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Sample records for afar region ethiopia

  1. Uppermost mantle (Pn) velocity model for the Afar region, Ethiopia: an insight into rifting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.

  2. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mamo Gezahegne; Ameni Gobena; Legesse Mengistu; Medhin Girmay; Shawel Dawit; Bjune Gunnar; Abebe Fekadu

    2010-01-01

    Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of appare...

  3. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  4. Strain diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Afar pastoral region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Mulugeta; Ameni, Gobena; Bjune, Gunnar; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Abebe, Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs) containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n = 13 isolates) were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%). Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu) accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers. PMID:24734230

  5. Diagnostic and treatment delay among Tuberculosis patients in Afar Region, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

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    Belay Mulugeta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TB is a major public health problem globally and Ethiopia is 8th among the 22 high burden countries. Early detection and effective treatment are pre-requisites for a successful TB control programme. In this regard, early health seeking action from patients’ side and prompt diagnosis as well as initiation of treatment from the health system’s side are essential steps. The aim of this study was to assess delay in the diagnosis and treatment of TB in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia. Methods On a cross-sectional study, two hundred sixteen TB patients who visited DOTS clinics of two health facilities in Afar Region were included consecutively. Time from onset of symptoms till first consultation of formal health providers (patients’ delay and time from first consultation till initiation of treatment (health system’s delay were analyzed. Results The median patients’ and health system’s delay were 20 and 33.5 days, respectively. The median total delay was 70.5 days with a median treatment delay of 1 day. On multivariate logistic regression, self-treatment (aOR. 3.99, CI 1.50-10.59 and first visit to non-formal health providers (aOR. 6.18, CI 1.84-20.76 were observed to be independent predictors of patients’ delay. On the other hand, having extra-pulmonary TB (aOR. 2.08, CI 1.08- 4.04, and a first visit to health posts/clinics (aOR. 19.70, CI 6.18-62.79, health centres (aOR. 4.83, CI 2.23-10.43 and private health facilities (aOR. 2.49, CI 1.07-5.84 were found to be independent predictors of health system’s delay. Conclusions There is a long delay in the diagnosis and initiation of treatment and this was mainly attributable to the health system. Health system strengthening towards improved diagnosis of TB could reduce the long health system’s delay in the management of TB in the study area.

  6. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species-occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  7. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries. PMID:25393396

  8. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

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    Mamo Gezahegne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in pastoral communities of Afar. Methods Between March and May 2009, a community-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 818 randomly selected healthy individuals was conducted in pastoral communities of Afar region. Moreover, two focus group discussions (FGDs, one with men and one with women, were conducted in each of the study area to supplement the quantitative study. Results The majority (95.6% of the interviewees reported that they have heard about PTB (known locally as "Labadore". However, the participants associated the cause of PTB with exposure to cold air (45.9%, starvation (38%, dust (21.8% or smoking/chewing Khat (Catha edulis (16.4%. The discussants also suggested these same factors as the cause of PTB. All the discussants and the majority (74.3% of the interviewees reported that persistent cough as the main symptom of PTB. About 87.7% of the interviewees and all the discussants suggested that PTB is treatable with modern drugs. All the discussants and the majority (95% of the interviewees mentioned that the disease can be transmitted from a patient to another person. Socio-cultural practices, e.g. sharing cups (87.6%, and house type (59.8% were suggested as risk factors for exposure to PTB in the study areas, while shortage of food (69.7% and chewing khat (53.8% were mentioned as factors favouring disease development. Almost all discussants and a considerable number (20.4% of the

  9. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor L. Atanga; Treydte, Anna C; Regina Birner

    2013-01-01

    Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P), agro-pastoral (AP), and landless intensive (LI) small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quanti...

  10. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

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    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  11. Modeling the expansion of Prosopis juliflora and determining its optimum utilization rate to control the invasion in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia

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    Surafel Luleseged Tilahun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis juliflora is as an alien invasive tree species which is expanding at an alarming rate in the Horn of Africa region. In this paper a mathematical model is developed to estimate the rate of expansion in the Afar region of Ethiopia based on the coverage obtained with GIS analysis from the year 2000 satellite image for the region. The exponential model estimates that the tree species has been expanding at a rate of 50,000 hectares per year in the last ten years in the Afar region. The model further projects, if the tree species is used for productive uses such as energy and consumed at a rate of 90,000 hectares per year, the invaded land can be restored effectively in 15 years time. Furthermore, the model proposes that after the end of the 15 year, Prosopis can be contained within 200,000 hectares and provide 26,000 hectares of wood per annum sustainably for productive uses.

  12. Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat

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    Gezahegne Mamo Kassa

    2012-01-01

    epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7% at ≥4 mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7% at cutoff ≥2 mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28% and 47% (95% CI: 37–56% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5% and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149 and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.

  13. Phylogeny of early Australopithecus: new fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia).

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    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-10-27

    The earliest evidence of Australopithecus goes back to ca 4.2 Ma with the first recorded appearance of Australopithecus 'anamensis' at Kanapoi, Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis is well documented between 3.6 and 3.0 Ma mainly from deposits at Laetoli (Tanzania) and Hadar (Ethiopia). The phylogenetic relationship of these two 'species' is hypothesized as ancestor-descendant. However, the lack of fossil evidence from the time between 3.6 and 3.9 Ma has been one of its weakest points. Recent fieldwork in the Woranso-Mille study area in the Afar region of Ethiopia has yielded fossil hominids dated between 3.6 and 3.8 Ma. These new fossils play a significant role in testing the proposed relationship between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The Woranso-Mille hominids (3.6-3.8 Ma) show a mosaic of primitive, predominantly Au. anamensis-like, and some derived (Au. afarensis-like) dentognathic features. Furthermore, they show that, as currently known, there are no discrete and functionally significant anatomical differences between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. Based on the currently available evidence, it appears that there is no compelling evidence to falsify the hypothesis of 'chronospecies pair' or ancestor-descendant relationship between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. Most importantly, however, the temporally and morphologically intermediate Woranso-Mille hominids indicate that the species names Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis do not refer to two real species, but rather to earlier and later representatives of a single phyletically evolving lineage. However, if retaining these two names is necessary for communication purposes, the Woranso-Mille hominids are best referred to as Au. anamensis based on new dentognathic evidence. PMID:20855306

  14. A magnetotelluric study of continental lithosphere in the final stages of break-up. Afar, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. As part of a major programme of research into the processes and controls involved in the break-up of continents and the generation of new oceanic crust, we have collected broadband magnetotelluric data along two ∼50km long profiles in the Afar region of Ethiopia, with transient electromagnetic data for static shift control. The first is across a currently active magmatic segment that has experienced volcanic eruptions, seismic tremor and dyke injection over the last 3 years, and the other across a currently inactive segment. This presentation will concentrate on the results of the profile across the active segment. The data are broadly consistent with a two-dimensional interpretation, with geoelectrical strike along the segment's axis of rifting. Three-dimensional effects are seen primarily at sites beneath the rift axis and at longer periods. After static shift correction and rotation into TE and TM modes, we have inverted the data using the REBOCC algorithm. We find high conductivity at various depths beneath the segment axis: in a narrow zone close to the surface and in a much broader zone at depths straddling the crust-mantle interface. We interpret the deeper conductor to represent a magma chamber feeding the recent rifting episodes which has been inferred, but not previously observed directly, from a mis-match between the possible magma supply from deflation of the active volcanoes in the area and the volume of material intruded into the dykes.

  15. Filling the temporal gap in Plio-Pleistocene sedimentological records from the southern Afar Depression, Ethiopia

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    Dimaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Reed, K.; Campisano, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The structural development of the Afar Depression controls sedimentary basin architecture and thus directly influences the spatial and temporal pattern of depositional environments. Over the past 5 Myr these processes, in addition to climate variations and volcanic eruptions, influenced the composition and variation of early human habitats and their record is preserved in the sediment record of synchronous rift basins. Here we present results from field investigations at Geraru located within the Ledi-Geraru field site, part of the greater Hadar sedimentary basin in the Afar region of Ethiopia. We aim to characterize local basin structure and expand and refine interpretations of the complex Plio-Pleistocene history of local and regional-scale landscape change during a time of critical importance for understanding hominin evolution. We mapped Geraru geology (1:7000), measured stratigraphic sections, and sampled 20 tephra deposits for absolute age dating (40Ar/39Ar) and for compositional studies and correlation using glass shard chemistry. We mapped over 16 km2 and identified lacustrine to fluvial sediments that are well-exposed along NW-SE to NE-SW trending faulted basalt hills that offset sediment blocks up to ~30 m. Although stratigraphic sections are not continuous, faulting relationships and marker beds suggest that at least 65m of strata are accessible. The lower ~40m of sediments are lacustrine deposits indicated by finely laminated silts and clays, two environments ca. 2.9-2.7 Ma. Other observations that support deposition at Geraru at that time include glass chemistry correlation and sedimentation patterns. Elsewhere in the Awash region, sediments spanning ca. 2.9-2.7 Ma are scarcely documented due to a period of non-deposition and erosion. Therefore, we are re-assessing structural models of basin geometry that indicate basin-wide reorganization near 2.9 Ma because models infer that the paleolandscape was erosional at that time (evidenced by an unconformity

  16. Characterization of Camel Production System in Afar Pastoralists, North East Ethiopia

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    K. Simenew

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to characterize camel production system in Afar Region. From the 110 responses of the camel owners interviewed 68.2% of them prefer camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk production. Disease accounted 40.9% of the main problems of camel rearing society of the Afar pastoralist and about 35.8% of the camel culling reasons were attributed to camel diseases. External parasite infestation and pneumonia were the most common health problems with 51% and 31.8% respectively. More than 80% of breeding male camels were selected from the own herd and rarely acquired from other sources. The (Mean±S.D. age at first calving was 5.36±0.74 years in afar female camels and the life span ranges from 14-29 years. Daily milk yield of Afar camels ranges from 2.01-12.0 liters per day in 2-3 milking times. The average age to select breeding male is 2.75±1.50 years. The production system of the Afar society has never got enough support from the respected bodies. Policy makers, researchers and funding agencies should give attentions to camels in combating food security in the ever widening desertification in areas like Afar.

  17. Spectral analysis of dike-induced earthquakes in Afar, Ethiopia

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    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Yun, Sang-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Shallow dike intrusions may be accompanied by fault slip above the dikes, a superposition which complicates seismic and geodetic data analyses. The diverse volcano-tectonic and low-frequency local earthquakes accompanying the 2005-2010 large-volume dike intrusions in the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift (Afar), some with fault displacements of up to 3 m at the surface, provide an opportunity to examine the relations among the earthquakes, dike intrusions, and surface ruptures. We apply the frequency index (FI) method to characterize the spectra of swarm earthquakes from six of the dikes. These earthquakes often have broad spectra with multiple peaks, making the usual peak frequency classification method unreliable. Our results show a general bimodal character with high FI earthquakes associated with deeper dikes (top > 3 km subsurface) and low FI earthquakes associated with shallow dikes, indicating that shallow dikes result in earthquakes with more low-frequency content and larger-amplitude surface waves. Low FI earthquakes are more common during dike emplacement, suggesting that interactions between the dike and faults may lead to lower FI. Taken together, likely source processes for low FI earthquakes are shallow hypocenters (interactions with dike fluids. Strong site effects also heavily influence the earthquake spectral content. Additionally, our results suggest a continuum of spectral responses, implying either that impulsive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and the unusual, emergent earthquakes have similar source processes or that simple spectral analyses, such as FI, cannot distinguish different source processes.

  18. Ethiopia : Regionalization Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study outlines the development strategy Ethiopia will need to pursue to achieve a balanced regional progress, and indicates some policy areas for attention, as the strategy develops. It examines the recent constitutional structure, government spending, and fiscal imbalances, including the capacity constraints the country faces, and governance issues. In addition, the role of municipali...

  19. Chronostratigraphy of the Miocene-Pliocene Sagantole Formation, Middle Awash Valley, Afar rift, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, P.R. [Berkeley Geochronology Center, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; WoldeGabriel, G.; Heiken, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hart, W.K. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology; White, T.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The Sagantole Formation comprises more than 200 m of lacustrine, alluvial, and volcaniclastic sediments, plus compositionally bimodal tephras and basaltic lavas, exposed in a domelike horst named the Central Awash Complex in the southwestern Afar rift of Ethiopia. The Sagantole Formation is widely known for abundant vertebrate faunas, including the 4.4 Ma primitive hominid Ardipithecus ramidus. New lithostratigraphic data are used to subdivide the Sagantole Formation into the Kuseralee, Gawto, Haradaso, Aramis, Beidareem, Adgantole, and Belohdelie Members, in ascending order. The members are defined on the basis of lithologic differences and laterally continuous bounding tephras. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating of 12 intercalated volcanic units firmly establishes the age of the Sagantole Formation to be 5.6 to 3.9 Ma, significantly older than previous proposals based on erroneous correlations. Magnetostratigraphic data reveal eight paleomagnetic polarity zones, which can be correlated unambiguously with the Thvera, Sidufjall, Nunivak, and Cochiti Subchrons of the Gilbert Chron. Thus, by reference to the geomagnetic polarity time scale, seven additional chronological datums can be placed in the Sagantole Formation. With a total of 19 such datums, the age resolution anywhere in the Sagantole Formation is better than {+-}100 k.y., making this the best-dated Miocene-Pliocene succession in Africa.

  20. Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene geologic history of Eastern Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: implications for the evolution of the southern Afar Depression and hominin paleoenvironments

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    DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical

  1. Examining the Causes of Low-frequency Hybrid Earthquakes During Dike Intrusions in the Afar Rift, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepp, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2012, there were 14 large dike intrusions into the Dabbahu rift segment in the Afar rift, Ethiopia. Swarms of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.45great method to isolate the source-time function. Spectral analysis of the source-time function can be used to provide insights into the rupture time, stress drop, and scaling relations of the earthquakes. These results will be used to further refine earthquake classifications and determine if there are any defining characteristics of the classes that associate them with specific faulting processes, such as surface ruptures, that occur during diking events.

  2. Magmatic cycles pace tectonic and morphological expression of rifting (Afar depression, Ethiopia)

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    Medynski, S.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Dumont, S.; Grandin, R.; Williams, A.; Blard, P.-H.; Schimmelpfennig, I.; Vye-Brown, C.; France, L.; Ayalew, D.; Benedetti, L.; Yirgu, G.

    2016-07-01

    The existence of narrow axial volcanic zones of mid-oceanic ridges testifies of the underlying concentration of both melt distribution and tectonic strain. As a result of repeated diking and faulting, axial volcanic zones therefore represent a spectacular topographic expression of plate divergence. However, the submarine location of oceanic ridges makes it difficult to constrain the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes in time and space. In this study, we use the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo (DMH) magmatic rift segment (Afar, Ethiopia) to provide quantitative constraints on the response of tectonic processes to variations in magma supply at divergent plate boundaries. The DMH magmatic rift segment is considered an analogue of an oceanic ridge, exhibiting a fault pattern, extension rate and topographic relief comparable to intermediate- to slow-spreading ridges. Here, we focus on the northern and central parts of DMH rift, where we present quantitative slip rates for the past 40 kyr for major and minor normal fault scarps in the vicinity of a recent (September 2005) dike intrusion. The data obtained show that the axial valley topography has been created by enhanced slip rates that occurred during periods of limited volcanism, suggestive of reduced magmatic activity, probably in association with changes in strain distribution in the crust. Our results indicate that the development of the axial valley topography has been regulated by the lifetimes of the magma reservoirs and their spatial distribution along the segment, and thus to the magmatic cycles of replenishment/differentiation (<100 kyr). Our findings are also consistent with magma-induced deformation in magma-rich rift segments. The record of two tectonic events of metric vertical amplitude on the fault that accommodated the most part of surface displacement during the 2005 dike intrusion suggests that the latter type of intrusion occurs roughly every 10 kyr in the northern part of the DMH segment.

  3. Magmatic cycles pace tectonic and morphological expression of rifting (Afar depression, Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphael; Burnard, Peter; Blard, Pierre-Henri

    2016-04-01

    Dyking and faulting at mid-oceanic ridges are concentrated in narrow axial volcanic zones due to focussing of both melt distribution and tectonic strain along the plate boundary. Due to the predominantly submarine location of oceanic ridges, the interplay between these processes remain poorly constrained in time and space. In this study, we use the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo (DMH) magmatic rift segment (MRS) (Afar, Ethiopia) to answers the long debated chicken-egg question about magmatic and tectonic processes in extensive context: which on comes first, and how those two processes interplay to finally form oceanic ridges? The DMH MRS is an oceanic ridge analogue and here we present quantitative slip rates on major and minor normal fault scarps for the past 40 kyr in the vicinity of a recent (September 2005) dike intrusion. Our data show that the long-term-vertical slip rates of faults that ruptured in 2005 are too low to explain the present rift topography and that the 2005 strain distribution is not the main stress accommodating mechanism in the DMH segment. Instead, we show that the axial valley topography is created by enhanced slip rates which occur only when the amount of magma available in magma reservoirs is limited, thus preventing dykes from reaching the surface. Our results suggest that development of the axial valley topography is regulated by the magma reservoir lifetime and, thus, to the magmatic cycles of replenishment/differentiation (< 100 ky). This implies that in the DMH rift system (with a magma supply typical of an intermediate spreading centre), significant topography of the axial rift valley is transient, and is expressed only when magma available in the reservoirs decreases. The absence of tilting on the rift margins over the last 200 kyr also suggests that amagmatic accommodation of extension is not required over this time period. Extension instead is accommodated by dykes injected laterally from multiple ephemeral reservoirs located along the DMH

  4. Evaluating methods used for fission track dating of tephras: examples from the Afar Depression, Ethiopia, and the Denali fault zone, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, A. E.; Warfel, T. S.; Phillips, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although fission track geochronology has been successfully used to date volcanic glasses and tephras in several studies, a variety of approaches have been used (see Westgate et al., 2013), and no consensus for a standardized methodology has emerged. As a result, this technique is rarely employed, despite having the potential to date tephras and glasses that cannot be dated by other methods, such as K-Ar dating. We have been evaluating the various approaches used to address the technical issues in fission track dating of tephras, by applying them to standards of known ages, including Moldavite tektite, and Huckleberry and Bishop Tuffs. Some of these issues include track etching and counting protocol, and corrections for the effects of track fading at low temperatures. Track etching is generally done in 24% HF for 75 or more seconds, but the time necessary for optimal etching appears to vary according to sample composition and grain size. To correct for track fading, we are using the diameter correction technique of Sandhu and Westgate (1995). We have obtained tephra samples from two regions, the Afar Depression in Ethiopia, an area with significant early hominid fossils, and the Denali fault zone in Alaska, an area with a complicated tectonic evolution. For both of these regions, we have samples that have been dated by other methods for calibration purposes, and we will explore the application of a Zeta correction to the technique. This underutilized technique can provide powerful constraints on studies of timing in diverse geologic environments.

  5. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating, paleomagnetism, and tephrochemistry of Pliocene strata of the hominid-bearing Woranso-Mille area, west-central Afar Rift, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deino, Alan L; Scott, Gary R; Saylor, Beverly; Alene, Mulugeta; Angelini, Joshua D; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-02-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of tuffs and mafic lavas, tephra geochemistry, and paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy have been used to establish the chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene hominid-bearing fossiliferous succession at Woranso-Mille, a paleontological study area in the western part of the central Afar region of Ethiopia. The succession in the northwestern part of the study area ranges in (40)Ar/(39)Ar age from 3.82-3.570 Ma, encompassed by paleomagnetic subchron C2Ar (4.187-3.596 Ma). One of the major tuff units, locally named the Kilaytoli tuff, is correlative on the basis of age and geochemistry to the Lokochot Tuff of the Turkana Basin. A hominid partial skeleton (KSD-VP-1) was found in strata whose precise stratigraphic position and age is still under investigation, but is believed to correspond to the later part of this interval. Woranso-Mille fills a significant gap in the fossil record of northeastern Africa at the time of the lower to middle Pliocene transition, when many extant species lineages of African fauna were established. PMID:20034653

  6. New hominid fossils from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia) and taxonomy of early Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Saylor, Beverly Z; Deino, Alan; Alene, Mulugeta; Latimer, Bruce M

    2010-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis has been hypothesized as ancestor-descendant. However, the weakest part of this hypothesis has been the absence of fossil samples between 3.6 and 3.9 million years ago. Here we describe new fossil specimens from the Woranso-Mille site in Ethiopia that are directly relevant to this issue. They derive from sediments chronometrically dated to 3.57-3.8 million years ago. The new fossil specimens are largely isolated teeth, partial mandibles, and maxillae, and some postcranial fragments. However, they shed some light on the relationships between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The dental morphology shows closer affinity with Au. anamensis from Allia Bay/Kanapoi (Kenya) and Asa Issie (Ethiopia) than with Au. afarensis from Hadar (Ethiopia). However, they are intermediate in dental and mandibular morphology between Au. anamensis and the older Au. afarensis material from Laetoli. The new fossils lend strong support to the hypothesized ancestor-descendant relationship between these two early Australopithecus species. The Woranso-Mille hominids cannot be unequivocally assigned to either taxon due to their dental morphological intermediacy. This could be an indication that the Kanapoi, Allia Bay, and Asa Issie Au. anamensis is the primitive form of Au. afarensis at Hadar with the Laetoli and Woranso-Mille populations sampling a mosaic of morphological features from both ends. It is particularly difficult to draw a line between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis in light of the new discoveries from Woranso-Mille. The morphology provides no evidence that Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis represent distinct taxa. PMID:19918995

  7. Phylogeny of early Australopithecus: new fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-01-01

    The earliest evidence of Australopithecus goes back to ca 4.2 Ma with the first recorded appearance of Australopithecus ‘anamensis’ at Kanapoi, Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis is well documented between 3.6 and 3.0 Ma mainly from deposits at Laetoli (Tanzania) and Hadar (Ethiopia). The phylogenetic relationship of these two ‘species’ is hypothesized as ancestor–descendant. However, the lack of fossil evidence from the time between 3.6 and 3.9 Ma has been one of its weakest points. Recent fi...

  8. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) in Ethiopia’s Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine) in Ethiopia’s Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80) and the final model (test AUC = 0.96). Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local ecological

  9. The Quaternary volcanic rocks of the northern Afar Depression (northern Ethiopia): Perspectives on petrology, geochemistry, and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Miruts; Koeberl, Christian; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    The northern Afar Depression is one of the most volcano-tectonically active parts of the East African Rift system, a place where oceanic rifting may be beginning to form an incipient oceanic crust. In its center, over an area that is ∼80 km long and ∼50 km wide, there are seven major NNW-SSE-aligned shield volcanoes/volcanic edifices surrounded by compositionally distinct fissure-fed basalts. The Quaternary lavas in this area range from transitional to tholeiitic basalts, with significant across-axis variation both in mineralogy and chemistry. The variation in the contents of the major elements (TiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3), incompatible trace elements (Nd, Hf, Th, Ta), and the contents and ratios of the rare earth elements (REE) (e.g., (La/Yb)n = 5.3-8.9) indicate some variation in the petrogenetic processes responsible for the formation of these basalts. However, the variation in isotopic compositions of the mafic lavas is minimal (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7041, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51286-0.51289), which suggests only one source for all the Danakil Depression basalts. These basalts have isotope and incompatible trace element ratios that overlap with those of the Oligocene High-Ti2 flood basalts from the Ethiopian Plateau, interpreted as being derived from the last phase/tail of the Afar mantle plume source. Moreover, the Ce/Pb, Ba/U ratios indicate that the involvement of continental crust in the petrogenesis of the basaltic rocks is minimal; instead, both depth and degree of melting of the source reservoir underneath the northern Afar Depression played a major role for the production of incompatible element-enriched basalts (e.g., AleBagu Shield basalts) and the incompatible element-depleted tholeiitic basalts (e.g., Erta'Ale and Alu Shield basalts).

  10. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform 143Nd/144Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high 87Sr/86Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high 87Sr/86Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high 87Sr/86Sr ratio. (orig.)

  11. Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Ethiopia reviews the history of the country's demographic situation and reports on the government's overall approach to population problems; the population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Ethiopia is 1 of the few remaining countries in the world that has never conducted a population census. The prevailing demographic data come from sample surveys, none of which had a complete national coverage. UN estimates indicate a crude birthrate of 51.8/1000 for the 1950s, with a slight decline to 49.6/1000 by 1970-75. The crude death rate was estimated to have dropped from 30.6/1000 in the early 1950s to 23.2/1000 in the early 1970s. Infant mortality is reported to have declined from 208/1000 in the early 1950s to 155/1000 during 1970-75. and life expectancy increased from 32.9 years in 1950-55 to 40.9 in 1970-75. Historically, Ethiopia is not known to have experienced any serious migration problems except for the massive exodus of refugees into neighboring countries in recent years due to continuous military operations. The government has no explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth, although in recent years it has acknowledged that these rates are too high. The most pressing concern is the improvement of the health situation through a primary health care approach. Institutional arrangements in the area of population remain at an early stage of development. The government explicitly recognizes the interrelationships between population and socioeconomic development. The Central Statistical Office estimated the population size at 24.1 million in January 1970, and the annual rate of population growth at 2.2% for the early

  12. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.;

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...... husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting...

  13. The mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Depression and adjacent regions: implications for mantle plumes and hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Afar Depression and its adjacent areas are underlain by an upper mantle marked by some of the world's largest negative velocity anomalies, which are frequently attributed to the thermal influences of a lower-mantle plume. In spite of numerous studies, however, the existence of a plume beneath the area remains enigmatic, partially due to inadequate quantities of broad-band seismic data and the limited vertical resolution at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) depth of the techniques employed by previous investigations. In this study, we use an unprecedented quantity (over 14 500) of P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 139 stations from 12 networks to image the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and map the spatial variation of the thickness of the MTZ. Non-linear stacking of the RFs under a 1-D velocity model shows robust P-to-S conversions from both discontinuities, and their apparent depths indicate the presence of an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the entire study area. The Afar Depression and the northern Main Ethiopian Rift are characterized by an apparent 40-60 km depression of both MTZ discontinuities and a normal MTZ thickness. The simplest and most probable interpretation of these observations is that the apparent depressions are solely caused by velocity perturbations in the upper mantle and not by deeper processes causing temperature or hydration anomalies within the MTZ. Thickening of the MTZ on the order of 15 km beneath the southern Arabian Plate, southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden, which comprise the southward extension of the Afro-Arabian Dome, could reflect long-term hydration of the MTZ. A 20 km thinning of the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau is observed and interpreted as evidence for a possible mantle plume stem originating from the lower mantle.

  14. Towards a regional assessment of self supply potential in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, David M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a mapping approach to assess whether readily available spatial datasets and expert knowledge can be used to assess regional potential for self supply in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Self supply can be defined as improvement to water supplies developed largely or wholly through user investment, usually at household level. The study was funded by the RiPPLE Programme (Research-inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nil...

  15. The August 2002 earthquake sequence in north Afar: Insights into the neotectonics of the Danakil microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Atalay; Stuart, Graham; Bastow, Ian; Keir, Derek

    2007-06-01

    In August 2002, there was high seismic activity in Afar concentrated at the plateau margin of the northern Ethiopian rift east of Mekele, near the western part of the Danakil microplate. The spatial and temporal distributions of this seismic activity over four weeks indicate the NNW propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift across the Afar Depression towards the western Ethiopian plateau. Fault plane solutions for six larger earthquakes from the August 2002 sequence are estimated from moment tensor inversion of local broadband waveform data. The results show only normal faulting on NNW trending and NE dipping faults, which agree with tectonics of the area and distribution of aftershocks. No strike-slip component is observed in any of our fault plane solutions or those of other workers including Harvard CMT solutions in the region. Such motion would be indicative of oblique-slip deformation between the Nubian plate and the Danakil microplate consistent with counter-clockwise rotation of the microplate. Hypocentral depths of well-constrained events are 5-7 km, which is the approximate elastic plate thickness in the Main Ethiopian rift, possibly indicating the depth to the brittle-ductile transition zone in this part of the Afar Depression. The shallowness of the depth estimates agree with the macroseismic reports available from a wide area in northern Ethiopia. Potential future shallow crustal deformation may cause significant loss of human life and damage to property in the densely populated highland region around Mekele unless measures are taken in improving building standards. The b-value for this sequence is estimated to be 0.66 using a least squares fit, while it is 0.67 ± 0.16 from a maximum-likelihood approach. This estimated b-value is low or the frequency of occurrence of relatively larger magnitude events is high indicating that it is a highly stressed region as evidenced by the recent increase of the seismicity in the area.

  16. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  17. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  18. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  19. Tuberculosis and HIV infection among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a predominantly pastoralist area, Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: TB-HIV co-infection is one of the biggest public health challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there is a wealth of information on TB-HIV co-infection among settled populations in Africa and elsewhere, to our knowledge, there are no published reports on TB-HIV co-infection from pastoral communities. In this study, we report the prevalence of TB, HIV and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary TB suspects in the Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Design: In a cross-sectional study...

  20. Survey of Safety Practices Among Hospital Laboratories in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sewunet, Tsegaye; Kebede, Wakjira; Wondafrash, Beyene; Workalemau, Bereket; Abebe, Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe working practices, working environments, disposable waste products, and chemicals in clinical laboratories contribute to infectious and non-infectious hazards. Staffs, the community, and patients are less safe. Furthermore, such practices compromise the quality of laboratory services. We conducted a study to describe safety practices in public hospital laboratories of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Method Randomly selected ten public hospital laboratories in Oromia Regiona...

  1. Assessment of antiretroviral treatment (ART) care service provision in Tigray Region health centers, North Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, Shewaye Belay; Adane, Mesafint Molla

    2015-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is a vital component and main concern intertwined with strategic decisions in service provisions. To improve efficiency of services, eliciting the opinion of users about the available services and identifying factors associated with dissatisfaction is very critical. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of clients’ satisfaction with health services at ART clinic level in health centres of Tigray Region in Ethiopia. Methods Cro...

  2. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklay, Abraha; Abera, Balcha; Giday, Mirutse

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between...

  3. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF A FIRST-MOVER ABATTOIR ESTABLISHMENT IN SOMALI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Mikhail Miklyaev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the economic feasibility of the investment made to establish a commercial slaughterhouse facility in Faafan village, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Although the financial feasibility of the facility is essential for the project, the main purpose of the exercise is to estimate the economic returns and the net benefits created for the project stakeholders, namely: the private operator, the small holder livestock producers, the livestock traders, the ...

  4. Quantitative status, vulnerability and pollution of groundwater resources in different environmental and climatic contexts in Sardinia and in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra, Abdelwassie Hussien

    2012-01-01

    The Raya Valley is located in the northern part of Ethiopia within the Regional State of Tigray. The valley is part of the series of grabens at the western margins of the Afar Depression. Rainfall in this area is erratic both in time and space; hence it has suffered from a number of severe droughts and associated famines, and is chronically food-insecure. The surface water resources are characterized by streams, which flow strongly during the short rainy season and no perennial flow of surfac...

  5. Prevalence of tuberculosis, HIV, and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a predominantly pastoralist area, northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belay, Mulugeta; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

    2015-01-01

    Background: TB-HIV co-infection is one of the biggest public health challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there is a wealth of information on TB-HIV co-infection among settled populations in Africa and elsewhere, to our knowledge, there are no published reports on TB-HIV co-infection from pastoral communities. In this study, we report the prevalence of TB, HIV and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary TB suspects in the Afar Regional State of Ethiopia.Design: In a cross-sectional study des...

  6. Modes of rifting in magma-rich settings: Tectono-magmatic evolution of Central Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël.; Quidelleur, Xavier; Ayalew, Dereje; Leroy, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in Afar (northern Ethiopia) has largely focused on the formation of the present-day ocean-continent transition at active segments (e.g., Manda Hararo). However, the Oligo-Miocene history of extension, from the onset of rifting at ~25 Ma to the eruption of the massive Stratoïd flood basalts at ~4 Ma, remains poorly constrained. Here we present new structural data and radiometric dating from Central Afar, obtained along a zone stretching from the undeformed Oligocene Ethiopian plateau to the Manda Hararo and Tat'Ale active volcanic segments. Basaltic and rhyolitic formations were mapped in two key areas corresponding to the proximal and distal parts of a half-rift. We present a balanced composite cross section of Central Afar, reconstructed using our new data and previously published geophysical data on the crustal structure. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Extension during the Mio-Pliocene corresponds to a "wide rift" style of rifting. (2) The lower crust has been underplated/intruded and rethickened during rifting by magmatic injection. (3) Our restoration points to the existence of midcrustal shear zones that have helped to distribute extension in the upper crust and to localize extension at depth in a necking zone. Moreover, we suggest that there is a close relationship between the location of a shear zone and the underplated/intruded material. In magma-rich environments such as Central Afar, breakup should be achieved once the initial continental crust has been completely replaced by the newly, magmatically accreted crust. Consequently, and particularly in Afar, crustal thickness is not necessarily indicative of breakup but instead reflects differences in tectono-magmatic regimes.

  7. Decadal gully development in Northern Ethiopia: Understanding networks, volumes and regional variability from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Scholiers, Nelles; Jacob, Miro; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Understanding historical and present-day gully development is essential when addressing the causes and consequences of land degradation. For Northern Ethiopia, several reports exist on the severity of gully erosion, yet few studies quantified gully development. In this paper, gully network and volume development were quantified over the period 1963-2010 for an area of 123 km², representative for the regional variability in environmental characteristics. Gully networks were mapped from small-scale aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images. As only gully length could be accurately defined from the aerial photographs and satellite images, quantifying gully volume development required to establish relations between gully network volume (V) and length (L) (or catchment area, A). Field observations indicated that the lithology and the presence/or absence of check dams or low-active channels were the most important controls of gully cross-sectional shape and size. From the network and volume development over the period 1963-2010, the occurrence of one cut-and-fill cycle is apparent. From a largely low-dynamic gully system in the 1960s, network expansion and increased erosion rates in the 1980s and 1990s caused the drainage density and volume to peak in 1994. The total gully density (Dtotal) was then 2.52 km km-2, coinciding with soil losses of 17.6 ton ha-1 y-1 over the period 1963/1965-1994. By 2010, improved land management and the region-wide implementation of soil and water conservation measures caused 25% the gully network to stabilize, resulting in a recent net infilling of the gully channels. The study validates previous findings that land degradation by gullying was severe in Northern Ethiopia in the second half of the 20th century, but also shows that when proper land management is applied, gullies can be transformed into a linear oasis, which increases the resistance of gullies to further erosion.

  8. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  9. the role of magmatism and segmentation in the structural evolution of the Afar Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Quidelleur, Xavier; Ayalew, Dereje; Leroy, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    A common issue at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is the lack of observation of the structures that accommodate stretching and thinning. Indeed, the most distal parts and the Ocean-Continent Transition is often masked by thick seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) sequences. Some current challenges are then to know if the observed thinning fit the divergence (thinning vs dyking); and what is the rheological effect of magma supply that re-thickens the crust during extension? In the Central Afar magmatic rift (Ethiopia), the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are cropping out onshore and are well preserved. We present here a new structural model based on field data and lavas (U-Th/He and K/Ar) datings along a balanced cross-section of the Central Afar Western Margin. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series (29-30 Ma) unconformably overlain by tilted Oligo-Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. The Pliocene flood basalt (Stratoid series) is erupted over an already thinned crust. The bulk extension for the Afar Western Margin is ß ~ 2.50. Our main findings are: - Oligo-Miocene deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time ("magmatic wide rift"). It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient plate boundary during the whole rifting history until the formation of present-day magmatic segments. There is a period of tectonic quiescence accompanied with few magma erupted at the surface between 25 Ma and 7 Ma. We suggest that tectonic and magmatic activity was focused at that time on the highly faulted Danakil block and Southern Red Sea, away from our study zone. - ß ~ 2.50 is higher than the thinning factor of ~1.30 observed in geophysical studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened during extension by the syn

  10. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.

    2016-06-27

    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  11. Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deti, Habtewold; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohamed, Abdel Maaboud I; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of organochlorines in two milk-producing animals (goats and cows) grazed on the same feed to explore the extent of organochlorines availability in milk and any species effect on the bioaccumulation pattern. Six organochlorine pesticides: aldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in samples collected from four regions in Ethiopia. Aldrin (11.6μgkg(-1)) was detected only in one cow milk sample and α-endosulfan was detected in one goat milk sample at a level of 142.1μgkg(-1), and in one cow milk sample (47.8μgkg(-1)) from the same region. p,p'-DDE was detected in 40% of the milk samples analyzed while o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were found in high amounts in almost all samples. The average total DDT (excluding DDD) in the samples was 328.5μgkg(-1). Regions known for their malaria epidemics were the most contaminated with DDT residue. The accumulation pattern in both species was not clear under natural sampling. PMID:24630448

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia: Reemerging or Emerging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Tsegaw, Teshome; Kejella, Asfaw; Mulugeta, Abate; Worku, Dagimlidet; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-07-01

    Kala-azar is a growing public health problem in Ethiopia. Benishangul-Gumuz regional state was previously not known to be endemic for the disease. In response to a case report from the region, we conducted a rapid assessment survey. A pretested questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic and clinical histories pertinent to kala-azar. Study participants with complaints of fever and headache for 2 weeks or more were tested for kala-azar and malaria. All participants were screened with the leishmanin skin test and the direct agglutination test for exposure to Leishmania, defined as a positive result with either or both tests. Of 275 participants, 20 were exposed giving an overall leishmaniasis seroprevalence rate of 7.3%. Among the 20 positive individuals, 19 were farmers and nine of them reported no travel history outside their district. It appears that kala-azar is emerging in Dangur and Guba districts of Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, probably in connection with human encroachment into one or several previously out-of-reach zoonotic foci. We recommend integrated epidemiological surveys for confirmation and early containment of disease transmission in the area. PMID:27139445

  13. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megersa, Moa; Asfaw, Zemede; Ensermu KELBESSA; Beyene, Abebe; Woldeab, Bizuneh

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structu...

  14. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zewdie Aderaw; Dagnew Engdaw; Takele Tadesse

    2011-01-01

    Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers...

  15. The Contribution of Small Scale Irrigation Water Use to Households Food Security in Gorogutu District of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwafik Kelilo; Mengistu Ketema; Adem Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Small scale irrigation expansion has got vital role in assisting the development of sustainable agriculture in Ethiopia. And more number of small scale irrigation schemes were developed in the country including Gorogutu district of Oromia Region, considering the reality that irrigation is the obvious response to low agricultural productivity. The purpose of this study is therefore to assess the contribution of small-scale irrigation to household’s food security in Gorogutu district. Primary...

  16. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  17. Groundwater recharge, circulation and geochemical evolution in the source region of the Blue Nile River, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical and environmental isotope data were used to gain the first regional picture of groundwater recharge, circulation and its hydrochemical evolution in the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia. Q-mode statistical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify water into objective groups and to conduct inverse geochemical modeling among the groups. Two major structurally deformed regions with distinct groundwater circulation and evolution history were identified. These are the Lake Tana Graben (LTG) and the Yerer Tullu Wellel Volcanic Lineament Zone (YTVL). Silicate hydrolysis accompanied by CO2 influx from deeper sources plays a major role in groundwater chemical evolution of the high TDS Na-HCO 3 type thermal groundwaters of these two regions. In the basaltic plateau outside these two zones, groundwater recharge takes place rapidly through fractured basalts, groundwater flow paths are short and they are characterized by low TDS and are Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type waters. Despite the high altitude (mean altitude ∼2500 masl) and the relatively low mean annual air temperature (18 deg. C) of the region compared to Sahelian Africa, there is no commensurate depletion in δ 18O compositions of groundwaters of the Ethiopian Plateau. Generally the highland areas north and east of the basin are characterized by relatively depleted δ 18O groundwaters. Altitudinal depletion of δ 18O is 0.1%o/100 m. The meteoric waters of the Blue Nile River basin have higher d-excess compared to the meteoric waters of the Ethiopian Rift and that of its White Nile sister basin which emerges from the equatorial lakes region. The geochemically evolved groundwaters of the YTVL and LTG are relatively isotopically depleted when compared to the present day meteoric waters reflecting recharge under colder climate and their high altitude

  18. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Travassos

    Full Text Available Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys.Households with children aged 12-23 (N = 300 or 6-8 months (N = 100 in each of three districts (woredas were randomly selected for immunization coverage surveys (inspection of vaccination cards and immunization clinic records and maternal recall and linked serosurveys. IgG-ELISA serologic biomarkers included tetanus antitoxin ≥ 0.15 IU/ml in toddlers (receipt of tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib anti-capsular titers ≥ 1.0 mcg/ml in infants (timely receipt of Hib vaccine.Coverage surveys enrolled 1,181 children across three woredas; 1,023 (87% also enrolled in linked serosurveys. Administrative data over-estimated coverage compared to surveys, while maternal recall was unreliable. Serologic biomarkers documented a hierarchy among the districts. Biomarker measurement in infants provided insight on timeliness of vaccination not deducible from toddler results.Neither administrative projections, vaccination card or EPI register inspections, nor parental recall, substitute for objective serological biomarker measurement. Including infants in serosurveys informs on vaccination timeliness.

  19. COMPARATIVE QUALITY EVALUATION OF PARACETAMOL TABLET MARKETED IN SOMALI REGION OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Tajure Wabe et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of a pharmaceutical dosage form can be guaranteed when its quality is reliable. The efficacy of pharmaceutical dosage forms generally depends on their formulation properties, and manufacturing methods, hence it is likely that the quality of dosage form may vary. The aim was to evaluate the quality of paracetamol tablet marketed in Somali region of Ethiopia. The study was exclusively experimental that used BP, USP and other standard books to check the in vitro quality of Paracetamol tablet using different analytical techniques and procedure. Test for weight variation, friability, disintegration time, identification test and assay were conducted. All of the brands under the study were within the specification for weight variation test. But from the contraband brands, two for friability, one for disintegration and all for percentage content paracetamol failed to satisfy the requirement though all of the products contain the wright active ingredients. The research has showed that the quality of contraband tablets were below the standard in contrast to the legal paracetamol tablet which is hazardous to the community. The regulatory body must work to stop illegal smuggling of medications .

  20. Profitability of Contractual Bread Wheat Seed Production in Mecha District of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit TSEGAYE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the profitability of contractual bread wheat seed production in Kudmi village of Mecha district in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from fourteen seed growers using structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed include descriptive statistics and average net farm income. Results revealed that the average total cost of production per hectare is Br 8,478.82 ($ 493.82; the average gross revenue per hectare is Br 17,783.72 ($ 1,035.74; and hence the average net profit per hectare is Br 9,304.90 ($ 541.93. The findings also showed that an index of 1.10 economic efficiency of certified bread wheat seed production indicating that contractual bread what seed production is a profitable venture in the study area. The study identified non- application or improper application of inputs (fertilizers and seed and not exercising the recommended management practices were the major problems in seed production. It is necessary to provide adequate extension service for farmers to promote better seed management technologies and efficient use of agricultural inputs.

  1. Soil mapping and classification: a case study in the Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Harb Rabia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil map is one of the basic tools in any agricultural development planning and generating a digital one is even more effective and more productive for natural resources evaluation. Moreover, remote sensing and GIS have added to soil classification different concept and enforcement. The study aim was to produce digital soil maps for the study area following different classification systems (ST and WRB and to define the spatial distribution and characteristics all the soil classes in the study area, which will be indispensable for future development planning. This work has been done as a part of the 29th Course Professional Master in IAO institution, Florence, Italy. The study area was Kilte Awulaelo district in Tigray region, Ethiopia, Which is characterized by different topographies and geomorphologies with different agro ecological conditions. Eleven main soil groups and sixty soil types were identified in the study area. The main soil groups are: Leptosols, Vertisols, Fluvisols, Stagnosols, Kastanozems, Phaeozems, Calcisols, Luvisols, Arenosols, Cambisols and Regosols.  Regosols and Cambisols are the dominant soils in the study area which is characteristic soils of rainfed agriculture and land affected by erosion. Using spatial distribution map of each soil group was very helpful to connect soil characteristics with soil forming factors. Lastly, GIS and remote sensing were very effective tools in this study and gave higher value for the final study results.

  2. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  3. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced. PMID:25332879

  4. Conflicts between Afar Pastoralists and their Neighbors: Triggers and Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Hundie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Particularly pervasive violent conflicts in the Horn of Africa have detrimental effects on people's livelihoods there. While the intensity, causes, and repercussions of violent conflicts vary spatially and temporally, pastoral areas are currently the hotspots. This paper examines the causes and consequences of violent conflicts in Ethiopia between Afar pastoralists and two of their neighbors, the Issa and the Karrayyu. The findings are based on primary data (individual interviews, group discussions, and field observations and secondary data (documents and publications collected in 2005 and 2006. The results indicate that contemporary challenges such as recurrent droughts, resource appropriation, livestock raiding, proliferation of small arms, and illicit trade contribute to the perpetuation of violent conflicts. While traditional institutions manage inter-clan conflicts, their effectiveness is quite limited with regard to inter-ethnic conflicts, where the contemporary challenges in pastoral areas are too diverse and complex to be managed solely by traditional institutions. The perpetuation of violent conflicts has affected the livelihoods of pastoralists, thereby causing humanitarian crisis and limiting access to resources and opportunities.

  5. Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) for tuberculosis control program in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: ten years experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sisay, Solomon; Mengistu, Belete; Erku, Woldaregay; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of illness in the world which accounted for 2.5% of the global burden of disease, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. The aim of study was to assess impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcome in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia from 2003 up to 2012 and from 2002 up to 2011, respectively. Methods Health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported in qu...

  6. Characterization of the regional variability of flood regimes within the Omo-Gibe River Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Adanech; Demissie, Solomon S.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; MacAlister, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological variability and seasonality is one of the Ethiopia's primary water resource management challenges. Variability is most obviously manifest in endemic, devastating droughts and floods. While the level of flooding is quite often extremely high and destroys human beings and property, in many cases flooding is of vital importance because the community benefits from flood recession agriculture. This is the case of the lower Omo plain whose agriculture is based on the regularity of the inundations due to flooding of the Omo Gibe River. The big flood in 2006, which caused death for more than 300 people and 2000 cattle, poses a dilemma. Flooding must be controlled and regulated in a way that the damages are reduced as much as possible but the flooding-related benefits are not lost. To this aim, characterization and understanding of hydrological variability of the Omo Gibe River basin is fundamental. The goal of this work is to extract the maximal amount of information on the hydrological variability and specially on the flooding regime from the few data available in the region. Because most of the basin is ungauged, hydrological information is reconstructed using the data from 9 gauged catchments. A daily water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for 9 gauged catchments and, subsequently, the parameters have been correlated to catchment characteristics in order to establish a functional relationship that allows to apply the model to ungauged catchments. Daily streamflow has been predicted for 15 ungauged catchments, which are assumed to comprehensively represent the hydrological variability of the Omo-Gibe River Basin. Even though both northern and southern catchments are affected by a strong seasonality of precipitation, with most of the rain falling in less than 3 months, most of the northern catchments are humid, while in the southern part of the Omo-Gibe River basin, the catchments are either humid, dry sub humid, semiarid or arid. As

  7. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    This research aimed at investigating how an inventory of geomorphosites can foster or improve the knowledge and management of geomorphological heritages in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, a geomorphosite inventory in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia was conducted following the method of Reynard et al. (2015). The national context of geoheritage and geoconservation in Ethiopia was appraised and a road map for the management of the inventoried sites in the SMNP was elaborated. Ethiopia hosts numerous geoheritage sites, some of which of highest international significance. Therefore, geotourism has recently been promoted throughout the country (Asrat et al., 2008). Despite numerous trials of the scientific community, there is not yet a national policy for geoconservation in the country. Many parts of Ethiopia are underdeveloped in terms of economic subsistence and infrastructure, making these immediate priorities over conservation efforts. Nevertheless, this study showed that the Simen Mountains have the potential to become a UNESCO Global Geopark and that geosites could be used to develop geotourism within SMNP, and that development and conservation are not contradictory. Twenty-one geomorphosites were identified and assessed. Diverse geomorphological contexts including fluvial, structural, glacial, periglacial, anthropic and organic characterize the SMNP. The temporal stages, which allow the reconstitution of the morphogenesis of the Simen Mountains, are the Cenozoic volcanism, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene as well as historic/modern landscape modification. Four synthesis maps were elaborated to present the results of the assessment. The average scientific value of the inventoried geomorphosites is very high compared to other inventories realized using the same method. This is particularly due to the extremely high integrity of the sites. Almost all geomorphosites are in a good state of conservation and only few sites are

  8. Comparison of Season-ahead Prediction Techniques on Regionalized Grid-level Precipitation: Application to Western Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Moges, S. A.; Block, P.

    2015-12-01

    Season-ahead precipitation predictions offer utility in decision-making relative to water resource utilization and management, including agricultural planning and reservoir operation, particularly for regions with highly variable spatial-temporal precipitation patterns. Preprocessing precipitation by objective regionalization has the potential to improve prediction by defining appropriate scales of homogenous clusters. Statistical prediction techniques and downscaling approaches are evaluated over western Ethiopia, including principal component and hierarchical Bayesian approaches, at the cluster and grid scales. Predictors are drawn from large scale climate indices and variables and local drivers (e.g. soil moisture, elevation, spring rains, etc.). Preliminary results indicate substantial improvements in prediction skill when applying regionalization and, for locations/grids with more complex geographic characteristics, through the addition of local variables. Grid-scale screening of prediction techniques and suitable predictors is undertaken to identify optimal model combinations.

  9. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane A; Enquselassie F

    2016-01-01

    Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experi...

  10. Anxiety and associated factors among prisoners in North West of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kisi, Teresa; Yigzaw, Nigussie; Azale, Telake

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general public. However, little attention is given to mental health service in low and middle income countries in general. The problem is more so for prisoners where the overall health care is poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and the associated factors among prisoners of North West Amhara, Ethiopia. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was employed from F...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of traditional medicinal plants from Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Ermias Lulekal; Rondevaldova, J; Bernaskova, E; Cepkova, J; Asfaw, Z; Kelbessa, E; Kokoska, L; Van Damme, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicinal plants have long been used in Ethiopia to treat human and livestock ailments. Despite a well-documented rich tradition of medicinal plant use in the country, their direct antimicrobial effects are still poorly known. Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of 19 medicinal plant species that were selected based on the ethnobotanical information on their traditional use to treat infectious diseases in Ankober District. Methods: About 23 differ...

  12. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  13. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  14. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

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    Berhane A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience

  15. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Nematodes recovered included Heterakis gallinarum (17.28%), Subulura brumpti (17.60%), Ascaridia galli (35.58%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (0.75%) and Dyspharynx spiralis (2.62%). The principal cestode species encountered were Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422

  16. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  17. National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

  18. Prevalence of tuberculosis, HIV, and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a predominantly pastoralist area, northeast Ethiopia

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    Mulugeta Belay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: TB-HIV co-infection is one of the biggest public health challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there is a wealth of information on TB-HIV co-infection among settled populations in Africa and elsewhere, to our knowledge, there are no published reports on TB-HIV co-infection from pastoral communities. In this study, we report the prevalence of TB, HIV and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary TB suspects in the Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Design: In a cross-sectional study design, 325 pulmonary TB suspects were included from five health facilities. Three sputum samples (spot-morning-spot were collected from each participant. Sputum samples were examined for the presence of acid fast bacilli using Ziehl–Neelsen staining method, and culture was done on the remaining sputum samples. Participants were interviewed and HIV tested. Results: Of the 325 pulmonary TB suspects, 44 (13.5% were smear positive, and 105 (32.3% were culture positive. Among smear-positive patients, five were culture negative and, therefore, a total of 110 (33.8% suspects were bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients. Out of 287 pulmonary TB suspects who were tested for HIV infection, 82 (28.6% were HIV positive. A significantly higher proportion of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients [40 (40.4%] were HIV co-infected compared with patients without bacteriological evidence for pulmonary TB [42 (22.3%]. However, among ethnic Afar pastoralists, HIV infections in smear- and/or culture-negative pulmonary TB suspects [7 (7.6%] and bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients [4 (11.8%] were comparable. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, Afar ethnicity was independently associated with low HIV infection [OR=0.16 (95% CI: 0.07–0.37], whereas literacy was independently associated with higher HIV infection [OR=2.21 (95% CI: 1.05–4.64]. Conclusions: Although the overall prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection in the current study is

  19. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  20. Risky sexual behaviors among female youth in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

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    Gojjam Tadesse

    Full Text Available Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia.A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15-29 years in September 2011.711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3% used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6% had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6% had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1% did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%, and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3% participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing 'khat', watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex.Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended.

  1. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-01

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. PMID:26928842

  2. Care, communication and support relationships in the classroom : the case of pupils with emotional and behavioral difficulties in Harari region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out in the classroom at one of the schools in the Harari region in Ethiopia. The focus of the study was a specific group of pupils with special educational needs: those with emotional and behavioural difficulties. The purpose of the study was to explore how the classroom responds to the special educational needs of pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties by focusing on care, communication, and support relationships between these pupils and significant othe...

  3. Seroepidemiological study of caprine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdu, Endrias; Agonafir, Abebe; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Tilahun, Getachew; Medhin, Girmay; Vitale, Maria; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Cox, Eric; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan parasite. The objectives of this study were to estimate the animal and flock level seroprevalence and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis in goats of Central Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, goats are economically important animals used for meat and milk production. The study was cross-sectional and 927 blood samples from 187 goat flocks were collected to examine T. gondii specific IgG antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire was used to collect data on the potential risk factors. The study revealed flock and animal level seroprevalence of 58.3% (109/187; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 51.16, 65.42) and 19.7% (183/927; 95% CI: 17.17, 22.31), respectively. The likelihood of acquiring T. gondii infection was higher in semi-intensively managed goats (Odds ratio [OR]=2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 5.37; P=0.022) than in extensively managed goats, in females than in males (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.92; P=0.010), in adults than in young animals (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.28; P=0.006), in small than in large flocks (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.98; P=0.040), in goats kept under sedentary (OR=2.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 5.59; P=0.003) and agropastoral farming system (OR=3.62, 95% CI: 1.83, 7.18; Pgoats allowed to drink water from the tap than those drinking from river and stagnant water bodies (OR=9.25, 95% CI: 3.04, 28.15; Pgoats to oocysts of T. gondii is widespread. We recommend further studies to determine the genotype of the parasite, public health and economic impacts of toxoplasmosis and the role of raw goat meat and milk as a source of infection for consumers. PMID:22874923

  4. Conservation of Socioculturally Important Local Crop Biodiversity in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and tef ( Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested.

  5. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950

  6. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5% were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P0.05. Body condition score was not significantly associated (P>0.05 with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  7. Plant use in Odo-Bulu and Demaro, Bale region, Ethiopia

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    Worede Aserat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46. Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed. Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer.

  8. A Venue-Based Survey of Malaria, Anemia and Mobility Patterns among Migrant Farm Workers in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

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    Rebekah Stewart Schicker

    Full Text Available Mobile populations present unique challenges to malaria control and elimination efforts. Each year, a large number of individuals travel to northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia to seek seasonal employment on large-scale farms. Agricultural areas typically report the heaviest malaria burden within Amhara thereby placing migrants at high risk of infection. Yet little is known about these seasonal migrants and their malaria-related risk factors.In July 2013, a venue-based survey of 605 migrant laborers 18 years or older was conducted in two districts of North Gondar zone, Amhara. The study population was predominantly male (97.7% and young (mean age 22.8 years. Plasmodium prevalence by rapid diagnostic test (RDT was 12.0%; One quarter (28.3% of individuals were anemic (hemoglobin <13 g/dl. Nearly all participants (95.6% originated from within Amhara Region, with half (51.6% coming from within North Gondar zone. Around half (51.2% slept in temporary shelters, while 20.5% regularly slept outside. Only 11.9% of participants had access to a long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN. Reported net use the previous night was 8.8% overall but 74.6% among those with LLIN access. Nearly one-third (30.1% reported having fever within the past two weeks, of whom 31.3% sought care. Cost and distance were the main reported barriers to seeking care. LLIN access (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, P = 0.04 and malaria knowledge (OR = 0.50, P = 0.02 were significantly associated with reduced Plasmodium infection among migrants, with a similar but non-significant trend observed for reported net use the previous night (OR = 0.16, P = 0.14.High prevalence of malaria and anemia were observed among a young population that originated from relatively proximate areas. Low access to care and low IRS and LLIN coverage likely place migrant workers at significant risk of malaria in this area and their return home may facilitate parasite transport to other areas. Strategies specifically tailored to

  9. Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D J; Maclennan, J; Bastow, I D; Pyle, D M; Jones, S M; Keir, D; Blundy, J D; Plank, T; Yirgu, G

    2013-07-01

    Investigations of a variety of continental rifts and margins worldwide have revealed that a considerable volume of melt can intrude into the crust during continental breakup, modifying its composition and thermal structure. However, it is unclear whether the cause of voluminous melt production at volcanic rifts is primarily increased mantle temperature or plate thinning. Also disputed is the extent to which plate stretching or thinning is uniform or varies with depth with the entire continental lithospheric mantle potentially being removed before plate rupture. Here we show that the extensive magmatism during rifting along the southern Red Sea rift in Afar, a unique region of sub-aerial transition from continental to oceanic rifting, is driven by deep melting of hotter-than-normal asthenosphere. Petrogenetic modelling shows that melts are predominantly generated at depths greater than 80 kilometres, implying the existence of a thick upper thermo-mechanical boundary layer in a rift system approaching the point of plate rupture. Numerical modelling of rift development shows that when breakup occurs at the slow extension rates observed in Afar, the survival of a thick plate is an inevitable consequence of conductive cooling of the lithosphere, even when the underlying asthenosphere is hot. Sustained magmatic activity during rifting in Afar thus requires persistently high mantle temperatures, which would allow melting at high pressure beneath the thick plate. If extensive plate thinning does occur during breakup it must do so abruptly at a late stage, immediately before the formation of the new ocean basin. PMID:23823795

  10. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People’s National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia

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    Yitagele Terefe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People’s National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2–22.5 harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7% had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3% obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat

  11. Regional geomorphic analysis and gis susceptibility mapping of landslides in the blue nile and the tekeze river basins of ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Elamin Hassan Dai

    The Plateau region of Ethiopia lies within a seismically active continental extensional regime, which is being rapidly incised by the Blue Nile and the Tekeze Rivers. Extremely large landslides pose serious hazards in this highly populated region (>27 million), which is in the process of developing its hydrologic resources. This research sought to develop cost-effective methods to compile regional landslide inventory and landslide susceptibility maps, using geomorphic tools and GIS technologies. This work also sought to evaluate the relationships between landslide dams and knickpoints, caused by channel bed incision from those caused by slope failures, by utilizing identified knickpoints along 56 tributary channels across the study area. The study employed the weighted overlay technique to produce regional landslide susceptibility hazard maps, and for the first time, employing wind-driven and integrated rainfall/aspect rasters at various inclination to more realistically model the actual precipitation that is felt by hillsides of varying azimuth, shape, and height. Landslides greater than 500m long were tentatively identified on 1:200,000 topographic maps draped over 30m hill-shade generated ASTER GDEMv2. The mapping revealed different types of landslides, and also revealed a considerable number of old, dormant landslide features. The use of wind-driven rainfall with integrated rainfall and aspect rasters provided a much more detailed and asymmetric distribution of precipitation. Spatial distribution of the very high and high hazard areas, during the Kermit and Belg rainy seasons by a range of 0.38% for an inclination of 40o and 1.7% for inclinations on 60o, as compared to the traditional assumption of 90o vertical rainfall, without integration of a slope aspect raster.

  12. Clay pot irrigation for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill production in the north east semiarid region of Ethiopia

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    Kebede Woldetsadik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is one of the major constraints for production of horticultural crops in arid and semiarid regions. A field experiment was conducted to determine irrigation water and fertilizer use efficiency, growth and yield of tomato under clay pot irrigation at the experimental site of Sekota Dryland Agricultural Research Center, Lalibela, Ethiopia in 2009/10. The experiment comprised of five treatments including furrow irrigated control and clay pot irrigation with different plant population and fertilization methods, which were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The highest total and marketable fruit yields were obtained from clay pot irrigation combined with application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water irrespective of difference in plant population. The clay pot irrigation had seasonal water use of up to 143.71 mm, which resulted in significantly higher water use efficiency (33.62 kg m-3 as compared to the furrow irrigation, which had a seasonal water use of 485.50 mm, and a water use efficiency of 6.67 kg m-3. Application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water in clay pots improved fertilizer use efficiency of tomato by up to 52% than band application with furrow or clay pot irrigation. Thus, clay pot irrigation with 33,333 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer application with irrigation water in clay pots was the best method for increasing the yield of tomato while economizing the use of water and nitrogen fertilizer in a semiarid environment.

  13. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

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    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  14. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

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    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  15. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

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    Zewdie Aderaw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls. Self-reported data from workers and document review from factories clinics were used to ascertain occupational injury status within one-year period. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level significance. Results. Young age (<30 years (AOR 1.90, 95% CI (1.22, 2.94, male gender (AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.58, 4.07, health and safety training (AOR 1.85, 95% CI (1.17, 2.91, sleeping disturbance (AOR 1.99, 95% CI (1.30, 3.04, and job stress (AOR 2.25, 95% CI (1.15, 4.41 were significant predictors of occupation injury. Conclusion. Lack of training, sleeping disturbance, and job stress increased the risk of occupational injury. So, providing basic health and safety training with special emphasis on younger and male workers, reducing stressors, and providing sleep health education were recommended.

  16. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia's livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  17. Educational choices in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Pereznieto, Paola; Jones, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Ethiopia has one of the lowest primary school enrolment rates and one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. These rates are significantly lower than those of other similarly low-income countries. There are concerns that education quality is falling due to insufficient spending to provide more teachers and textbooks and reform the curriculum. Other key problems include disparities between regions, between boys and girls, and between rural and urban areas. It remains uncertain whether E...

  18. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fanta Wondimagegn; Worku Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refu...

  19. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  20. Floristic diversity, regeneration status, and vegetation structure of woodlands in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia Our objective was to describe plant species composition,diversity,regeneration status,and population structure by a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats (each for 25 m × 25 m,spaced at intervals of 150-200 m) were sampled along established transect lines following the homogeneity of the vegetation.Vegetation data including cover-abundance,height,diameter at breast height (DBH),and numbers of seedlings and saplings of woody species were analyzed using Excel spreadsheet,Shannon Weiner diversity index,and PAST version 1.62.A total of 87 vascular plant species of 74 genera and 36 families were recorded.The dominant family was Fabaceae represented by 16 (18.39 %) species of 13 genera.Shannon Weiner diversity and evenness were 3.67 and 0.82,respectively,which showed that the area was endowed with rich floral diversity evenly distributed.The vegetation structure,as quantified by cumulative diameter class frequency distribution,plotted as an interrupted inverted-J- shape pattern with a sharp decrease in the 2nd diameter class.This indicated poor vegetation structure.The diameter classes frequency distributions of selected species plotted in four general patterns i.e.,interrupted Inverted-J-shape,J-shape,Bell-shape and Irregular-shape.In conclusion,although the area showel high floral diversity and evenness,woody species including Sterculea setigera,Boswellia papyrifera,and Pterocarpus lucens showed lowest recruitment of seedlings and saplings.

  1. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Jackson

    Full Text Available The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles with district (woreda health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs' and mother's attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region.In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women's social status and mobility; and women's perceptions of skilled birth attendant's care. All data were analyzed thematically.There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women, and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women's Development Groups (WDGs, and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman's Expected Due Date (EDD or if labour started at home.With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women's groups to improve maternal health, thus reducing the need for emergency

  2. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chris R. Kenyon; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexu...

  3. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  4. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  5. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

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    Fikre Addis Alem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P  Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of

  6. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia’s second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer’s income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey an...

  7. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Adugnaw Berhane

    2016-01-01

    Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients&rsquo...

  8. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. ...

  9. Language as genes of culture and biodiversity conservation: The case of “Zaysite” language in southern region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abayneh Unasho

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Ethiopia is a country of a remarkable’ mosaic’ people each with its own distinct languages, and cultural norms without which progress and development are impossible and development that does not pay attention to culture and environment cannot produce fruits. Zeyse ethnic group is one of the minority ethnic groups whose language and its role to conserve biodiversity is not studied well. The aim of this study was to assess the status of Zeyse ethnic group language and it...

  10. Insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization and factors that influence their use in Itang, Gambella region, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watiro AH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aklilu Habte Watiro,1 Worku Awoke,2 1Médecins Sans Frontières OCA (MSF Holland Ethiopia Mission, Addis Ababa, 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH level. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results: Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690 had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361 had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. Keywords: consistent

  11. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  12. Pathology of camel tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in pastoral regions of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Mamo

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, region of difference-4 (RD4-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906 on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ(2 = 4.789; P = 0.029. The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ(2 = 22.697; P = 0.002 and lung lobes (χ(2 = 17.901; P = 0.006. Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91 of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31 of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels.

  13. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

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    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  14. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaw Manalebh

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (TB control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6 m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9 slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97. Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92. Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93% compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  15. Remote sensing and GIS-based mapping on landslide phenomena and landslide susceptibility evaluation of Debresina Area (Ethiopia) and Rio San Girolamo basin (Sardinia)

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Abay Asmelash

    2013-01-01

    The thesis presents GIS based spatial data analysis for landslide phenomena and susceptibility mapping which is carried out in Debresina area of the Afar rift margin (in Ethiopia) and in Rio San Girolamo basin at the margin of Campidano graben (in Sardinia, Italy). Both of these distant study areas are prone to various types of landslide and landslide-generated hazards with tremendous damages such as loss of human lives, failure of infrastructures, and damage on agricultural field...

  16. Insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization and factors that influence their use in Itang, Gambella region, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watiro, Aklilu Habte; Awoke, Worku

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH) level. Materials and methods A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690) had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361) had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. PMID:27330332

  17. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters. PMID:18777140

  18. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia. PMID:23563738

  19. African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Heinzelin, J. de (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Belgium)); Schick, K.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Hart, W.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)); WoldeGabriel, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walter, R.C. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Suwa, G. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Asfaw, B. (Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    1994-06-24

    Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

  20. Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Kaleab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional medicine (TM has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HHs and fourteen traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and six focused group discussions (FGDs were conducted. The prevalence of the use of TM in the two weeks recall period was 4.6%. The HH economic status was found to have a significant effect while the educational level and age of the patients have no effect either on the care seeking behavior or choice of care. Taking no action about a given health problem and using TM are common in females with low-income HHs. Forty plant species belonging to 23 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study indicates that although the proportion of the population that uses TM may be small it is still an important component of the public health care in the study community as complementary and alternative medicine.

  1. Awareness of health effects of cooking smoke among women in the Gondar Region of Ethiopia: a pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burning of biomass fuels results in exposure to high levels of indoor air pollution, with consequent health effects. Possible interventions to reduce the exposure include changing cooking practices and introduction of smoke-free stoves supported by health education. Social, cultural and financial constraints are major challenges to implementation and success of interventions. The objective of this study is to determine awareness of women in Gondar, Ethiopia to the harmful health effects of cooking smoke and to assess their willingness to change cooking practices. Methods We used a single, administered questionnaire which included questions on household circumstances, general health, awareness of health impact of cooking smoke and willingness to change. We interviewed 15 women from each of rural, urban-traditional and middle class backgrounds. Results Eighty percent of rural women cooked indoors using biomass fuel with no ventilation. Rural women reported two to three times more respiratory disease in their children and in themselves compared to the other two groups. Although aware of the negative effect of smoke on their own health, only 20% of participants realised it caused problems in children, and 13% thought it was a cause for concern. Once aware of adverse effects, women were willing to change cooking practices but were unable to afford cleaner fuels or improved stoves. Conclusion Increasing the awareness of the health-effects of indoor biomass cooking smoke may be the first step in implementing a programme to reduce exposure.

  2. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  3. The Impacts of Land Use Change on Malaria Vector Abundance in a Water-Limited Highland Region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, J.; Bomblies, A.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in land use and climate are expected to alter risk of malaria transmission in areas where rainfall limits vector abundance. We use a coupled hydrology-entomology model to investigate the effects of land use change on hydrological processes impacting mosquito abundance in a highland village of Ethiopia. Land use affects partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff that reaches small-scale topographic depressions, which constitute the primary breeding habitat of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. A physically-based hydrology model isolates hydrological mechanisms by which land use impacts pool formation and persistence, and an agent-based entomology model evaluates the response of mosquito populations. This approach reproduced observed interannual variability in mosquito abundance between the 2009 and 2010 wet seasons. Several scenarios of land cover were then evaluated using the calibrated, field-validated model. Model results show variation in pool persistence and depth, as well as in mosquito abundance, due to land use changes alone. The model showed particular sensitivity to surface roughness, but also to root zone uptake. Scenarios in which land use was modified from agriculture to forest generally resulted in lowest mosquito abundance predictions; classification of the entire domain as rainforest produced a 34% decrease in abundance compared to 2010 results. This study also showed that in addition to vegetation type, spatial proximity of land use change to habitat locations has an impact on mosquito abundance. This modeling approach can be applied to assess impacts of climate and land use conditions that fall outside of the range of previously observed variability.

  4. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. PMID:24161097

  5. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  6. Genetic variation of Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase genes (AFAR) in human tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praml, Christian; Schulz, Wolfgang; Claas, Andreas;

    2008-01-01

    AFAR genes play a key role in the detoxification of the carcinogen Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In the rat, Afar1 induction can prevent AFB(1)-induced liver cancer. It has been proposed that AFAR enzymes can metabolise endogenous diketones and dialdehydes that may be cytotoxic and/or genotoxic. Furth...... many aldo-keto reductases. This polarity change may have an effect on the proposed substrate binding amino acids nearby (Met(47), Tyr(48), Asp(50)). Further population analyses and functional studies of the nine variants detected may show if these variants are disease-related....

  7. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia. PMID:23883834

  8. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    OpenAIRE

    Shiferaw, Melashu

    2016-01-01

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service...

  9. Agricultural extension in Ethiopia through a gender and governance lens:

    OpenAIRE

    Mogues, Tewodaj; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina; Lemma, Mamusha; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Tadesse, Fanaye; Paulos, Zelekawork

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on a household survey collected in eight woredas in seven Ethiopian regions in 2009, as well as on qualitative fieldwork in four of the eight woredas, this paper provides analysis of agricultural extension delivery in Ethiopia. While overall extension services are relatively accessible in Ethiopia, there are differences in access between men and women, and particularly stark differences by region. Individual visits by public sector extension agents to household farms are by far the mo...

  10. Observations and modeling of the current deformation in Afar using Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Jelena

    The Afar system is a unique place on Earth where a triple rift junction may be emerging. As the three rifts separating Arabia, Nubia and Somalia plates have not achieved a complete connection at present, I observe a 200 km wide area of complex surface deformation. A variety of extensional structures including a network of faults, fissures, dikes, and volcanic centers are collectively accommodating far field movement of the surrounding plates. Understanding the nature and distribution of the deformation over this vast region is critical since here I observe the transition between established oceanic ridges (the Red Sea and the Aden-Goubbet ridges) and continental deformation. In this study I use the technique of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) to analyze radar data of the Afar region, and to construct a 10 yr timeline of surface displacement over a 200 km by 400 km area. By combining data acquired from ascending and descending passes I construct a two-dimensional velocity maps of the region. The maps show localized extensional deformation across the Asal-Ghoubbet rift segment accommodating the diverging motion of the Arabia-Somalia plates, as well as regional uplift asymmetrically distributed north and south of the Asal Rift area. The vertical velocity map in the rift indicates subsidence of the rift floor with respect to the rift shoulders, accommodated by fault creep. To interpret the observed velocity across the Asal rift I develop a 2-dimensional and a 3-dimensional dislocation model using a combination of dikes, sill and faults embedded in an elastic half space. The forward modeling allows me to place the overall geometry of sub-surface structures and estimate rates of dike and sill inflation, and fault movement. Then I construct a 3-dimensional model to perform a least-squares inversion of the radar-derived velocity maps. The results show an inflating body centered under the Fieale volcano expanding at a rate of 2 106 m3/yr. Faults bordering

  11. Notes sur les verbes statifs en afar de Tadjoura (Djibouti)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, Martine

    2000-01-01

    Le fonctionnement morpho-syntaxique des verbes statifs en afar de Tadjoura (Djibouti) présente des différences dialectales assez importantes avec la variété d'Assaïta (Ethiopie). Elle diffère en effet de la seconde par des degrés de figement différents selon les catégories morphologiques de verbes et par l'existence d'une catégorie supplémentaire. Dans cette langue qui ne possède pas d'adjectifs, cette classe de verbes est en forte expansion à Tadjoura, notamment comme procédé d'intégration d...

  12. Treatment outcome of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis co-infected patients in public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretu Belayneh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. In sub-Saharan Africa, tuberculosis accounts for more than 78% of all deaths among people with human immunodeficiency virus.Objectives:To assess tuberculosis treatment outcome and the associated factors in adult tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients in four public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray region, Ethiopia.Methodology:Institution based cross-sectional study design was used to examine secondary data from tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients attending four public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray, from January 2009 to August 2011. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select individual patient cards from the respective hospitals. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to assess the impact of each variable in predicting treatment outcome.Results:Out of 342 patients included, 199 (58.2% patients completed treatment, 43 (12.6% patients were cured, 88 (25.7% died, 7 (2% defaulted, and 5 (1.5% patients failed treatment. Treatment success rate was around 71%. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the factors that were strongly associated with unfavorable tuberculosis treatment outcomes were WHO stage IV (AOR = 3.2, CI = 1.58-6.82, p-value = 0.001, age greater than 45 years (AOR = 6.08, CI = 2.28-16.23 and baseline CD4 count less than 200 cells/L (AOR = 6.19, CI = 2.28-16.89, p-value = 0.001.Conclusion:The rate of treatment success in this study was lower than the rate newly recommended by WHO. Therefore, efforts should be undertaken to improve treatment success rates of both diseases.

  13. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  14. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  15. Influence of the Afar plume on the deep structure of Aden and Red Sea margins - Insight from teleseismic tomography in western Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Basuyau, Clémence; Leroy, Sylvie; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham; Rolandone, Frédérique; Ganad, Ismail Al; Khanbari, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Continental rupture processes under mantle plume influence are still poorly known although extensively studied. The Afar plume has been largely investigated in Ethiopia to study early stages of continental break-up. Here we imaged the lithospheric structure of western continental Yemen to evaluate the role of the Afar plume on the evolution of the continental margin and its extent towards the East. A part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory) permitted the deployment of twenty-three broadband stations in Yemen (from 2009 to 2010). Using a classical teleseismic tomography (Aki et al., 1974) on these stations together with a permanent GFZ station, we image the relative velocity variations of P-waves in the crust and lithosphere down to 300 km depth, with a maximum lateral resolution of about ~20 km. The model thus obtained shows (1) a dramatic and localized thinning of the crust in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden (2) the presence of magmatic underplating related to seaward dipping reflectors under those two volcanic margins (3) two granitic syn-rift intrusions on the border of the great escarpment (4) a low velocity anomaly in which with evidence of partial melting, just below thick Oligocene trapps series and other volcanic events (from 15 Ma to present). This low velocity anomaly could correspond to an abnormally hot mantle and could be responsible for dynamic topography and recent magmatism in western Yemen. (5) Finally, we infer the presence of hot material under the Southwestern corner of Yemen that could be related to Miocene volcanism in Jabal an Nar.

  16. Determinants of the Choice of Marketing Channel among Small-Scale Honey Producers in Tigrai Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfamariam, Kifle; Berhanu, Tekeste; Afera, Abadi

    2015-01-01

    Choice of market channels has been studied from different angles in the developing world. However, model identifying the relative significance of household socioeconomic and transaction cost attributes influencing channel choices at household level in Tigrai region have never been estimated. In our study, discrete choice of multinomial logit model used to estimate the market channel choices. The input for the study was obtained from household survey conducted in the Tigrai region between Apri...

  17. Dairy development in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.; Ehui, Simeon; Yemesrach, Assefa

    2004-01-01

    Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector in Ethiopia can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and nutrition in the country. Like other sectors of the economy, the da...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele Dawit G; Zewotir Temesgen T; Mwambi Henry G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions ...

  19. Low geomagnetic field intensity in the Matuyama Chron: palaeomagnetic study of a lava sequence from Afar depression, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Kidane, Tesfaye; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Palaeointensity variation is investigated for an inferred time period spanning from 2.34 to 1.96 Ma. Twenty-nine consecutive lava flows are sampled along cliffs 350 m high generated by normal faulting on the Dobi section of Afar depression, Ethiopia. Magnetostratigraphy and K-Ar measurements indicate a lava sequence of R-N-R-N geomagnetic field polarities in ascending order; the lower normal polarity is identified as the Réunion Subchron. Reliability of palaeomagnetic data is ascertained through careful thermal demagnetization and by the reversal test. The Tsunakawa-Shaw method yielded 70 successful palaeointensity results from 24 lava flows and gave 11 acceptable mean palaeointensities. Reliability in palaeointensity data is ascertained by the similar values obtained by the IZZI-Thellier method and thus 11 reliable mean values are obtained from our combined results. After the older reverse polarity with the field intensity of 19.6 ± 7.8 μT, an extremely low palaeointensity period with an average of 6.4 μT is shown to occur prior to the Réunion Subchron. During the Réunion Subchron, the dipole field strength is shown to have returned to an average of 19.5 μT, followed by second extreme low of 3.6 μT and rejuvenation with 17.1 ± 5.3 μT in the younger reverse polarity. This `W-shape' palaeointensity variation is characterized by occurrences of two extremely weak fields lower than 8 μT prior to and during the Réunion Subchron and a relatively weak time-averaged field of approximately 15 μT. This feature is also found in sedimentary cores from the Ontong Java Plateau and the north Atlantic, indicative of a possibly global geomagnetic field phenomenon rather than a local effect on Ethiopia. Furthermore, we estimate a weak virtual axial dipole moment of 3.66 (±1.85) × 1022 Am2 during early stage of the Matuyama Chron (inferred time period of 2.34-1.96 Ma).

  20. Geoheritage, Geodiversity and natural landscape enhanced and protected through anthropogenic activity: a case study using the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault, Afar and Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Hagos, Miruts; Guilbaud, Marie-Noelle

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) committee called in 2014 for all thematic geological and volcanological studies to be revised in light of a widening gap between current dogma and the progressive geoheritage science views. We discuss question of natural sites and anthropogenic activity. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault UNESCO WH project is the basis of this presentation, but we also the Afar Region of Ethiopia and UNAM campus, Mexico City. It is now difficult to find any totally 'natural' (devoid of human influence) landscape. This very definition of natural ignores that humankind is a geological force, and humans are part of the natural process. The UNESCO WH guidelines recognise this in paragraph 90: 'it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people'. A geological landscape, may be large enough to accommodate human occupation without significantly changing landforms: this is the case of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault. Human activity works in some ways to protect geological landscape: regulating vegetation and erosion. The aesthetic nature of humans may work to enhance the landscape's visibility by organisation of land use, and ceremonial use based on the sense of place. Humans also exercise economic activity such as quarrying and mining, which if uncontrolled can seriously modify a landscape. However, isolated works may not have an impact, or may even enhance the value of the site by uncovering geological features that would not naturally be seen. In the Chaîne des Puys only 0,3% of the land surface has been worked by artisanal methods and certain sites, like the Lemptégy volcano have been extracted with the view of enhancing the landscape's scientific value without detracting from the aesthetic. The site preserves its natural, scientific and aesthetic qualities, because of the human presence. The local population have always been and continue to be

  1. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M.; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. Methods We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Principal Findings The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Conclusions Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES AND VIRULENCE DIVERSITY OF PUCCINIA GRAMINIS PERS. F. SP. TRITICI ERIKS. & E. HENN. ON WHEAT IN TIGRAY REGION OF ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Getaneh Woldeab; Woubit Dawit; Teklay Abebe

    2013-01-01

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is a disease that causes complete annihilation of wheat crops over wide areas during epidemic years. The highland of Ethiopia is considered as a hot spot area for the development of stem rust complex. Hence, this study was carried out to detect the virulence diversity of P. graminis f. sp. tritici in Southern Tigray. The findings of this paper were based on race analysis through inoculation of stem rust populations, isolation and mult...

  3. Satisfaction with emergency obstetric and new born care services among clients using public health facilities in Jimma Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia; a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumsa, Alemayehu; Tura, Gurmessa; Nigusse, Aderajew; Kebede, Getahun

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2005 report of United Nations Millennium Project of Transforming Health Systems for women and children concluded that universal access to Emergency Obstetric and New born Care could reduce maternal deaths by 74 %. Even though some studies investigated quality of Emergency Obstetric and New born Care in different parts of the world, there is scarcity of data regarding this issue in Ethiopia, particularly in Jimma zone. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess satisfaction ...

  4. Ethnobotanical study of homegarden plants in Sebeta-Awas District of the Oromia Region of Ethiopia to assess use, species diversity and management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonen, Tefera; Giday, Mirutse; Ensermu KELBESSA

    2015-01-01

    Background Homegardens in Ethiopia are currently facing different threats mainly due genetic erosion, loss of traditional knowledge on their use and management and drought. On the other hand, research and documentation works on homegardens in the country are very limited. There is no previous report indicating conduct of ethnobotanical study on homegardens in selected study district. The present study thus attempted to document knowledge on uses and management practices of homegardens by peop...

  5. Pathogenic bacteria profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ear infection at Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Derese; Mekonnen, Daniel; Derbie, Awoke; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2016-01-01

    Ear infection linked with frequent antibiotic prescription, hearing impairment, severe disability and death is a public health threat in developing countries. However, there is scarcity of documented data in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining bacterial etiologic agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients of all age groups referred to Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center. Retrospective data recorded on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility profile were retrieved for analysis. Pus swabs from discharging ears collected and processed for aerobic bacteria culture and susceptibility testing. Of the total 368 pus swab samples processed, 296 (80.4 %) were culture positive. Of which, 289 (97.6 %) were bacteria and 7 (2.4 %) were yeast cells. The proportion of ear infection was higher in males (92.7 %) than females (65 %) (P = 0.014). The frequency of ear infection below 21 years of age was 65.2 %. The predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.7 %) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (26.3 %) and Proteus spp. (21.9 %). High level of antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin and penicillin whereas ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin and amikacin were found effective against the isolated bacteria. Aerobic bacterial otitis media linked with high levels of resistance against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin is major health problem in the study area. Moreover, considerable level of oxacillin resistant S. aureus suggests the diffusion of methicillin resistant S. aureus in the community. Therefore, treatment of otitis media in the study area needs to be guided by antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates. PMID:27119070

  6. Correlates of unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia: results from a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Habte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy has been a major reproductive health challenge in resource poor settings including Ethiopia. It has adverse consequences to the mother, child and the health sector's resources. Understanding the extent of unintended pregnancy and the factors associated is crucial to devise evidence based interventions. The analysis was aimed at assessing the unintended pregnancy prevalence rate among pregnant women and the factors predisposing to unintended pregnancy. METHODS: This secondary data analysis was done on women's dataset from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. A total of 1267 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using SPSS software to identify the factors associated with unintended pregnancy. Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI was computed to assess the association of different factors with unintended pregnancy. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy was found to be 24%: those who wanted it at a later time and not at all accounted for 17.1% and 6.9%, respectively. The unintended pregnancy rate ranged from 1.5% in Afar Regional State to 39.8% in Oromiya Regional State. Women who knew the timing of ovulation had a 45% reduced chance of unintended pregnancy (OR (95% CI: 0.55 (0.35, 0.85. Ever use of family planning, presence of five or more born children, and two or more births in the past five years were associated with unintended pregnancy (OR (95% CI: 1.79 (1.31, 2.45, 2.36 (1.01, 5.49 and 2.00 (1.12, 3.58, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of the current pregnancies were found to be unintended with significant variations among the different regions. Women already burdened with higher fertility were suffering from unintended pregnancy. Family planning programs need to concentrate on the highly affected regions and target women with higher fertility to reduce the level of unintended pregnancy

  7. Correlates of Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Results From a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Dereje; Teklu, Sisay; Melese, Tadele; Magafu, Mgaywa G. M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy has been a major reproductive health challenge in resource poor settings including Ethiopia. It has adverse consequences to the mother, child and the health sector’s resources. Understanding the extent of unintended pregnancy and the factors associated is crucial to devise evidence based interventions. The analysis was aimed at assessing the unintended pregnancy prevalence rate among pregnant women and the factors predisposing to unintended pregnancy. Methods This secondary data analysis was done on women’s dataset from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). A total of 1267 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using SPSS software to identify the factors associated with unintended pregnancy. Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was computed to assess the association of different factors with unintended pregnancy. Results The overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy was found to be 24%: those who wanted it at a later time and not at all accounted for 17.1% and 6.9%, respectively. The unintended pregnancy rate ranged from 1.5% in Afar Regional State to 39.8% in Oromiya Regional State. Women who knew the timing of ovulation had a 45% reduced chance of unintended pregnancy (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.35, 0.85)). Ever use of family planning, presence of five or more born children, and two or more births in the past five years were associated with unintended pregnancy (OR (95% CI): 1.79 (1.31, 2.45), 2.36 (1.01, 5.49) and 2.00 (1.12, 3.58), respectively). Conclusions A significant proportion of the current pregnancies were found to be unintended with significant variations among the different regions. Women already burdened with higher fertility were suffering from unintended pregnancy. Family planning programs need to concentrate on the highly affected regions and target women with higher fertility to reduce the level of unintended pregnancy at

  8. Half of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases Were Left Undiagnosed in Prisons of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia: Implications for Tuberculosis Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelemework Adane

    Full Text Available Prison settings have been often identified as important but neglected reservoirs for TB. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary TB and assess the potential risk factors for such TB cases in prisons of the Tigray region.A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014 in nine prisons. A standardized symptom-based questionnaire was initially used to identify presumptive TB cases. From each, three consecutive sputum samples were collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB microscopy and culture. Blood samples were collected from consented participants for HIV testing.Out of 809 presumptive TB cases with culture result, 4.0% (95% CI: 2.65-5.35 were confirmed to have undiagnosed TB. The overall estimated point prevalence of undiagnosed TB was found to be 505/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 360-640. Together with the 27 patients who were already on treatment, the overall estimated point prevalence of TB would be 793/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 610-970, about four times higher than in the general population. The ratio of active to passive case detection was 1.18:1. The prevalence of HIV was 4.4% (36/809 among presumptive TB cases and 6.3% (2/32 among undiagnosed TB cases. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, chewing Khat (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.02-7.75 and having had a close contact with a TB patient (adjusted OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.05-4.51 were found to be predictors of undiagnosed TB among presumptive TB cases.This study revealed that at least half of symptomatic pulmonary TB cases in Northern Ethiopian prisons remain undiagnosed and hence untreated. The prevalence of undiagnosed TB in the study prisons was more than two folds higher than in the general population of Tigray. This may indicate the need for more investment and commitment to improving TB case detection in the study prisons.

  9. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Temesgen Wayuma Balcha, Zemichael

    2016-01-01

    Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between...

  10. Shear-wave splitting in Ethiopia: Precambrian mantle anisotropy locally modified by Neogene rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashawbeza, Ewenet M.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Walker, Kristoffer T.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2004-09-01

    Twenty-six broadband seismic stations in an areal array spanning 500 × 500 km across Ethiopia were used for shear-wave splitting studies. Our results show small-to-moderate delay times (0.5-1.7s) with fast-polarization azimuths sub-parallel to the orientation of the East African Rift (NNE-SSW) and also to the Proterozoic tectonic fabric across the entire studied area. Our results imply Ethiopian upper-mantle anisotropy is controlled largely by the Proterozoic accretion of the Mozambique belt, with possible minor effects within the rift due to aligned cracks or melt pockets parallel to the rift axis. Our observations are not consistent with anisotropy created by asthenospheric flow parallel either to the Cenozoic extension direction (NW-SE) or to the modern absolute plate motion direction (NNW-SSE), or to asthenospheric radial flow from the ``Afar'' plume.

  11. Ethiopia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of the accounting and auditing practices and the institutions underpinning the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector in Ethiopia. The review drew on best international practices and makes policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of financial reporting in the country. There are some...

  12. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  13. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  14. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadele Eticha; Kalkidan Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertake...

  15. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken ...

  16. Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  17. Mantle structure beneath the Afar triple junction derived from surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Harmon, N.; Stuart, G. W.; Leroy, S. D.; Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Wondem, A. A.; Gezahegn, B. G.; Ogubazghi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Continental breakup in Afar is generally magma-rich and occurs near the triple junction of the Gulf of Aden (GOA), Red Sea rift and the Main Ethiopian rift (MER). Hypotheses for the source of magmatism associated with this rifting include elevated mantle temperatures resulting from northward migration of hot African Superplume material, and also due to phases of increased decompression melting from rapid plate thinning. To evaluate these hypotheses we conducted a surface wave tomographic experiment using 571 events and 290 stations from 15 seismic networks deployed over the past 12 years. From these data we produced a 3D shear velocity model which constrains the upper 350 km of the Earth, including the lithosphere and uppermost asthenosphere where melt is produced. At 30-100 second periods, our images show a significant (~0.1 km/s) decrease in velocity from the rift flanks into the Afar depression, showing the signature of breakup between Africa and Arabia is still present throughout the mantle. Within Afar, seismic velocities are low, with particularly localised slow anomalies at the 40-second period, beneath the Asal rift (3.57 km/s), Ayelu segment of MER (3.63 km/s) and Dabbahu rift (3.63 km/s) and fast velocities on the rift flanks (3.70-3.80 km/s). These slow anomalies show localised decompression melting and intrusion beneath the rift axis of Afar. Low velocities are also present throughout the mantle beneath the northern section of the MER and in the GOA. Our results show that the mantle beneath Afar still preserves structure from rifting 30 Ma. In addition our results show that localised plate thinning beneath zones of strain focus magmatism to a narrow rift axis.

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES AND VIRULENCE DIVERSITY OF PUCCINIA GRAMINIS PERS. F. SP. TRITICI ERIKS. & E. HENN. ON WHEAT IN TIGRAY REGION OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getaneh Woldeab

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is a disease that causes complete annihilation of wheat crops over wide areas during epidemic years. The highland of Ethiopia is considered as a hot spot area for the development of stem rust complex. Hence, this study was carried out to detect the virulence diversity of P. graminis f. sp. tritici in Southern Tigray. The findings of this paper were based on race analysis through inoculation of stem rust populations, isolation and multiplication of single-pustule of the pathogen and race determination by inoculating on stem rust differential hosts. The phenotypic characterization of P. graminis f. sp. tritici resulted in identification of 20 races from 32 isolates, which included the most prevalent races TTSNK, RRJJC and HRJJC with a frequency of 9.4% each and the most virulent races TTKSK and TTSSK each making 85% of Sr genes ineffective. Three important races (TTSSK, TTSNK and RRTTF are new to the study area and the country (Ethiopia as a whole putting a significant wheat proportion at risk. Among 20 wheat stem rust differential hosts, four were found effective for 75% and more of the races identified. Differential host carrying Sr24 was effective to all, while gene SrTmp was effective to 90% of the races followed by Sr17 and Sr31 each effective for 75%. In contrast, differential hosts carrying SrMcN, Sr9b, Sr9g and Sr10 were ineffective to 96.9, 93.8, 87.5 and 81.2% of the isolates tested, respectively. Thus, use of effective Sr genes such as Sr24 and SrTmp in single cultivar through gene pyramiding has paramount importance as the additive effects of several genes gives the cultivar a wider base  stem rust resistance along with periodic race survey. 

  19. Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...

  20. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra

    2010-01-01

    Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epi...

  1. Rural Risk Management Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This document investigates prospects for the use of index based weather insurance in Ethiopia for commercial and semi-commercial farmers. The document first summarizes the impact of risk weather risk in particular on Ethiopian agriculture and the need to balance investments in weather risk mitigation and weather risk management. Because the focus of this document is on risk management in the face of potential weather shocks, this introduction is followed by a summary of the traditional risk...

  2. Registration of ‘AMBERICHO’ a Newly Released Field Pea (Pisum sativum L) Variety for the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yayis Rezene; Fitsum Alemayehu; Fikadu Gurmu; Fisseha Negash; Bahilu Banteyirgu; Yasin Goa

    2015-01-01

    Ambericho (IG-51664) with a large and white seeded field pea variety was selected and developed by Areka Agricultural Research Center, southern Ethiopia. This variety was selected from the regional variety trial tested together 15 other test genotypes including local and standard checks at 8 environments. Finally the variety was officially released for wider production in the southern highlands of Ethiopia.

  3. Ethiopia Health Extension Program

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huihui; Tesfaye, Roman; Ramana, Gandham N V; Chekagn, Chala Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    As a low-income country, Ethiopia has made impressive progress in improving health outcomes. This report examines how Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) has contributed to the country’s move toward Univeral Health Coverage (UHC), and to shed light on how other countries may learn from Ethiopia’s experiences of HEP when designing their own path to UHC. HEP is one of the government’s UHC strategies introduced in a context of limited resources and low coverage of essential health ser...

  4. Hydrous upwelling across the mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Triple Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, D A; Hammond, J.O.S.; Kendall, J-M; Stuart, G.W.; Helffrich, G.R.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Goitom, B.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that drive the upwelling of chemical heterogeneity from the lower to upper mantle (e.g., thermal versus compositional buoyancy) are key to our understanding of whole mantle con- vective processes. We address these issues through a receiver function study on new seismic data from recent deployments located on the Afar Triple Junction, a location associated with deep mantle upwelling. The detailed images of upper mantle and mantle transition zone structure illuminate features tha...

  5. Upper mantle temperature and the onset of extension and break-up in Afar, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Ferguson, David J.; Goes, Saskia; Hammond, James O. S.; Calais, Eric; Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    It is debated to what extent mantle plumes play a role in continental rifting and eventual break-up. Afar lies at the northern end of the largest and most active present-day continental rift, where the East African Rift forms a triple junction with the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts. It has a history of plume activity yet recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions on whether a plume still contributes to current Afar tectonics. A geochemical study concluded that Afar is a mature hot rift with 80 km thick lithosphere, while seismic data have been interpreted to reflect the structure of a young, oceanic rift basin above mantle of normal temperature. We develop a self-consistent forward model of mantle flow that incorporates melt generation and retention to test whether predictions of melt chemistry, melt volume and lithosphere-asthenosphere seismic structure can be reconciled with observations. The rare-earth element composition of mafic samples at the Erta Ale, Dabbahu and Asal magmatic segments can be used as both a thermometer and chronometer of the rifting process. Low seismic velocities require a lithosphere thinned to 50 km or less. A strong positive impedance contrast at 50 to 70 km below the rift seems linked to the melt zone, but is not reproduced by isotropic seismic velocity alone. Combined, the simplest interpretation is that mantle temperature below Afar is still elevated at 1450 °C, rifting started around 22-23 Ma, and the lithosphere has thinned from 100 to 50 km to allow significant decompressional melting.

  6. Learning by Doing : Working at Scale in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, an estimated 15.2 million people or 80 percent of the total population of the Amhara Region in Ethiopia lived in rural areas where sanitation-related indicators were low. Open defecation was common; hand washing, particularly after defecation, was practiced infrequently; and general housing environments were unsanitary, with cohabitation with animals a common occurrence. There was...

  7. Ethnobotanical study of forage/fodder plant species in and around the semi-arid Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinsae Bahru; Zemede Asfaw; Sebsebe Demissew

    2014-01-01

    We undertook ethnobotanical study of forage/fodder plant species used by the Afar and Oromo (Kereyu and Ittu) Nations in and around the semi-arid Awash National Park (ANP), Ethiopia. The study aimed at investigating and documenting indigenous knowledge (IK) on forage/fodder plant species and threats to their survival. Ninety-six in-formants between 20 and 80 years old were selected using prior informa-tion. Data were collected using semi-structured interview, guided field walk, discussion and field observation. Preference ranking, Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity and priority ranking were used for data analysis. One hundred twenty-six forage/fodder species of 90 genera and 43 fami-lies were collected in the study area. More than 88%of the species were reported with their vernacular names, where 68% were reported by the Afar Nation and 70%by the Oromo Nation. Family Poaceae was repre-sented by 25 species (20%), followed by Fabaceae 18 (14%). Preference ranking for the most preferred forage grasses as perceived by key infor-mants revealed that Chrysopogon plumulosus was the most important forage/fodder species. Overgrazing was the major threat in the study area, scoring 22%.

  8. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Razowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

  9. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  10. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane

    2013-01-01

    Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...

  11. Can a community-based maternal care package in rural Ethiopia increase the use of health facilities for childbirth and reduce the stillbirth rate?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Karen; Atnafu,Habtamu; Belete,Zelalem; Kinfu,Hirut; Tadesse,Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Habtamu Atnafu, Zelalem Belete, Hirut Kinfu, Mebkyou Tadesse, Mohammed Amin, Karen D Ballard Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To measure the impact of a maternal health package on health facility delivery and stillbirth rates.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia where a maternal package was integrated into eight health centers across three regions. The package included trained midwives with a mentoring program, transport fo...

  12. Micronutrient deficiencies and related factors in school-aged children in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts, Amhara Regional State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia, assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May-December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD, anaemia, and their association with different factors. RESULTS: More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5% had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%, folate (13.9%, vit A (29.3% and vit D (49%. Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7-9.5] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1-0.4] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35-0.97]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19-6.48 and 4.91 (2.47-9.75]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1-0.8 and 0.2 (0.1-0.9], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3-0.9, OR: 0.5 (0.3-0.9 and 0.6 (0.4-0.9]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition, strategies should target

  13. Characterization and disaggregation of daily rainfall in the Upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Engida, A. N.; Esteves, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia, available rainfall records are mainly limited to daily time steps. Though rainfall data at shorter time steps are important for various purposes like modeling of erosion processes and flood hydro-graphs, they are hardly available in Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the temporal characteristics of daily rains at two stations in the region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin (UBNB) and (ii) to calibrate and evaluate a daily rainfall disaggregation model. The analys...

  14. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Weldegebriel Z; Ejigu Y; Weldegebreal F; Woldie M

    2016-01-01

    Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between hea...

  15. Domestic violence in a developing context: The perspectives of women in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...

  16. Shear wave velocity structure of northern and North-Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Urban Formation in China Since 1950 Seen from Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter; G.; Rowe

    2011-01-01

    Urban formations at the national,regional and urban district levels in China are discussed.Observations at the national level concern spatio-temporal distributions of regional and county-level cities,as well as designated towns,since 1950,and references to comparable western patterns of urbanization are made.At a regional level and especially for the Yangtze River Delta Region,less well-controlled development appears primarily in conurbated areas between relatively well-managed cities and towns,often causing adverse environmental consequences and economic inefficiencies.At local urban district levels,characteristics of large-block developments are compared with western counterparts,as well as with earlier conditions of Chinese urbanization.Although future adaptation appears possible,problems include a relative inflexibility in prevailing building types,inefficiencies of coarse-grained infrastructure distribution,and potential isolation from relatively high degrees of selfcontainment.

  18. Uranium exploration in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

  19. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is...... essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in...

  20. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  1. Ethiopia - Capturing the Demographic Bonus in Ethiopia : Gender, Development, and Demographic Actions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...

  2. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  3. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines the...

  4. Ethiopia - Two Microfinance Delivery Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Muntemba, Shimwaayi

    1999-01-01

    Formal financial institutions in Ethiopia have traditionally focused on the accessible urban towns leaving rural areas, where the majority of the population resides, without access to financial services. Recognizing this problem, a number of development agencies such as Redd Barna and World Vision started to provide access to financial services to the poor in rural areas in the 1980s. They...

  5. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths...

  6. Investment analysis of smallholder Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Amhara, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Matthies, Brent

    2013-01-01

    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...

  7. Links between Tenure Security and Food Security: Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein

    2013-01-01

    The study uses five rounds of household panel data from Tigray, Ethiopia, collected in the period 1998–2010 to assess the impacts of a land registration and certification program that aimed to strengthen tenure security and how it has contributed to increased food availability and thus food security in this food-deficit region. Our first survey took place just a year before the intervention (the land certification program). Our panel data in combination with the “years of certificate ownershi...

  8. Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing Uchenna Mberu

    2006-01-01

    Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled...

  9. Women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a rich dataset from a survey undertaken by the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) and the Interna-tional Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2009 in eight woredas in seven regions of Ethiopia with a sample of 1,117 households and 73 agricultural cooperatives. Using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis under a critical gender lens, the paper identifies which cooperative, household, and individual level characteristics influence women’s participation in agricu...

  10. Spatiotemporal variations of water vapor content over Ethiopia: A study using GPS observations and ECMWF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Kibrom; Masson, Frédéric; Doubre, Cécile; Boy, Jean-Paul; Lewi, Elias

    2014-05-01

    In this study we characterize the spatial and temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) in Ethiopa from a network of GPS stations. Water vapour plays a major role in atmospheric processes but remains difficult to quantify due to its high variability in time and space and the sparse set of available measurements. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) has demonstrated its ability to monitor IWV with an accuracy comparable to other means of measurements (radiosondes, microwave radiometers, …) and a good time resolution and under all meteorological conditions. IWV values for a set of Ethiopian GPS stations have been estimated from 2007 to 2011. They have also been extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model, using nearest point from the original reduced Gaussian grid. First we compare the IVW estimated from GPS and from the model. The bias varies from site to site but in general a bias of less than 1 kg/m2 was analysed in the ECMWF data set with respect to GPS observations. The correlations between the two data sets exceed 0.85 at different time scales at a 99.9% significant level. Second we observe the spatial variation of the IWV. High values are obtained in those stations that are located in north-eastern (Afar depression sites) and south-western part of the country. This distribution is related to the spatial variability of the climate in Ethiopia. Finally, we study the diurnal, seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability of IWV for all stations over Ethiopia. The main result is the strong inter-annual variability observed for the dry seasons.

  11. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States. PMID:26267591

  12. Global and EU governance for sustainable forest management with special reference to capacity building in Ethiopia and Southern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Husgafvel, Roope

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce information on and practical recommendations for informed decision-making on and capacity building for sustainable forest management (SFM) and good forest governance. This was done within the overall global framework for sustainable development with special emphasis on the EU and African frameworks and on Southern Sudan and Ethiopia in particular. The case studies on Southern Sudan and Ethiopia focused on local, national and regional issues. Moreover, ...

  13. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Belachew Tefera; Gerbaba Mulusew; Setegn Tesfaye

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little informati...

  14. Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC

  15. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of

  16. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofregion>Ethiopiaregion>Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Workineh Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17 of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163 of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236 of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920 of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely.

  17. Country report ETHIOPIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R.; Asenso-Okyere, K.; Bahiigwa, G.; Cao, De E.; Eriksen, S.; Jemaneh, S.; Gutu, T.; Hansen, N.; Lutz, C.; Tadesse, G.; Tefera, W.; Yirga, C.; Zerfu, E.; Berg, van der M.; Klaver, D.C.; Jacobs, J.; Hofstede, M.; Ingen, van T.; Getew, H.; Tigabu, A.; Babu, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Desalos, C.B.; Kefyalew, D.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (coveri

  18. Ethiopia : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...

  19. Can Water Undermine Growth? Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sadoff, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    In Ethiopia the centrality of water is clear. With little water resources infrastructure, relatively weak management institutions and capacity, extreme hydrological variability and seasonality, and a highly vulnerable economy, Ethiopia faces an enormous challenge in building the minimum platform of water infrastructure and management capacity needed to achieve water security. But until wat...

  1. Ethiopia : water security and drought

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, A M; Calow, R.C.; Nicol, A.L.; Hope, B.; Robins, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    A map showing groundwater availability during drought for Ethiopia presented at a scale of 1:3,500,000. The map was constructed by combining three factors: (1) rock permeability (derived from the hydrogeology map) (2) the ability of the rock to store water (from the hydrogeology map) (3) recharge to the groundwater (estimated from rainfall data). Areas of high permeability, high storage and high recharge have most groundwater available during drought

  2. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...

  3. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy as...

  4. Contraceptive utilization and associated factors among HIV positive women on chronic follow up care in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Adama Melaku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Sahara Africa, more than 60% of all new HIV infections are occurring in women, infants and young children. Maternal to child transmission is responsible for 90% of childhood HIV infection. Preventing unwanted pregnancy among HIV positive women is imperative to reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 964 HIV positive women in selected 12 health centers of Tigray region. In this paper, analysis was restricted only for 847 women who were sexually active and non-pregnant. In each health center the number of study participants was allocated proportionally to the load of HIV positive women in chronic care clinics. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.1, and cleaned and analyzed using Stata version 11.1. Descriptive summary of data and logistic regression were used to identify possible predictors using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05. FINDINGS: Three hundred ninety four (46.5% of all HIV positive women had intension to have more children. Three hundred seventy five (44.3% were using contraceptive methods at time of survey. Injectable (70.7% and male condom (47.6% were most commonly used type of contraceptives. In the multivariable analysis, women who were urban dwellers (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.27, 5.02, completed primary education (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.86 and those openly discussed about contraceptive methods with their husbands or sexual partners (AOR = 6.3; 95% CI: 3.42, 11.76 were more likely to use contraceptive. Women who have one or more living children were also more likely to use contraceptive compared with women with no child. CONCLUSION: Less than half of women used contraceptive methods. The use of condoms could impact unintended pregnancies and reduced risks of vertical and sexual transmission. Efforts to increase contraceptive utilization focusing on the barrier methods should be strengthen in HIV

  5. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  6. Testing models of dike intrusion during rifting episodes: The role of heating in triggering earthquakes in Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulpinski, K.; Cote, D. M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2009-12-01

    In September 2005, a major rifting episode occurred in the western Afar depression. Following the initial intrusion of an approximately 60 km-long, up to 8m-wide dike, seismic stations were deployed to the surrounding region. Since the 2005 deployment, discrete magma intrusions have been observed propagating along the rift axis as migrating swarms of moderate magnitude earthquakes that occur over times of vertical and horizontal deformation imaged in satellite radar interferometry. Between these discrete diking events, however, persistent, moderate magnitude (mb > 2 -4) earthquakes occur singly and in swarms along the length of the 2005 dike intrusion zone. More intense zones of seismicity correspond to areas of greater strain in the 2005 and subsequent dikes. Is the persistent along-axis seismicity indicative of ongoing, small volume dike intrusions at depth, tectonic faulting in response to the original dike intrusion, or is it caused by thermal stresses of dike solidification and cooling? Differentiating between mechanisms provides insights into rock failure and magma intrusion processes. A simple one-dimensional dike model is presented as an instantaneous, purely thermal (i.e. neglecting volumetric changes due to fluid emplacement) intrusion that cools by conduction to the surrounding host rock. The associated thermal stresses with a large volume intrusion (~0.05km3 or greater) are on the order of tens of MPa for several months. We compare seismogenic layer thickness variations with yield stress envelopes at the dike wall at a range of times after dike emplacement. The yield stress for the depth of the earthquakes is of the same order or less, meaning the thermal stresses are large enough to contribute to causing the mb 2-4 earthquakes observed in the region. This is evidence that earthquakes not only correspond to the rock breaking in front of the dike, but also mark the dike's path by the generation of thermally induced earthquakes in the wallrock. A second

  7. Two-dimensional surface velocity field across the Asal Rift (Afar Depression) from 11 years of InSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, J.; Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze two-dimensional surface velocity maps of the 200x400 km2 region covering the Asal Rift located at the western tip of the Aden Ridge, using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data from the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent tropospheric conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. Assuming the horizontal velocity to be parallel to the direction predicted by the Arabia/Somalia rotation pole (Vigny et al., 2007), we compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity from the ascending and descending line of sight (LOS) velocity maps. The horizontal velocity field shows the divergence between the Arabia and Somalia plates concentrated along the Asal rift, and veering toward the south-west, into the Derella-Gaggade basin system. The Asal rift shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift down to the plate motion rate of ~11-12 mm/yr. The vertical velocity field shows a ~60 km wide zone of doming centered over the rift associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. The differential movement between the shoulders and the rift floor is accommodated by two main antithetic faults: the south-dipping Fault γ well developed in the topography and the recent north-dipping Fault E with a small topographic scarp. We explain the observed velocity field with 2D-forward and 3D-inverse models combining dislocations of rectangular elements in an elastic half-space. The forward model allows us to estimate the overall geometry and rates of an inflating body at 5 km depth (represented by a combination of a dike and a horizontal sill) and creep on two faults. The least-squares inverse model shows an inflating body located under the Fieale volcano expanding at 2 106 m3/yr. Faults bordering the rift show down-dip and opening motion especially

  8. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  9. State-Society Relations in Ethiopia: A Political-Economy Perspective of the Post-1991 Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshtila Wondemeneh Bekele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses state-society relations in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the post-1991 period. The objective of the study is to identify and analyse the fundamental factors of state-society relations at the national level: property rights, political representation, and the urban-rural elite cleavage. The article views state-society relations at the local level with reference to perception and practice, taking into account symbols, social control, ability to make decisions and control over the means of violence. The study was conducted in eight purposively selected localities in three administrative regions in Ethiopia. The empirical data was collected at national and local levels using key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a household survey. The analysis shows that state-society relations in Ethiopia are driven by three major factors: property rights, political representations and the urban-rural divide.

  10. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  11. Violence and the crisis of conciliation : Suri, Dizi and the State in south-west Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the social and political background of escalating violence between ethnic groups in southwestern Ethiopia who until recently had customary and ritually sanctioned ways of resolving conflict. It focuses on the Maji area, a frontier region inhabited by two indigenous groups - the

  12. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  13. Children with learning disabilities in the paediatric clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, A M Aina; Wong, S L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of learning disability among the children attending the Paediatric Clinic in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban. The demographic distribution of these patients; the age of detection of the problem; the associated medical conditions and types of intervention received by these patients were documented. Patients who were between the ages of five to twelve years were included in the study. Learning disability was divided into three categories: speech and articulation problems, academic skills disorder and other categories which included developmental delay. Children with cerebral palsy were excluded from the study. Out of 1320 patients screened, 355 were found to have learning disorders. Majority were Malays, with the male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Most of the patients stayed in Seremban. The learning problem was most commonly detected at the age of 4 years and below. The commonest type of learning disorder was developmental delay, followed by academic skills disorder, speech and academic skills problems and speech disorders. Problems that were detected early were speech problems and developmental delay. Majority of the children had associated medical conditions. Most of the patients received some form of intervention but 11.3% did not attend any intervention program at all. A strategy should be formulated and implemented to help this group of children. PMID:22390107

  14. Mentoring from Afar: Nurse Mentor Challenges in the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Laura D M

    2015-06-01

    There is an integral connection between leadership, mentoring and professional career progression within the nursing profession. The purpose of this article is to examine recommendations and best practices from the literature and provide a basis to construct a formalized successful mentoring dyad program with guidelines on establishing and maintaining a productive mentoring relationship over long distance. Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) nurses practice within a unique domain both domestically and abroad. The military environment incorporates many aspects of mentoring that could benefit significantly by distance interchange. Supported through examining literature within nursing, CAF publications and other professions along with contrasting successful distance mentoring programs, the findings suggest that a top-down, leadership-driven formal mentoring program could be beneficial to CAF nurses. The literature review outlines definitions of terms for mentorship and distance mentoring or e-mentoring. A cross section of technology is now embedded in all work environments with personal communication devices commonplace. Establishing mentoring relationships from afar is practical and feasible. This article provides a guided discussion for nursing leaders, managers and grassroots nurses to implement mentoring programs over distances. The recommendations and findings of this article could have universal applications to isolated nursing environments outside of Canadian military operational frameworks. PMID:26560257

  15. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes’ to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associat...

  16. Land Rights and Expropriation in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ambaye, Daniel Weldegebriel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines and analyses the expropriation laws and practices in Ethiopia. The objective of the thesis is to analyze and describe the land rights and expropriation laws in Ethiopia and to compare them with the practice in order to determine the fairness of compensation. The study is made against the Ethiopian Constitution and other subsidiary legislations which provide the basic land rights and the nature and details of expropriation. The basic argument made in this thesis is that eve...

  17. Nutrition in Ethiopia: An emerging success story?:

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, Derek D.

    2015-01-01

    Research does not always provide the results that we expect. At the recent conference on improving nutrition in Ethiopia, Together for Nutrition 2015, we learnt about the rapid progress in Ethiopia in child nutritional outcomes that are linked to improved birth size and, hence, improved maternal health. However, most of the improvement in maternal health seems related to better sanitation, rather than to diet, care, or health factors.

  18. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  19. Marek's disease in local chicken strains of Ethiopia reared under confined management regime in central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia. Cl

  20. Applications of δ2H and δ18O to Understand the Groundwater System in the Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located in the northern part of Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. It is Bounded by NW Ethiopian plateau in the west and Afar rift to the east. The study area is intermountain with volcanic rock and the graben is covered with thick sediments. The average elevation for the highland is 2200 m a.s.l, where as average elevation for the central graben and eastern highland is 1600m a.s.l. Bimodal rainfall pattern is observed in the study area. The western highland is classified as humid and the central graben is semiarid climatic condition based on UNESCO, 1979. Primary data collected during the field work includes Rainfall samples, Lake Sample, Deep well samples, Hand dug well samples, and others. Systematic sampling of water for Isotopic analysis. Secondary Isotopic data is adopted from previous study Mamo, 2007. All samples were analysed by Liquid Water Isotope analyser for oxygen-18 and deuterium in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of Addis Ababa University.

  1. Partners against tuberculosis: Ethiopia's "TB clubs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, H

    1998-11-01

    TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916

  2. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (PDemodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  3. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Getachew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L. Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if any in canopy closure. P. juliflora was recorded in all habitat types in highest density and observed affecting the plant diversity there in. Its growth characteristics and dense thicket formation restrict light to the ground flora and hence diminishes plant diversity. Leaf, bark and root aqueous extract of P. juliflora at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2 and 6% wereprepared and their effect studied on germination percentage and seedling growth of the study plant species. Germination of A. nilotica and A. tortilis was not affected by all aqueous extracts of different organ parts of P. juliflora while leaf and root extracts at higher concentrations inhibited germination of C. ciliaris and E. rupestris. Shoot and root growth of the study species were inhibited by leaf and root at higher concentrations. Seed germination of all species except A. nilotica was inhibited by soil amended with decaying plant parts and under canopy soil. The effect is species specific and annuals (grasses and herbs were affected more than perennials. Leaf seems to contain greater number/amount of inhibitors than does root and bark. Bark seems to contain the least. Heavy accumulation of toxic substances at under canopy soil of P. juliflora may be one of the reasons for its invasiveness and low plant diversity.

  4. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Taddese Alemu; Melaku Umeta

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identi...

  5. Earthquake relocations and InSAR analysis following the June 12th 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano, Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Keir, Derek; Neuberg, Jurgen; Grandin, Raphael; Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kibreab, Alem; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Pagli, Carolina; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    Nabro volcano sits on the southern part of Danakil block to the east of the Afar depression, on the Arabian plate. On the 12th June 2011, Nabro volcano suddenly erupted after being inactive for 10,000 years. The eruption caused a 17-km-long lava flow, a 15-km-high ash cloud, and ranks as one of the largest emissions of SO2 since the Mt. Pinatubo (1991) event. This eruption creates an important opportunity to use seismicity and surface deformation measurements to understand the subsurface magmatic system and deformation of a hazardous, off axis caldera during continental rupture. We installed a network of 8 seismometers around Nabro caldera which began recording on the 31st August and tasked SAR acquisitions from TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) satellites. The SAR images used for this study post date the eruption. We used TSX stripmap mode images from ascending and descending orbits. Using a small baseline approach, we used 25 images acquired between the 1st July 2011 to the 5th October 2012 on descending orbit 046, to create 34 interferograms. We complemented these with 19 images from ascending orbit 130 spanning the 6th July 2011 to the 10th October 2012 from ascending orbit 130, which we used to create 21 interferograms. We produced a velocity ratemap and timeseries using π-RATE showing subsidence of up to 25cm/yr centred on Nabro. We used a Monte-Carlo hybrid downhill simplex technique to invert the dataset and found the best fitting solution as a mogi source at 6.9 ±1.1 km depth, and located at a 13.35 (lat) and 41.69 (long). The time dependence observed is consistent with a viscoelastic relaxation around the magma chamber, following depletion. Concurrent with the TSX acquisitions, CSK imaged the volcano on a descending track between 26th June 2011 and 18th July 2012 within the ASI project SAR4Volcanoes, and 64 images were used to produce 171 interferograms which were inverted to form a timeseries using a SBAS approach. This dataset has an overall

  6. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  7. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  8. Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic glasses associated with early Homo sapiens in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.

  9. Authority and leadership in Surma society (Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines recent developments of local authority and 'leadership' among the Surma of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out field research over the years 1990-1995. The intention is to analyse the nature of 'authority' in a non-State social formation, in which 'chiefs' in the proper sense of the word are absent. The author gives an overview of the three different political systems which have succeeded each other in Ethiopia since the late 19th century: Haile Selassie's fe...

  10. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...... recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between the...

  11. Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students...

  12. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  13. A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

  14. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Halaba district, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Ketema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients, day 14 (six patients, and day 21 (one patient. The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/μl was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/μl. Parasite reduction ratio (PRR of treatment failure cases was 12.6/μl. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217] as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria.

  16. Evolution of bimodal volcanism in Gona, Ethiopia: geochemical associations and geodynamic implications for the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Gregory, R. T.; Richards, I.; Quade, J.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The East African rift system in Ethiopia formed in the Earth's youngest flood basalt province, and provides a natural laboratory to study the geochemistry of bimodal volcanism and its implications for plume-derived magmatism, mantle-lithosphere interactions and evolution of continental rifts from plate extension to rupture. Our geochemical studies of the ~6 Ma to recent eruptive products from Gona within the Afar Rift Zone are understood in context of crustal and upper mantle seismic imaging studies that provide constraints on spatial variations. Geochemical (major element, trace element and isotope) analyses of basalts and rhyolitic tuff from Gona indicate a common magma source for these bimodal volcanics. Light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched with a strong negative Eu anomaly and a positive Ce anomaly in some of the silicic volcanic rocks. We observe strong depletions in Sr and higher concentrations of Zr, Hf, Th, Nb and Ta. We hypothesize that the silicic rocks may be residues from a plume-derived enriched magma source, following partial melting with fractional crystallization of plagioclase at shallow magma chambers. The absence of Nb-Ta anomaly shows no crustal assimilation by magmas. Sr isotopes, in conjunction with Nd and Pb isotopes and a strong Ce anomaly could reflect interaction of the parent magma with a deep saline aquifer or brine. Nd isotopic ratios (ɛNd = 1.9 to 4.6) show similarity of the silicic tuffs and basalts in their isotopic compositions except for some ~6 Ma lavas showing MORB-like values (ɛNd = 5 to 8.7) that suggest involvement of the asthenosphere with the plume source. Except for one basaltic tuff, the whole rock oxygen isotopic ratios of the Gona basalts range from +5.8‰ to +7.9‰, higher than the δ values for typical MORB, +5.7. The oxygen isotopes in whole rocks from the rhyolite tuffs vary from 14.6‰ to 20.9‰ while their Sr isotope ratios <0.706, indicative of post-depositional low T alteration of these silicic

  17. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  18. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  19. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  20. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  1. A bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2003-01-01

    This bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia covers material published from the early 1960s onwards. It focuses on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which became autonomous in 1993, but references on modern missionary and evangelical Christianity, as well as Cat

  2. Saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobilization by rural financial co-operators in Tigrai Region, Ethiopia Zachowanie oszczędnościowe i wyznaczniki mobilizacji oszczędnościowej na przykładzie spółdzielców finansowych na terenach wiejskich w regionie Tigrai w Etiopii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  3. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum) DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale) were included in the study. According to the order of importance, nat...

  4. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  5. Biodiversity And Livelihoods In Southwestern Ethiopia: Forest Loss And Prospects For Conservation In Shade Coffee Agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Getachew Tadesse

    2013-01-01

    The Ethiopian southwest is a global origin for Arabica coffee which is the second most traded global commodity after petroleum; and the most important agricultural commodity for Ethiopia. The region is also a global center of crop domestication and diversification with ancient and diverse social and agricultural systems, languages, and cultural groups. People have been here possibly longer than anywhere on Earth and have longer history of interactions with their natural environment, so they r...

  6. Impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Alemu; Ghebru, Hosaena; Holden, Stein; Kassie, Menale

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households in the Amhara and Tigray regions of Ethiopia. Household and plot level panel data from before and after land certification from stratified random samples of households were used for the analysis. The results suggest a positive impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households. Law restrictions on tree planting on land suitable for agricultural production may...

  7. Potential impact of land certification on rural households' land-related investment intentions in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Taddese, Amare

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of land registration and certification on rural farm households’ intention to engage in tree planting, an indicator used as a proxy to measure land-related investments in the Oromia and Southern nations and nationalities people (SNNP) regions, Ethiopia. I used cross-sectional data from Wollaita and West Arisi zones collected in 2012. Maximum Likelihood probit model was employed for estimation. Results suggest that there is indeed a positive and highly significan...

  8. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Demissew Sebsebe; Mesfin Fisseha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, a...

  9. Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gure, Abdella

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

  10. Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Meze-Hausken, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    The rationale of this paper is to investigate peoples’ perception of climate variability, climate change and drought frequency and compare it with measurements of rainfall variability and anomalies in northern Ethiopia. Statistical analysis of rainfall chronologies was performed and contrasted with qualitative data collected through a survey and questionnaires. Fieldwork studies showed that local authorities, farmers and pastoralists perceived regional climate to have changed d...

  11. Cataract surgery in Southern Ethiopia: distribution, rates and determinants of service provision.

    OpenAIRE

    Habtamu, E.; Eshete, Z; Burton, MJ

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. METHODS Confidential interviews were conducte...

  12. The Role of Land Certification in Reducing Gender Gaps in Productivity in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezabih, Mintewab; Holden, Stein; Mannberg, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of a low cost and restricted rights land certification program on the productivity of female-headed households. The analysis is based on plot level panel data from the East Gojjam and South Wollo Zones in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. The results suggest a positive and significant effect of certification on plot-level productivity, particularly on plots rented out to other operators. In addition, the results show that certification has different impacts on male...

  13. Agricultural extension services and gender equality: An institutional analysis of four districts in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Marc J.; Lemma, Mamusha

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized delivery of public services has been promoted as a means to enhance citizen voice and make service provision more responsive to users. Ethiopia has undertaken two rounds of decentralization, making first the regional states and then the district governments responsible for providing key public services. This paper explores whether decentralization has improved the quality of service delivery and citizen satisfaction with the services provided, focusing on agricultural extension....

  14. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  15. Education in Ethiopia : developing or collapsing? : a study of discourses of education in Ethiopia and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has been a key partner and actor in political and economic affairs of Africa in general and the Horn of Africa in particular. Despite its record of independence, Ethiopia have been struggling up heal battle against persistent human development challenges and troubled internal political history. In recent decades, however, renewed geopolitical factors made Ethiopia attract more and concerted efforts. Ethiopian stakeholders a...

  16. A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa

  17. ‘Why should I worry, since I have healthy feet?’ A qualitative study exploring barriers to use of footwear among rural community members in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemework, Abebe; Tora, Abebayehu; Amberbir, Tsigie; Agedew, Getnet; Asmamaw, Abiyu; Deribe, Kebede; Davey, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of personal, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to footwear use and non-use in northern Ethiopia. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Data were collected using semistructured interview guides. Setting The study was conducted in East and West Gojjam Zones, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 91 individuals from 4 target groups part...

  18. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  19. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundie, Gadissa Bedada; Raj, V Stalin; Michael, Daniel Gebre; Pas, Suzan D; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-06-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hyperendemic in Ethiopia and constitutes a major public health problem, little is known about its genetic diversity, genotypes, and circulation. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HBV in Ethiopia, using 391 serum samples collected from HBsAg-positive blood donors living in five different geographic regions. The HBV S/pol gene was amplified, sequenced, and HBV genotypes, subgenotypes, serotypes, and major hydrophilic region (MHR) variants were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of 371 samples (95%) revealed the distribution of genotypes A (78%) and D (22%) in Ethiopia. Further phylogenetic analysis identified one subgenotype (A1) within genotype A, and 4 subgenotypes within genotype D (D1; 1.3%, D2; 55%, D4; 2.5%, and D6; 8.8%). Importantly, 24 isolates (30%) of genotype D formed a novel phylogenetic cluster, distinct from any known D subgenotypes, and two A/D recombinants. Analysis of predicted amino-acid sequences within the HBsAg revealed four serotypes: adw2 (79%), ayw1 (3.1%), ayw2 (7.8%), and ayw3 (11.6%). Subsequent examination of sequences showed that 51 HBV isolates (14%) had mutations in the MHR and 8 isolates (2.2%) in the reverse transcriptase known to confer antiviral resistance. This study provides the first description of HBV genetic diversity in Ethiopia with a predominance of subgenotypes A1 and D2, and also identified HBV isolates that could represent a novel subgenotype. Furthermore, a significant prevalence of HBsAg variants in Ethiopian population is revealed. J. Med. Virol. 88:1035-1043, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629781

  20. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  1. Proposal for Business Support Facility for Ethiopia : A mission report

    OpenAIRE

    Blomne Sopov, M.

    2012-01-01

    This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.

  2. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia : Options for Strengthening Land Administration

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Over the coming decades, land policy and administration, for urban as well as rural areas, will be critical for Ethiopia's development. The vast majority of people making up the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's (FDRE) predominantly agricultural economy live in rural areas. Finally, land policies and administration can contribute significantly to the objectives of promoting gender ...

  3. Coffee Innovation Systems in Ethiopia and Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Mequaninte, Teferi; Müller, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to investigate the networking and knowledge management in the coffee value chain in Ethiopian and Rwanda and its applicability to the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The AIS aims at putting farmers at the center of the knowledge management and innovation system. Results of the SNA show that farmers from both Ethiopia and Rwanda are not at the center of the innovation system. In the Ethiopian coffee value chain, cooperatives are at the center of the k...

  4. Transhumance in the Tigray Highlands (Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nyssen, Jan; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zenebe, Amanuel; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Jozef A.; Haile, Mitiku

    2009-01-01

    Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds occurring between two points and following precise routes repeated each year, is practiced on a broad scale in the open field areas of Tigray (North Ethiopia). This article presents a characterization of the practice, factors that explain its magnitude, and recent changes. Eleven villages were selected randomly, semistructured interviews were conducted, and data on the sites were collected both in the field and from secondary sources. The transhuma...

  5. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more interdependent than ever before, and where the central State ha...

  6. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. Fi...

  7. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  8. Cereal production and technology adoption in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Funes, José; Gemessa, Sinafikeh Asrat

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of agricultural gross domestic product in recent years. This paper is the first to look at the extent and determinants of the adoption of the fertilizer-seed technology package promoted in Ethiopia using nationally representative data from the Central Sta...

  9. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  10. Assets at marriage in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Quisumbing, Agnes

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of assets at marriage in rural Ethiopia. We find ample evidence of assertive matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels - wealth, schooling, and work experience - that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating that a bequest motive affects assets at marriag...

  11. Marriage and Assortative Matching in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Agnes Quisumbing

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find ample evidence of assortative matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels – wealth, schooling, and work experience – that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating th...

  12. The Pineapple Value Chain in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Drost, Sarah; Wijk, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the pineapple value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market access for farmers and small- and mediumsized pineapple companies. To examine the MSP, both its internal, organisational dynamics and its external dynamics, i.e. the changes brought about in key areas...

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  14. The transitional semi-evergreen bushland in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew

    2016-01-01

    Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen...... bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia and eastern Africa. Methods: Based on a review of the recent descriptions of evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia, we hypothesize that there is a distinct zone of natural semi-ever-green bushland, which is restricted to the eastern and southeastern escarpment of the Ethiopian...... Highlands. In contrast, evergreen bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia are considered to be of a secondary nature. To test this hypothesis, we carried out qualitative vegetation surveys in 354 locations across Ethiopia and classified the vegetation in these locations based on the occurrences of indicator...

  15. A systems approach to improving rural care in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H Bradley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI, we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n = 2, most improved performance (n = 3, or consistently lower performance (n = 2 in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n = 51, we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1 managerial problem solving capacity, 2 relationship with the woreda (district health office, and 3 community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive

  16. Climate change, cattle herd vulnerability and food insecurity : adaptation through livestock diversification in the Borana pastoral system of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megersa Bati, Bekele

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the dominant drivers of changing patterns in precipitation, rise in temperature and increasing frequency of extreme weather events that present a major challenge to livestock production in arid and semi-arid environments. In the Borana region of southern Ethiopia, the resulting reduction in the resilience of rangelands and heavy cattle losses associated with recurrent droughts pose serious challenges to cattle pastoralism. This study aimed at investigating regional ma...

  17. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusák, Michal

    2016-04-01

    visualization in GIS identifies a larger number of shorter lineaments than lineaments by visual interpretation. Key words: valley network, lineaments, faults, azimuth, Jemma River basin, Ethiopian Highlands GANI, N., D., ABDELSALAM, M., G., GERA, S., GANI, M., R. (2009): Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northweastern Ethiopian Plateau. Geologic Journal, 44, s. 30-56. KAZMIN, V. (1975): Geological Map of Ethiopia. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Adrie Ababa, Ethiopia. MANGESHA, T., CHERNET, T., HARO, W. (1996): Geological Map Of Ethiopia (1: 250,000). Geological Survey of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PIK, R., MARTY, B., CARIGNAN, J., LAVÉ, J. (2003): Stability of the Upper Nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduces from (U/Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the Afar plume dome. and Planetary Science Letters, 215, s. 73 - 88.

  18. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  19. Downscaling and Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resources in the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie, Netsanet Zelalem

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Blue Nile River Basin (UBNRB) located in the western part of Ethiopia, between 7° 45’ and 12° 45’N and 34° 05’ and 39° 45’E has a total area of 174962 km2 . More than 80% of the population in the basin is engaged in agricultural activities. Because of the particularly dry climate in the basin, likewise to most other regions of Ethiopia, the agricultural productivity depends to a very large extent on the occurrence of the seasonal rains. This situation makes agricultur...

  20. HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors among Migrants and Non-migrants in Rural Ethiopia: Role of Rural to Urban Migration in HIV Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Mitike, Getnet; Haidar, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV-related sexual risk behavior among temporary rural to urban migrants and non-migrants and to explore the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Bure Woreda, West Gojam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1,310 male subjects (655 rural to urban migrants and 655 non-migrants) were selected randomly and were assessed, analyzed using SPSS version 17 software for their HIV related s...

  1. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  2. Electronic-Banking in Ethiopia- Practices, Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardachew Worku

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the practices, opportunities and challenges of E-banking services in Ethiopia. Ethiopian banking system is one of the most underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world. In Ethiopia cash is still the most dominant medium of exchange and electronic-banking is not well known, let alone used for transacting banking business. All banks in Ethiopia except Dashen Bank are too late to move with technological advancement and they should clearly chart out the time schedule for their integration and technological advancement.

  3. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of...

  4. The effects of zero grazing in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Van; Berg, van den, M.M.; Tizale, C.Y.; Wondwosen, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the high lands of Ethiopia, almost every plot of farmland is allotted for crop husbandry, leaving no or only road sides and marginal lands for grazing. However, land is scarce in these areas and this limits the role of crop production in poverty alleviation and it also limits the availability of local off-farm employment. Moreover, with the years, livestock feed has become scarce and crop residues are the major feed source for the animals. This feed problem also potentially affects crop pr...

  5. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  6. Micro water harvesting for climate change mitigation: Trade-offs between health and poverty reduction in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, F.; Yohannes, M.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Mulugeta, A; Samuel, G.G.; Abreha, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Water harvesting is an important tool for mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. This report investigates the trade-offs between health and poverty reduction by considering the impacts of water harvesting on health in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the prevalence of malaria in association with ponds and wells. Moreover, the determinants of malaria incidence are explored with multivariate analysis. Additionally, we investigate people¿s willingness to pay ...

  7. Are work and schooling complementary or competitive for children in rural Ethiopia? A mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Orkin, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Participation in work and school are often assumed to be mutually exclusive. Thus, economists commonly present children’s work and study patterns as a competition over time. In this paper, it is not the time involved, but the characteristics of the activity that appear to influence complementary or competitive relationship between work and school. This mixed methods study combines qualitative data from Leki, a field site in a rural area near lake Ziway in the Oromia region, Ethiopia, and ...

  8. The effect of environmental variability on livestock and land-use management: the Borana Plateau, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Nancy; Kamara. Abdul; Kirk, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Borana people are the predominant ethnic group on the Borana Plateau in southern Ethiopia, who have recently increased their reliance on crops. Rainfall in the region averages between 353 mm to 873 mm; variability is high, with coefficients of variation ranging from .21 to .68. Anectdotal evidence implies that the vulnerability of pastoralist households to drought is increasing; stock levels increase dramatically during good rainfall years but plummet when rainfall is poor, indicating tha...

  9. Performance of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Amhara and Oromia States, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76 % of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general ...

  10. From Aid to Assets? The Effects of Food-for-Work on School Participation in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schanke, Hanna Grønås

    2012-01-01

    Although the impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia have been widely studied, the effects on children’s welfare and school participation are relatively new areas of interest. Applying the framework of the agricultural household model and incorporating the related issue of household labor endowment, two rounds of a panel from the region of Tigray will be used for analysis. The Food-for-Work elements of the Program will be of special focus. Comparing output obtained through Di...

  11. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    . This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage...

  12. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that...... grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of...... Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  13. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Fekadu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra

  14. Finance and Poverty in Ethiopia: A Household Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geda, Alemayehu; Shimeles, Abebe; Zerfu, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, using the rich household panel data of urban and rural Ethiopia that covers the period from 1994 to 2000, we attempted to establish the link between finance and poverty in Ethiopia. Our results show that access to finance is an important factor in consumption smoothing and hence poverty reduction. We also found evidence for a poverty trap due to liquidity constraints that limits the ability of the rural households from consumption smoothing. The empirical findings from this stu...

  15. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaba M; Bulto T; Tafesse Z; Lingerh W; Ali I

    2016-01-01

    Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Obj...

  16. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tarekegn, Getachew; Ewonetu, Kebede; Negassi, Ameha; Aemro, Terefe Terefe

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta). A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of ch...

  17. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  18. Forest coffee certification in Ethiopia: Economic boon or ecological bane?

    OpenAIRE

    Stellmacher, Till; Grote, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the worldwide origin of the Coffea arabica gene-pool. However, the forests witness high rates of depletion and deforestation leading to an irreversible loss of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Certification of forest coffee started in Ethiopia in 2002 with the aim to conserve the coffee forests and provide the peasants with a better livelihood. This paper evaluates the forest coffee production and the related human encroachment in the forests ecos...

  19. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopia. The low uptake may be related to the high costs of recommended production methods for these varieties. The objective of this study was to formulate least-cost seed potato production methods for ...

  20. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Habtemariam Kassa

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specific...

  1. Madamato and Colonial Concubinage in Ethiopia: A Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trento, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Colonial concubinage in Ethiopia during the Italian occupation (1936–1941) has not been deeply studied yet. This article explores the peculiarities of the so-called madamato – that was banned under Fascism in 1937 but developed despite the racist legislation – by firstly comparing its practices in Ethiopia with that which took place from the late Nineteenth century in Eritrea. Indeed, on the Eritrean case a small body of significant literature already exists. In addition, by relying on both w...

  2. Food Scarcity in Africa - Case Study of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Brtníková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...

  3. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hindorf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.

  4. Urbanization and spatial connectivity in Ethiopia: Urban growth analysis using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Emily; Kedir, Mekamu

    2009-01-01

    In comparison to other African countries, Ethiopia has a low urbanization rate. According to the World Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2009, Sub-Sahara Africa is 30% urbanized, whereas Ethiopia is only 10.9% urbanized. Urbanization rates differ according to methodologies and data base utilized: the United Nations classifies Ethiopia as 14.9% urban, while the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia reports a 16% urbanization rate. In an effort to standardize and measure Ethiopian urbanizati...

  5. Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are

  6. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia. PMID:27424025

  7. The Effect of Shocks: An Empirical Analysis of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilebes Addisu Damtie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides striving for the increase of production and development, it is also necessary to reduce the losses created by the shocks. The people of Ethiopia are exposed to the impact of both natural and man-made shocks. Following this, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organizations need to identify the important shocks and their effect and use as an input. This study was conducted to identify the food insecurity shocks and to estimate their effect based on the conceptual framework developed in Ethiopia, Amhara National Regional State of Libo Kemkem District. Descriptive statistical analysis, multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-squared and independent sample t-test were used as a data analysis technique. The results showed eight shocks affecting households which were weather variability, weed, plant insect and pest infestation, soil fertility problem, animal disease and epidemics, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict. Weather variability, plant insect and pest infestation, weed, animal disease and epidemics created a mean loss of 3,821.38, 886.06, 508.04 and 1,418.32 Birr, respectively. In addition, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict affected 68.11%, 88.11% and 14.59% of households, respectively. Among the sample households 28,1 % were not able to meet their food need throughout the year while 71,9 % could. The result of the multiple regression models revealed that weed existence (β = –0,142, p < 0,05, plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,279, p < 0,01 and soil fertility problem (β = –0,321, p < 0,01 had significant effect on income. Asset was found significantly affected by plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,229, p < 0,01, human disease and epidemics (β = 0,145, p < 0,05, and soil fertility problem (β = –0,317, p < 0,01 while food production was affected by soil fertility problem (β = –0,314, p < 0,01. Binary logistic

  8. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (ρ, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ρ: a group with very low ρ (ρ 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ρ may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  9. Sustainable Local Development. The Revitalization of the Town of Adwa (Ethiopia through Community-Based Endogenous Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asayehgn Desta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, either self-initiated or by funding from development agencies, a number of developing countries have implemented various programs to tackle poverty. This case study was inspired by the One Village One Product (OVOP movement initiated in the Oita Prefecture region of Japan. Given the positive aspects of the OVOP, the purpose of the study is to transfer some aspects of the OVOP movement in order to revitalize the town of Adwa, Tigrai, Ethiopia. The case study therefore suggests some possible community-based endogenous projects that could revitalize the town of Adwa, Tigrai, Ethiopia. As a result of the initiative of local talents, the emancipation of local wisdom, the participation of local people and the rediscovering of indigenous products (services or history, it is expected that local communities in Adwa would be able to create job opportunities and generate income to improve the livelihoods of the poor segments of their population.

  10. Trend analysis of extreme precipitation in the Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia with a case study of Debre Markos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding extreme precipitation is very important for Ethiopia, which is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture but lacks structural and non-structural water regulating and storage mechanisms. There has been an increasing concern about whether there is an increasing trend in extreme precipitation as the climate changes. Existing analysis of this region has been descriptive, without taking advantage of the advances in extreme value modeling. After reviewing the statistical methodology on extremes, this paper presents an analysis based on the generalized extreme value modeling with daily time series of precipitation records at Debre Markos in the Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. We found no strong evidence to reject the null hypothesis that there is no increasing trend in extreme precipitation at this location.

  11. Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

  12. Witnessing the birth of a new ocean? The first 6 years of the Dabbahu rifting episode, and other activity in Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.; Ayele, A.; Barnie, T.; Belachew, M.; Calais, E.; Field, L.; Hamling, I.; Hammond, J.; Keir, D.

    2012-04-01

    Intense earthquake activity and a small rhyolitic eruption in September 2005 heralded the onset of an unprecedented period of geological activity in the Afar Depression. The seismic activity accompanied dyke intrusion in the upper 10 km of crust along 60 km of the Dabbahu (northern Manda-Hararo) Magmatic Segment (DMS) of the Nubia-Arabia plate boundary, a nascent seafloor spreading centre. InSAR observations of the resulting deformation showed that the initial dyke was up to 8 m thick, with a total volume of 2-2.5 km3. Urgency funding from the UK Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC) and US National Science Foundation (NSF) enabled us to deploy a local array of seismometers in October 2005, continuous GPS instruments in January 2006, and to acquire a dense time series of satellite radar images. The medium-term viability of these instruments was secured with major follow-on funding from NSF and NERC; these projects supported the collection and analysis of additional unique data sets, including data from a broader array of seismic and GPS instruments, magneto-telluric transects of the rift, airborne LiDAR, petrological sampling and micro-gravity work. The combination of these data has allowed us to quantify the processes associated with crustal growth at divergent plate boundaries for the first time. Here, we present a broad overview of geological activity in the Afar depression in the hyperactive 21st century. Activity in the DMS began after September 2000, when Gabho volcano at the north of the segment began uplifting, as its magma chamber, ~3 km below the surface, was replenished. It is likely that the inflation at Gabho ultimately triggered the onset of the Dabbahu rifting episode. The rifting episode began with intense seismicity at the northern end of the DMS, before jumping to the Ado Ale Volcanic Complex at the segment centre. This initial dyking was fed from shallow (~3 km) chambers at Gabho and Dabbahu as well as a deeper (~10 km) source at Ado Ale

  13. Who takes the medicine? Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mihretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Misganu Endriyas,2 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Palanivel Chinnakali,3 Sven Gudmund Hinderaker,4 Ajay MV Kumar5 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Research Technology Transfer Process Unit, SNNP Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India; 4Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 5The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, South-East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India Background: Treatment adherence is critical for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART for people living with HIV. There is limited representative information on ART drug adherence and its associated factors from Southern Ethiopia. We aimed at estimating the level of adherence to ART among people living with HIV and factors associated with it in 20 randomly selected ART clinics of Southern Ethiopia.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed consecutive HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral regimen attending the clinics in June 2014 using a pretested and structured questionnaire. For measuring adherence, we used 4-day recall method based on “The AIDS Clinical Trial Group adherence assessment tool”. Patients were classified as “Incomplete adherence” if they missed any of the doses in the last 4 days. Data were singly entered using EpiData and descriptive analysis, and unadjusted odds ratios were calculated using EpiDataStat software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata v12.0.Results: Of 974 patients interviewed, 539 (56% were females, and mean age was 35 years. The proportion of patients with incomplete adherence was 13% (95% confidence interval: 11%–15

  14. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  15. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA assessment of Phytophthora infestans isolates from potato and tomato in Ethiopia reveals unexpected diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelash, Daniel; Hussien, Temam; Fininsa, Chemeda; Forbes, Greg; Yuen, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for P. infestans sampled from 513 foliar lesions of late blight found on potato and tomato in different regions of Ethiopia. Among the four reported mitochondrial haplotypes of Phytophthora infestans, Ia, Ib and IIb were detected in 93 % of the samples analyzed but the vast majority of these were Ia. The remaining 7 % represented a previously unreported haplotype. DNA sequencing of this new haplotype also confirmed a single base nucleotide substitution that resulted in loss of EcoRI restriction site and gain of two additional MspI sites in cox1 and atp1 genes, respectively. There were 28 polymorphic sites among all nucleotide sequences including five reference isolates. Sites with alignment gaps were observed in P4 with one nucleotide deletion in 11 Ethiopian isolates. None of the reference sequence produced frame-shifts, with the exception of the 3-nucleotide deletion in the P4 region by Phytophthora andina, a feature that can be used to distinguish the new Ethiopian isolates from P. andina. While a distinguishing molecular data presented here clearly separated them from P. infestans, 7 % of the isolates that share this feature formed an important component of the late blight pathogen causing disease on Solanum tuberosum in Ethiopia. Thus, these Ethiopian isolates could represent a novel Phytophthora species reported for the first time here. PMID:26873223

  17. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

  18. Temporal and spatial changes in land use patterns and biodiversity in relation to farm productivity at multiple scales in Tigray, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hadgu Meles, K.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of biodiversity, including agro-biodiversity affects smallholders in dry-land regions by decreasing the buffering capacity of the agro-ecosystem and increasing proneness to yield variability including crop failure due to weather extremes. Loss of biodiversity is associated with land use/land cover (LULC) changes that are related to a range of biophysical and socio-economic drivers. This thesis is focused on the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia which has experienced severe loss of biodi...

  19. Features of groundwaters in basins shared between Ethiopia and Kenya and the implications for international legislation on transboundary aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Seifu; Ketema, Abebe; Tesema, Zenaw

    2010-11-01

    The implementation of laws relating to transboundary aquifers necessitates field knowledge so that the laws can be coincident with reality on the ground. The definition of ‘shared aquifer’ is more complex than the mere physically shared body of groundwater flowing from country A to country B. The border between Ethiopia and Kenya is characterized by low-volume groundwater storage and low transboundary flows. However, groundwater has visible environmental, social and economic functions. The characteristics of groundwater flow and storage in aquifers shared between Ethiopia and Kenya are different from those used in setting the foundation of the international legal framework on shared aquifers. By describing the characteristics of the groundwaters that are shared between Ethiopia and Kenya, this work demonstrates that the international legal framework is inadequate when applied in this region. The main inadequacies are: (1) international law does not specify the minimum volume of transboundary flow in an aquifer for it to qualify to be treated under the law, and (2) the physical aspects of water get more emphasis than the functions of groundwater. A more adequate international legal framework would be one that considers specific types of groundwater and local needs.

  20. The goitre rate, its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among women in Ethiopia: Cross-section community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of women on Iodine Deficiency were investigated. Methods A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification. Results Total goitre prevalence (weighted was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1, 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre. Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP, Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p 2 = 67.52; p Conclusion Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.

  1. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.  Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05.  Results: Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational

  2. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  3. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.;

    2012-01-01

    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and...... trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species...

  4. Conservation and Livelihood Impacts of Decentralized Forest Governance in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha

    livelihood, forest governance and forest conditions in Ethiopia? The study approaches these questions by disentangling outcomes that can be attributed to PFM rather than other factors through quasi-experimental designs. The significance of the study lays in its holistic assessment of the theoretically...... expected outcomes of PFM. In the four articles that form the thesis, the study argues that the PFM programme in Ethiopia contributes to forest conservation compared to other types of management regimes. However, conservation is also challenged mainly by lack of support from the authorities to forest user...... groups. Though various pilot projects have contributed valuable experiences on the performance of PFM in Ethiopia, the programme is currently being scaled up to the national level without taking these into account. Indeed, the PFM up-scaling programme remains based on the discretion of the individual...

  5. Foreign exchange rationing, wheat markets and food security in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Ahmed, Hashim

    2009-01-01

    In spite of remarkable growth in Ethiopia’s agricultural production and overall real incomes (GDP/capita) from 2004/05 to 2008/09, prices of major cereals (teff, maize, wheat and sorghum) have fluctuated sharply in both nominal and real terms. International prices of cereals also fluctuated widely, particularly between 2006 and 2008. However, the links between Ethiopia’s domestic cereal markets and the international market are by no means straightforward. Among the major staples, only whe...

  6. High Frequency of Symptomatic Zinc Deficiency in Infants in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Dassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia.

  7. Virtual Reconstruction of the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.

    2011-09-01

    In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.

  8. Event-based surveillance in north-western Ethiopia: experience and lessons learnt in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Toyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study piloted an event-based surveillance system at the health centre (HC level in Ethiopia. The system collects rumours in the community and registers them in rumour logbooks to record events of disease outbreaks and public health emergencies. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the events captured at the 59 study HCs in the Amhara Region in north-western Ethiopia between October 2013 and November 2014. A total of 126 rumours were registered at two thirds of the HCs during the study period. The average event reporting time was 3.8 days; response time of the HCs was 0.6 days, resulting in a total response time of 4.4 days. The most commonly reported rumours were measles-related (n = 90, 71%. These rumours followed a similar pattern of measles cases reported in the routine surveillance system. The largest proportion of rumours were reported by community members (n = 38, 36% followed by health post workers (n = 36, 29% who were normally informed by the community members about the rumours. This surveillance system was established along with an existing indicator-based surveillance system and was simple to implement. The implementation cost was minimal, requiring only printing and distribution of rumour logbooks to the HCs and brief orientations to focal persons. In countries where routine surveillance is still weak, an event-based surveillance system similar to this should be considered as a supplementary tool for disease monitoring.

  9. GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1. Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05 and (P < 0.001 for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001, but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL and Location x Years (LY were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.

  10. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  11. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  12. K-Ar and TL volcanism chronology of the southern ends of the Red Sea spreading in Afar since 300 ka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continental rift segments linked to the propagation of the Red Sea plate boundary in Afar are dated using thermoluminescence and potassium-argon dating techniques. These new results constrain the mechanism of the two moderate extensional structures located at the southern ends of the propagator: the Manda Hararo and the Dadar graben. Ages obtained show that their internal floor are about 30 and 100 kyr old, respectively, and that the deduced vertical rate of fault scarps display values lower than those linked to the Gulf of Aden propagation. The lower deformation accommodated by the Red Sea structures, their youthfulness and the greater distance to the mature oceanic ridges could justify this contrast of evolution. (authors)

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

  14. Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Fantahun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

  16. Secular spring rainfall variability at local scale over Ethiopia: trend and associated dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu

    2016-07-01

    Spring rainfall secular variability is studied using observations, reanalysis, and model simulations. The joint coherent spatio-temporal secular variability of gridded monthly gauge rainfall over Ethiopia, ERA-Interim atmospheric variables and sea surface temperature (SST) from Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) data set is extracted using multi-taper method singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD). The contemporaneous associations are further examined using partial Granger causality to determine presence of causal linkage between any of the climate variables. This analysis reveals that only the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly has direct causal links with spring rainfall over Ethiopia and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) over Africa inspite of the strong secular covariance of spring rainfall, SST in parts of subtropical Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean and MSLP. High secular rainfall variance and statistically significant linear trend show consistently that there is a massive decline in spring rain over southern Ethiopia. This happened concurrently with significant buildup of MSLP over East Africa, northeastern Africa including parts of the Arabian Peninsula, some parts of central Africa and SST warming over all ocean basins with the exception of the ENSO regions. The east-west pressure gradient in response to the Indian Ocean warming led to secular southeasterly winds over the Arabian Sea, easterly over central Africa and equatorial Atlantic. These flows weakened climatological northeasterly flow over the Arabian Sea and southwesterly flow over equatorial Atlantic and Congo basins which supply moisture into the eastern Africa regions in spring. The secular divergent flow at low level is concurrent with upper level convergence due to the easterly secular anomalous flow. The mechanisms through which the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly modulates rainfall are further explored in the context of East Africa using a simplified atmospheric

  17. Healing From Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    Telesurgery could offer hope for Kenya’s mounting cancer patients THERESA Shikuku,51,had been to all major hospitals in Kenya during her illness.She’d even sent a tissue sample to South Africa for tests.The results confirmed liposarcoma-a malignancy of fat cells in her abdomen.There was no treatment regime.Her death was just one of the 18,000 people who die annually because of cancer,according to the Committee on Health at the Kenya’s Parliament,in February 2011. Kenya has only five oncologists in public hospitals and these

  18. Snapshots From Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The satellite accompanying Shenzhou 7 sends back more than 1,000 photos The BX-1 satellite that accompanied Shenzhou 7 on its historic mission last month has taken and sent back 1,000 photos of the third Chinese manned

  19. Elections From Afar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; JETT

    2008-01-01

    Packed into a Beijing cafe on November 5, 6,000 miles and 16 hours away from the U. S. presidential election, the crowd excitedly began counting down the seconds until Wes Coast polls closed: 10,9,8 Earlier voter surveys had shown Barack Obama would win California, Oregon and Washington by wide margins. Together with the states he had already won, these states would give him more than enough electoral votes. As soon as the countdown ended, up flashed on the TV screen: "Barack Obama Elected President."

  20. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ozdogan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of

  1. Revisiting resistance in Italian-occupied Ethiopia : the Patriots' Movement (1936-1941) and the redefinition of post-war Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the glob

  2. Two new Uropodina species from Ethiopia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2013), s. 49-56. ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Afrotropical * Ethiopia * new species * new synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013

  3. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  4. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  5. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  6. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  7. Endline report – Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  8. Endline report – Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  9. Endline report – Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Buizer, N.N.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  10. Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  11. Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  12. Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  13. Scaling of Health Information Systems in Nigeria and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Shaw, Vincent; Braa, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Systems Programme in Nigeria and Ethiopia, the interdependencies between three spheres are identified as being important in scaling health information systems. The three spheres that are explored are the volume of data collected, human resource factors and access to technology. We draw on concepts from...

  14. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopi

  15. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes o

  16. Incomplete Markets and Fertilizer Use : Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerfu, Daniel; Donald F. Larson

    2010-01-01

    While the economic returns to using chemical fertilizer in Africa can be large, application rates are low. This study explores whether this is due to missing and imperfect markets. Results based on a panel survey of Ethiopian farmers suggest that while fertilizer markets are not altogether missing in rural Ethiopia, high transport costs, unfavorable climate, price risk, and illiteracy pres...

  17. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  18. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potentials for the Cement Industry in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesema, G.; Worrell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The cement sector is one of the fast growing economic sectors in Ethiopia. In 2010, it consumed 7 PJ of primary energy. We evaluate the potential for energy savings and CO2 emission reductions. We start by benchmarking the energy performance of 8 operating plants in 2010, and 12 plants under constru

  20. Consumption, Vulnerability, and Shocks in Rural Ethiopia, 1999-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hodinnott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2006-01-01

    Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks ¿ adverse events

  1. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to imp

  2. Gender Issues in Ethiopia : Implementing the National Policy on Women

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1998-01-01

    The National Policy on Women (Women's Policy) formulated in 1993, aimed to create appropriate structures within government offices and institutions to establish equitable and gender-sensitive public policies. The Government of Ethiopia in 1995, under its new constitution, renewed its commitment towards this policy. The government initiated an ambitious and extensive process of regionalizat...

  3. Decomposition of Gender Differentials in Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Arturo; Carranza, Eliana; Goldstein, Markus; Kilic,Talip; Oseni, Gbemisola

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs decomposition methods to analyze differences in agricultural productivity between male and female land managers in Ethiopia. It employs data from the 2011-2012 Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey. An overall 23.4 percent gender differential in agricultural productivity is estimated at the mean in favor of male land managers, of which 10.1 percentage points are explained by ...

  4. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  5. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers’ perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and t...

  6. Environmental and Organizational Factors Associated with Elbow/Forearm and Hand/Wrist Disorder among Sewing Machine Operators of Garment Industry in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wakjira Kebede Deyyas; Ararso Tafese

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health problems related to upper limp musculoskeletal disorders were the major issue among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Galan City, Oromia Regional State. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2012. A total of 422 study subjects were includ...

  7. Effect of coffee management and fragmentation on plant communities and regeneration patterns in Afromontane moist evergreen forests in South West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Geleta, Kitessa

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are deteriorating both in quality and quantity as a result of conversion to agricultural land and other land use systems. The remaining forests are either highly fragmented to small patches or suffer from species loss due to management (e.g. for coffee and cacao cultivation) and timber extraction. In Ethiopia, most of the remaining forests are Afromontane moist evergreen forests confined to the south western part of the country, a region which is also the cradle of the Arabic...

  8. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mullu, N.D.; Waaij, van der, E.H.; Dessie, T.; van Arendonk,

    2010-01-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a part...

  9. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  10. Ethiopic maternal care data mining: discovering the factors that affect postnatal care visit in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sahle, Geletaw

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate are key concerns. One of the eight millennium development goals adopted at the millennium summit, was to improve maternal health in Ethiopia. This leads towards discovering the factors that hinder postnatal care visit in Ethiopia. Methods In this research, knowledge discovery from data (KDD) was applied to identify the factors that hinder postnatal care visits in Ethiopia. Decision tree (using J48 algorithm) and rule in...

  11. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult fa...

  12. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; White, E.D.; A. S. Collick; B. Biruk Asharge; M. McCartney; S. B. Awulachew; Ahmed, A A; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopia...

  13. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Astatkie, Ayalew

    2015-01-01

    Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsul...

  14. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  15. Examining the incentive effects of food aid on household behaviour in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddinott, John

    2004-01-01

    "In Ethiopia, while superficial examination suggests strong disincentive effects of food aid on labor supply and agricultural activities, these largely vanish under more careful statistical analysis." from Text

  16. Barriers to tuberculosis care: a qualitative study among Somali pastoralists in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Fekadu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the dawn of the third millennium, while the control of the second biggest infectious killer in the world (tuberculosis [TB] is an international priority, millions of pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa are struggling to access TB care. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of pastoralist TB patients remain to be a challenge in TB control programs in many countries in this region, where pastoralism is a common means of livelihood. Better understanding of community perceptions of TB and its management could help identify reasons for the delay in diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities. The aim of this study is to explore barriers delaying diagnosis among pastoralist TB patients in the Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study, including 19 respondents was conducted in the SRS of Ethiopia. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA and informal interview techniques were employed to explore pastoralists' migration patterns, their perceptions of TB and their access to TB services. The influence of these factors on the delay of TB patients in receiving biomedical diagnosis was then assessed. Results We found that lack of access to formal health services as well as traditional beliefs leading to self treatment were barriers to prompt bio-medical diagnosis of TB among pastoralist TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. This study highlights that limited access to TB control programs is the most important barrier in early seeking of biomedical diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities with nomadic pastoralist being the most affected. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment facilities should be established in strategic villages that pastoralist can reach in both dry and wet seasons. Such facilities may alleviate the observed long distance to health facilities and thus long delay in diagnosis of TB. This strategy should be compounded with a community based TB control approach, whereby basic medical training on TB

  17. Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.

  18. Humoral immune response to Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate GMZ2 and its components in populations naturally exposed to seasonal malaria in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamo, Hassen; Esen, Meral; Ajua, Anthony; Theisen, Michael; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, the general population is vulnerable to unpredictable epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, there is little information on the anti-malaria immune profile of the population in the endemic regions of the country. METHODS: The study was designed to...... investigate the nature of humoral immune response to malaria in two ethnic groups in two endemic localities: Shewa Robit in north, and Boditi in south Ethiopia which are characterized by varying levels of malaria transmission and altitude. In a cross-sectional study, the study participants were diagnosed for...... malaria infection microscopically and by the rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Sera were tested by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total immunoglobulin (Ig) G against P. falciparum blood-stage vaccine candidate GMZ2 and its subunits (Glutamate-rich protein (GLURP-R0), merozoite surface...

  19. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Taddese; Umeta, Melaku

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identified for analyses. Logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors at P anemia among pregnant women was 23%. Maternal age, region, pregnancy trimester, number of under five children, previous history of abortion (termination of pregnancy), breastfeeding practices, and number of antenatal care visits were key independent predictors of anemia during pregnancy. In conclusion, the level of anemia during pregnancy is a moderate public health problem in Ethiopia. Yet, special preventive measures should be undertaken for pregnant women who are older in age and having too many under five children and previous history of abortion. Further evidence is expected to be generated concerning why pregnant mothers from the eastern part of the country and those with better access to radio disproportionately develop anemia more than their counterparts. PMID:26417454

  20. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taddese Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identified for analyses. Logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors at P<0.05. The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 23%. Maternal age, region, pregnancy trimester, number of under five children, previous history of abortion (termination of pregnancy, breastfeeding practices, and number of antenatal care visits were key independent predictors of anemia during pregnancy. In conclusion, the level of anemia during pregnancy is a moderate public health problem in Ethiopia. Yet, special preventive measures should be undertaken for pregnant women who are older in age and having too many under five children and previous history of abortion. Further evidence is expected to be generated concerning why pregnant mothers from the eastern part of the country and those with better access to radio disproportionately develop anemia more than their counterparts.

  1. Why do women prefer home births in Ethiopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78% was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42% and not customary (36%, followed by high cost (22% and distance or lack of transportation (8%. The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want, and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study

  2. The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Mauri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

  3. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    of women's support of FGM continuation. FGM prevalence and geographic clustering showed variation across regions in Ethiopia.Individual, economic, socio-demographic, religious and cultural factors played major roles in the existing practice and continuation of FGM. The significant geographic clustering of FGM was observed across regions in Ethiopia. Therefore, targeted and integrated interventions involving religious leaders in high FGM prevalence spot clusters and addressing the socio-economic and geographic inequalities are recommended to eliminate FGM.

  4. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  5. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  6. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  7. Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is

  8. Wages in the food chain in Ethiopia: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tijdens; J. Besamusca; N. Asteraye

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The

  9. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely

  10. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  11. Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth : A World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sadoff, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) report: it concerns managing water resources to maximize sustainable growth and focuses on World Bank water resources assistance strategy for Ethiopia (March 2006). Specifically, the note describes the scope and scale of the impacts of hydrological variability on Ethiopia'...

  12. Gender and Governance in Agricultural Extension Services : Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Madhvani, Sonia; Pehu, Eija

    2010-01-01

    The gender and governance in rural services insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia report aims to generate policy-relevant knowledge on strategies for improving agricultural service delivery, with a focus on providing more equitable access to these services, especially for women. The project has been implemented in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. These countries were chosen to capture variat...

  13. Risk mapping for northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne

    2001-01-01

    We used results from 120 group interviews collected in 1998 to quantify how inhabitants across northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia perceive and rank various risks to their livelihoods. We also mapped risk patterns using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. Respondents recognized 15 sources of risk overall, with the most common being reliable access to food and water. Other risks were not mentioned by a majority of respondents and reflected diversity in local situations. Country of re...

  14. Pastoralism Under Pressure: Tracking System Change in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon

    2003-01-01

    While economic development has proven elusive in African pastoral systems, change is pervasive. The Kajiado Maasai, for example, have endured declines in terms of per capita livestock holdings and other aspects of human welfare over the past 50 years. Activity diversification has occurred in Maasailand as the population copes with pressure from human population growth. We surveyed up to 317 Borana households during the late 1990s to see if similar patterns occurred in southern Ethiopia. Once ...

  15. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  16. Livestock and livelihood security in the Harar highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa Belay, Habtemariam

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the role of livestock in smallholder mixed farming systems, and to determine variations in livestock inventory in relation to changes in socio-economic status and rural population density in the Harar Highlands of Ethiopia. Livestock feed balance, household food adequacy level, and soil humus balance of annually cropped plots were identified as proxy indicators of sustainability. The long-term dynamics of the crop-livestock sub-system within the evolving liv...

  17. How do health extension workers in Ethiopia allocate their time?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangham-Jefferies, L; Mathewos, B; Russell, J.; Bekele, A

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments are increasingly reliant on community health workers to undertake health promotion and provide essential curative care. In 2003, the Government of Ethiopia launched the Health Extension Programme and introduced a new cadre, health extension workers (HEWs), to improve access to care in rural communities. In 2013, to inform the government’s plans for HEWs to take on an enhanced role in community-based newborn care, a time and motion study was conducted to understand the r...

  18. Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Birhanu Hadush

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) is a complex of parasitic diseases of various domestic and wild animal species caused by different species of trypanosomes. Trypanosoma (T.) brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax are transmitted by tsetse flies. Trypanosoma evansi, but also T. vivax, is mechanically transmitted by other biting flies and T. equiperdum is sexually transmitted in Equidae. All these ...

  19. Modelling Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Processes in Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tana Basin is of significant importance to Ethiopia concerning water resources aspects and the ecological balance of the area. The growing high demands in utilizing the high potentials of water resource of the Lake to its maximal limit, pictures a disturbing future for the Lake. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of topography, soil, land use and climatic varia-bility on the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes of the Lake Tana Basin. The physically based SWAT mod...

  20. The Road to Maternal Death In Rural Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2010-01-01

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary h...

  1. Ethiopia's Tourism Sector : Strategic Paths to Competitiveness and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes strategic intervention options that can inform the implementation process of Ethiopia s national tourism development policy in an effort to make the sector globally competitive. It also outlines the analytical foundations for technical assistance that will be provided to Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MoCT) by the World Bank-funded Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism Development Program (ESTDP). This study uses the world economic forum tourism and travel competitiveness index ...

  2. Land cover dynamics in Savanna Ecosystem of Borena Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Beza, Teshome Abate

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine land use and land cover change dynamic and spatial pattern of landscape structure in arid and semi-arid rangeland of Borena, Ethiopia. Three multi-temporal satellite (TM, and ETM+) images of 1987, 1995 and 2003 were used. Supervised maximum likelihood classification at pixel level and post-classification comparison of images was used. The landscape structures were calculated using Fragstats3.3 soft ware. Over the past 16 years, the arid and s...

  3. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic charact...

  4. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  5. Smallholder Farmers' Adaptation to Climate Change in Zenzelima, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Skambraks, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Zenzelima is a small kebele located in the North-western part of Ethiopia, where future climate change is predicted to challenge the farmers’ agricultural systems beyond their coping range. Farmers in Zenzelima will therefore need to adapt to climate change in order to maintain their livelihoods in the future. Adaptation to climate change requires the recognition of the need to adapt and the ability to adapt. This study therefore analyses the farmers’ perception of climate change and their...

  6. Economic implications of foreign exchange rationing in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Robinson, Sherman; Ahmed, Hashim

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in infrastructure and housing. However, this rapid growth was accompanied by a major appreciation of the real exchange rate (by 34 percent between July 2004 and July 2008) that reduced incentives for domestic production of exportables and non-protected import...

  7. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia: ’Forced’ to remain poor?

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon

    2015-01-01

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...

  8. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  9. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia...

  10. Study on street children in four selected towns of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, Angela; Adefrisew, Azeb; Lalor, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The child is the most precious asset and the focal point of development for any country. However, unless children are brought up in a stimulating and conducive environment getting the best possible care and protection, their physical, mental, emotional and social development is susceptible to permanent damage. Ethiopia, being one of the least developed countries of the world due to interrelated and complex socio-economic factors including man-made and natural calamities, a large portion of ou...

  11. Study on Street Children in Four Selected Towns in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; Veale, Angela; Adefrisew, Azeb; UNICEF; University College Cork

    1992-01-01

    The child is the most precious asset and the focal point of development for any country. However, unless children are brought up in a stimulating and conducive environment getting the best possible care and protection, their physical, mental, emotional and social development is susceptible to permanent damage. Ethiopia, being one of the least developed countries of the world due to interrelated and complex socio-economic factors including man-made and natural calamities, a large portion of ou...

  12. Marriage, Bequest, and Assortative Matching in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Agnes R. Quisumbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find that assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents' wealth, indicating that a bequest motive affects assets at marriage. Parental wealth affects the inheritance of neither groom nor bride. Sibling competition from brothers affects grooms' inheritance, but s...

  13. Gender, social capital and empowerment in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nega, Fredu; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Josef; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and empowerment in the rural areas of northern Ethiopia. We define empowerment narrowly as the power of households to make important decisions that change their course of life. Depending on the degree of control over decisions, the response of households is classified into passive, active and full control. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze empowerment levels of the rural households, first for the full sample of...

  14. Productivity and Efficiency of Small Scale Agriculture in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Dorfman, Jeffrey H.; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg

    2013-01-01

    We estimate a distance function of grains production using generalized method of moments that enables us to accommodate multiple outputs of farmers as well as address the endogeneity issues that are related with the use of distance functions for multi-output production. Using a panel data set of Ethiopian subsistence farmers, we find that the most important factors determining farmers' efficiency in Ethiopia are having access to the public extension system, participation in off-farm activitie...

  15. Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim

    2014-01-01

    In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important...

  16. Factors affecting acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling services among outpatient clients in selected health facilities in Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Abdurahman,1 Berhanu Seyoum,2 Lemessa Oljira,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal2 1Harari Regional Health Bureau, 2Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: To improve the slow uptake of HIV counseling and testing, the World Health Organization (WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS have developed draft guidelines on provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC. Both in low- and high-income countries, mainly from outpatient clinics and tuberculosis settings, indicates that the direct offer of HIV testing by health providers can result in significant improvements in test uptake. In Ethiopia, there were limited numbers of studies conducted regarding PITC in outpatient clinics. Therefore, in this study, we have assessed the factors affecting the acceptance of PITC among outpatient clients in selected health facilities in Harar, Harari Region State, Ethiopia. Materials and methods: Institutional-based, cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted from February 12–30, 2011 in selected health facilities in Harar town, Harari Region State, Ethiopia. The study participants were recruited from the selected health facilities of Harar using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were double entered into a data entry file using Epi Info version 3.5.1. The data were transferred to SPSS software version 16 and analyzed according to the different variables. Results: A total of 362 (70.6% clients accepted PITC, and only 39.4% of clients had heard of PITC in the outpatient department service. Age, occupation, marital status, anyone who wanted to check their HIV status, and the importance of PITC were the variables that showed significant associations with the acceptance of PITC upon bivariate and multivariate analyses. The main reasons given for not accepting the tests were self-trust, not being at risk for HIV, not being ready, needing to consult their

  17. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (Pspecies of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  18. Differentials of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, northwest Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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    Worku Alemayehu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa with an estimated population of 77.1 million in mid-2007. Uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. It is one of the largest and poorest countries that, even in the midst of crisis, has maintained high levels of fertility. This study was aimed at investigating the most important factors influencing fertility behavior in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64 compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility. Conclusion Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Deressa Wakgari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Results Although the intention of the parents to circumcise their daughters was high (84%, 42.4% of 288 ≤12 girls were reported being undergone FGM. The prevalence increased with age, and about 52% and 95% were circumcised at the age of 7–8 and 11–12 years, respectively. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers (81% and birth attendants (18%. Clitoral cutting (64% and narrowing of the vaginal opening through stitching (36% were the two common forms of FGM reported by the respondents. Participation of the parents in anti-FGM interventions is statistically associated with lower practice and intention of the procedures. Conclusion FGM is widely practised among the Somali refugee community in Eastern Ethiopia, and there was a considerable support for the continuation of the practice particularly among women. The findings indicate a reported shift of FGM from its severe form to milder clitoral cutting. More men than women positively viewed anti-FGM interventions, and fewer men than women had the intention to let their daughters undergo FGM, indicating the need to involve men in anti-FGM activities.

  20. The regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Nuclear Techniques in Ethiopia started in the early sixties in the medical field and through time has gradually expanded to other areas. Following this growth the practice of Radiation Protection in Ethiopia dates back over 15 years. Radiation Protection Legislation 79/1993 was promulgated in December 1993, which has established an Autonomous Regulatory Authority to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving ionizing radiation. Since 1998 the National Radiation Protection Authority has made a remarkable progress in terms of building a National Radiation Protection Infrastructure and is in a full swing transformation process towards a dynamic credible and competent regulatory Authority. The regulatory activities are designed in line with the main regulatory instruments, Notification, Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement. NRPA has a national inventory system and fully implemented the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), which provides a systemic integration and will be instrumental to enhance the effectiveness of the regulatory system. A substantial progress has been made in the development and provision of support and technical services in the areas of Metrology and Calibration Services, Instrument Maintenance Service, Individual Monitoring of Personnel, Environmental and Food Monitoring and Interim Storage Facility for spent sources. Development of a national system for emergency preparedness and response is the current top agenda of NRPA. Towards ensuring an effective radiation protection and regulatory programme, NRPA is also making a proactive involvement in, expanding its outreach, information dissemination, awareness promotion and development of key human resources. In the last four years Ethiopia has been actively co-operating with IAEA in the framework of the Regional Model Projects RAF/9/024, RAF/9/028 and RAF/9/029. The inputs received through the project framework coupled with the

  1. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

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    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  2. Pastoralist Community's Perception of Tuberculosis: A Quantitative Study from Shinille Area of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Sharma, Hardeep Rai; Alemie, Getahun Asres

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8%) of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3%) of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community. PMID:24381757

  3. Satellite climatology and the environmental risk of Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia and east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J B; Yilma, J M; McCarroll, J C; Erko, B; Mukaratirwa, S; Zhou, X

    2001-04-27

    Annual and seasonal composite maps prepared from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and earth surface maximum temperature (T(max)) satellite data from the archives of the Global land 1-km program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were studied for. their potential value, using geographic information system (GIS) methods, as surrogates of climate data in the development of environmental risk models for schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Annual, wet season and dry season models were developed and iteratively analyzed for relationships with Schistosoma mansoni distribution and infection prevalence rates. Model-predicted endemic area overlays that best fit the distribution of sites with over 5% prevalence corresponded to values of NDVI 125-145 and T(max) 20-33 degrees C in the annual composite map, NDVI 125-145 and T(max) 18-29 degrees C for the wet season map, and NDVI 125-140 and T(max) 22-37 degrees C for the dry season map. The model-predicted endemic area was similar to that of a prior model developed using an independent agroecologic zone data set from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Results were consistent with field and laboratory data on the preferences and limits of tolerance of the S. mansoni-Biomphalaria pfeifferi system. Results suggest that Global 1-km NDVI and T(max), when used together, can be used as surrogate climate data for development of GIS risk assessment models for schistosomiasis. The model developed for Ethiopia based on global 1-km satellite data was extrapolated to a broader area of East Africa. When used with FAO agroecologic zone climate data limits of evapotranspiration) of <-1300 mm, the model accurately represented the regional distribution of the S. mansoni-B. pfeifferi system in the East Africa extrapolation area. PMID:11378142

  4. Pastoralist Community’s Perception of Tuberculosis: A Quantitative Study from Shinille Area of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Melaku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8% of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3% of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community.

  5. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesgen, Melesse; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, Dawit

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi-arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity located in the central rift valley of Ethiopia and on two major crops; Tef ( Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)) and maize ( Zea mays XX). Fifty farmers from each area were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that farmers in the study area plow repeatedly in order to completely disturb unplowed strips of land left between adjacent furrows. Unplowed strips are the results of the V-shaped furrows created by the Maresha plow. Farmers generally do not plow before the soil is wetted by rainfall. Wetting and drying cycles due to dry spells occurring between rainfall events force farmers to plow frequently to avoid moisture losses through surface runoff, evaporation and weed transpiration. Tef fields are plowed 4-5 times while maize fields are plowed 3-4 times. Tillage frequency increased with the education level and experience of farmers; with their perception about the purpose of tillage such as moisture conservation, weed control and soil warming; and with resource availability such as area of land and family labor. Tillage frequency was higher for Tef than for maize and in heavy soils than in light soils.

  6. Perceptions and attitudes toward SLMTA amongst laboratory and hospital professionals in Ethiopia

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    Adino D. Lulie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals’ views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components.Objectives: To assess laboratory professionals’ and hospital chief executive officers’ (CEOs perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation.Results: Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.

  7. Identification of environmental parameters and risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia by using geographical information systems and a statistical approach

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    Teshome Tsegaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a vector-borne disease strongly influenced by environmental factors, has (re-emerged in Ethiopia during the last two decades and is currently of increasing public health concern. Based on VL incidence in each locality (kebele documented from federal or regional health bureaus and/or hospital records in the country, geographical information systems (GIS, coupled with binary and multivariate logistic regression methods, were employed to develop a risk map for Ethiopia with respect to VL based on soil type, altitude, rainfall, slope and temperature. The risk model was subsequently validated in selected sites. This environmental VL risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 86% with mean land surface temperature and soil type found to be the best predictors of VL. The total population at risk was estimated at 3.2 million according to the national population census in 2007. The approach presented here should facilitate the identification of priority areas for intervention and the monitoring of trends as well as providing input for further epidemiological and applied research with regard to this disease in Ethiopia.

  8. Matching genotype with the environment using an indigenous cattle breed: Introduction of Borana cattle from southern Ethiopia into the lowlands of north-western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoral, agro-pastoralism and transhumanance cattle production systems are important determinants of livelihoods in the semi-arid areas of north-western, southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The highlands are important for mixed crop-livestock enterprise, while the arid to semi-arid lowlands, that occupy 61% of the land area, are dominated by livestock production. The livestock species and breeds in these production systems have been traditionally selected, over millennia, to adapt to the challenges of the agro-ecologies. This initiative was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, which shares a 60 Km border with the Sudan, in North Gondar Zone of Amhara Region. The total area of the district is 440,000 ha, and 72% is covered with forest and rangeland, while 23.6% is cultivated. The cattle population is estimated at 136,910. Sesame-livestock followed by cotton-livestock production are the dominant farming systems. Although the Gumuz people are native in the district, most of the land is occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions. As a result, the dominant cattle population is the highland Zebu (mainly Fogera cattle breed crossed with other highland Zebu) brought by the highlanders. Rutana and Felata cattle breeds constitute a smaller proportion of the total cattle population. As a result, there is a mismatch between the cattle genotype and the environment. The major problems associated with cattle production are diseases and biting flies, water shortage, heat stress, long distance to watering points and grazing areas. Cattle production is therefore, characterized by high pre-weaning calf mortality (35-40%), slow growth rates, low fertility and calving rates, low milk yield and carcass weight. Breeding is entirely based on natural mating, and farmers' selection is based on milk yield, body conformation and colour; with considerations to disease resistance, heat tolerance and draft power potential. Table I

  9. Genèse des magmas associés à l'ouverture d'un domaine océanique : Géochimie des laves du Nord-Est de l'Afrique (Mer Rouge-Afar) et d'Arabie

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Jean-Alix

    1991-01-01

    L'existence d'un point chaud localisé en Afar est confirmée. Principalement deux composants mantelliques interviennent dans la genèse des laves du Sud de la Mer Rouge et d'Afar: un manteau appauvri en LREE et une source présentant des caractéristiques du pôle HIMU. Certains basaltes des plateaux éthiopiens et d'Afar (en particulier ceux émis avant l'ouverture du Golfe de Tadjoura) sont contaminés par la croûte continentale. Les résultats analytiques présentés ici, suggèrent que certains basal...

  10. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular. PMID:25841999

  11. Road failure caused by landslide in north Ethiopia: A case study from Dedebit - Adi-Remets road segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseha, Shimeles; Mewa, Getnet

    2016-06-01

    Landslide represents one of the main constraints for the development of road infrastructures in many parts of Ethiopia. While rugged topography, intra-sedimentary clay horizons, thick talus deposits at the foot of hills and wide spread tectonic fissures and faults account for the prominent inducing factors, heavy monsoon rainfall is the most common triggering factor for the majority of road failures caused by landslides. We present the results of geoelectrical investigation of a landslide that caused a severe damage to the Dedebit-Adi-Remets segment of the recently built highway that transects the high relief and mountainous region of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) measurements were taken at twelve points, systematically distributed to cover the affected area. The resulting geo-electric sections revealed that the shallow subsurface is composed of four distinct geo-electric layers. The corresponding major lithological successions, from top to bottom, are: unconsolidated conglomeratic layer, moist silty clay, moderately weathered and fractured basaltic rock and a possibly saturated portion of the basalt. Major discontinuities, indications of structural weak zones, have also been inferred based on abrupt vertical shift in geo-electrical layer boundaries between neighboring soundings. Based on the main findings, the road failure in the study area appears to be caused by a downslope movement of the subgrade composed of top unconsolidated sediment soaked with water from heavy rain. The location of the probable slip plane could be the inclined interface between the conductive clayey soil and the underlying resistive weathered basalt.

  12. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Asmare D; Admassu, Belayneh; Belew, Derbew; Yesuf, Mohammed; Njuguna, Joyce; Kyalo, Martina; Ghimire, Sita R

    2016-01-01

    Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of Ethiopia. These loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. The average observed heterozygosity across all loci varied from 0.046 to 0.058. The gene diversity among the loci ranged from 0.106 to 0.664. Unweighted Neighbor-joining and population structure analysis grouped these 163 isolates into three major groups. The clusters were not according to the geographic origin of the isolates. Analysis of molecular variance showed 85% of the total variation within populations and only 5% among populations. There was low genetic differentiation in the total populations (FST = 0.049) as evidenced by high level of gene flow estimate (Nm = 4.8 per generation) among populations. The results show that Ethiopian C. gloeosporioides populations are generally characterized by a low level of genetic diversity. The newly developed microsatellite markers were useful in analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of the C. gloeosporioides populations. Information obtained from this study could be useful as a base to design strategies for better management of leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia. PMID:26978654

  13. Adaptation and validation of the short version WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Medhin, Girmay;

    2016-01-01

    -cultural equivalence of the WHOQOL-HIV when used among people with HIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at adapting the WHOQOL-HIV bref for the Ethiopian setting. METHODS: A step-wise adaptation of the WHOQOL-HIV bref for use in Ethiopia was conducted to produce an Ethiopian version.......82, TLI = 0.77 and RMSEA = 0.064). CONCLUSION: The WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-Eth has been shown to be a valid measure of quality of life for use in clinical settings among people with HIV in Ethiopia....

  14. Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010

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    Kassa Nega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072 of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90, high parity (7 + (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12, and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39. In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25. The longer estimated time (80 + minutes to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02. High parity (7+ showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12 and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98, respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.

  15. Problems of Feminist Leadership among Educated Women in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Indrawatie Biseswar

    2008-01-01

    Feminist leadership is a matter of grave concern in Ethiopia where educated women appear to be obliged to fight individual battles to sustain their own agendas on the emancipation of women. Being manipulated by the government-led ‘woman question’ rhetoric, many fail to come to terms with charting such an independent discourse. What is holding them back? Could it be their ideological make-up that is influenced by state and religious indoctrination? Or perhaps their own shortcomings where m...

  16. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Gebrehiwot; Ilstedt, U.; Gärdenas, A. I.; Bishop, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2), in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a...

  17. Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Ambaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

  18. Diversity of Lactase Persistence Alleles in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, BL; Raga, TO; Liebert, Anke;

    2013-01-01

    The persistent expression of lactase into adulthood in humans is a recent genetic adaptation that allows the consumption of milk from other mammals after weaning. In Europe, a single allele (−13910∗T, rs4988235) in an upstream region that acts as an enhancer to the expression of the lactase gene ...

  19. Spatial and temporal assessment of drought in the Northern highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne; Maathuis, Ben

    2011-06-01

    With the development of global changes, researchers from all over the world increasingly pay attention to drought detection, and severe droughts that may have resulted from climate change. In this paper, spatial and temporal variability of drought is evaluated based on precipitation data and remotely sensed images. The standard precipitation index (SPI) and vegetation condition index (VCI) are used to evaluate the spatial and temporal characteristics of meteorological and vegetative drought in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Based on the drought critical values of SPI and VCI defining drought, the spatial and temporal extent of droughts in the study area is established. We processed 396 decadal images in order to produce the multi-temporal VCI drought maps. The results of the SPI and VCI analysis reveal that the eastern and southern zones of the study region suffered a recurrent cycle of drought over the last decade. Results further show that there is a time lag between the period of the peak VCI and precipitation values obtained from the meteorological stations across the study area. A significant agreement was observed between VCI values with the current plus last two-months of precipitation. The study demonstrates the utility of the vegetation condition index in semi-arid and arid regions.

  20. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sheferaw, Desie; Aragaw, Kassaye; Abera, Mesele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Haile, Aynalem; Kiara, Henry; Szonyi, Barbara; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking. PMID:27154584

  1. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Seroprevalence and risk factors in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Garuma; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Tuli, Getachew; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia. At the livestock farm of the Bako Agricultural Research Center, an outbreak of respiratory disease of cattle occurred in May 2011, and many animals were affected and died before the disease was diagnosed. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CBPP antibodies in selected districts of Western Oromia Region and to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. A crosssectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in three selected districts of Western Oromia Region. A total of 386 sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony (MmmSC), using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The risk factors that were evaluated in this study were geographical location, age, sex, breed and body condition. The overall seroprevalence in this study was 28.5%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony antibodies at the district level was 40.3%, 19.0% and 5.7% in Gobbu Sayyo, BakoTibbe and Horro districts, respectively. There was a statistically significant variation ( p 0.05) with the serological status of the animal. This study showed that the overall prevalence of CBPP in Western Oromia Zones was high. This warrants the implementation of appropriate preventive and control measures to minimise the economic losses associated with the disease. PMID:27247066

  2. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia. Lack of access to credit is a

  3. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  4. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated

  5. Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Ethiopia: A bottomless pit or an option to reach the Millennium Development Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner; David Nguyen-Thanh

    2007-01-01

    The following paper examines the different options to finance local public infrastructure in Ethiopia based on the assumption that the federal government of Ethiopia will not provide any guarantees for local borrowing. Besides a detailed description of the local public finance system and the capital market in Ethiopia, the paper also sets out some international successful practices in municipal infrastructure financing. Based on the observation of the Ethiopian case and the consideration of t...

  6. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  7. Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel

  8. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.

  9. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  10. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  11. Understanding Political Will in Groundwater Management: Comparing Yemen and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity – the ability to implement and regulate.

  12. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  13. Contraceptive use in women with hypertension and diabetes: cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen TT; Woldeyohannes SM; Yigzaw T

    2015-01-01

    Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hyperten...

  14. Tourists-perceived service quality and satisfaction of sustainable tourism in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woldesenbet, Addis

    2015-01-01

    For the economic development tourism plays a great role for countries like Ethiopia. As international tourism continues to grow from time to time, it is necessary to maintain the tourism sector for generations. As a result, sustainable tourism becomes the best tool to achieve the goal. The purpose of this study is to measure the sustainable tourism management with regard to tourists’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the service they get while they staying in Ethiopia. The study has used the...

  15. Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817 m.a.s.l), Diram...

  16. Second Ethiopia Economic Update : Laying the Foundation for Achieving Middle Income Status

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, Ethiopia has achieved high economic growth, averaging 10.7 percent per year. In 2012, Ethiopia was the 12th fastest growing economy in the World. If the country can continue its historically impressive growth performance, it could potentially reach middle income status by 2025. This, in turn, may require an adjustment in economic policy to phase in the private sector ...

  17. The Right to Primary Education in Ethiopia: Progress, Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on Ethiopia, a country despite facing daunting development challenges, is said to have sustained a notable push towards realizing universal primary education. The study was, therefore, made with an objective of critically assessing and evaluating the right to primary education in the present Ethiopia. Using both qualitative and quantitative method, this study not only attempted to describe the political, economic and legal/policy reforms the Ethiopian Government...

  18. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Kedir; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/o...

  19. Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Antimalarials in the Community of Silte Zone, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Dargicho Ahmed; Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. ...

  20. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...

  1. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kidane, Berhane; Van Andel, Tinde; van der Maesen, Laurentius Josephus Gerardus; Asfaw, Zemede

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussion...

  2. Foreign Direct Investment Development between European Union and Least Developed Countries : Business Opportunities in Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Biruhe; Gebre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a category of international investment that indicates an intention to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy. This study assesses the development of FDI between EU and Least Developed Countries and also examines investment opportunities in Ethiopia. The primary goal was to examine economical and social contribution of FDI inflow. In addition, this study assesses Ethiopia's business opportunity, FDI policies, incentives ...

  3. Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to explore peer counselors? work and their role in supporting patients? adherence to ART in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, Peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, des...

  4. Borderless world vs borders as walls: insights from a borderland group in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Alexandra Magnólia

    2013-01-01

    The border between Eritrea and Ethiopia changed status frequently from the 19th century up to Eritrea’s independence (Triulzi, 2006: 7). With the creation of Eritrea as an Italian colony and prior to the incorporation of Ethiopia into the Italian East African Empire the border was defined according to colonial treaties. However, the border waxed and waned over the decades of their political coexistence. Indeed, the border's status shifted from a mere internal-administrative marker to a coloni...

  5. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gello, Behailu

    2011-01-01

    Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV inf...

  6. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Merdekios B; Adedimeji AA

    2011-01-01

    Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infe...

  7. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Serbo town, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Tarekegn; Bacha Ketema; Ketema Tsige; Petros Beyene

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current status of CRPv at Serbo, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. Methods A 28-day in vivo therapeutic eff...

  8. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa Mulu; Berhanu Geresu; Yeshiwork Beyene; Muluneh Ademe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of resistance to antimalarials is insidious and unless efficacy studies are conducted, resistance may go unrecognized. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine, for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods: Artemether/lumefantrine efficacy study was conducted in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia from September, 2012 to May, 2013. The study participa...

  9. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    S Hawaze; Deti, H.; Suleman, S.

    2012-01-01

    The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentra...

  10. The Role of Government in East Asian Development : Lessons for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane, Esayas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the lessons Ethiopia can learn from East Asia’s growth to sustain its recent economic growth. By an in-depth analysis of the role of government in East Asian’s development it provides recommendations for Ethiopia. The study is based on the experiences of South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the context of three issues: selective intervention policies, coordination problem and export orientation. Results of the study show that governments in East Asia have used phased ...

  11. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; White, E.D.; A. S. Collick; B. Biruk Ashagre; M. McCartney; S. B. Awulachew; Ahmed, A A; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue ...

  12. Implications of accelerated agricultural growth on household incomes and poverty in Ethiopia: A general equilibrium analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia’s national development strategy, A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty for 2005/06 to 2009/10 (PASDEP) places a major emphasis on achieving high rates of agricultural and overall economic growth. Consistent with the PASDEP, Ethiopia is also in the process of implementing the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) together with other African governments. As part of CAADP, the country has committed itself to meeting targets of devotin...

  13. How Do Women Entrepreneurs Define Success? A Qualitative Study of Differences Among Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam; Brigitte Kroon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia define success in their own terms. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 women entrepreneurs from various sectors in Addis Ababa. The interview formats allowed the women to tell their life history and define success in their own terms. A common stereotype is that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operate businesses out of necessity and therefore women measure success in terms of financial rewards than personal rewards...

  14. Small-scale irrigation dams, agricultural production, and health - theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation...

  15. Incidence of Rabies in Humans and Domestic Animals and People's Awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wudu Temesgen Jemberu; Wassie Molla; Gizat Almaw; Sefinew Alemu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar z...

  16. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-01-01

    Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia) are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regress...

  17. Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne

    2009-01-01

    In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...

  18. Tenure Insecurity, Gender, Low-Cost Land Certification and Land Rental Market Participation in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in whether land reforms can contribute to market development and poverty reduction in Africa. This paper assesses effects on the allocative efficiency of the land rental market of the low-cost approach to land registration and certification of restricted property rights that was implemented in Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Four rounds of a balanced household panel from 16 villages in northern Ethiopia are analysed, showing that land certification initially enhanced l...

  19. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima Abdella; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011.Methods: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table ...

  20. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i) to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time o...

  1. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; S. Uhlenbrook

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as more than 70% of total Nile water flow originates from the Ethiopian highlands. Stable isotope compositions in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analysed (i) to characterise the spatial...

  2. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.; S. Uhlenbrook

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as more than 70% of total Nile water flow originates from the Ethiopian highlands. Stable isotope compositions in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analysed (i) to charac...

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district , Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Mengistu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Mengistu1 Mulugeta Shegaze2 Kifle Woldemichael3 Hailay Gesesew3,4 Yohannes Markos5 1Department of Zonal Health Office, Gamo Goffa Zone, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 4Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 5Department of Medical Physiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007 of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia.Objective: To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors.Results: The overall prevalence of

  4. Use of Geographic Information Systems in the development of prediction models for onchocerciasis control in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; McNally, K

    2005-03-01

    A risk assessment model was developed for onchocerciasis distribution and its control in Ethiopia using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. GIS data analysis was done to generate 3 separate risk models using selected environmental features of (1) earth observing satellite data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) prepared from AVHRR sensor data of the Global land 1-km project for the years 1992 and 1995, (2) FAO agroclimatic databases from the Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region of East Africa, and (3) a climate-based forecast index based on the growing degree days (GDD) and water budget concepts. Parasitological data used for the analysis were published and unpublished reports of onchocerciasis surveillance made between 1969 and 2000 in various parts of the country. Analysis of queries based on 1992 and 1995 annual wet and dry season data of the Global land 1-km project resulted in a predictive value of 95.1%, 94.0% and 96.3%, respectively, using data values extracted from buffers centered on sites above 5% prevalence. The model based on CPSZ data predicted an endemic area that best fit the distribution of sites over 5% prevalence; the query was based on CPSZ values of average altitude (442-2134 m), annual mean temperature (18-28 degrees C), annual rainfall (822-1980 mm), annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938 mm), rain minus potential evapotranspiration (-124 - 792 mm), average NDVI x 100 (2000-5000) and average terrain percent slope (9-34). The climate-based model based on GDD and water-budget predicted high risk to severe risk areas in the western and southwestern parts of the country. All three of the models predicted suitable areas for the transmission of onchocerciasis outside known endemic areas, suggesting the need for ground-based validation and potential application to current community-directed treatment programs with

  5. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between farmers and cattle in central Ethiopia.

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    Gobena Ameni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis complex could be possible between farmers and their cattle in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted in mixed type multi-purposes cattle raising region of Ethiopia on 287 households (146 households with case of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and 141 free of TB and 287 herds consisting of 2,033 cattle belonging to these households to evaluate transmission of TB between cattle and farmers. Interview, bacteriological examinations and molecular typing were used for human subjects while comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT test, post mortem and bacteriological examinations, and molecular typing were used for animal studies. Herd prevalence of CIDT reactors was 9.4% and was higher (p<0.01 in herds owned by households with TB than in herds owned by TB free households. Animal prevalence was 1.8% and also higher (p<0.01 in cattle owned by households with TB case than in those owned by TB free households. All mycobacteria (141 isolated from farmers were M. tuberculosis, while only five of the 16 isolates from cattle were members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC while the remaining 11 were members of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM. Further speciation of the five MTC isolates showed that three of the isolates were M. bovis (strain SB1176, while the remaining two were M. tuberculosis strains (SIT149 and SIT53. Pathology scoring method described by "Vordermeier et al. (2002" was applied and the average severity of pathology in two cattle infected with M. bovis, in 11 infected with NTM and two infected with M. tuberculosis were 5.5, 2.1 and 0.5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that transmission of TB from farmers to cattle by the airborne route sensitizes the cows but rarely leads to TB. Similarly, low transmission of M. bovis between farmers and their cattle was found, suggesting requirement of ingestion of contaminated milk from

  6. Sexual behaviors and associated factors among antiretroviral treatment attendees in Ethiopia

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    Demissie K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Demissie,1 Shifera Asfaw,2 Lakew Abebe,2 Getachew Kiros2 1Addis Ababa Regional Laboratory, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the major public health problems throughout the world. Nowadays, antiretroviral treatment (ART is available in health institutions and HIV-positive individuals who are eligible for ART are taking it. But studies show reinfection of HIV is occurring in them for unknown reasons. Purpose: This study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV-positive ART attendees. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed in ten randomly selected health centers in Addis Ababa, between October 05 and November 05, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 376 respondents for face-to-face interviews from ART registration book. After the data collection process, data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical package. Then the effect of each variable was observed by regression analysis to identify the predictors for risky sexual practice at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: A total of 376 respondents were included in the study, with 100% response rate. The mean age of the total respondents was 35.28±8.94 (standard deviation. Of the 376 respondents, 30.4% had a history of risky sexual practice, which was inconsistent condom use in the last 3 months prior to the study period. Factors associated with risky sexual practice included alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.01, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.77, being single (AOR =0.29, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.59 and widowed (AOR =0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.77 respondents, and the gender of the respondents, with an AOR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.33, shows a significant relationship with risky sexual behavior. Conclusion

  7. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  8. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants in and Around Fiche District, Central Ethiopia

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    Abiyu Enyew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in and around Fiche District, North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia from September 2011 to January 2012. Ten kebeles were selected from North to South and East to West directions of Fiche District and its surroundings by purposive sampling method. Six informants including one key informant were selected from each kebele for data collection by using printed data collection sheets containing, semi-structured interview questions, group discussion and guided field walk. The plant specimens were identified by using taxonomic keys in the Floras of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics; informant consensus factor and fidelity level using MS-Excel 2010. Totally, 155 medicinal plants belonging to 128 genera and 65 families were recorded. Most medicinal plants (72.9% were used for human healthcare in which Lamiaceae was dominant (11% in which Ocimum lamiifolium, Otostegia integrifolia and Leonotis ocymifolia were the most common species. Herbs were dominant (43.87% flora followed by shrubs (35.48%. The most frequently used plant parts for remedial preparation were leaves (38.1% followed by roots (14.8% and others. Fresh plant parts were used mostly (47.7% followed by dried (13.5% and the remaining (38.7% either in fresh or dried. Among the preparations, crushing was the dominant (21.3% form followed by squeezing (16.1%. The remedial administration was mostly oral (38.7% followed by dermal (29%. The highest (88% ICF was associated with intestinal parasites followed by emergency diseases (82%. The FL of Actiniopteris semiflabellata, Plantago lanceolata, Capparis tomentosa, and Clerodendrum myricoides was calculated 100% irrespective of diseases. In conclusion, rich diversity of floras were mostly practiced in crude form and to prevent extinction of medicinal plants due to unsustainable anthropogenic activities, local communities need to give attention for in

  9. Quantifying long-term changes in gully networks and volumes in dryland environments: The case of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-11-01

    Understanding historical and present gully development is essential when addressing the causes and consequences of land degradation, especially in vulnerable dryland environments. For Northern Ethiopia, several studies exist on the severity of gully erosion, yet few have quantified gully development. In this study, gully network and volume development were quantified over the period 1963-2010 for an area of 123 km2, representing the regional variability in environmental characteristics. Gully networks were mapped from small-scale aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images. For the latter, visualizing Google Earth images in 3D proved to be very suitable to investigate gully erosion. From the changes in networks and volumes over the period 1963-2010, the occurrence of one cut-and-fill cycle is apparent. From a largely low-dynamic gully system in the 1960s, network expansion and increased erosion rates in the 1980s and 1990s caused the drainage density and volume to peak in 1994. The average gully density (Dtotal) was then 2.52 km km- 2 and the area-specific gully volume (Va) 60 × 103 m3 km- 2. This coincides with soil losses by gully erosion (SLg) of 17.6 t ha- 1 y- 1 over the period 1963-1994. By 2010, improved land management and the region-wide implementation of soil and water conservation measures caused 25% of the gully network to stabilize, resulting in a net infilling of the gully channels over the period 1994-2010. The study validates previous findings that land degradation by gullying was indeed severe in Northern Ethiopia in the second half of the 20th century, but also shows that when proper land management is applied, a gully can be transformed into a linear oasis, which increases the resistance of gullies to further erosion.

  10. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (Paccounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings. Besides more surveys are needed in some of the regions where no or few valid data was available. PMID:26943994

  11. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

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    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  12. Tailoring seasonal climate forecasts for hydropower operations in Ethiopia's upper Blue Nile basin

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    P. Block

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Explicit integration of seasonal precipitation forecasts into water resources operations and planning is practically nonexistent, even in regions of scarcity. This is often attributable to water manager's tendency to act in a risk averse manner, preferring to avoid consequences of poor forecasts, at the expense of unrealized benefits. Convincing demonstrations of forecast value are therefore desirable to support assimilation into practice. A dynamic coupled system, including forecast, rainfall-runoff, and hydropower models, is applied to the upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia to compare benefits and reliability generated by actual forecasts against a climatology-based approach, commonly practiced in most water resources systems. Processing one hundred decadal sequences demonstrates superior forecast-based benefits in 68 cases, a respectable advancement, however benefits in a few forecast-based sequences are noticeably low, likely to dissuade manager's adoption. A hydropower sensitivity test reveals a propensity toward poor-decision making when forecasts over-predict wet conditions. Tailoring the precipitation forecast to highlight critical dry predictions minimizes this inclination, resulting in 97% of the sequences favoring the forecast-based approach. Considering managerial risk preferences for the system, even risk-averse actions, if coupled with forecasts, exhibits superior benefits and reliability compared with risk-taking tendencies relying on climatology.

  13. Livestock mortality in pastoralist herds in Ethiopia and implications for drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Andy; Admassu, Berhanu; Bekele, Gezu; Abebe, Dawit

    2014-07-01

    Participatory epidemiology methods were employed retrospectively in three pastoralist regions of Ethiopia to estimate the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought. The results showed that starvation/dehydration accounted for between 61.5 and 100 per cent of excess livestock mortality during drought, whereas disease-related mortality accounted for between 0 and 28.1 per cent of excess mortality. Field observations indicate that, in livestock, disease risks and mortality increase in the immediate post-drought period, during rain. The design of livelihoods-based drought response programmes should include protection of core livestock assets, and it should take account of the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought and immediately afterwards. This study shows that, when comparing livestock feed supplementation and veterinary support, relatively more aid should be directed at the former if the objective is to protect core livestock during drought. Veterinary support should consider disease-related mortality in the immediate post-drought period, and tailor inputs accordingly. PMID:24905708

  14. Effect of coffee processing on ecological integrity of river systems in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimma Zone in Southwestern Ethiopia is known for its coffee production and the landscape is dotted by a number of coffee processing industries. In order to assess the effect of coffee wastewater on the ecological integrity of the receiving water bodies, a longitudinal study has been initiated in January 2003 and is still in progress. The preliminary results of physicochemical parameters such as BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) indicated that the coffee effluent is characterized by a remarkable polluting potential during the wet coffee-processing season. In general, a corresponding decline of bottom dwelling river fauna has been noted in many sampling locations. If business-as-usual scenario is followed, the economic gains accrued, as a result of coffee export, will be undone due to the ensuing water quality degradation and aquatic ecosystem disturbance. Although further study is required to fix the problem, provision of intervention strategies appear to be mandatory in order to avert quality deterioration of the rivers and streams flowing through the coffee producing region. (author)

  15. A NEW SUBGENUS AND TWO NEW SPECIES OF TRECHUS FROM ETHIOPIA (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    Paolo Magrini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Trechus from the Oromia Province (Ethiopia are described in the present note. In the first part we describe Archeotrechus, a new microphtalmic Trechus, characterized by the dilation of only the first tarsal segment in males and by the aedeagus with the dorsal part amost completely divided into two lobes: a sclerified connection exists only in the region of the basal ostium. To this subgenus we ascribe the new species Trechus (Archeotrechus relictus, from the area of Mt. Sgona (Batu, of yellow-brown colour, rather flattened, with non sinuate pronotum and blunt fore and hind angles; two discal setae in the third stria. The aedeagus is much elongated, with a spherical apical button, copulatory piece triangular, lanceolate, with a sharp apex, little sclerified and very simple, typical of ancestral forms, like for instance Minitrechus Vigna Taglianti & Magrini, 2009. The female gonostyli, short and curved, bear at the apex two big setae on the inner edge. In the second part of the note we describe Trechus (s. str. oromiensis, a new species of bipartitus Group (sensu novo, characterized by the presence of only one discal seta on elytra and by peculiar features of the aedeagus.

  16. Provenance Analysis of Surface Sediments in the Chew Bahir Basin (Ethiopia) using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesche, N.; Trauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Provenance analysis is an essential discipline for describing the generation and dispersal of sediments and yields a fundamental understanding of hydrological and sedimentological processes. Chew Bahir basin is a hardly accessible terrain in southern Ethiopia, which is barely investigated by sedimentological studies until today. In this work, those studies were conducted via remotely sensed digital image analysis (ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Worldview-1 and SRTM) combined with a climatological approach through precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Besides remote sensing, sedimentological investigations were achieved from a highly resolved paleo-climate record through a short drill-core from Chew Bahir basin. In order to identify and localize potential source areas and to describe the dispersal of sediments, different processing methodologies were applied (achievement of sediment composition, land-surface classification, digital terrain analysis and generation of remote sensing time series). The result of this work demonstrates two different source rocks, which belong to two distinct source localities. Hence, the analysis of remote sensed digital imaginary provides an effective tool for studying the provenance of sediments, especially in remote regions such as Chew Bahir basin. Moreover, remotely sensed time series provide important insights into climatologically induced variations in the uppermost sediment-layer. However, fully automated analysis of remotely sensed imaginary cannot replace fieldwork, but provides outstanding contributions to interdisciplinarity.

  17. Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia: assessment and comparison of knowledge and attitude of health workers and rural inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Haileyesus; Lambein, Fernand; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2002-05-01

    A cross sectional community based study was done in the Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia in 1999-2000 to assess and compare knowledge and attitude towards neurolathyrism among health workers and the rural community. A sample of 217 health workers selected by probability proportional to size and randomly selected 589 heads of household from a rural district were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Neurolathyrism was widely known among the health workers and the community. More than half of community respondents associated the disorder with walking or lying on the straw and the stalks of grass pea. In a multivariate analysis. poor neurolathyrism knowledge among the community was associated with illiteracy and with presence of a neurolathyrism patient at home. Among health workers, contact with vapour or steam of grass pea foods was the commonest cause cited. In a multivariate analysis nurses had the poorest knowledge among the health workers. Depending on the subject, health workers and community respondents had more or less knowledge than the other. The prevailing recurrent adverse climatic conditions might promote grass pea as a 'friendly' crop to the poor peasants in marginal areas who otherwise rely on it only during times of food shortages and could increase the incidence of neurolathyrism. The poor knowledge among health workers and the community and the general neglect of neurolathyrism requires urgent intervention. Appropriate strategies for the dissemination of information education, and communication (IEC) are needed. PMID:12061485

  18. Paleoecological reconstruction of hominin-bearing middle Pliocene localities at Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Sabrina C; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2016-07-01

    Woranso-Mille is a paleoanthropological site in Ethiopia sampling an important and under-represented time period in human evolution (3.8-3.6 million years ago). Specimens of cf. Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis, and the recently named Australopithecus deyiremeda have been recovered from this site. Using multiple habitat proxies, this study provides a paleoecological reconstruction of two fossiliferous collection areas from Woranso-Mille, Aralee Issie (ARI) and Mesgid Dora (MSD). Previous reconstructions based on faunal assemblages have pointed, due to the presence of aepycerotins, alcelaphins, and proboscideans, to the existence of open habitats as well as more closed ones, based on the occurrence of cercopithecids, giraffids, and traglephins. Results from community structure analysis (proportions of locomotor and dietary adaptations) at ARI and MSD indicated a predominance of open habitats, such as shrublands. Mesowear analysis revealed that ungulates of all dietary types (grazers, leaf and fruit browsers, and mixed feeders) were present in nearly equal proportions. Ecomorphological analyses using linear measurements of the astragalus and phalanges indicated that bovids utilizing locomotor behaviors associated with all habitat types were present, though the intermediate-cover habitat bovids were best represented in the sample (Heavy cover at ARI and Light cover at MSD). Together, these results suggest that the ARI and MSD localities were heterogeneous habitats (mosaics), likely with densely vegetated areas along a paleo-river and more open regions (woodlands, grasslands) available away from the river. PMID:27343774

  19. Structure and regeneration status of Komto Afromontane moist forest,East Wollega Zone, west Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fekadu Gurmessa; Teshome Soromessa; Ensermu Kelbessa

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study in Komto Forest in East Wollega Zone,Oromia National Regional State,West Ethiopia for determining vegetation structure and regeneration status in this forest.We systematically sampled 53 quadrats (20 m × 20 m) along line transects radiating from the peak of Komto Mountain in eight directions.Vegetation parameters such as DBH,height,seedling and sapling density of woody species,and location and altitude of each quadrat were recorded.In total,103 woody plant species of 87 genera and 45 families were identified.Analysis of selected tree species revealed different population structures.Generally,the forest was dominated by small trees and shrubs characteristic of secondary regeneration.Observations on the regeneration of the forest indicated that there are woody species that require urgent conservation measures.Based on the results of this study,we recommend detailed ecological studies of various environmental factors such as soil type and properties,and ethnobotanical studies to explore indigenous knowledge on uses of plants.

  20. PRE-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF SEKOTA SHEEP BREED IN WAGHIMRA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

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    AEMERO YIHEYIS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-weaning growth performances of Sekota sheep breed was studied at Sekota district of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia under traditional crop-livestock production systems which is characterized by extensive, low-input low-output system. Two hundred thirty one lambs were monitored from birth to weaning age. Data on growth performances were collected and analyzed using the general linear model procedures of Statistical analysis system software. The least squares mean birth weight, three months weight and average daily weight gains from birth to three months age were 2.73 kg, 11.9 kg and 101 gm, respectively. Parity and type of birth were significant sources of variation for birth weight. Location had an effect of three months weight. The results obtained revealed the potential of the breed for meat production in the prevailing environment. The effect of parity on birth weight indicates special care for lambs from maiden ewes. Management options like integrated health care and supplementation of feed for sheep during the dry season help farmers to benefit from their sheep.