of biennial information exchange meetings to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinides and Fission Products Partitioning and Transmutation is a forum for experts to present and discuss the state-of-the-art development in the field of P and T. Thirteen meetings have been organised so far and held in Japan, the United States, France, Belgium, Spain, the Republic of Korea and the Czech Republic. This 13. meeting was hosted by Seoul National University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) and was organised in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Community (EC). The meeting covered strategic and scientific developments in the field of P and T such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios, the role of P and T in the potential evolution of nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix; radioactive waste management strategies; transmutation fuels and targets; advances in pyro and aqueous separation processes; P and T specific technology requirements (materials, spallation targets, coolants, etc.); transmutation systems: design, performance and safety; impact of P and T on the fuel cycle; fabrication, handling and transportation of transmutation fuels. A total of 103 presentations (39 oral and 64 posters) were discussed among the 110 participants from 19 countries and 2 international organisations. The meeting consisted of one plenary session where national and international programmes were presented followed by 5 technical sessions: - Fuel Cycle Strategies and Transition

  10. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  11. Guided Imagery and Music - And Beyond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music.......4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music....

  12. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  13. Mergers and acquisitions: valuation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeigh, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of various aspects of mergers and acquisition transactions in the petroleum industry were presented. Incentives to mergers and acquisitions were reviewed and discussed, among them value opportunity, critical size, incremental tax pools, financial distress, shareholder dissatisfaction, strategic infrastructure position, complementary assets, and undeveloped land inventory. Current trends in mergers and acquisitions were highlighted. An industry checklist for risk assessments discussing financial position, engineering forecasts, and taxation was also included

  14. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  15. Science and Technology and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.

    1988-01-01

    Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...

  16. Society and High Skills: contributions and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Aline Casseb da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to investigate and understand the importance of investing in high-skilled individual and how the family influences that context. For this, we seek the concepts of intelligence and high ability / giftedness to determine the characteristics of this individual and also to demonstrate through a literature and society and the family influence the behavior of a gifted person.

  17. Oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Favennec, J.P.; Bauquis, P.R.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Guirauden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint: only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges involved in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all. Contents: 1. Petroleum: a strategic product. 2. Oil and gas exploration and production. 3. Hydrocarbon reserves. 4. Investments and costs. 5. Legal, fiscal and contractual framework. 6. Decision-making on exploration and production. 7. Information, accounting and competition analysis. 8. Health, safety, the environment, ethics. Bibliography. Glossary. Index

  18. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N H; Bay, N; Grivel, J C [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  19. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T c superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB 2 , CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  20. Radiation and health. Benefit and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    The book on radiation and health covers the following topics: The world of radiation and waves; a sight into biology; if radiation hits the body; a sight into the internal radiation diagnostics; radiation hazards; the not always beloved sun; mobile phones, microwave ovens and power poles; healing with and due to radiation; radiation and food; radiation in the environment; generation and interactions of radiation in more detail; radiation effects in the cell - closer insight; radiation doses and measurement; epidemiology and its pitfalls; the system of radiation protection radiation accidents.