WorldWideScience

Sample records for aetiology

  1. [Recurrent seizures of unknown aetiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Martha; Berkermann, Heiner; Ghadimi, Michael; Gaedcke, Jochen; Bürger, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    History and admission findings | A 41year old woman presented at our internistic clinic after treatment by an emergency doctor because of confusion and amnesia accompanied by a hypoglycaemic episode while driving her car. Only by giving continuous glucose intravenously a stable clinical state could be achieved. In her medical history she took Lamotrigin for 12 years since she had seizures of unknown aetiology. 16 years ago she had similar sudden attacks with confusion and hypoglycaemia. At that time thorough diagnostics at the clinic for internal medicine did not reveal any evidence for hyperinsulinaemia. While taking Lamotrigin the patient had no seizures or similar symptoms for 12 years. Treatment and course | In the present case we detected a tumor in the pancreas and a two-fold increased insulin secretion. Histopathological work-up of the removed tissue confirmed the suspected diagnosis of insulinoma. Postoperatively, Lamotrigin treatment was terminated. Since then the patient remained asymptomatic. PMID:27123728

  2. Anorexia nervosa--diagnosis, aetiology, and treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, D.

    1995-01-01

    The aetiology, assessment and treatment of anorexia nervosa are reviewed in the light of the classical accounts of Morton, Lasègue and Gull. The core symptoms are deliberate weight loss, disturbed body image and amenorrhoea, and complications may include cardiac failure, electrolyte disturbances, hypothermia and osteoporosis. Common clinical findings are described. Disturbed brain serotonin activity is implicated in the aetiology of anorexia nervosa, but there is little support for the use of...

  3. Pneumomediastinum after cocaine use: an unusual aetiology

    OpenAIRE

    Gourevitch D; Seenath M; Chudasama K

    2010-01-01

    We describe an interesting case of pneumomediastinum secondary to cocaine abuse. The patient presented with severe chest pain following nasal inhalation of a large quantity of cocaine. Investigations revealed no chest injury; however oesophagitis was proven leading to a possible aetiology of oesophageal microperforation. After conservative management there was spontaneous resolution of the pneumomediastinum.

  4. An update on the aetiology of orofacial clefts

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, FK; Hägg, U

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To review recent data on the aetiology of cleft lip and palate. Data sources. MEDLINE literature search (1986-2003). Study selection. Literature and data on aetiology of cleft lip and palate using the following key words: 'cleft lip', 'cleft palate', 'aetiology', and 'genetics'. Data extraction. Relevant information and data were reviewed by the authors. Data synthesis. Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common types of congenital malformation. The aetiology seems complex, but...

  5. Car drivers with dementia : different complications due to different aetiologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, D. Waard, D. de Davidse, R. Tucha, O. & Brouwer,W.

    2015-01-01

    Older drivers with dementia are an at-risk group for unsafe driving. However, dementia refers to various aetiologies and the question is whether dementias of different aetiology have similar effects on driving ability. The literature on the effects of dementia of various aetiologies on driving ability is reviewed. Studies addressing dementia aetiologies and driving were identified through PubMed, PsychINFO and Google Scholar. Early symptoms and prognoses differ between dementias of different ...

  6. The aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R F; Cameron, D J; Barnes, G L; Holmes, I H; Ruck, B J

    1976-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common problem in newborn infants in hospital nurseries. In the past, sporadic diarrhoea was often attributed to dietary indiscretion by the mother, and epidemic diarrhoea was though to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Techniques with which to locate non-cultivable viruses and untypable enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli allow reevaluation of the aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants. Preliminary results from Melbourne, Australia, suggest that most diarrhoea in newborn infants is induced by a specific infectious agent. During 1975 the agent most often identified from sporadic and epidemic diarrhoea in hospital nurseries was a reovirus-like particle ("duovirus"). Enterotoxin-producing strains of E. coli were rarely isolated. Future attempts to protect newborn infants from developing diarrhoea must be based on an accurate understanding of the aetiology of this disease. PMID:186236

  7. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  8. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  9. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  10. Does dermatoneuro syndrome have a viral aetiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoyrul, B; Mughal, A A; Paulus, J; Salamat, A; Howarth, S

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxoedema is a rare disease characterized by a generalized papular and sclerodermoid cutaneous eruption. It is associated with fibroblast proliferation and mucin deposition in the dermis. Most patients have a monoclonal gammopathy, defined by the presence of IgG. Treatment of scleromyxoedema is challenging, but there is mounting evidence to support the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Individual reports of systemic complications have been described. Dermatoneuro syndrome (DNS) is a rare but sometimes fatal manifestation, which consists of a triad of fever, coma and seizures preceded by a flu-like illness. We describe a patient with scleromyxoedema who developed DNS. Our case highlights interesting findings suggesting that DNS may have a viral aetiology. In addition, this case demonstrates a favourable response of the cutaneous features of scleromyxoedema to IVIg. PMID:26175017

  11. Epidemiology and aetiology of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a rapidly growing public health issue with an estimated prevalence of >37.7 million individuals globally. HF is a shared chronic phase of cardiac functional impairment secondary to many aetiologies, and patients with HF experience numerous symptoms that affect their quality of life, including dyspnoea, fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, and fluid retention. Although the underlying causes of HF vary according to sex, age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and environment, the majority of cases remain preventable. HF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and confers a substantial burden to the health-care system. HF is a leading cause of hospitalization among adults and the elderly. In the USA, the total medical costs for patients with HF are expected to rise from US$20.9 billion in 2012 to $53.1 billion by 2030. Improvements in the medical management of risk factors and HF have stabilized the incidence of this disease in many countries. In this Review, we provide an overview of the latest epidemiological data on HF, and propose future directions for reducing the ever-increasing HF burden. PMID:26935038

  12. Importance of cervical length in dysmenorrhoea aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebitay, Ali G; Verit, Fatma F; Sakar, M Nafi; Keskin, Seda; Cetin, Orkun; Ulusoy, A Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this prospective case-control study was to determine whether uterine corpus and cervical length measurements have a role in dysmenorrhoea aetiology in virgins. Patients with severe primary dysmenorrhoea with visual analog scale scores of ≥7 composed the dysmenorrhoea group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 51) was of women with painless menstrual cycles or with mild pain. Longitudinal and transverse axes of the uterine cervix and uterine corpus were measured. Correlation between severity of dysmenorrhoea and uterine cervix and corpus axes was calculated. Longitudinal and transverse axes of uterine cervix as well as uterine cervix volume were significantly higher in the dysmenorrhoea group compared to the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between severity of dysmenorrhoea and the length of cervical longitudinal and transverse axes and uterine cervical volume. Our findings reveal longer cervical length and greater cervical volume in young virgin patients with dysmenorrhoea and severe pain compared to those with no or less pain. PMID:27012227

  13. Lamsiekte (botulism: Solving the aetiology riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph D. Bigalke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The reason or reasons why it took Sir Arnold Theiler so many years to unravel the riddle of the aetiology of lamsiekte in cattle and whether P.R. Viljoen’s lifelong grudge for receiving insufficient credit from Theiler for his research contribution was justified are analysed in this paper. By 1912, Theiler knew that Duncan Hutcheon had advocated the use of bonemeal as a prophylactic against the disease in the early 1880s. Hutcheon’s colleague, J.D. Borthwick, had shown conclusively in a field experiment in 1895 that lamsiekte did not occur in cattle fed a liberal allowance of bonemeal; and bone-craving had been identified by Hutcheon and several farmers as being associated with the occurrence of the disease (a ‘premonitory’ sign. Hutcheon regarded a phosphate deficiency of the pastures as the direct cause of lamsiekte. However, Theiler did not accept this, was convinced that intoxication was involved and developed a ‘grass toxin’ theory. Viljoen (1918 also latched onto the grass toxin theory. He did not believe that osteophagia existed, stating categorically that he had not observed it on the experimental farm Armoedsvlakte where > 100 cases of lamsiekte had occurred during the > 3 years that he spent there. Moreover, he did not believe in the prophylactic value of bonemeal. However, careful analysis of a subsequent publication, of which he was a co-author, revealed that in late 1918 and early 1919 he reproduced the disease by drenching cattle with blowfly pupae and larvae as well as with crushed bones from decomposing bovine carcasses. For this breakthrough he did not get proper credit from Theiler. Reappointed to study lamsiekte on Armoedsvlakte in the autumn of 1919, Theiler, probably already aware that the toxin he was seeking was in the decomposing bones or carcass material rather than the grass, deliberately ‘walked with the cattle’ on the farm to encounter a classic manifestation of bone-craving (osteophagia. The penny

  14. Aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids: a questionnaire study

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    Rohde Henning

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated consecutively at our institution from March 2004 through August 2005. One hundred forty-eight individuals were enrolled, including 72 patients with TEH and 76 individuals without TEH but with alternative diagnoses, such as a screening colonoscopy or colonic polyps. Out of 38 possible aetiologic factors evaluated, 20 showed no significant bivariate correlation to TEH and were no longer traced, and 16 factors showed a significant bivariate relationship to TEH. By multivariate analysis, six independent variables were found to predict TEH correctly in 79.1% of cases: age of 46 years or younger, use of excessive physical effort, and use of dry toilet paper combined with wet cleaning methods after defaecation were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing TEH; use of bathtub, use of the shower, and genital cleaning before sleep at least once a week were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing TEH. Conclusion Six hypotheses on the causes of TEH have a high probability of being correct and should be considered in future studies on aetiology, prophylaxis, and therapy of TEH.

  15. The aetiology and modification of food preferences in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Fildes, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Poor diet contributes to the global burden of disease and food preferences play an important role, especially for children. Children generally like sweet, energy-dense foods and often dislike vegetables. However, there are considerable individual differences in liking and explanations for this variation remain elusive. This thesis uses data from a UK cohort of twins to examine the aetiology and development of children’s food preferences with the aim of informing effective dietary intervention...

  16. The role of FKBP5 in cancer aetiology and chemoresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Lou, Z.; Wang, L

    2010-01-01

    FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51, also called FKBP5) belongs to a family of immunophilins, FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs). Members of this family are targets for drugs such as rapamycin and cyclosporine. Although FKBP5 shares characteristics with other FKBPs, it also has unique features, especially its role in the regulation of multiple signalling pathways and in tumourigenesis and chemoresistance. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered role of FKBP5 in cancer aetiology and ...

  17. Prevalence and aetiology of hypothyroidism in the young

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, I.; Greene, S.; Macdonald, T.; Morris, A

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To define the prevalence of hypothyroid disease in children and young people, and describe its aetiology.
METHODS—We identified all patients on the Medicines Monitoring Unit (MEMO) database in the Tayside region of Scotland who had received two or more prescriptions for thyroxine during the study period (January 1993 to December 1995). Using this as a surrogate marker of hypothyroidism, we calculated the prevalence of hypothyroidism in those aged less than 22 years. Mai...

  18. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained in this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the most probable cause of MTSS is bone overload and not traction induced periostitis. In chapter 2 a review of the literature on MTSS is provided until 2009. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss different common a...

  19. Aetiology of childhood viral gastroenteritis in Lucknow, north India

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpi Gupta; Singh, K. P.; Amita Jain; Shilpi Srivastava; Vishwajeet Kumar; Mastan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Due to limited availability of data on viral aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in north India, the present study was planned to detect rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus in stool samples of both in hospitalized and non-hospitalized children less than five years of age presenting with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: A total of 278 stool samples from equal number of children were tested for rotavirus antigen using ELISA and for norovirus, sapovirus and...

  20. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire show...

  1. Spinal cord ischemia: aetiology, clinical syndromes and imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse MR imaging features and lesion patterns as defined by compromised vascular territories, correlating them to different clinical syndromes and aetiological aspects. In a 19.8-year period, clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 55 consecutive patients suffering from spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. Aetiologies of infarcts were arteriosclerosis of the aorta and vertebral arteries (23.6 %), aortic surgery or interventional aneurysm repair (11 %) and aortic and vertebral artery dissection (11 %), and in 23.6 %, aetiology remained unclear. Infarcts occurred in 38.2 % at the cervical and thoracic level, respectively, and 49 % of patients suffered from centromedullar syndrome caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI disclosed hyperintense pencil-like lesion pattern on T2WI in 98.2 %, cord swelling in 40 %, enhancement on post-contrast T1WI in 42.9 % and always hyperintense signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) when acquired. The most common clinical feature in spinal cord ischemia is a centromedullar syndrome, and in contrast to anterior spinal artery ischemia, infarcts in the posterior spinal artery territory are rare. The exclusively cervical location of the spinal sulcal artery syndrome seems to be a likely consequence of anterior spinal artery duplication which is observed preferentially here. (orig.)

  2. Clinical presentation, aetiology and complications of pancreatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Childhood Pancreatitis is an uncommon but serious condition with incidence on the rise. It manifests as acute or chronic form with epigastric pain, vomiting and elevated serum -amylase and lipase. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the clinical presentation, aetiology, and complications of pancreatitis in children. Method: This descriptive case series was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore from 1st January to 31st December 2014. Seventy-two patients up to the age of 15 years having abdominal pain, Amylase >200 IU/L and/or lipase >165 IU/L, with features of acute or chronic pancreatitis on abdominal imaging; were included in study. Data analysis was done using SPSS-20. Results: Of the total 72 patients, 43 (60 percentage) had acute pancreatitis, males were 25 (58 percentage) and females 18 (42 percentage) and chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 29 (40 percentage), males 10 (34 percentage) and females 19 (66 percentage). Common clinical features were abdominal pain (100 percentage), nausea and vomiting (79 percentage). Common aetiologies were idiopathic (40 percentage) while choledochal cyst 8 percentage, hyperlipidaemia 7 percentage, biliary tract stones/sludge 7 percentage and abdominal trauma 6percentage. Complications were more frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (60 percentage) than with chronic pancreatitis (34 percentage). Common complications were pseudo-pancreatic cyst (36 percentage), ascites (17 percentage) and pleural effusion (4 percentage). Conclusion: Abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were common presenting features of childhood pancreatitis. Common aetiologies were idiopathic hyperlipidemia, biliary tract stones/sludge, choledochal cyst and abdominal trauma. Common complications were Pseudo-pancreatic cyst, ascites and pleural effusion. (author)

  3. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  4. Genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Schneuer, Francisco J; Jamieson, Sarra E; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the current evidence and knowledge of the aetiology of hypospadias. Hypospadias remains a fascinating anomaly of the male phallus. It may be an isolated occurrence or part of a syndrome or field defect. The increasing use of assisted reproductive techniques and hormonal manipulation during pregnancy may have been associated with an apparent rise in the incidence of hypospadias. Genetic studies and gene analysis have suggested some defects that could result in hypospadias. New light has also been thrown on environmental factors that could modulate candidate genes, causing altered development of the male external genitalia. PMID:25742936

  5. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  6. Imaging in mediastinitis: a systematic review based on aetiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, C. E-mail: cakman11@superonline.com; Kantarci, F.; Cetinkaya, S

    2004-07-01

    Mediastinitis refers to inflammation of the tissues located in the middle chest cavity. It can be secondary to infectious or non-infectious causes and depending on the aetiology may be acute or chronic. The majority of cases of acute mediastinitis are secondary to oesophageal perforation and open chest surgery. Less common causes include tracheal, bronchial perforation or direct extension of infection from adjacent tissues. Chronic or slowly developing mediastinitis mostly arise from tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, other fungal infections, cancer, or sarcoidosis. In a minority of cases the aetiology is lymphatic obstruction or an autoimmune disease. Radiological imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and therapeutic approach to mediastinitis. Generally, the initial radiological work-up includes radiographic studies either with or without contrast material. However, conventional chest radiography may be misleading in the diagnosis of mediastinitis. Cross-sectional imaging techniques are generally required for diagnosis and evaluation of the site and extent of mediastinal involvement. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may also guide the choice of the optimal therapeutic approach.

  7. Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Trigeminal Neuralgia: a Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Sabalys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present paper was to discuss issues related to trigeminal neuralgia with strong emphasis on the aetiology and pathogenesis of this problem. Material and Methods: An electronic search of 5 databases (1965 - Oct 2012 and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. In addition, experience acquired from treating 3263 patients in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, were also summarized. Results: Generally, aetiological factors can be classified into 3 most popular theories that were based on: 1 Related to other disease, 2 Direct injury to the trigeminal nerve, and 3 Propagates the polyetiologic origin of the disease. In addition, two pathogenesis mechanisms of trigeminal neuralgia were proposed. First: the peripheral pathogenetic mechanism that is often induced by progressive dystrophy around the peripheral branches of the trigeminal nerve. Second, central pathogenetic mechanism which often triggered by peripheral pathogen that causes long-lasting afferent impulsation and the formation of a stable pathologic paroxysmal type irritation focus on the central nerve system (CNS. Conclusions: Patients with susceptive trigeminal neuralgia should be examined carefully by specialists who have expertise in assessing and diagnosing of possible pathological processes and be able to eliminate the contributing factors so the trigeminal neuralgia can be properly managed.

  8. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L

    2010-01-01

    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  9. Comparative pathology in bivalves: Aetiological agents and disease processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carella, F; Feist, S W; Bignell, J P; De Vico, G

    2015-10-01

    Comparative pathology as a scientific discipline studies animal diseases in relation to their aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis. Among the main aspects of this discipline, regressive changes, host defense responses with pathological implications and progressive changes, represent the majority of the possible responses of cells and tissues to pathogens and exposure to chemicals. One of the most persistent issues in the field of invertebrate pathology is the variability in terminology and definition, which has led to confusion in scientific communication. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the pathological basis of bivalve disease (defensive, regressive and progressive phenomena) and contribute to the standardised terminology for bivalve molluscan disease in the context of comparative pathology. PMID:26215472

  10. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korppi, M.; Kiekara, O.; Kosma, T.H.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  12. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions. PMID:25463902

  13. Gastrointestinal Perforation in Neonates: Aetiology and Risk Factors

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    Ekwunife Okechukwu Hyginus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal perforation (GIP in neonates presents important challenges and mortality can be high. This is a report of recent experience with GIP in neonates in a developing country. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 16 neonates treated for GIP in a 3 year period. Results: There were 9 males and 7 females, aged 0-28 days (median age =7days. Their weights at presentation ranged from 0.9 - 4.7kg (median =2.6. Five infants were premature. Twelve infants presented more than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Plain abdominal radiographs showed peumoperitoneum in 9 infants. The cause of perforation was necrotising enterocolitis 6, intestinal obstruction 6, iatrogenic 3 and spontaneous 1. The site of perforation was ileum in 12 infants, stomach in 4 and colon in 4; 4 patients had involvement of more than one site. All the neonates underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary closure ( n=5 , resection and anastomosis( n=6, colostomy (n=3, Ileostomy ( n=2, partial gastrectomy (n=2 ,or gastrojejunostomy ( n=1. Two neonates had multiple procedures. Two very sick preterm babies had an initial peritoneal lavage. Surgical site infection is the commonest postoperative complication occurring in 9 infants. Anaesthesia sepsis and malnutrition is responsible for the seven deaths recorded.Conclusions: Neonatal GIP has multiple aetiologies; NEC is the most common cause. Major mortality risk factors include NEC, multiple perforations, delayed presentation and prematurity.

  14. Gastrointestinal Perforation in Neonates: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyginus Okechukwu Ekwunife

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal perforation (GIP in neonates presents important challenges and mortality can be high. This is a report of recent experience with GIP in neonates in a developing country.Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 16 neonates treated for GIP in a 3 year period.Results: There were 9 males and 7 females, aged 0-28 days (median age =7days. Their weights at presentation ranged from 0.9 - 4.7kg (median =2.6. Five infants were premature. Twelve infants presented more than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Plain abdominal radiographs showed peumoperitoneum in 9 infants. The cause of perforation was necrotising enterocolitis 6, intestinal obstruction 6, iatrogenic 3 and spontaneous 1. The site of perforation was ileum in 12 infants, stomach in 4 and colon in 4; 4 patients had involvement of more than one site. All the neonates underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary closure ( n=5 , resection and anastomosis( n=6, colostomy (n=3, Ileostomy ( n=2, partial gastrectomy (n=2 ,or gastrojejunostomy ( n=1. Two neonates had multiple procedures. Two very sick preterm babies had an initial peritoneal lavage. Surgical site infection is the commonest postoperative complication occurring in 9 infants. Anaesthesia sepsis and malnutrition is responsible for the seven deaths recorded.Conclusions: Neonatal GIP has multiple aetiologies; NEC is the most common cause. Major mortality risk factors include NEC, multiple perforations, delayed presentation and prematurity.

  15. INCIDENCE, AETIOLOGY AND PATTERN OF MANDIBULAR FRACTURES IN PONDICHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The mandible is the second most commonly fractured part of the maxillofacial region after nasal bones. The incidence, etiology and pattern of mandibular fractures vary considerably among the different study population, there is a need to evaluate aspects of mandibular trauma in Pondicherry. This study was undertaken to evaluate the results of mandibular fractures treated in a population of Pondicherry. PATIENT AND METHOD A total of sixty nine patients treated for mandibular fractures at the Department Of Dentistry, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Pondicherry from January 2011 to December 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. The variables analyzed in the study were gender, age, aetiology, fracture site, method of treatment and complications. RESULTS This study included 106 fractures in 69 patients. The ratio of male to female was 16:1. The highest prevalence of fracture occurred in 21 to 30 years (37.7% and the minimum in patients over 61 years old. The most common cause of fractures were road traffic accident (RTA, 56.5% followed by fall. In our study most commonly reported fracture site was parasymphysis (37.7%, followed by angle (19.8% and condyle (19.8%. Mandibular fractures were generally treated by Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF in 76.4% of the patients. CONCLUSION The retrospective study of mandibular fractures has shown, road traffic accidents are main cause of fracture and young men in their 20s are predominantly affected.

  16. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korppi, M; Kiekara, O; Heiskanen-Kosma, T; Soimakallio, S

    1993-04-01

    Sixty-one children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar (n = 27) or interstitial (n = 34) pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral (n = 20), mixed viral-bacterial (n = 21) or bacterial (n = 20) infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7 (26%), mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 (30%) and bacterial infection alone in 12 (44%) of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13 (38%), 13 (38%) and 8 (24%) for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l (a screening limit for viral and bacterial infections) in 15 (56%) of the patients with alveolar and in 11 (32%) of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. Our results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. We conclude that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. PMID:8318803

  18. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Jayatilake, Nihal; Mendis, Shanthi; Maheepala, Palitha; Mehta, Firdosi R

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), which cannot be attributed to diabetes, hypertension or other known aetiologies, that has emerged in the North Central region of Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CKDu. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, pesticides and other elements were analysed in biological samples from individuals with CKDu and compared with age- and sex-matched ...

  19. The aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis over time in a hospital in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Bendtsen, Flemming; Matzen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The change in aetiology over time of acute and chronic pancreatitis has been sparsely described, as has also the validity of the diagnostic codes. The aim of the study was 1) to clarify whether the aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis changed during the period 1983-2005, and 2) to validate...... the diagnostic codes over time for acute and chronic pancreatitis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) in the same period....

  20. A Latter-day Saint Approach to Addiction: Aetiology, Consequences and Treatment in a Theological Context

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Holt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the theological underpinning of the nature, aetiology and treatment of addictions within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The first section outlines the “plan of salvation” and how this provides the theological framework for the source and solution to addictions. The final section explores addiction against this background in terms of its aetiology, types, consequences and treatment in a Latter-day Saint context. In so doing it builds on the recognition b...

  1. Aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Waters

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 99% of the approximate 1 million annual neonatal deaths from life-threatening invasive bacterial infections occur in developing countries, at least 50% of which are from home births or community settings. Data concerning aetiology of sepsis in these settings are necessary to inform targeted therapy and devise management guidelines. This review describes and analyses the bacterial aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

  2. Aetiology and resistance patterns of community-acquired pneumonia in León, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute, A J; Brouwer, W P; Hak, E; Delgado, E; Alonso, E; Hoepelman, I M

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a prevalence study to gain greater insight into the aetiology, bacterial resistance and risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the region of León, Nicaragua. During the period from July 2002 to January 2005, all consecutive patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of

  3. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  4. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Boffano; S.C. Kommers; K.H. Karagozoglu; T. Forouzanfar

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughou

  5. Barotrauma as aetiological cascade of fatal intrapulmonary plastic bronchitis in a post-Fontan child

    OpenAIRE

    Elahi, Maqsood; Poh, Chin-Leng; Ravindranathan, Hari; Grant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The role of barotrauma in the exaggeration of plastic bronchitis after Fontan circulation has yet to be examined. We aim to describe a case of a 4-year old post-Fontan circulation girl where barotrauma suffered during commercial air travel played a role in the aetiological cascade of plastic bronchitis.

  6. Value of rapid aetiological diagnosis in optimization of antimicrobial treatment in bacterial community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareković, Ivana; Plecko, Vanda; Boras, Zagorka; Pavlović, Ladislav; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Puretić, Hrvoje; Zele-Starcević, Lidija; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-06-01

    In 80 adult patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) conventional microbiological methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were performed and the appropriateness of the empirical antimicrobial treatment was evaluated according to bacterial pathogen detected. The aetiology was determined in 42 (52.5%) patients, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common pathogen. PCR applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provided 2 and PCR on sputum samples 1 additional aetiological diagnosis of CAP The mean CRP values in the S. pneumoniae group were not significantly higher than in the group with other aetiological diagnoses (166.89 mg/L vs. 160.11 mg/L, p = 0.457). In 23.8% (10/42) of patients with determined aetiology, the empirical antimicrobial treatment was inappropriate. PCR tests need further investigation, particularly those for the atypical pathogens, as they are predominant in inappropriately treated patients. Our results do not support the use of CRP as a rapid test to guide the antimicrobial treatment in patients with CAP. PMID:22856222

  7. The aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis over time in a hospital in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Bendtsen, Flemming; Matzen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The change in aetiology over time of acute and chronic pancreatitis has been sparsely described, as has also the validity of the diagnostic codes. The aim of the study was 1) to clarify whether the aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis changed during the period 1983-2005, and 2......) to validate the diagnostic codes over time for acute and chronic pancreatitis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) in the same period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All admissions at Hvidovre Hospital coded in the NPR in 1983, 1994 and 2005 with a diagnosis of either acute or chronic......: Gallstone disease significantly (p = 0.04) increased as the cause of acute pancreatitis over the 22-year period, while alcohol remained the major cause of chronic pancreatitis. The validity of the diagnoses for patients with acute pancreatitis varied between 51% and 73%, and for chronic pancreatitis between...

  8. The aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis over time in a hospital in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Bendtsen, Flemming; Matzen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    : Gallstone disease significantly (p = 0.04) increased as the cause of acute pancreatitis over the 22-year period, while alcohol remained the major cause of chronic pancreatitis. The validity of the diagnoses for patients with acute pancreatitis varied between 51% and 73%, and for chronic pancreatitis between......INTRODUCTION: The change in aetiology over time of acute and chronic pancreatitis has been sparsely described, as has also the validity of the diagnostic codes. The aim of the study was 1) to clarify whether the aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis changed during the period 1983-2005, and 2......) to validate the diagnostic codes over time for acute and chronic pancreatitis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) in the same period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All admissions at Hvidovre Hospital coded in the NPR in 1983, 1994 and 2005 with a diagnosis of either acute or chronic...

  9. Sleep duration and its role in the aetiology of cardio-metabolic health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hense, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    An adequate amount of sleep is believed to be important for optimal health and functioning throughout life and changes in sleep duration were found to be associated with several especially cardio-metabolic - health outcomes in adults as well as in children. The factors that influence sleep duration are multi-factorial and the interplay between sleep duration and other factors in the aetiology of cardio-metabolic outcomes is complex and not fully understood yet. Internationally comparable data...

  10. Aetiological and clinical aspects of symptomatic gallstone disease and pancreatic cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Banim, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This work investigated in a UK prospective cohort study, firstly, the aetiology of gallstone disease, and secondly, that of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on physical activity and diet. The epidemiological studies benefitted from the accuracy of measurement tools, namely a validated physical activity questionnaire and a sevenday food diary (7-DFD). These novel methods aided the improved definition of risk factors thus highlighting biological mechanisms leading to disease and ...

  11. Development of Preventive Measures Based on the Aetiology of Dental Caries: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Shigeyuki; Ooshima, Takashi; Fijiwara, Taku; Minami, Takahiro; Kimura, Shigenobu

    2011-01-01

    Mutans streptococci including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are aetiologically associated with the development of dental caries in humans and experimental animals. These organisms produce glucosyltransferases (GTases), which catalyse the synthesis of adherent glucan from sucrose, promoting the adherence of the organisms to the tooth surface. In addition, they release large quantities of acids from various dietary sugars. These are the essential virulence factors of mutans st...

  12. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoeba e * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  13. Aetiology of a diagnosis: the key to success in treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher, Krimi

    2014-01-01

    Aetiology is the cause of a diagnosis. The essential key for the determination ofaetiology is a thorough examination: the history of the problems, the crucial elements in function, and habits. Our case report involves progression of a malocclusion and aggravation of the gum recessions which resolved following root planing and fixed orthodontic correction for the underlying cause, malocclusion, without any gum graft procedures. PMID:25109053

  14. Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 2: pathogenesis and aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Breakspear, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Johnstone, Eve C; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schnyder, Ulrich; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Bach, Dominik R; Fletcher, Paul C; Flint, Jonathan; Frank, Michael J; Heinz, Andreas; Huys, Quentin J M; Montague, P Read; Owen, Michael J; Friston, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of two companion papers proposing priority problems for research on mental disorders. Whereas the first paper focuses on questions of nosology and diagnosis, this Personal View concerns pathogenesis and aetiology of psychiatric diseases. We hope that this (non-exhaustive and subjective) list of problems, nominated by scientists and clinicians from different fields and institutions, provides guidance and perspectives for choosing future directions in psychiatric science. PMID:26573969

  15. Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Najran region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saeed Zayed AlAyed; Ahmed Morad Asaad; Abdulrab Ahmed Mahdi; Mohamed Ansar Qureshi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic aetiology of gastroenteritis in children aged < 5 years in the Najran region, south-western Saudi Arabia, to determine the contribution of these enteropathogens in childhood diarrhoeal diseases and to put forward effective preventive measures for controlling the disease in the future. Design and Setting: A d...

  16. Relationship between aetiology and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmini, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common cardiac disease caused by a range of genetic and acquired disorders. The most common cause is genetic variation in sarcomeric proteins genes. Current ESC guidelines suggest that particular clinical features (‘red flags’) assist in differential diagnosis. Aims: To test the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in the presence of increased wall thickness is an age-specific ‘red flag’ for aetiological diagnosis an...

  17. Genetic and environmental aetiology of the dimensions of Callous-Unemotional traits

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, J.; Pingault, J.-B.; Boivin, M.; Rijsdijk, F.; Viding, E

    2015-01-01

    Background A Callous-Unemotional trait specifier (termed ‘Limited Prosocial Emotions’) was added to the diagnosis of conduct disorder in DSM-5. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) is a comprehensive measure of these traits assessing three distinct, yet correlated dimensions – Callousness, Uncaring, and Unemotional – all thought to reflect the general Callous-Unemotional construct. The present study was the first to examine the degree to which the aetiology of these dimensions is...

  18. Mood disorders and parity – A clue to the aetiology of the postpartum trigger

    OpenAIRE

    Di Florio, Arianna; Jones, Lisa; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Robertson Blackmore, Emma; Heron, Jess; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Episodes of postpartum psychosis have been associated with first pregnancies in women with bipolar I disorder. It is unclear, however, if the effect extends to episodes at other times in relation to childbirth and to women with other mood disorders such as major depression and bipolar II disorder. This primiparity effect, which is also seen in other pregnancy related conditions such as pre-eclampsia, is a potentially important clue to the aetiology of childbirth related mood episod...

  19. An investigation into febrile illnesses of unknown aetiology in Wipim, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Grace; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the aetiology of febrile illnesses remains poorly characterized, mostly due to poor diagnostic facilities and the inaccessibility of much of the rural areas of the country. We investigated the aetiological agents of febrile illnesses for 136 people presenting to Wipim Health Centre in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Arboviral and rickettsial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, malaria blood smears and a malaria PCR test were used to identify pathogens associated with a history of fever. In 13% (n = 18) of cases an aetiological agent was identified. Dengue virus type 1 was detected in 11% (n = 15) of the samples tested and malaria in 2% (n = 3). None of the other arboviral or rickettsial pathogens tested for were detected in any of the samples. Although dengue viruses have been identified in Papua New Guinea using serological methods, this study represents the first direct detection of dengue in the country. The detection of malaria, on the other hand, was surprisingly low considering the previous notion that this was a hyperendemic region of Papua New Guinea. PMID:26930888

  20. Transthoracic lung aspiration for the aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia: 25 years of experience from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideh, R C; Howie, S R C; Ebruke, B; Secka, O; Greenwood, B M; Adegbola, R A; Corrah, T

    2011-06-01

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children worldwide. Global pneumonia control depends on a good understanding of the aetiology of pneumonia. Percutaneous transthoracic aspiration culture is much more sensitive than blood culture in identifying the aetiological agents of pneumonia. However, the procedure is not widely practised because of lack of familiarity with it and concerns about potential adverse events. We review the diagnostic usefulness and safety of this procedure over 25 years of its use in research and routine practice at the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), The Gambia, and give a detailed description of the procedure itself. Published materials were identified from the MRC's publication database and systematic searches using the PubMed/Medline and Google search engines. Data from a current pneumonia aetiology study in the unit are included together with clinical experience of staff practising at the unit over the period covered in this review. A minimum of 500 lung aspirates were performed over the period of review. Lung aspiration produces a greater yield of diagnostic bacterial isolates than blood culture. It is especially valuable clinically when pathogens not covered by standard empirical antibiotic treatment, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, are identified. There have been no deaths following the procedure in our setting and a low rate of other complications, all transient. Lung aspiration is currently the most sensitive method for diagnosing pneumonia in children. With appropriate training and precautions it can be safely used for routine diagnosis in suitable referral hospitals. PMID:21477423

  1. The role of toothpaste in the aetiology and treatment of dentine hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, M; West, N X

    2013-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common, painful dental condition with a multi-factorial aetiology. The hydrodynamic mechanism theory to explain dentine sensitivity also appears to fit DH: lesions exhibiting large numbers of open dentinal tubules at the surface and patent to the pulp. By definition, DH can only occur when dentine becomes exposed (lesion localisation) and tubules opened (lesion initiation), thus permitting increased fluid flow in tubules on stimulation. Erosion, particularly from dietary acids appears to play a dominant role in both processes. Toothbrushing with most toothpaste products alone cause clinically insignificant wear of enamel but are additive, even synergistic, to erosive enamel loss. Additionally, toothbrushing with toothpaste is implicated in 'healthy' gingival recession. Toothbrushing with most toothpastes removes the smear layer to expose tubules and again can exacerbate erosive loss of dentine. These findings thereby implicate toothbrushing with toothpaste in the aetiology of DH. Management of the condition should have secondary prevention at the core of treatment and therefore, must consider first and foremost the aetiology. Fluoride toothpaste at present appears to provide little primary or secondary preventive benefits to DH; additional ingredients can provide therapeutic benefits. Potassium-based products to block pulpal nerve response have caused much debate and are considered by many as unproven, which should not translate to ineffective. Several toothpaste technologies formulated to block tubules are from studies in vitro, in situ and controlled clinical trials considered proven for the treatment of DH. PMID:23817061

  2. AETIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY (AKI ADMITTED TO VIMS, BELLARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This was a study about the various causes of ARF, in our hospital (VIMS, Bellary during a specified period, and to find out the incidence of Pre-renal, Renal and Post-renal causes by using renal failure indices and to analyze outcome of ARF pertaining to the aetiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 70 cases admitted at VIMS, Bellary during the period January 2012 to june 2013, with clinical evidence of acute renal failure were included in the study. They were evaluated for various etiological, prognostic factors and its outcome. RESULTS: Among the various aetiologies in our study, snake bite (28.6%, ADD (27.1%, RPGN (7.1% were the most common. Most common type of renal failure was prerenal (50%, among them ADD was the predominant cause followed by intrinsic failure (47%, among them snake bite was leading cause. Patients presenting with Anuria, late presentation to hospital, blood pressure 3mg had poor outcome. CONCLUSION: Amongst the etiological factors snake bite and ADD ranked first. Prognosis was determined by age, aetiology of renal failure, initial creatinine value, blood pressure, time of presentation to. Even though both snake bite and ADD are equally common causes, morbidity is more in snake bite and cost of treatment also more in snake bite as many of them require dialysis.

  3. Non-traumatic cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnostic work-up and aetiological background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only 15% of all subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAHs) are not of aneurysmal origin. Among those, circumscribed SAHs along the cortical convexity are rare and have only been described in singular case reports so far. Here, we present a collection of 12 cases of SAH along the convexity, of non-traumatic origin. Over a period of 10 years, 12 cases of circumscribed SAH along the convexity were identified at our clinic. The clinical presentations, neuroradiological SAH characteristics, further diagnostic work-up to identify the underlying aetiologies, the therapy and clinical outcome were analysed. The patients' chief complaints were unspecific cephalgia, focal or generalised seizures and focal neurological deficits. Typical signs of basal SAH, such as nuchal rigidity, thunderclap-headache or alteration of consciousness, were rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed different aetiologies, namely postpartal posterior encephalopathy (three), cerebral vasculitis (two), dural sinus thrombosis (two), cortical venous thrombosis (one), intracerebral abscesses (one) and cerebral cavernoma (one). Two cases remained unresolved. Treatment of the underlying disease and symptomatic medication led to good clinical outcome in almost all cases. On the basis of these findings, we demonstrate that the clinical presentation, localisation and aetiology of cortical SAH differ clearly from other SAHs. A diagnostic work-up with MRI and eventually DSA is essential. Mostly, the causative disease can be identified, and specific treatment allows a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  4. Aetiology and types of neonatal seizures presenting at ayub teaching hospital abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Neonatal seizures (NS) affect approximately 1% of neonates. Clonic, tonic, myoclonic and subtle seizures are the common types. Birth asphyxia, sepsis, metabolic derangements, intracranial bleed, kernicterus, tetanus and 5th day fits are the common aetiologies. This study was planned to evaluate the types and causes of neonatal seizures. Methods: It was a descriptive case series conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 12th December 2006 to 25th September 2007 on neonates having seizures. Serum chemistry, blood counts, cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial ultrasound were done in all patients. Blood culture, renal and liver function tests, computerised tomography scan, metabolic and septic screening was done in selected patients. Descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: Tonic clonic seizure was the commonest type (28%) followed by multi-focal clonic, and focal tonic seizures (25% each). Birth asphyxia was found to be the main aetiology (46%). Conclusion: Tonic clonic seizure was the commonest type and birth asphyxia the main aetiology identified in the majority of neonatal seizures. (author)

  5. Evidence that aetiological risk factors for psychiatric disorders cause distinct patterns of cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755

  6. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  7. Role of medical history and medication use in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, T V

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of medical history (skin warts, Candida albicans, herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation) and medication use (for heartburn; for regurgitation; aspirin) in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer.

  8. Different degrees of malnutrition and immunological alterations according to the aetiology of cirrhosis: a prospective and sequential study

    OpenAIRE

    Carrilho Flair; Strauss Edna; Caly Wanda; Laudanna Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objectives In this work we investigated how immunological dysfunction and malnutrition interact in alcoholic and viral aetiologies of cirrhosis. Methods To investigate the matter, 77 cirrhotic patients divided in three aetiologies [Alcohol, HCV and Alcohol + HCV) and 32 controls were prospectivelly and sequentially studied. Parameters of humoral immunity (Components 3 and 4 of seric complement and immunoglobulins A M, G and E) and of cellular immunity (total leukocytes and lymphocyte...

  9. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caforio, Alida L P; Pankuweit, Sabine; Arbustini, Eloisa;

    2013-01-01

    In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its...... distinct biopsy-proven pathogenetic forms. The aims are to bridge the gap between clinical and tissue-based diagnosis, to improve management and provide a common reference point for future registries and multicentre randomised controlled trials of aetiology-driven treatment in inflammatory heart muscle...

  10. Chronic cortical visual impairment in children: aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, R; Burden, S; HOYT, C.; Good, W.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—To evaluate prevalence, aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological and ophthalmological problems in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI).
METHODS—The records of 7200 outpatients seen in the paediatric ophthalmology practice over the past 15 years were reviewed in order to compile data concerning CVI. In addition, the authors devised and applied a system for grading visual recovery in order to assess prognosis.
RESULTS—CVI occurred in 2.4% of all patients exami...

  11. Application of Epidemiology and Statistical methods in understanding disease aetiology-study on Vitiligo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhavsar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The disease results from the interaction between the person’s genetic make up and his outer environment.1 The proportionate role of both the factors varies from disease to disease. There are some diseases with unclear aetiology; Vitiligo is one of them. The purpose of this paper is to show the application of Epidemiology and the statistical methods to understand the disease causation. The epidemiological study of skin conditions among school children in Urban and Rural areas of Surat district carried out by the author 2,3 brought out following observations........

  12. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care. PMID:24912830

  13. Political determinants of variable aetiology resonance: explaining the African AIDS epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsmann, M

    2009-12-01

    Notwithstanding the massive social and economic disruptions caused by HIV/AIDS in many sub-Saharan countries, the epidemic does not pose a serious political threat to African governments. Based on an analysis of today's dominant aetiologic framing of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper argues that the behaviour-centred explanatory approach contributes to the political domestication of the epidemic. The behavioural aetiology suffers from a double reductionism: It concentrates on sexual transmission only and, within sexual transmission, it focuses exclusively on the immediate cause of transmission (unprotected sex), omitting that biological co-factors increase populations' vulnerability to infection. By overlooking these non-behaviour-related determinants of sexual HIV transmission, this explanatory approach implicitly blames individual behaviours for the spread of the virus. Conversely, the likely underestimation (if not the outright denial) of iatrogenic HIV transmission exonerates governments and donor agencies. The variable political resonance of different explanatory approaches is not random and the translation of the available bio-medical and epidemiological evidence into prevention measures is politically mediated. PMID:19948897

  14. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: An update in the genetic aetiologies of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinetti, Frederic; Reynaud, Rachel; Saveanu, Alexandru; Jullien, Nicolas; Quentien, Marie Helene; Rochette, Claire; Barlier, Anne; Enjalbert, Alain; Brue, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 5 years, new actors involved in the pathogenesis of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in humans have been reported: they included a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein and ciliary G protein-coupled receptors, as well as new transcription factors and signalling molecules. New modes of inheritance for alterations of genes encoding transcription factors have also been described. Finally, actors known to be involved in a very specific phenotype (hypogonadotroph hypogonadism for instance) have been identified in a wider range of phenotypes. These data thus suggest that new mechanisms could explain the low rate of aetiological identification in this heterogeneous group of diseases. Taking into account the fact that several reviews have been published in recent years on classical aetiologies of CPHD such as mutations of POU1F1 or PROP1, we focused the present overview on the data published in the last 5 years, to provide the reader with an updated review on this rapidly evolving field of knowledge. PMID:26733480

  15. Genetic evidence implicates the immune system and cholesterol metabolism in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Late Onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes. METHODOLOGY: We applied a recently developed tool for mining GWAS data for biologically meaningful information to a LOAD GWAS dataset. The principal findings were then tested in an independent GWAS dataset. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a significant overrepresentation of association signals in pathways related to cholesterol metabolism and the immune response in both of the two largest genome-wide association studies for LOAD. SIGNIFICANCE: Processes related to cholesterol metabolism and the innate immune response have previously been implicated by pathological and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease, but it has been unclear whether those findings reflected primary aetiological events or consequences of the disease process. Our independent evidence from two large studies now demonstrates that these processes are aetiologically relevant, and suggests that they may be suitable targets for novel and existing therapeutic approaches.

  16. The utility of the polymerase chain reaction assay for aetiologic definition of unspecified bacterial meningitis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Tuyama

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with acute suppurative meningitis are otherwise healthy individuals with regard to immune mechanisms against invasive bacterial disease. This medical emergency is among the most dramatic and potentially ravaging diseases that affect humans, particularly young children. The illness often strikes suddenly, and can either result in death or leave the survivors with significant neurological dysfunctions. The demonstration of a bacterial aetiology is necessary for decisions regarding treatment and prophylaxis. Conventional bacteriological methods frequently fail to identify an agent, as a result of administration of antibiotics or delayed lumbar punctures. We investigated the major aetiologic sources of unspecified bacterial meningitis cases (G00.9, ISCD-10 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based identification of Neisseria meningitidis (crgA, Streptococcus pneumoniae (ply and Haemophilus influenzae (bexA in cerebrospinal fluid samples. The multiplex PCR detected N. meningitidis in 92%, S. pneumoniae in 4% and H. influenzae in 1% of the 192 clinical samples assayed; 3% were negative for all three DNA targets. Bacterial DNA detection was found to be a valuable adjunct to enhance bacterial meningitis surveillance when the yield of specimens by culture is reduced. The implementation of PCR assays as a diagnostic procedure in Public Health Laboratories is perceived to be a significant advance in the investigation of bacterial meningitis.

  17. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Skerritt, Louise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  18. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  19. AB232. The aetiology and efficacy of the treatment of persistent and recurrent hemospermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hengjun; Yan, Weixin; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Xin; Pu, Xiao-Yong; Li, Dong; Qiu, Yong-Chao; Weng, Zhi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the aetiology and efficacy of the treatment of persistent and recurrent hemospermia as a novel technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Methods The clinical data of 290 patients with persistent and recurrent hemospermia (a course of hemospermia persisting more than 6 months) from multiple medical center of South China were analyzed retrospectively. The age ranged from 16 to 69 years (mean 31 years). The definite etiologies of persistent and recurrent hemospermia were confirmed by physical examination including digital rectal examination (DRE), tailored investigations such as blood PSA and clotting time, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), CT or MRI. Of those with persistent and recurrent hemospermia, 269 patients were successfully performed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy since July 2008. The aetiology of the other 21 cases with persistent hemospermia were attributable to cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle [1], tuberculosis of tractus genitalis [1], bleeding risk secondary to liver cirrhosis [3], benign prostatic hyperplasia [12] and prostate cancer [4] confirmed by urogenital instrumentation or prostate biopsy. Results All the patients with persistent and recurrent hemospermia were confirmed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (162 seminal vesiculitis and 108 seminal stone secondary to them, 91 ejaculatory ducts obstruction incompletely, 42 Mullerian cyst, 16 cysts of seminal vesicle, 3 cysts of ejaculatory duct and 12 benign prostatic hyperplasia). The mean operative time was 21 min (range, 5–90 min). There were no complications including injury of urethra and seminal vesicle and postoperative discomforts in the perineal region. The mean follow-up period was 24 months (range, 3–72 months). In those 269 cases, 11 patients were out of follow-up. Hematospermia in 235 cases disappeared and 23 patients respectively recurred in 5 to 60 months after receiving transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Of those 23 cases with

  20. Sweet's syndrome following surgery: cutaneous trauma as a possible aetiological co-factor in neutrophilic dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rashi; Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Choi, James Yj

    2015-08-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with an acute, cutaneous eruption of exquisitely painful papules at the operative site 4 weeks after a right tibial osteotomy. Initially this was managed as a postoperative wound infection; however the exacerbation and spread of the cutaneous eruption prompted further investigation. Histopathology and clinical findings were consistent with the development of Sweet's syndrome and resolution was obtained after the initiation of dapsone. We propose that surgery may produce an acute inflammatory response in a similar manner to pathergy reactions, which play an aetiological role in other neutrophilic dermatoses, such as pyoderma gangrenosum. We conclude that there may be greater overlap between these neutrophilic dermatoses than previously appreciated. PMID:24611758

  1. Time Windows of Interneuron Development: Implications to Our Understanding of the Aetiology and Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Greenberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder widely believed to arise from defects during brain development. Indeed, dysfunction in the formation and function of GABAergic cortical interneurons has been implicated as a central pathogenic mechanism in this, and other, neurodevelopmental disorders. Understanding the coordination and timing of interneuron development including the complex processes of specification, proliferation, migration and their incorporation into finely tuned cortical networks is therefore essential in determining their role in neurodevelopmental disease. Studies using mouse models have highlighted the functional relevance of transcription factor networks and common signalling pathways in interneuron development but have faced challenges in identifying clear time windows where these factors are essential. Here we discuss recent developments highlighting critical time frames in the specification and migration of cortical interneurons and the impact of aberrant development to aetiology and treatments of schizophrenia.

  2. Trends in the aetiology of facial fractures in the south of Ireland (1975-1993).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, S M

    2012-02-03

    An aetiological review of 332 patients with facial fractures seen in a 1 year period (1993) was carried out and compared to a similar study of 266 patients, performed in this unit in 1975. Males predominated in both years. Two thirds of fractures occurred in the second and third decades. Road traffic accident (RTA) related facial fractures decreased from 27% of the total in 1975 to 17% in 1993. Assault related facial fractures increased from 18% of the total in 1975 to 27% in 1993. In both study periods nasal fractures were the most common facial fracture seen and sport was the most common cause of facial fracture. The number of patients undergoing surgery increased from 67% of the total to 79% over the same period.

  3. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T;

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  4. Aetiology and distribution of mandibular fractures in the National University Hospital, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W K; Lim, T C

    1999-09-01

    Sixty-seven consecutive mandibular fractures treated mainly in 1998 were surveyed retrospectively. Treatment was performed at the National University Hospital, Singapore. Males outnumbered females by 5:1, with Chinese the commonest racial group involved (56.7%). Most patients were between 20 and 29 years of age. Road traffic accidents formed the largest proportion (61.2%) followed by industrial accidents and assaults. The symphyseal and parasymphyseal regions were most commonly fractured (46.5%). Almost a third of the patients sustained other facial fractures. Treatment was commonly administered within one to two days of discovery of the fracture and open reduction was the treatment plan of choice in 79.1% of the time. Discussion on how aetiology affects the fracture pattern in Singapore is carried out. PMID:10597344

  5. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D. Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment.

  6. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care. PMID:26878223

  7. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  8. Pathogenesis of ascites in broilers raised at low altitude: aetiological considerations based on echocardiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, A A; Abbott, J A; Classen, H L

    2005-05-01

    This study reports novel insight into the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. The scope of measurements was focused on anatomical and functional parameters, and blood flow patterns in leghorns (resistant to ascites), fast-growing broilers (susceptible to ascites), broilers developing ascites, and ascitic broilers evaluated in vivo using echocardiography, and further examined in the context of postmortem findings. Both, in vivo observed features and postmortem findings, showed clear differences between broilers and leghorns, and between normal and ascitic broilers. Abnormalities in the heart chamber geometry and blood flow patterns were detected upon echocardiographic examination in all ascitic broilers. Right and left atrio-ventricular (AV) valve regurgitation were common findings in ascitic broilers and some apparently normal broilers, with left AV valve insufficiency being a predominant feature with respect to degree and frequency of occurrence. Blood flow disturbances were not detected in leghorns. Left ventricular fractional shortening (functional parameter) was considerably reduced (P ascitic birds (mean: 21.7 +/- 2.0 SE) in comparison with normal broilers (mean: 39.1 +/- 3.6 SE), or leghorns (mean: 43.3 +/- 2.4 SE). The presented findings indicate that pathological and functional changes in the left ventricle and atrium play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ascites in broilers. Severe dilation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins seen on postmortem examination, as well as regurgitant blood flow in the left atrium, demonstrated by Doppler study in ascitic birds, provide evidence that chronically elevated pressure in the left atrium is involved in the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15882400

  9. A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: prevalence, aetiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tennyson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. Method A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. Results There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026 but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. Conclusion There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.

  10. Causal inference regarding infectious aetiology of chronic conditions: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Orrskog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global burden of disease has shifted from communicable diseases in children to chronic diseases in adults. This epidemiologic shift varies greatly by region, but in Europe, chronic conditions account for 86% of all deaths, 77% of the disease burden, and up to 80% of health care expenditures. A number of risk factors have been implicated in chronic diseases, such as exposure to infectious agents. A number of associations have been well established while others remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the body of evidence regarding the infectious aetiology of chronic diseases in the peer-reviewed literature over the last decade. Causality was assessed with three different criteria: First, the total number of associations documented in the literature between each infectious agent and chronic condition; second, the epidemiologic study design (quality of the study; third, evidence for the number of Hill's criteria and Koch's postulates that linked the pathogen with the chronic condition. We identified 3136 publications, of which 148 were included in the analysis. There were a total of 75 different infectious agents and 122 chronic conditions. The evidence was strong for five pathogens, based on study type, strength and number of associations; they accounted for 60% of the associations documented in the literature. They were human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus, and Chlamydia pneumoniae and were collectively implicated in the aetiology of 37 different chronic conditions. Other pathogens examined were only associated with very few chronic conditions (≤ 3 and when applying the three different criteria of evidence the strength of the causality was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and treatment of these five pathogens lend themselves as effective public health intervention entry points. By concentrating research efforts on these promising areas, the human, economic, and societal

  11. Perceptions of disease aetiology and the effect of own behaviour on health among poly-pharmacy patients with non-Western backgrounds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Katrine Rutkaer; Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    To examine the perceptions of disease aetiology and the effect of own behaviour on health among poly-pharmacy patients with non-Western backgrounds in Denmark.......To examine the perceptions of disease aetiology and the effect of own behaviour on health among poly-pharmacy patients with non-Western backgrounds in Denmark....

  12. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  13. Different degrees of malnutrition and immunological alterations according to the aetiology of cirrhosis: a prospective and sequential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrilho Flair

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this work we investigated how immunological dysfunction and malnutrition interact in alcoholic and viral aetiologies of cirrhosis. Methods To investigate the matter, 77 cirrhotic patients divided in three aetiologies [Alcohol, HCV and Alcohol + HCV and 32 controls were prospectivelly and sequentially studied. Parameters of humoral immunity (Components 3 and 4 of seric complement and immunoglobulins A M, G and E and of cellular immunity (total leukocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood, T lymphocytes subpopulations, CD4+ and CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity, as well as nutrititional parameters: anthropometric measures, serum albumin and transferrin were evaluated. Results Multiple statistical comparisons showed that IgM was higher in HCV group; IgG was significantly elevated in both HCV and Alcohol + HCV, whereas for the Alcohol group, IgE was found at higher titles. The analysis of T- lymphocytes subpopulations showed no aetiologic differences, but intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity did show greater frequency of anergy in the Alcohol group. For anthropometric parameters, the Alcohol +HCV group displayed the lowest triceps skinfold whereas creatinine – height index evaluation was more preserved in the HCV group. Body mass index, arm muscle area and arm fat area showed that differently from alcohol group, the HCV group was similar to control. Conclusion Significant differences were found among the main aetiologies of cirrhosis concerning immunological alterations and nutritional status: better nutrition and worse immunology for HCV and vice-versa for alcohol.

  14. The upper respiratory tract microbiome of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia of unknown aetiology: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Wiemken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome may play an important role in the development of lower respiratory tract infections. Here, we characterised the microbiome of the nasopharynx and oropharynx of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with unknown aetiology in an attempt to obtain insight into the aetiology of CAP. A random sample of 10 patients hospitalised with CAP previously enrolled in a separate clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registry, Study ID: NCT01248715 in which a complete microbiological workup was not able to define an aetiology were analysed in this pilot study. This larger trial (n = 1,221 enrolled patients from 9 adult hospitals in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were obtained for metagenomic analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae was performed in all patients. One patient had a distinct nasophararyngeal microbiome consisting largely of Haemophilus influenzae. This was the only patient with a negative PCR for S. pneumoniae in both nasophararyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens. Overall, substantial differences were found between nasophararyngeal and oropharyngeal microbiomes. The upper respiratory tract microbiome of only one patient suggested H. influenzae as a probable aetiology of CAP. Although this was a pilot study of only 10 patients, the presence of S. pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of the other 9 patients warrants further investigation.

  15. Pyelonephritis in slaughter pigs and sows: Morphological characterization and aspects of pathogenesis and aetiology

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    Isling Louise K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyelonephritis is a serious disease in pig production that needs to be further studied. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, investigate the pathogenesis, and evaluate the aetiological role of Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis in slaughtered pigs by concurrent bacteriological, gross and histopathological examinations. Methods From Danish abattoirs, kidneys and corresponding lymph nodes from 22 slaughtered finishing pigs and 26 slaughtered sows with pyelonephritis were collected and evaluated by bacteriology and pathology. Based on gross lesions, each kidney (lesion was grouped as acute, chronic, chronic active, or normal and their histological inflammatory stage was determined as normal (0, acute (1, sub-acute (2, chronic active (3, or chronic (4. Immunohistochemical identification of neutrophils, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, E. coli and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP in renal sections was performed. The number of E. coli and the proportion of immunohistochemically visualized leukocytes out of the total number of infiltrating leukocytes were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Lesions in finishing pigs and sows were similar. Macroscopically, multiple unevenly distributed foci of inflammation mostly affecting the renal poles were observed. Histologically, tubulointerstitial infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells and tubular destruction was the main findings. The significant highest scores of L1 antigen+ neutrophils were in inflammatory stage 1 while the significant highest scores of CD79αcy+ B-lymphocytes, IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells were in stage 3 or 4. Neutrophils were the dominant leukocytes in stage 1 while CD3ε+ T-lymphocytes dominated in stage 2, 3 and 4. Interstitially THP was seen in 82% and 98% of kidneys with pyelonephritis from finishing pigs and sows, respectively. E. coli was demonstrated in monoculture and/or identified by immunohistochemistry in

  16. NON-RESOLVING PNEUMONIA AETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PROFILE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Binuraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation and consolidation of the lung tissue due to an infectious agent. In as many as half of cases, the pathogen remains unidentified which greatly hampers the evaluation of slowly resolving or non-resolving pneumonia. OBJECTIVE The main objective is to evaluate the aetiology and clinical profile of non-resolving pneumonia in a tertiary care center and to study the outcome of treatment of non-resolving pneumonia. DESIGN AND SETTING A prospective, observational study was carried out in the department of pulmonary medicine of a 700 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital, Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS The patients who were diagnosed as non-resolving pneumonia were included in the study. Various investigations were done on patients to identify the aetiology and clinical profile of their pneumonia which includes sputum gram stain, culture and sensitivity for bacterial infections, AFB culture, fungal culture, chest X-ray, CT thorax, fibrotic bronchoscopy (For selected patients only and sputum cytology for malignant cells. STATISTICAL METHODS USED Descriptive statistical analysis was done with help of ‘Graph pad prism’. RESULTS With good clinical interpretations and appropriate treatment, about 31.8% of patients had good clinical improvement and complete chest X-ray clearance after 2 months of follow up where as 36.2% of study subjects had good clinical improvement with incomplete chest X-ray clearance. Majority of this group includes patients who were put on anti-tubercular treatment based on careful interpretation of chest X-ray findings of tuberculosis, Mantoux test and sputum AFB culture results. This implies the importance of early diagnosis of treatable diseases like tuberculosis in our population. Out of the total cases 21.2% of patients had poor clinical outcome whereas 4.4% patients were grabbed by death. CONCLUSION Tuberculosis was the commonest cause of non-resolving pneumonia followed by

  17. Insulin as the main regulator of cellular glucose utilization--aetiological aspects of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoń, Jan; Czech, Anna; Piatkiewicz, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    This review presents the advances in the molecular biology and the pathophysiology of insulin resistance with emphasis on disturbances in cellular glucose transport. New scientific information about the structure and function of glucotransporters from the GLUT4 and SLGT families underline their significance in endocrinopathies and metabolic disease pathogenesis as related to insulin resistance. The new discoveries in this area also contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of insulin receptor and post-receptor reactivity by hormones and by drugs. They refer to the regulation of glycaemia and to its disturbances in diabetes mellitus, particularly of type 2, to metabolic syndrome, and, in general, to the pathogenesis of many syndromes and clinical disturbances caused by insulin resistance. Impairment of cellular glucose transport may be one of the primary aetiological factors in this respect. Therefore, studies of cellular glucotransporters expression and function promise new clinical and pharmacotherapeutic developments. Progress in this area has already been transformed into many practical proposals which are improving clinical practice. PMID:20806184

  18. Microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhusudhan; Yanti Muslikan; Nabilah Ismail; Adil Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis presented to the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan in 5 years duration from 2005 until 2010. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who were clinically diagnosed as acute dacryocystitis from 2005 until 2010 to determine the regional microbiological pattern. The age, gender, predisposing factors, intravenous antibiotics and their microbiological results of discharge from punctal expression were collected. The laboratory procedures were in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: There were 23 patients admitted to the eye ward during study period. Females (n=17) outnumbered males (n=6). Majority of isolates were Gram-positive bacteria (n=10, 43.4%) followed by Gram-negative isolates (n=2, 12.9%). The most predominant isolates were Streptococcus pneumonia (S. pneumonia) (21.7%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (13.0%). Conclusions: S. pneumoniae was the commonest gram positive organism identified in our study. 47.8% patients showed resistant to initial empirical treatment.

  19. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  20. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

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    Natasha Kate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  1. Why do niches develop in Caesarean uterine scars? Hypotheses on the aetiology of niche development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, A.J.M.W.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Hehenkamp, W.J.K.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Huirne, J.A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) results in the occurrence of the phenomenon ‘niche’. A ‘niche’ describes the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium of the lower uterine segment, reflecting a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous CS. Using gel or saline instillation sonohysterography, a niche is identified in the scar in more than half of the women who had had a CS, most with the uterus closed in one single layer, without closure of the peritoneum. An incompletely healed scar is a long-term complication of the CS and is associated with more gynaecological symptoms than is commonly acknowledged. Approximately 30% of women with a niche report spotting at 6–12 months after their CS. Other reported symptoms in women with a niche are dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Given the association between a niche and gynaecological symptoms, obstetric complications and potentially with subfertility, it is important to elucidate the aetiology of niche development after CS in order to develop preventive strategies. Based on current published data and our observations during sonographic, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic evaluations of niches we postulate some hypotheses on niche development. Possible factors that could play a role in niche development include a very low incision through cervical tissue, inadequate suturing technique during closure of the uterine scar, surgical interventions that increase adhesion formation or patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation. PMID:26409016

  2. Hard lives and evil winds: illness aetiology and the search for healing amongst Ciskeian villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, J

    1997-05-01

    This paper examines the explanations for illness used by Ciskeian villagers to account for conditions ranging from diarrhoea and tuberculosis to anxiety and hypertension. Explanations recognise the links between illness and hard physical labour, poor working conditions and poverty whilst also acknowledging supernatural grounds for affliction. The healing resources available to villagers, which are outlined here, include state-run health facilities, a large number of private biomedical practitioners, a variety of indigenous therapists-including religious healers-and a store of common knowledge. In keeping with recent developments within critical medical anthropology, this paper seeks to analyse illness aetiology and health seeking behaviour within the broad social and economic context of individual lives. In Ciskei, one of South Africa's former nominally independent homelands, that context includes high levels of unemployment, dependence on migrant labour earnings and on welfare payments, lack of infrastructure such as water supply and transportation and a significant degree of economic differentiation between households. Against this backdrop, individual case studies will be examined which will illustrate how degrees of powerlessness and lack of disposable income affect both explanations of illness causation and health seeking behaviour among Ciskeian villagers. PMID:9160448

  3. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

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    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  4. Investigations on the diagnosis and retroviral aetiology of renal neoplasia in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova-Curd, Stefka A; Huder, Jon B; Boeni, Jurg; Robert, Nadia; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-06-01

    The high susceptibility of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to neoplasia, and specifically renal neoplasia, has often been reported. Further investigations led to a suspicion of a retrovirus as the causative agent for renal neoplasia in budgerigars, but definitive proof has yet to be found. In the present study, 32 budgerigars suspected of having renal neoplasia (based on the clinical presentation) were examined. The objectives were to investigate the use of different diagnostic methods for the ante-mortem diagnosis of this condition and to find more supporting evidence of a retroviral aetiology. The predominant clinical signs observed in budgerigars with renal neoplasia were lameness and absence of deep pain sensation of one leg. Alterations in haematology, plasma chemistry, and urine analyses could not pinpoint the cases of renal neoplasia. Contrast radiography of the intestinal tract proved to be diagnostically more useful compared with plain radiographic studies. Histology confirmed the renal neoplasia as adenocarcinoma. Investigations for virus identification included product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian leucosis virus group-specific antigen. Cell cultures and electron microscopy were performed on a limited number of patients. These investigations could find no presence of an exogenous, replicating retrovirus, neither could viral particles be detected by electron microscopy. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that there is no evidence of retroviral involvement in the occurrence of renal neoplasia in budgerigars. PMID:20544420

  5. Prognostic factors for 1-week survival in dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; Van Ham, L; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although long-term outcomes of meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) in dogs have been evaluated, little is known about short-term survival and initial response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible prognostic factors for 7-day survival after diagnosis of MUA in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs diagnosed with MUA between 2006 and 2015. Previously described inclusion criteria were used, as well as 7-day survival data for all dogs. A poor outcome was defined as death within 1 week. Of 116 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 30 (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. Assessed variables included age, sex, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs and treatment prior to diagnosis, venous blood glucose and lactate levels, white blood cell count on complete blood count, total nucleated cell count/total protein concentration/white blood cell differentiation on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, presence of seizures and cluster seizures, mentation at presentation, neuroanatomical localisation, imaging findings and treatment after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis identified three variables significantly associated with poor outcome; decreased mentation at presentation, presence of seizures, and increased percentage of neutrophils on CSF analysis. Despite initiation of appropriate treatment, more than a quarter of dogs died within 1 week of diagnosis of MUA, emphasising the need for evaluation of short-term prognostic factors. Information from this study could aid clinical staff to provide owners of affected dogs with prognostic information. PMID:27387733

  6. Aetiology and long-term outcome of juvenile epilepsy in 136 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrol, L; Penderis, J; Garosi, L; Cripps, P; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Gonçalves, R

    2012-03-01

    The aetiology and outcome of dogs with juvenile-onset seizures were investigated. One hundred and thirty-six dogs whose first seizure occurred before the age of one year were investigated. One hundred and two dogs were diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), 23 with symptomatic epilepsy (SE), nine with reactive seizures (RS) and two with probable symptomatic epilepsy (pSE). The outcome was known in 114 dogs; 37 per cent died or were euthanased as a consequence of seizures. The mean survival time of this population of dogs was 7.1 years. Factors that were significantly associated with survival outcome included the diagnosis of SE and the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used before investigation. The use of one AED before investigation and a diagnosis of SE were associated with a negative outcome, whereas receiving no AED medications before referral was associated with a longer survival. For dogs with IE, survival time was shortened if the dog was a border collie or with a history of status epilepticus;receiving no AEDs before referral in the IE group was associated with a positive outcome. Seizure-free status was achieved in 22 per cent of dogs diagnosed with IE. While the survival times were longer than previously reported in canine epilepsy, similar remission rates to those reported in childhood epilepsy, where a 70 per cent remission rate is documented, were not seen in the canine juvenile population. PMID:22266685

  7. Clinical presentation and aetiologies of acute or complicated headache among HIV-seropositive patients in a Ugandan clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katwere Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to define the relative prevalence and common presentations of the various aetiologies of headache within an ambulant HIV-seropositive adult population in Kampala, Uganda. Methods We conducted a prospective study of adult HIV-1-seropositive ambulatory patients consecutively presenting with new onset headaches. Patients were classified as focal-febrile, focal-afebrile, non-focal-febrile or non-focal-afebrile, depending on presence or absence of fever and localizing neurological signs. Further management followed along a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm to an endpoint of a diagnosis. We assessed outcomes during four months of follow up. Results One hundred and eighty patients were enrolled (72% women. Most subjects presented at WHO clinical stages III and IV of HIV disease, with a median Karnofsky performance rating of 70% (IQR 60-80. The most common diagnoses were cryptococcal meningitis (28%, n = 50 and bacterial sinusitis (31%, n = 56. Less frequent diagnoses included cerebral toxoplasmosis (4%, n = 7, and tuberculous meningitis (4%, n = 7. Thirty-two (18% had other diagnoses (malaria, bacteraemia, etc.. No aetiology could be elucidated in 28 persons (15%. Overall mortality was 13.3% (24 of 180 after four months of follow up. Those without an established headache aetiology had good clinical outcomes, with only one death (4% mortality, and 86% were ambulatory at four months. Conclusion In an African HIV-infected ambulatory population presenting with new onset headache, aetiology was found in at least 70%. Cryptococcal meningitis and sinusitis accounted for more than half of the cases.

  8. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Sagoe, Dominic; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods: We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motiv...

  9. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Sagoe, Dominic; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Background. To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods. We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/dr...

  10. The value of serum tumour markers in the prediction of aetiology and follow up of patients with pericardial effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bildirici, U; Celikyurt, U; ACAR, E.; Sahin, T.; Kozdag, G; Ural, D; Bulut, O

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of tumour markers in the differential diagnosis of pericardial effusions and to assess their changing levels during follow up. Methods Sixty-nine patients who were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of pericardial effusion were included in the study. Serum tumour markers were measured on admission and after a mean of 18 ± 7 months’ follow up. An aetiological diagnosis was made on clinical evaluation, imaging techniques and biochemi...

  11. MDCT evaluation of congenital mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa aneurysm: implications for the aetiology and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa aneurysm is a rare disease whose aetiology remains a matter of debate. Here we present the youngest reported patient with the disease, a 6-month-old boy, without a history of infection, which supports a congenital origin as initially proposed. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) surpassed echocardiography in delineating the intracardiac anatomical details with high spatial resolution, confirming the important problem-solving role of MDCT in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  12. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

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    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  13. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

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    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  14. Space-time clustering of childhood leukaemia in Greece: evidence supporting a viral aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E.; Revinthi, K.; Alexander, F. E.; Haidas, S.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.; Trichopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method introduced by Knox for evaluation of space-time clustering has been applied to 872 cases of childhood (0-14 year old) leukaemia diagnosed in Greece over the 10 year period 1980-89. Greek towns are characterised by substantial population mixing due to internal migration, whereas there is relative isolation in mountainous rural areas. Predetermined space (5 km) and time (1 year) limits were used on the basis of previous reports in order to define the clustering cell. There is highly significant evidence for clustering of childhood leukaemia in Greece as a whole, the observed number of pairs that are close in both spaces and time exceeding the expected number by 5.2% (P = 0.004). The excess is particularly evident for leukaemia cases in 0 to 4-year-old children, among whom the observed number of pairs that are close in both space and time exceeded the expected number by 9.4% (P = 0.004). There is no evidence of space-time clustering for leukaemia cases older than 5 years. The overall pattern is descriptively similar in urban and semiurban areas and is especially marked for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at the childhood peak ages (2-4 years) with an excess of 19% (P = 0.0006). In the rural population there is evidence for clustering of cases belonging to older and broader age groups, a phenomenon compatible with a delay in the development of herd immunity against putative infectious aetiological agents. The findings of the present study provide support for the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia may arise as a rare sequel to exposure to an agent or agents, most probably viral in nature. PMID:8630293

  15. Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Najran region, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Saeed Zayed AlAyed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic aetiology of gastroenteritis in children aged < 5 years in the Najran region, south-western Saudi Arabia, to determine the contribution of these enteropathogens in childhood diarrhoeal diseases and to put forward effective preventive measures for controlling the disease in the future. Design and Setting: A descriptive study conducted at Najran Maternity and Children′s Hospital and the Microbiology Department of the Najran University College of Applied Medical Sciences from October 2011 to June 2012. Patients and Methods: Stool samples were collected from 326 children aged ≤ 5 years with diarrhoea and examined for bacterial, viral and parasitic enteropathogens. Results: Seventy-two (22.1% samples were positive for viral pathogens, including 56 (17.2%, 12 (3.7% and 4 (1.2% samples for rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus, respectively. Thirty-five (10.7% samples were positive for bacterial pathogens, including 28 (8.6% and 7 (2.1% samples for Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates, respectively. Pathogenic parasites were detected in only 4 (1.2% samples, including 3 (0.9% Giardia lamblia and 1 (0.3% Entamoeba histolytica isolates. Conclusions: Rotavirus is the most common pathogen in paediatric acute gastroenteritis in the Najran region. This fact, in combination with the severity of the infections, warrants consideration of a rotavirus vaccine in the childhood immunization program in Saudi Arabia. On the basis of clinical and laboratory parameters, it appears possible to distinguish between the different causative agents of acute gastroenteritis.

  16. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Prem Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.

  17. Chronic mitral regurgitation detected on cardiac MDCT: differentiation between functional and valvular aetiologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cardiac computed tomography (MDCT) can differentiate between functional and valvular aetiologies of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared with echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with functional or valvular MR diagnosed by TTE and 19 controls prospectively underwent cardiac MDCT. The morphological appearance of the mitral valve (MV) leaflets, MV geometry, MV leaflet angle, left ventricular (LV) sphericity and global\\/regional wall motion were analysed. The coronary arteries were evaluated for obstructive atherosclerosis. RESULTS: All control and MR cases were correctly identified by MDCT. Significant differences were detected between valvular and control groups for anterior leaflet length (30 +\\/- 7 mm vs. 22 +\\/- 4 mm, P < 0.02) and thickness (3.0 +\\/- 1 mm vs. 2.2 +\\/- 1 mm, P < 0.01). High-grade coronary stenosis was detected in all patients with functional MR compared with no controls (P < 0.001). Significant differences in those with\\/without MV prolapse were detected in MV tent area (-1.0 +\\/- 0.6 mm vs. 1.3 +\\/- 0.9 mm, P < 0.0001) and MV tent height (-0.7 +\\/- 0.3 mm vs. 0.8 +\\/- 0.8 mm, P < 0.0001). Posterior leaflet angle was significantly greater for functional MR (37.9 +\\/- 19.1 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees , P < 0.018) and less for valvular MR (0.6 +\\/- 35.5 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees, P < 0.017). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 100%, 95%, 96% and 100%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac MDCT allows the differentiation between functional and valvular causes of MR.

  18. Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Karnebeek, C D M; Koevoets, C; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E; Smeets, D; Redeker, E; Hennekam, R; Hoovers, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. Methods: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). Results: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. Conclusions: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre. PMID:12161591

  19. Local Aetiology and Pathways to Care in Malaria among the Ibibio of South-coastal Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ajala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a parallel between local and bio-medical perceptions of malaria among the Ibibio people of South-coastal Nigeria, as in many other societies of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Despite the fact that this accounts for resilience of the disease, earlier studies on malaria in Africa focused on causes, prevalence and socio-environmental factors. Local meanings of malaria and their influence on therapeutic choices have been largely ignored. This study examines local perceptions of malaria among the Ibibio and explains how attitudes are generated from indigenous meanings. It also examines how such attitudes inform a local aetiology of malaria. Similarly, our study examines how local meanings of, and attitudes towards malaria, set the pathway of care in malaria management among the Ibibio. Through qualitative and descriptive ethnography, Key Informant Interview (KII, Focus Group Discussion (FGD and the textual analysis of documents, our study seeks to establish that malaria is caused by parasites–protozoa. 83% of the respondents held that malaria is due to witchcraft, exposure to sunlight and eating of yellowish food items such as yellow maize, paw-paw, orange and red oil. These local perceptions are drawn from local conceptions which in turn encourage malaria patients to seek assistance outside modern health care facilities. This also discourages local communities from attending health education workshops that link malaria with germ theory and care. Treatment of malaria is thus mostly home-based where a wide variety of traditional remedies is practiced. Our study concludes that the lack of convergence between local knowledge-contents and bio-medical explanations account for a high prevalence rate and the lack of effective management. For proper management of malaria, there is a need to understand local knowledge and indigenous concepts in order to establish a convergence between bio-medical explanations and indigenous

  20. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

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    McNally Richard J Q

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  1. 脂溢性秃发的病因探讨%Aetiologic studies of alopecia seborrhoeica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡明; 张耀龙; 倪盛瑛

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨脂溢性秃发(脂秃)的病因。方法通过患者秃发区皮肤组织免疫组化定位染色法,进行性激素受体检测,同时测定血清中微量元素Fe、Cu、Zn及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA),以及对问诊调查进行比较分析。结果脂秃患者秃发区雄激素受体(AR)表达明显高于正常人,但与家族史无关,约35 %脂秃患者秃发区头皮组织无AR阳性表达。脂秃患者血清中Fe元素及SOD的含量比正常人明显减少。100 %脂秃患者与两个以上相关因素有关。结论脂秃是一种多因素的疾病。%Objective  To investigate aetiology of alopecia seborrhoeica. Methods Immunocytochemical localization of androqenic receptor(AR) was performed in the skin with baldness, and serum Fe,Cu,Zn,SOD and MDA detected, together with an interrogation. Results  Expression of androgenic receptor in alopecia was higher than that in normal controls.There was no correlation between the positive expression of AR and familial history. No expression of AR was found in about 35 % of the patrents.More than two factors involved in the pathogenesis of alopecia seborrhoeia.. Conclusion  Alopecia seborrhoeica is a disease entity related to multple pathogenic factors.

  2. Prospective study of the aetiology of infusion phlebitis and line failure during peripheral parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J; Murchan, P; MacFie, J; Sedman, P; Donat, R; Palmer, D; Mitchell, C J

    1996-08-01

    Four techniques of administering peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) were examined prospectively to investigate the role of mechanical trauma in the development of infusion phlebitis. Patients in group 1 (n = 15) were fed via a standard 18-G Teflon cannula which was removed on completion of the infusion and was rotated to the contralateral arm every day. Group 2 patients (n = 15) had a similar catheter sited in each forearm simultaneously, with rotation of the side of infusion each day. Patients in group 3 (n = 17) had a 15-cm Silastic rubber catheter inserted into a forearm vein and a standard cannula sited in the contralateral forearm, with alternation of infusion each day. Those in group 4 (n = 13) had a fine-bore 23-G silicone catheter sited in one arm only. Patients in groups 1, 2 and 3 were fed over 12-h cycles and those in group 4 for a 24-h continuous cycle. A total of 408 patient-days of PPN were given. Mean duration of PPN in groups 1-4 was 7.5, 9, 5.5 and 5 days respectively. Infusion phlebitis was not recorded in patients who had a daily change of cannula (group 1), but occurred in four patients in group 2, eight in group 3 and eight in group 4. Phlebitis scores were 0, 9, 15 and 12 for groups 1-4 respectively. Severe phlebitis and line occlusion occurred more frequently in patients with a 15-cm catheter (group 3) and in those fed continuously over 24 h (group 4). These results suggest that mechanical trauma is an important factor in the aetiology of infusion phlebitis. This can be minimized by reducing the time for which the vein wall is exposed to nutrient infusion and by reducing the amount of prosthetic material within the vein. PMID:8869311

  3. Aetiology, maternal and foetal outcome in 60 cases of obstetrical acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute renal failure is a serious complication in pregnancy. Not only does it result in significant maternal morbidity and mortality but also results in significant number of foetal loss. Although incidence of obstetrical acute renal failure has decreased in developed countries but still it is one of the major health problem of developing nations. The objective of this study was to study aetiology, maternal and foetal outcome in obstetrical acute renal failure. This study was conducted at Department of Nephrology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from August 2006 to December 2007. It was a descriptive, case series study. Female patients with pregnancy and acute renal failure, irrespective of age, were included in the study. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline urea, creatinine, serum electrolytes, peripheral smear, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen degradation products, renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and 24-hr urinary protein and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were done in selected patients. Foetal and maternal outcome were recorded. Data were analysed using SPSS. A total of 60 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 29 +- 5.4 years and duration of gestation was 33 +- 4.9 weeks. Mean gravidity was 4 +- 2.2. Sixteen patients (26.66%) were treated conservatively while 44 (73.33%) required dialysis. Postpartum haemorrhage was present in 14 (23.33%), postpartum haemorrhage and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in 11 (18.33%), eclampsia-preeclampsia in 8 (13.33%), antepartum haemorrhage in 8 (13.33%), antepartum haemorrhage with DIC in 6 (10%), DIC alone in 4 (6.66%), obstructed labour in 3 (5%), septic abortion in 3 (3.33%), HELLP (haemolysis elevated liver enzyme and low platelet) in 2 (3.33%), urinary tract infection with sepsis in 1 (1.66%) and puerperal sepsis in 1 (1.66%). Foetal loss was 40 (66.66%). Maternal mortality was 9 (15

  4. AETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, GUWAHATI, ASSAM

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    Dulal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Jaundice is the most common problem in the first week of life. About 25-50% of all term neonates and higher percentage of preterm neonates develop clinical jaundice during neonatal period. Jaundice in newborn is a medical emergency, because unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause bilirubin encephalopathy and needs urgent treatment. The objective of the study was to know the aetiology of hyperbilirubinemia in neonate admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. METHODS This observational study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, over a period of one year (February 2015 to January 2016. A total number of 520 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia were included in the present study. Data collection was done by history taking, clinical examination and essential laboratory tests. RESULTS In this study, out of 520 jaundiced neonates 251 (48.26% were term babies and 269 (51.74% were preterm babies. Physiological jaundice was seen in 224 (43.07% babies and pathological jaundice were 296 (56.93% babies. Among the various aetiologies causing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, the most common causes were physiological jaundice 224 (43.07%, ABO incompatibility 108 (20.76%, Idiopathic 54 (10.43%, neonatal sepsis 36 (6.92%, G6PD deficiency 35 (6.73% and Rh Incompatibility 31 (5.96%. Other less common causes were cephalhematoma 15 (2.88%, intrauterine infection 7 (1.34%, breast milk jaundice 6 (1.15% and hypothyroidism 4 (0.76%. CONCLUSION We should investigate all newborns with pathological jaundice to find out the aetiology. Moreover, early detection of neonatal jaundice, proper monitoring and timely interventions like phototherapy, exchange blood transfusion and treating the underlying cause will reduce the morbidity and mortality among neonates. Thus, we can prevent mental retardation and cerebral palsy due to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia at the community level.

  5. Co-occurring Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Depression : Sex, Aetiology, Help-Seeking and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnby, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the thesis was to contribute to the knowledge about co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in adolescence, focusing on sex differences, as well as aetiology, help-seeking and assessment. Studies I–III used epidemiological samples of self-reports from all students in Västmanland aged 15–16 and 17–18 years. Study I investigated the prevalence of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression, as well as associations between co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression and...

  6. Gifles de la Tourett's Disease a Single case study A Discussion on Aetiology and Treatment

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    C. Izadi

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Gille de la Tourett's syndrome is reported and discussed 111 the light of conflicting views on the aetiology of the condition. It is hypothesized that if Tourette's syndrome is to be considered as a sort of reaction against adaption to an unhealthy environment, this reaction and its continuity can be attributed to permanent eNS damage (Probably in the area of corpora striata beginning in childhood. Treatment with haloperidol is suggested as a most effective method of symptomatic treatment.

  7. Osteitis pubis after standard bipolar TURP surgery: insight into aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of this rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Niall F; Torregiani, William; Thornhill, John

    2016-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery is standard treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia when medical therapy has failed. We describe a rare case of osteitis pubis secondary to a prostato-symphocoele sinus after standard bipolar TURP surgery. We also discuss diagnostic techniques and management strategies, and provide an insight into the aetiology of this rare phenomenon. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and an indwelling catheter was successful in our case. Treatment in more severe cases may include laparotomy with peritoneal or omental interposition or open retropubic radical prostatectomy to remove the entire sinus tract. PMID:26729825

  8. Do environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of carcinoma in situ testis and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S; Leffers, H; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2004-01-01

    development, and may be provoked by external factors such as endocrine disruptors in addition to genetic predisposition. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), considered the most severe symptom of TDS, have increased in incidence during the last 60 years, to become the most common malignancy in young...... (DBP) suggesting that ubiquitously present environmental endocrine disruptors may play a role in the aetiology of human TDS. So far, no animal model has been able to mimick all the symptoms of TDS including TGCTs although CIS-like cells have been found in a spontaneous testicular neoplasm in a rabbit....

  9. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity as well as a progressive loss of beta cell function. The aetiologies of i-IFG and i-IGT also seem to differ, with i-IFG being predominantly related to genetic factors, smoking and male sex, while i-IGT is predominantly related to physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and short stature. Since...... the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG...

  10. Role of aetiology in the progression, regression, and parenchymal remodelling of liver disease: implications for liver biopsy interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Alves, Venancio A; Balabaud, Charles; Bhathal, Prithi S; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Crawford, James M; Dhillon, Amar P; Ferrell, Linda; Guido, Maria; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Paradis, Valerie; Snover, Dale C; Theise, Neil D; Thung, Swan N; Tsui, Wilson M S; van Leeuwen, Dirk J

    2016-06-01

    Clinicopathological concepts on acute and chronic liver disease have evolved rapidly during the last few years, with advances in general and specific treatment options and improved patient outcomes. The old paradigm of 'irreversibility' of cirrhosis had been challenged in major ways, and the validity of the usage of the term 'cirrhosis' has come into question. This paper addresses aetiology-based clinicopathological concepts and features that may deserve attention because they may determine disease outcome and, specifically, patterns of regression and remodelling. A variety of therapeutic interventions may influence remaining disease features after elimination of damaging agents (virus, alcohol, etc.), and determine the final clinical outcome including the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). New concepts create new responsibilities and opportunities for the pathologist to contribute to the understanding of liver pathology and communicate this with clinical colleagues and researchers. PMID:26918878

  11. Do environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of carcinoma in situ testis and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, S B; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S;

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS), first suggested in 2001, propose that several disorders of the male reproductive system such as infertility, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are all symptoms of TDS, which is most likely initiated during early foetal...... development, and may be provoked by external factors such as endocrine disruptors in addition to genetic predisposition. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), considered the most severe symptom of TDS, have increased in incidence during the last 60 years, to become the most common malignancy in young...... (DBP) suggesting that ubiquitously present environmental endocrine disruptors may play a role in the aetiology of human TDS. So far, no animal model has been able to mimick all the symptoms of TDS including TGCTs although CIS-like cells have been found in a spontaneous testicular neoplasm in a rabbit....

  12. Anxiety, bulimia, drug and alcohol addiction, depression, and schizophrenia: what do you think about their aetiology, dangerousness, social distance, and treatment? A latent class analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mannarini; M. Boffo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mental illness stigma is a serious societal problem and a critical impediment to treatment seeking for mentally ill people. To improve the understanding of mental illness stigma, this study focuses on the simultaneous analysis of people's aetiological beliefs, attitudes (i.e. perceived dang

  13. The aetiological and psychopathological validity of borderline personality disorder in youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-03-01

    Controversy surrounds the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in youth. This meta-analysis summarised evidence regarding the aetiological and psychopathological validity of youth BPD (the extent to which youth and adult BPD share common risk factors and psychopathology). We identified 61 studies satisfying predetermined inclusion criteria. Statistically significant pooled associations with youth (19years of age and under) BPD were observed for sexual abuse (all youth: odds ratio=4.88; 95% confidence interval=3.30, 7.21; children: OR=3.97; 95% CI=1.51, 10.41; adolescents: OR=5.41; 95% CI=3.43, 8.53); physical abuse (all youth: 2.79 [2.03, 3.84]; children: 2.86 [1.98, 4.13]; adolescents: 2.60 [1.38, 4.90]); maternal hostility/verbal abuse (all youth: 3.28 [2.67, 4.03]; children: 3.15 [2.55, 3.88]; adolescents: 4.71 [1.77, 12.53]); and neglect (all youth: 3.40 [2.27, 5.11]; children: 2.87 [1.73, 4.73]; adolescents: 4.87 [2.24, 10.59]). Several psychopathological features were also associated with youth BPD, including comorbid mood (3.21 [2.13, 4.83]), anxiety (2.30 [1.44, 3.70]) and substance use (2.92 [1.60, 5.31]) disorders; self-harm (2.81 [1.61, 4.90]); suicide ideation (all youth: 2.02 [1.23, 3.32]; children: 6.00 [1.81, 19.84]; adolescents: 1.75 [1.20; 2.54]) and suicide attempt (2.10 [1.21, 3.66]). Results demonstrate that adult and youth BPD share common aetiological and psychopathological correlates. This offers some support for the diagnostic validity of youth BPD and indicates the need for clinical recognition in this age group. PMID:26709502

  14. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management.

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    Soori Nnko

    Full Text Available Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda.Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs.We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years. CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management.Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services.

  15. The incidence, aetiology and outcome of acute seizures in children admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital

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    Maitland Kathryn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute seizures are a common cause of paediatric admissions to hospitals in resource poor countries and a risk factor for neurological and cognitive impairment and epilepsy. We determined the incidence, aetiological factors and the immediate outcome of seizures in a rural malaria endemic area in coastal Kenya. Methods We recruited all children with and without seizures, aged 0–13 years and admitted to Kilifi District hospital over 2 years from 1st December 2004 to 30th November 2006. Only incident admissions from a defined area were included. Patients with epilepsy were excluded. The population denominator, the number of children in the community on 30th November 2005 (study midpoint, was modelled from a census data. Results Seizures were reported in 900/4,921(18.3% incident admissions and at least 98 had status epilepticus. The incidence of acute seizures in children 0–13 years was 425 (95%CI 386, 466 per 100,000/year and was 879 (95%CI 795, 968 per 100,000/year in children Conclusion There is a high incidence of acute seizures in children living in this malaria endemic area of Kenya. The most important causes are diseases that are preventable with available public health programs.

  16. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T; Borregaard, Niels; Modéer, Thomas U; Andersson, Mats L; Pütsep, Katrin L-A

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic accuracy revealed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.8%) for hCAP-18 ELISA. The correlation coefficient of the hCAP-18 ELISA versus immunoblotting was (R = 0.831) and that of the peptide LL-37 ELISA versus immunoblotting was (R = 0.405) (P syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low in conditions in which the neutrophil antibacterial propeptide hCAP-18 is deficient, i.e. severe congenital neutropenia and neutrophil-specific granule deficiency, and in conditions in which bone marrow myelopoiesis is negatively affected. PMID:26119962

  17. Clinical manifestation and aetiology of a genital associated disease in Olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate a genitally associated disease and to describe its clinical manifestation and aetiology in baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in the United Republic of Tanzania. Lake Manyara National Park is located in the northern part of the country, 160 km northwest of the Mt. Kilimanjaro. It is among the smallest protected areas, but belongs to the extended ecosystem of the Serengeti, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Lake Manyara and Tarangire National Park. The...

  18. Miscellaneous skin lesions of unknown aetiology in cetaceans from South America. Scientific Committee document SC/60/DW4, International Whaling Commission, June 2008, Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, L.; Van Bressem, M.-F.; Reyes, J. C.; Echegaray, M.; Siciliano, S.; M. Santos; Viddi, F.; Crespo, E; Klaich, J.; Moreno, I.; Emin-Lima, N.R.; Félix, F.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2008-01-01

    We report on miscellaneous skin diseases or syndromes of unknown aetiology including whitish, velvety lesions (WVL, often associated with unrelated skin injuries, scars and tooth rakes), large, rounded lesions (LRL, large to very large lesions with an orange or dark outline and a light inner colour) and vesicular skin disease (VSD, small to medium vesicles) in Megaptera novaeangliae, Cephalorhynchus commersonii, C. eutropia, Pseudorca crassidens, Sotalia guianensis and Tursiops truncates from...

  19. A comparative study of verbal IQ, performance IQ and verbal IQ-performance IQ disparity among Turner syndrome patients and patients with primary amenorrhoea due to other aetiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Lakshman; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Assessing disparity in IQ is important in selecting an occupation and thus helping people lead a productive life. In Turner syndrome patients, this shall be more important as assessment of verbal IQ- and performance IQ disparity could be used in helping them select an occupation so that productivity and quality of life is not grossly compromised. Methods: Based on karyotyping, 30 patients with turner syndrome and 30 patients with primary amenorrhoea due to other aetiologies were s...

  20. The aetiology of non-malarial febrile illness in children in the malaria-endemic Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondei, Kemebradikumo; Kunle-Olowu, Onyaye E.; Peterside, Oliemen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Febrile illnesses are common in childhood and differentiating the causes could be challenging in areas of perennial malaria transmission. To determine the proportion of non-malarial febrile illness in children, the aetiological agents and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Methods Blood, urine, throat swab and ear swab samples were obtained from 190 febrile children aged 6 months to 11 years. Malaria parasite was detected by microscopic examination of thick and thin Giemsa-stained films. Smears from ear and throat swabs and urine specimen were cultured on appropriate media. Bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining, morphology and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results The prevalence of non-malarial febrile illnesses was 45.26% (95% CI: 38.21-52.31). Twenty-four patients (12.6%) had at least one sample that was bacterial culture positive. Samples from 62 patients (32.6%) were negative for both malaria parasite and bacterial culture. Urinary tract infection was responsible for 8.42%, otitis media 7.89% and pharyngitis 5.78% of the fevers. E.coli, S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were the commonest isolates from urine, ear swab and throat swab samples respectively. S. pneumoniae was responsible for all the positive throat cultures. Bacterial isolates exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to the antibiotics tested, but susceptibility of most of the isolates to oxacillin and cloxacillin was generally poor. Conclusions Bacterial infections are responsible for a significant proportion of non-malarial febrile illnesses, and diagnostic facilities should be strengthened to detect other causes of febrile illness outside malaria.

  1. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

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    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions. PMID:27137070

  2. The role of maternal stress in early pregnancy in the aetiology of gastroschisis: an incident case control study.

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    Stephen R Palmer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The incidence of gastroschisis, a congenital anomaly where the infant abdominal wall is defective and intestines protrude from the abdominal cavity, is increasing in many countries. The role of maternal stress in some adverse birth outcomes is now well established. We tested the hypothesis that major stressful life events in the first trimester are risk factors for gastroschisis, and social support protective, in a case-control study in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Gastroschisis cases and three controls per case (matched for maternal age were identified at routine 18-20 week fetal anomaly ultrasound scan, in 2007-2010. Face to face questionnaire interviews were carried out during the antenatal period (median 24 weeks gestation asking about serious stressful events and social support in the first trimester. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Two or more stressful life events in the first trimester (adjusted OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.2-19.4, and moving address in the first trimester (aOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.7-13.9 were strongly associated with risk of gastroschisis, independent of behavioural risk factors including smoking, alcohol, and poor diet. Perceived availability of social support was not associated with reduced risk of gastroschisis (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.1. CONCLUSIONS: Stressful maternal life events in the first trimester of pregnancy including change of address were strongly associated with a substantial increase in the risk of gastroschisis, independent of stress related high risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption and poor diet. This suggests that stress pathways are involved in the aetiology of gastroschisis.

  3. First attack of acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 – 2003: incidence, aetiological classification, procedures and mortality – a register study

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    Stenlund Hans C

    2009-03-01

    . Incidence increased and SMR declined with increasing patient age. Although the prognosis for patients with FAAP has improved it remains an important health problem. Aetiological classification at index stay and timing of cholecystectomy should be improved.

  4. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  5. Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features

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    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between

  6. Churg-Strauss Syndrome as an Unusual Aetiology of Stroke with Haemorrhagic Transformation in a Patient with No Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Tiina Sairanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present here a case of haemorrhagic brain infarction in a middle-aged and physically active male, who had never smoked. This case report aims to remind the internist and neurologist to bear in mind unusual aetiologies of brain infarcts in patients without classical cardiovascular risk factors. Case Description: A 49-year-old male with pulmonary asthma and a prior history of nasal polyps had a wake-up stroke with left-sided symptoms and speech disturbance. A head MRI and MR angiography revealed a recent haemorrhagic infarct in the right putamen and corona radiata. The left hemiparesis progressed to sensory-motor hemiplegia on the 4th day. In the head CT, it was shown that the haemorrhagic infarct had progressed to a large haematoma. A pansinusitis was also diagnosed. The aetiological investigations revealed a minor atrial septal defect (ASD with shunting and a heterozygotic clotting factor V R506Q mutation. A remarkable blood eosinophilia of 9.80 E9/l (42% together with fever, sinusitis, wide-spread bilateral nodular pulmonary infiltrates that did not respond to wide-spectrum antimicrobial treatment, positive anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies, a high myeloperoxidase antibody level and slightly positive anti-proteinase 3 antibodies suggested the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. These inflammatory symptoms and findings promptly responded to treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. Conclusions: Even after the concomitant findings of the low risk factors, i.e. small ASD and heterozygotic clotting factor mutation, continued search for the final aetiology of stroke revealed Churg-Strauss syndrome, which was the key to the treatment.

  7. BNP but Not s-cTnln is associated with cardioembolic aetiology and predicts short and long term prognosis after cerebrovascular events.

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    Nicole Nigro

    Full Text Available We analyzed the prognostic value of b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and sensitive cardiac Troponin (s-cTnI in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA and their significance in predicting stroke aetiology.In a prospectively enrolled cohort we measured BNP and s-cTnI levels upon admission. Primary endpoints were mortality, unfavorable functional outcome and stroke recurrence after 90 days and after 12 months. Secondary endpoint was cardioembolic aetiology.In 441 patients BNP but not s-cTnI remained an independent predictor for death with an adjusted HR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.1-1.4 after 90 days and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.3 after one year. The comparison of the Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC of model A (age, NIHSS and model B (age, NIHSS, BNP showed an improvement in the prediction of mortality (0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.90 vs. 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.92, Log Rank p = 0.004. Furthermore the category free net reclassification improvement (cfNRI when adding BNP to the multivariate model was 57.5%, p<0.0001. For the prediction of functional outcome or stroke recurrence both markers provided no incremental value. Adding BNP to a model including age, atrial fibrillation and heart failure lead to a higher discriminatory accuracy for identification of cardioembolic stroke than the model without BNP (AUC 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.80 vs. AUC 0.79, (95% CI 0.75-0.84, p = 0.008.BNP is an independent prognostic maker for overall mortality in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA and may improve the diagnostic accuracy to identify cardioembolic aetiology.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390962.

  8. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

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    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24467355

  9. Visual outcome and electron microscopic features of indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling from macular hole of various aetiologies

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    Kumar Atul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the visual outcome of internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular hole of various aetiologies and ultrastructural features of the ILM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 40 eyes of 38 patients. Thirty eyes with full thickness macular hole were treated with vitrectomy and removal of ILM. Ten eyes with retinal detachment served as negative controls and these patients underwent vitrectomy and ILM removal. The surgical specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The anatomical success rate of the first operation was 90% in idiopathic and myopic groups, whereas it was 100% in traumatic macular hole group. Visual improvement of ³ two lines was noted in 80% of the cases. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of ILM in all surgical specimens. Proliferation of astrocytes and synthesis of new collagen along the inner surface of ILM was noted in the surgical specimens. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the ILM removal helps in closure of the macular hole and retinal reattachment. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling is a reasonable surgical approach to treat macular holes of idiopathic, myopic and traumatic aetiology.

  10. Revisiting the dystrophin-ATP connection: How half a century of research still implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy aetiology.

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    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease that is characterised by dystrophin-deficiency and chronic Ca(2+)-induced skeletal muscle wasting, which currently has no cure. DMD was once considered predominantly as a metabolic disease due to the myriad of metabolic insufficiencies evident in the musculature, however this aspect of the disease has been extensively ignored since the discovery of dystrophin. The collective historical and contemporary literature documenting these metabolic nuances has culminated in a series of studies that importantly demonstrate that metabolic dysfunction exists independent of dystrophin expression and a mild disease phenotype can be expressed even in the complete absence of dystrophin expression. Targeting and supporting metabolic pathways with anaplerotic and other energy-enhancing supplements has also shown therapeutic value. We explore the hypothesis that DMD is characterised by a systemic mitochondrial impairment that is central to disease aetiology rather than a secondary pathophysiological consequence of dystrophin-deficiency. PMID:26365249

  11. Aetiology of severe demarcated enamel opacities--an evaluation based on prospective medical and social data from 17,000 children.

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    Fagrell, Tobias G; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ullbro, Christer; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Koch, Göran

    2011-01-01

    During the 1970s dentists reported an increasing prevalence of a "new" type of enamel disturbance.The disturbance was very specific, with areas of demarcated hypomineralised enamel, and was mostly found in permanent first molars and incisors. Several studies have tried to reveal the aetiology behind the enamel disturbance but sofar no clear factors correlated have been found. The aim of the present study was to evaluate aetiological factors to severe demarcated opacities (SDO) in first permanent molars in a large cohort of children enrolled in the "All Babies in Southeast Sweden" (ABIS) project. ABIS is a prospective study of all children in five Swedish counties born between Oct 1, 1997 and Oct 1, 1999, in all about 17,000 children.They have been followed from birth with recording of a large number of factors on nutrition, diseases, medication, infections, social situation etc. With help from 89 Public Dental Service clinics in the same area preliminary examinations of the children, born between Oct 1,1997 and Oct 1,1999, reported 595 children with severe demarcated opacities (SDO) in first molars.These children and a randomly selected age matched group of 1,200 children were further invited to be examined by specialists in paediatric dentistry. At these examinations 224 severe cases were identified as well as 253 children completely without enamel disturbances among children registered in ABIS.These two groups were analysed according to any correlation between SDO and variables in the ABIS databank. The analyses showed no association between SDO and pre-, peri-, and neonatal data. However, we found a positive association between SDO and breastfeeding for more than 6 months (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2), late introduction of gruel (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-2.9), and late introduction of infant formula (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9). A combination of these three variables increased the risk to develop SDO by more than five times (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-15.7). No significant

  12. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

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    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  13. A comparative study of verbal IQ, performance IQ and verbal IQ-performance IQ disparity among Turner syndrome patients and patients with primary amenorrhoea due to other aetiologies

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    Rahul Lakshman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing disparity in IQ is important in selecting an occupation and thus helping people lead a productive life. In Turner syndrome patients, this shall be more important as assessment of verbal IQ- and performance IQ disparity could be used in helping them select an occupation so that productivity and quality of life is not grossly compromised. Methods: Based on karyotyping, 30 patients with turner syndrome and 30 patients with primary amenorrhoea due to other aetiologies were selected for the study. Cytogenetic analysis was done for every case using G-banding technique. Assessment of intellectual functions was done using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. Results: Mean value of PIQ of X0 (turner was 74.67 and that of XX (other amenorrhoea patients was 90.30. Mean value of VIQ of X0 (turner was 93.67 and that of XX (other amenorrhoea patients was 93.60. Mean value of VIQ and PIQ disparity of X0 (turner was 18.67 and that of XX (other amenorrhoea patients was 3. Conclusions: Turner syndrome patients have high VIQ-PIQ disparity when compared to other primary amenorrhoea patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 22-25

  14. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

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    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  15. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

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    Mangesh Bhalerao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerability were analysed from the following grades by patients and confirmed by doctor. Of 50 patients, 63% were diagnosed with cough due to upper respiratory tract infections, 17% common cold, 12% allergic cough and 8% smoker’s cough. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough was noted in 42 (84% out of 50 patients and fair response in another 4 (8%. Only 4 out of 50 patients showed no relief in symptoms. Most of the patients (98% accepted the remedy well. Only one adverse event was reported. However, a relation to the medication was classified to be unlikely. The test drug Mykoff® is an effective and safe cough syrup that is highly acceptable for patients with cough of short duration.

  16. Honey bee larval peritrophic matrix degradation during infection with Paenibacillus larvae, the aetiological agent of American foulbrood of honey bees, is a key step in pathogenesis.

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    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke

    2013-11-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, the aetiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB) of honey bees, causes a fatal intestinal infection in larvae and invades the haemocoel by breaching the midgut. The peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium in insects constitutes an effective barrier against abrasive food particles, xenobiotics, toxins and pathogens. Pathogens like P. larvae entering the host through the gut first need to overcome this barrier. To better understand AFB pathogenesis, we analysed the fate of the peritrophic matrix in honey bee larvae during P. larvae infection. Using histochemical techniques, we first established that chitin is a major component of the honey bee larval peritrophic matrix. Rearing larvae on a diet containing a fluorochrome blocking formation of the peritrophic matrix or a bacterial endochitinase revealed that a fully formed peritrophic matrix is essential for larval survival. Larvae infected by P. larvae showed total degradation of the peritrophic matrix enabling the bacteria to directly attack the epithelial cells. Carbon source utilization tests confirmed that P. larvae is able to metabolize colloidal chitin. We propose that P. larvae degrades the peritrophic matrix to allow direct access of the bacteria or of bacterial toxins to the epithelium to prepare the breakthrough of the epithelial layer. PMID:23809335

  17. Aetiological role of common respiratory viruses in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years: A systematic review and meta–analysis

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    Ting Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI remains a major cause of childhood hospitalization and mortality in young children and the causal attribution of respiratory viruses in the aetiology of ALRI is unclear. We aimed to quantify the absolute effects of these viral exposures. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review (across 7 databases of case–control studies published from 1990 to 2014 which investigated the viral profile of 18592 children under 5 years with and without ALRI. We then computed a pooled odds ratio and virus–specific attributable fraction among the exposed of 8 common viruses – respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza (IFV, parainfluenza (PIV, human metapneumovirus (MPV, adenovirus (AdV, rhinovirus (RV, bocavirus (BoV, and coronavirus (CoV. Findings: From the 23 studies included, there was strong evidence for causal attribution of RSV (OR 9.79; AFE 90%, IFV (OR 5.10; AFE 80%, PIV (OR 3.37; AFE 70% and MPV (OR 3.76; AFE 73%, and less strong evidence for RV (OR 1.43; AFE 30% in young children presenting with ALRI compared to those without respiratory symptoms (asymptomatic or healthy children. However, there was no significant difference in the detection of AdV, BoV, or CoV in cases and controls. Conclusions This review supports RSV, IFV, PIV, MPV and RV as important causes of ALRI in young children, and provides quantitative estimates of the absolute proportion of virus–associated ALRI cases to which a viral cause can be attributed.

  18. Bacterial aetiology of diarrhoea in young children: high prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) not belonging to the classical EPEC serogroups.

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    Prère, M F; Bacrie, S Cohen; Baron, O; Fayet, O

    2006-12-01

    Diarrhoeal disease continues to be one of the most common causes of admittance in Children hospital emergency. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative contribution of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) as a cause of infectious bacterial diarrhoea in children from the region of Toulouse. We analysed 280 samples of stools from 280 children (Aeromonas and Vibrio) were detected by standard culture methods. Enterotoxigenic Clostridium difficile were identified after culture by immuno-enzyme assay (IEA). Virulence genes of EPEC and EHEC were detected by using PCR. Shiga-toxin production of EHEC strains was confirmed with an IEA test. Potential enteric pathogens were identified in 55 patients. EPEC was the most frequently identified agent (30 patients), followed by Campylobacter (9 cases: 7 C. jejuni and 2 C. coli) and C. difficile (8 patients), then EHEC (5 patients) and Salmonella (3 patients). No Shigella, Yersinia, Aeromonas or other pathogenic bacteria were detected during this period in that class of children. EPEC not belonging to the classical EPEC serogroups were highly prevalent (24 versus 6). EHEC possessed different genotypes and serogroups: O26 (2 strains), O157 (2 strains) and one un-typable strain. This study demonstrates the importance of EPEC (55 % of positive cases) and of EHEC (more frequent than Salmonella) in the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases of young children. We confirm the usefulness of the PCR methodology: it allows the detection of virulent E. coli and thus increases by two fold the diagnosis of bacterial diarrhoea. PMID:17030460

  19. Poor cerebral inflammatory response in eIF2B knock-in mice: implications for the aetiology of vanishing white matter disease.

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    Yuval Cabilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in any of the five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B can lead to an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease of unknown aetiology termed leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM. VWM is one of the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders, which markedly deteriorates after inflammation or exposure to other stressors. eIF2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. A previous study demonstrated that Eif2b5(R132H/R132H mice suffer delayed white matter development and fail to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, although eIF2B enzymatic activity in the mutant brain is reduced by merely 20%. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Poor astrogliosis was observed in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H mice brain in response to systemic stress induced by peripheral injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Even with normal rates of protein synthesis under normal conditions, primary astrocytes and microglia isolated from mutant brains fail to adequately synthesise and secrete cytokines in response to LPS treatment despite proper induction of cytokine mRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: The mild reduction in eIF2B activity prevents the appropriate increase in translation rates upon exposure to the inflammatory stressor LPS. The data underscore the importance of fully-functional translation machinery for efficient cerebral inflammatory response upon insults. It highlights the magnitude of proficient translation rates in restoration of brain homeostasis via microglia-astrocyte crosstalk. This study is the first to suggest the involvement of microglia in the pathology of VWM disease. Importantly, it rationalises the deterioration of clinical symptoms upon exposure of VWM patients to physiological stressors and provides possible explanation for their high phenotypic variability.

  20. Aetiology of diarrhoeal disease and evaluation of viral-bacterial coinfection in children under 5 years old in China: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L L; Liu, N; Humphries, E M; Yu, J M; Li, S; Lindsay, B R; Stine, O C; Duan, Z J

    2016-04-01

    Globally, diarrhoeal diseases are the second leading cause of death among children under 5 years old. Few case-control studies on the aetiology of diarrhoea have been conducted in China. A case-control study on 922 children under 5 years old who presented with diarrhoea and individually matched controls was conducted in China between May 2011 and January 2013. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze stool samples for 10 diarrhoeal pathogens. Potential enteric pathogens were detected in 377 (81.8%) of 461 children with diarrhoea and 215 controls (46.6%, p Shigella and adenovirus were qualitatively associated with diarrhoea. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff threshold for defining a symptomatic individual was 72, 5840, and 10(4) copies per reaction for rotavirus (odds ratio 259), norovirus GII (odds ratio 10.6) and Shigella (odds ratio 5.1). The attributable fractions were 0.18 for rotavirus, 0.08 for norovirus GII, 0.01 for Shigella and 0.04 for adenovirus. Coinfections between pathogens were common. Two pairs, rotavirus and adenovirus, and norovirus GII and Salmonella were positively associated. The co-occurrence of rotavirus and sapovirus, astrovirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or Campylobacter jejuni only occurred in children with disease. Coinfection was not correlated with clinical symptoms. Quantitative data are critical. Our results indicate that increased pathogen loads increase the OR between diarrhoea and rotavirus, norovirus GII and Shigella. Coinfections with rotavirus and norovirus GII are common and occur in a nonrandom distribution. Despite testing for ten diarrhoeal pathogens, over two-thirds of cases do not have a recognized attributable cause. PMID:26724990

  1. A STUDY ON AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF LRTI WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON DRUG SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF ISOLATED BACTERIA AND INCIDENCE OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manab Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTIs are important causes of morbidity and mortality for all age groups both in the hospital as well as in the community. Though international guidelines are available for treating bacterial LRTI they have not been validated very much in the Indian scenario. Scarce local information is available regarding aetiological agents of LRTI and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Pneumocystis carinii (Jiroveci is a common pathogen in LRTI in immuno-compromised patients. It is rarely documented in our country. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred adults suffering from LRTI of less than 2 weeks duration from both inpatient and outpatient departments in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Kolkata were included in the study after taking valid informed consent. Study period was one year (2014- 15. Sputum samples were collected as per criteria of Murray et al. 1975. After performing routine culture, diagnosis was made based on colony character and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was then done according to CLSI guidelines. RESULTS This study reveals that, LRTI was common in all age groups, in both Human Immunodeficiency Virus Non-Reactive (HIVNR and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reactive (HIVR groups. In both the groups, 75% showed growth of single organism in sputum. But in the HIVR group, a considerable number showed growth of multiple organisms. Both the groups (HIVNR and HIVR showed predominance of Gram positive bacteria. Antibiotic sensitivity was unremarkable, but one E.coli isolate was an Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producer (ESBL. Pneumocystis Carinii (PC was found in Giemsa stained smear of induced sputum in one HIVR case, who developed Pneumo-mediastinum and surgical emphysema, but recovered due to early initiation of treatment, suggesting that Pneumocystis Carinii (Jiroveci pneumonia was not uncommon in HIVR patients and early diagnosis and treatment can save the life of the patient

  2. Usefulness and limitations of {sup 99m}Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy in the aetiological diagnosis of amyloidotic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapezzi, Claudio; Quarta, Candida Cristina; Longhi, Simone; Gallo, Pamela; Gagliardi, Christian; Branzi, Angelo [University of Bologna and Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Institute of Cardiology, Bologna (Italy); Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Pettinato, Cinzia [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Bologna (Italy); Leone, Ornella [University of Bologna and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bologna (Italy); Ferlini, Alessandra [University of Ferrara, Department of Diagnostic and Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Genetics, Ferrara (Italy); Salvi, Fabrizio [Ospedale Bellaria, Department of Neurology, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We previously reported in a small series of patients that {sup 99m}Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid ({sup 99m}Tc-DPD) scintigraphy tested positive in transthyretin-related (TTR) (both mutant and wild-type) but not in primary (AL) amyloidotic cardiomyopathy (AC). We extended our study to a larger cohort of patients with AC. We evaluated (1) 45 patients with TTR-related AC (28 mutant and 17 wild-type), (2) 34 with AL-related AC and (3) 15 non-affected controls. Myocardial uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DPD (740 MBq i.v.) was semiquantitatively and visually assessed at 5 min and at 3 h. Heart retention (HR) and heart to whole-body retention ratio (H/WB) of late {sup 99m}Tc-DPD uptake were higher among TTR-related AC (HR 7.8%; H/WB 10.4) compared with both unaffected controls (HR 3.5%; H/WB 5.7; p < 0.0001) and AL-related AC (HR 4.0%; H/WB 6.1; p < 0.0001). For the diagnosis of TTR-related AC, positive and negative predictive accuracy of visual scoring of cardiac retention were: 80 and 100% (visual score {>=}1); 88 and 100% (visual score {>=}2); and 100 and 68% (visual score = 3). At adjusted linear regression analysis, TTR aetiology turned out to be the only positive predictor of increasing {sup 99m}Tc-DPD uptake in terms of both HR [{beta} 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.5; p < 0.0001] and H/WB ({beta} 3.5, 95% CI 2.1-4.9; p < 0.0001). While {sup 99m}Tc-DPD scintigraphy was confirmed to be useful for differentiating TTR from AL-related AC, diagnostic accuracy was lower than previously reported due to a mild degree of tracer uptake in about one third of AL patients. {sup 99m}Tc-DPD scintigraphy can provide an accurate differential diagnosis in cases of absent or intense uptake evaluated by visual score. (orig.)

  3. Die akute Myoperikarditis als Chamäleon - Fallpräsentation eines jungen Patienten // Heterogenous Aetiology of Myopericarditis – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudczak J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, ECG findings, biomarkers and cardiac imaging, and can be confirmed by histological, immunological and immunohistochemical analysis. The aetiology of myocarditis is heterogeneous and remains undetermined in about 50% of cases. However, a large variety of infectious agents, systemic diseases, drugs, and toxins can cause the disease. Viral myocarditis represents the most frequent form. Pericarditis is an inflammatory disease of the pericardium, the most common cause being a viral infection. Myocarditis and pericarditis often present as a combined entity. Clinical manifestations of myopericarditis are highly variable and range from mild chest pain and palpitations accompanied by transient ECG changes to malign ventricular arrhythmias and life-threatening cardiogenic shock. Though, the vast majority of patients with myocarditis will completely recover, inflammatory cardiomyopathy may result in irreversible cardiac dysfunction with severe long-term morbidity and mortality. It is therefore critical to be aware of the broad range of underlying pathologies, differential diagnoses, recommended diagnostic pathways and available treatment modalities.br The objective of the following case presentation discussing a young patient suffering from viral myopericarditis, is to highlight the importance and difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis timely, thus not delaying specific treatment options. p bKurzfassung; /b Die Myokarditis ist eine entzündliche Erkrankung des Herzmuskels mit variablen Ursachen infektiöser und nicht-infektiöser Genese. Die häufigste Form ist die virale Myokarditis. Die Perikarditis, ebenfalls häufig viral bedingt, ist eine Entzündung des Perikards, des bindegewebigen Herzbeutels. Myo- und Perikarditis treten häufig gemeinsam auf. Die Diagnose basiert auf Klinik, EKG-Veränderungen, Biomarkern und kardialer Bildgebung

  4. Effect of protein deficient cassava diet on Cercopithecus aethiops hearts and its possible role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of endomyocardial fibrosis in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezi, C L

    1996-05-01

    Despite the current hypotheses for its causation, the exact cause of endmyocardial fibrosis is unknown. However, endomyocardial fibrosis being a disease of the low socio-economic groups who feed on low protein high carbohydrate diets consisting exclusively of cassava in Uganda and the demonstration by the author of a bimodal age distribution among the female patients and monomodal pattern in the male patients, led the author to suspect protein deficiency and cassava as aetiological factors thereby attributing the first mode to the increased but unmet protein needs for childhood growth and the second mode to the increased but unmet protein needs for pregnancies and lactation in the 20-40 year age groups. Consequently a new hypothesis that "prolonged ingestion of tuber (cassava/tapioca) crops associated with extreme deprivation of protein causes EMF" was formulated. In order to verify this hypothesis, three Cercopithecus aethiops were fed on uncooked banana diet while another three were fed on uncooked cassava and hearts harvested for histology whenever the animal health deteriorated. Changes in the endomyocardium included cell vacuolation, interstitial fibrosis and endocardial thickening by the 130th day in the animals on cassava but the animals on bananas were free from such changes. By the 160th day, the former exhibited marked thickening of the endocardium, interstitial fibrosis, fibrous septa formation, pappillary muscle fibrosis as well as apical fibrosis of the left ventricle, which findings occur in the human disease. Calcification and inflammatory cells were absent. A repeat of the experimental feeding with cassava using a batch of five animals, one of which survived up to seven months revealed cardiac findings similar to those seen at 160 days. Thus, the pathogenetic process, hitherto obscure, begins with cardiac cell necrosis followed by fibrosis consequent upon the failure of cardiac cell repair due to protein deficiency caused by the protein free cassava

  5. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in enzootic haematuria aetiology/ Papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 na etiologia da hematúria enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine enzootic haematuria (EH occurs worldwide and is endemic in regions with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum infested grassland. EH is chronic disease that is characterized by clinical signs of intermitent haematuria, anemia and progressive emaciation and haemorragic, hyperplasic and neoplasic lesions of urinary bladder. Although bracken fern intoxication has been related to EH, most recent bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 infection has been also assessed. Some researches has shown that the presence of BPV-2 in association with bracken fern carcinogenic compound leads to the malignant progression of urinary bladder lesions that cause the clinical signs of EH. In this review the major evidence of BPV-2 involviment in the aetiology of EH is presented along with diagnostic methods and prophylaxis of this disease that causes considerable economic losses in brazilian cattle breeding.A hematúria enzoótica (HE bovina é de ocorrência mundial e apresenta caráter endêmico em regiões com pastagens infestadas com samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. A HE é uma doença crônica caracterizada por sinais clínicos de hematúria intermitente, anemia e emagrecimento progressivo e por lesões hemorrágicas, hiperplásicas e neoplásicas da mucosa da bexiga. Apesar da intoxicação pela samambaia estar relacionada à etiologia da HE, mais recentemente a infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 (BPV-2 também tem sido avaliada. Estudos demonstram que a presença do BPV-2, associada à ação dos compostos carcinogênicos da samambaia, leva à progressão maligna das lesões na mucosa vesical responsáveis pelos quadros clínicos observados na HE. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais evidências do envolvimento do BPV-2 na etiologia da HE, bem como métodos de diagnóstico e profilaxia desta doença que ocasiona prejuízos econômicos consideráveis à pecuária bovina brasileira.

  6. Clinical utility of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in identification of aetiology of unexplained mental retardation: A study in 203 Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Boggula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Developmental delay (DD/mental retardation also described as intellectual disability (ID, is seen in 1-3 per cent of general population. Diagnosis continues to be a challenge at clinical level. With the advancement of new molecular cytogenetic techniques such as cytogenetic microarray (CMA, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA techniques, many microdeletion/microduplication syndromes with DD/ID are now delineated. MLPA technique can probe 40-50 genomic regions in a single reaction and is being used for evaluation of cases with DD/ID. In this study we evaluated the clinical utility of MLPA techniques with different probe sets to identify the aetiology of unexplained mental retardation in patients with ID/DD. Methods: A total of 203 randomly selected DD/ID cases with/without malformations were studied. MLPA probe sets for subtelomeric regions (P070/P036 and common microdeletions/microduplications (P245-A2 and X-chromosome (P106 were used. Positive cases with MLPA technique were confirmed using either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or follow up confirmatory MLPA probe sets. Results: The overall detection rate was found to be 9.3 per cent (19 out of 203. The detection rates were 6.9 and 7.4 per cent for common microdeletion/microduplication and subtelomeric probe sets, respectively. No abnormality was detected with probe set for X-linked ID. The subtelomeric abnormalities detected included deletions of 1p36.33, 4p, 5p, 9p, 9q, 13q telomeric regions and duplication of 9pter. The deletions/duplications detected in non telomeric regions include regions for Prader Willi/Angelman regions, Williams syndrome, Smith Magenis syndrome and Velocardiofacial syndrome. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that the use of P245-A2 and P070/P036-E1 probes gives good diagnostic yield. Though MLPA cannot probe the whole genome like cytogenetic microarray, due to its ease and relative low cost it is an

  7. Discontinuity of the incudo-stapedial joint within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid on computed tomography: A clinico-radiological study of its aetiology and clinical consequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the aetiology and clinical consequences of incudo-stapedial (IS) discontinuity when it is demonstrated on computed tomography (CT) within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid. Methods and materials: Patients with CT evidence of IS discontinuity within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid were prospectively identified. Clinical history, otoscopic findings, audiometry, and CT data were evaluated. Predefined criteria were used to determine the likely aetiology of IS discontinuity, whether it was diagnosed prior to the CT study, and the clinical consequences in terms of degree of conductive hearing loss and requirement for surgical correction. The range of CT appearances was evaluated. Results: The IS discontinuity in 34/36 ears was felt to be due to incus erosion secondary to chronic otitis, on the basis of clinical history and otoscopic findings. The IS discontinuity was rarely evident prior to CT with long-process deficiency being identified in only 5/36 cases. The mean air bone gap was only 22.5 dB. The ossicular defect was surgically addressed in only four cases. The incus deficiency was confined to the lower-third on CT in 19/36 cases. Conclusion: When IS discontinuity is demonstrated within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid, the most likely aetiology is of acquired incus erosion due to chronic otitis media. The IS discontinuity on CT is usually not evident otoscopically. It usually results in only mild conductive hearing loss and the ossicular discontinuity was rarely surgically addressed in the present series.

  8. Etiología y manejo de la neuropatía diabética dolorosa Aetiology and management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Samper Bernal

    2010-09-01

    satisfactorio. El mantenimiento de una hemoglobina glicosilada entre 6,5 y 7,5% puede enlentecer e incluso prevenir la progresión de la neuropatía. En la actualidad las recomendaciones de tratamiento de la neuropatía diabética dolorosa se pueden observar en la tabla 5 y figura 1.Aetiology: Painful diabetic neuropathy affects approximately 25% of diabetic patients, those treated with insulin and/or glucose lowering drugs, and is characterised by presenting as a distal symmetric neuropathy associated with chronic pain. Pathophysiology The cause is generally vascular, which produces a lesion of the primary sensory nerves due to neuronal hypoxia and lack of nutrients. Symptoms: The onset is usually bilateral in the toes and feet. In cases where it is asymmetric, it progresses to be bilateral. It can gradually progress to the calves and the knees, in which case the patient may experience symptoms of pain and/or paresthesia both in the hands and feet ("glove-stocking" pattern. They describe the pain using diverse terms: burning, electric, deep, etc. Allodynia and hyperalgesia are less common. The pain intensity is usually gets worse at night. Other symptoms: vascular claudication, dysautonomic signs (skin colour, abnormal temperature, sweating, depression and anxiety, sleep disorders. Physical findings: Sensory loss and the loss or decrease in Achilles tendon reflex is characteristic in "glove-stocking", although some patients who only have small nerve fibres involvement may have normal reflexes and vibratory sensitivity. Diagnosis: It is clinical. There is no need for electro-physiological studies when the history and physical findings are consistent with the diagnosis of painful diabetic neuropathy. Natural history: The natural history of painful diabetic neuropathy varies and its clinical course unpredictable. In some patients, the pain may improve after months or years, while in others it persists and gets worse. Treatment: Due the great number of causal and contributing

  9. Analysis of high risk factors and aetiology distribution of premature infected with sepsis in hospital%早产儿院内感染败血症高危因素及病原学分布分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 刘俐; 魏伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the high risk factors and aetiology distribution of premature infected with sepsis in hospital. Methods:A ret-rospective survey of 3 360 cases of premature in our hospital was conducted to analyze the risk factors and aetiology distribution of premature infected with sepsis in hospital. Results:There were 3 360 cases of premature, 56 cases infected with sepsis in hospital, and the nosocomial infection rate was 1. 67 %. The blood of the 56 cases premature infected with sepsis in hospital cultivated 61 strains of nosophyte, among which gram-negative bacteria accounted for 40. 98%, gram-positive bacterium accounted for 45. 90%, and epiphyte accounted for 13. 12%. Gram-negative bacte-ria mainly contained Klebsiella pneumoniae, gram-positive bacterium mainly contained coagulase negative staphylococcus. Conclusion:The main risk factors of premature infected with sepsis in hospital are birth weight ( less than 1 500 g) , mechanical ventilation, central venous catheterization and parenteral nutrition time. Main nosophyte are Klebsiella pneumoniae and coagulase negative staphylococcus.%目的::分析早产儿院内感染败血症高危因素及病原学分布。方法:选取收治的3360例早产儿资料进行回顾性分析,分析早产儿发生院内感染败血症的危险因素及病原学分布。结果:3360例早产儿中发生医院感染败血症的患儿56例,院内感染发生率为1.67%。56例早产儿院内感染败血症血培养出病原菌61株,其中革兰氏阴性菌40.98%,革兰氏阳性菌45.90%,真菌13.12%。革兰氏阴性菌中以肺炎克雷伯杆菌为主;革兰氏阳性菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为主。结论:我院早产儿医院感染败血症的主要危险因素是出生体重﹤1500 g、机械通气、中心静脉置管和肠外营养时间;主要病原菌为肺炎克雷伯杆菌与凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌。

  10. Anorexia nervosa: aetiology, assessment, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Hay, Phillipa; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity. Recent years have brought advances in understanding of the underlying psychobiology that contributes to illness onset and maintenance. Genetic factors influence risk, psychosocial and interpersonal factors can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Substantial advances in treatment, particularly for adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa, point to the benefits of specialised family-based interventions. Adults with anorexia nervosa too have a realistic chance of achieving recovery or at least substantial improvement, but no specific approach has shown clear superiority, suggesting a combination of re-nourishment and anorexia nervosa-specific psychotherapy is most effective. To successfully fight this enigmatic illness, we have to enhance understanding of the underlying biological and psychosocial mechanisms, improve strategies for prevention and early intervention, and better target our treatments through improved understanding of specific disease mechanisms. PMID:26514083

  11. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  12. Aetiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Ostria, A; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C

    2000-03-25

    Two children with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), were studied by DNA analysis. DNA from liver biopsy samples from both patients, was amplified by PCR with broad primers specific for the Leishmania subgenus. DNA from the patient from Chiapas was also amplified with primers specific for the Leismania donovani complex and hybridised with a probe specific for L. donovani complex. The second patient, who is the first reported case of visceral leishmaniasis in the Mexican state of Tabasco, where localised cutaneous leishmaniasis and DCL predominate, had a co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The DNA from this patient was not amplified with primers specific for the L. donovani complex, did not hybridise with a probe specific for the L. donovani complex, but did hybridise with kDNA from a Mexican Leishmania mexicana strain used as a probe. We therefore, suggest that members of the L. donovani or L. mexicana complexes cause VL in Mexico. PMID:10708655

  13. Aetiological factors in left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateralisation associates the extremities and senses of one side of the body, which are connected by afferent and efferent pathways, with the primary motor and sensory areas of the hemisphere on the opposite side. Dominant laterality denotes the appearance of a dominant extremity or sense in the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Laterality is manifested both as right-handedness or left-handedness, which are functionally equivalent and symmetrical in the performance of activities. Right-handedness is significantly more common than left-handedness. Genetic theory is most widely accepted in explaining the onset of lateralisation. According to this theory, the models of brain organisation asymmetry (anatomical, functional, and biochemical are strongly, genetically determined. However, the inability to clearly demonstrate the association between genetic factors and left-handedness has led researchers to investigate the effects of the environment on left-handedness. Of particular interest are the intrauterine environment and the factors influencing foetal development, of which hormones and ultrasound exposure are the most significant. It has been estimated that an extra five cases of nonright-handed lateralisation can be expected in every 100 males who were exposed to ultrasound in utero compared to those who were not. Socio-cultural pressure on left-handed individuals was much more severe in the past, which is confirmed by scientific findings that left-handedness is present in 13% of individuals in their twenties, while in less than 1% of individuals in their eighties.

  14. Perinatal mental illness: definition, description and aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Michael W; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal mental illness is a significant complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. These disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, and postpartum psychosis, which usually manifests as bipolar disorder. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common, with prevalence rates for major and minor depression up to almost 20% during pregnancy and the first 3 months postpartum. Postpartum blues are a common but lesser manifestation of postpartum affective disturbance. Perinatal psychiatric disorders impair a woman's function and are associated with suboptimal development of her offspring. Risk factors include past history of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well psychosocial factors, such as ongoing conflict with the partner, poor social support, and ongoing stressful life events. Early symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania can be detected through screening in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Early detection and effective management of perinatal psychiatric disorders are critical for the welfare of women and their offspring. PMID:24140480

  15. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise;

    2007-01-01

    spinabifida (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome...

  16. Wound Pruritus: Prevalence, Aetiology and Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Upton D, Richardson C, Van Acker K, Andrews A and Springett K

    2013-01-01

    l O bjective: To review the literature into itching or pruritus, in relation to burns or other types of wound, with a focus on the physiological mechanisms underlying itching and the issues associated with itching in people with wounds. l Method: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar, including English-language papers published up to 2012. The search terms used were: [‘pruritus’ OR ‘itching’] OR [‘chronic’] AND [‘wounds’ OR â...

  17. Prevalence and aetiology of cataract in Punjab.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, A.; Milton, R C; Thyle, S

    1982-01-01

    Three districts in the Punjab plains were surveyed in 1976-7 for senile cataract and potential risk factors. The prevalence of senile cataract was 15.3% among 1269 persons examined who were aged 30 ang older, and 4.3% for all ages. These figures confirmed previous reports of high prevalence. The prevalence was 1% for ages 30-49 and increased markedly in the sixth and seventh decades to 67% for ages 70 and older. Univariate age-adjusted analyses of selected socioeconomic, demographic, dietary,...

  18. Adrenal Insufficiency - Aetiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal insufficiency is caused by either primary adrenal failure or by hypothalamic-pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis. Adrenal insufficiency, first codified in 1855 by Thomas Addison, remains relevant in 2014 because of its lethal nature. Though, it is a rare disease but is life threatening when overlooked. Main presenting symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia and weight loss are nonspecific, thus diagnosis is often delayed. The diagnostic work-up is well established but some pitfalls remain. The diagnosis is adequately established by the 250 μg ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in most cases. Glucocorticoids provide life saving treatment but long-term quality of life is impaired, perhaps because therapy is not given in a physiologic way. Dehydroepiandrosterone-replacement therapy has been introduced that could help to restore quality of life. It may be useful in pubertal girls, but not in adults. Monitoring of glucocorticoid-replacement is difficult due to lack of objective methods of assessment and is therefore largely based on clinical grounds. Thus, long-term management of patients with adrenal insufficiency remains a challenge, requiring an experienced specialist.

  19. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  20. JC polyomavirus in the aetiology and pathophysiology of glial tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftimov, Tihomir; Enchev, Yavor; Tsekov, Iliya; Simeonov, Plamen; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Encheva, Elitsa

    2016-01-01

    Glial brain tumours with their poor prognosis, limited treatment modalities and unclear detailed pathophysiology represent a significant health concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate and describe the possible role of the human polyomavirus JC as an underlying cancerogenic or co-cancerogenic factor in the complex processes of glial tumour induction and development. Samples from 101 patients with glial tumours were obtained during neurosurgical tumour resection. Small tissue pieces were taken from several areas of the histologically verified solid tumour core. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and subsequent amplification reactions of sequences from the JC viral genome. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for detection and quantification of its non-coding control region (NCCR) and gene encoding the regulatory protein Large T antigen (LT). An average of 37.6% of all patients was found to be LT positive, whereas only 6.9% tested positive for NCCR. The analysis of the results demonstrated significant variance between the determined LT prevalence and the rate for NCCR, with a low starting copy number in all positive samples and threshold cycles in the range of 36 to 42 representing viral load in the range from 10 to 1000 copies/μl. The results most probably indicate incomplete JC viral replication. Under such conditions, mutations in the host cell genome may be accumulated due to interference of the virus with the host cell machinery, and eventually malignant transformation may occur. PMID:26560882

  1. Aetiology of teenage childbearing: reasons for familial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, P O; Lichtenstein, P; Cnattingius, S

    2000-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of the genetic and environmental factors to the risk of teenage childbearing, and to study whether life style, socio-economic conditions, and personality traits could explain possible familial effects. We linked two population-based registers: the Swedish Twin Register and the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The study covers female twin pairs born between 1953 and 1958, having their first infant before the age of 30 years (n = 1885). In order to separate familial effects from other environmental influences, and genetic effects from shared environmental effects, only complete twin pairs with known zygosity were included, in all 260 monozygotic and 370 dizygotic twin pairs. We used quantitative genetic analyses to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental effects for liability to teenage childbearing. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of life style, socio-economic situation, and personality on the probability of teenage childbearing, and to study whether psychosocial factors could explain possible familial effects. Fifty-nine percent (0-76%) of the variance in being a teenage mother was attributable to heritable factors; 0% (0-49%) was due to shared environmental factors; and 41% (23-67%) was explained by non-shared environmental factors. Thus, the data were consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation of teenage childbearing is completely explained by genetic factors, although the alternative hypothesis that familial aggregation is entirely explained by shared environmental factors cannot be ruled out. Significant effects of smoking habits, housing conditions, and educational level were found in relation to liability to teenage childbearing. However, the familial effects on risk of teenage childbearing were not mediated through similarities in life style and socio-economic factors. When studying risk factors for teenage childbearing, it is recommended to include life style and socio-economic variables as well as information about family history of teenage childbearing. Twin Research (2000) 3, 23-27. PMID:10808237

  2. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  3. Aetiology and Pathogenesis Studies on Osteoporosis in Bactrian Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-ping; QU Ya-ling; MA Xiao-jun; ZHANG You-jia; CAO Sui-zhong; YANG De-bing; CHI Bin; HU Qian-de

    2003-01-01

    A disease characterized by emaciation, pica, lameness and liability to fracture in bactrian camelfrom gravel desert pasture was described. Analyses of mineral elements in soil, water and forage from the af-fected and normal areas as well as in blood, hair and parts of tissues from normal and diseased camel, togetherwith a pathological study were carried out to define the nature and major causes of the disease. The relatedblood indices were also measured. The result indicated that copper and phosphorus in the soil and forage fromthe affected area were significantly lower than those of the normal area (P<0.01). The levels of phosphorusin the blood, hair and rib reduced significantly in affected camels. The concentrations of PTH, T3, T4, creat-inine(Crt) and the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum rosemarkedly (P<0.01). Bone injury was characterized by osteoporosis. The degenerative and necrotic lesions ofliver and kidney were common. In addition, slight demylination of brains and spinal cords were showed byhistopathological and ultrastructural studies. It is concluded that the disease is caused mainly by phosphorusdeficiency in the food chain.

  4. The aetiology of deep tissue injury: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Joanna

    2016-08-11

    Deep tissue injury affects patients of all ages in a variety of healthcare settings. It is therefore essential that nurses are aware of the underlying pathogenesis, in order to accurately assess the pressure ulcer risk of vulnerable patients, and to subsequently reduce patient harm. The majority of pressure ulcers are avoidable, however, a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors can contribute towards the development of deep tissue injury. Understanding the body's internal responses to external pressure will enable nurses to recognise that a visual assessment alone may not necessarily identify patients at risk of deep tissue damage. This article reviews the evidence for the internal causative mechanisms of deep tissue injury, while linking to clinical practice and pressure ulcer prevention. PMID:27523755

  5. Studies on simple goitre epidemiology and aetiology in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goiter. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in the South), Atbara and Dongula (in the north), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre ). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age 6-12 years old. All the children were clinically examined for the presence of goiter using WHO palpation method. Blood samples were randomly collected from 360 children (30-37) from each selected city irrespective of their thyroid status or gender. Serum samples were analyzed for the concentration of T4, T3, TSH, and Tg. Casual urine samples were also collected from the same selected subjects. Urine samples were analyzed for iodine and thiocyanate concentrations. Water samples were collected from each school and analyzed for the concentration of Ca, Mg, Cl, F and total Hardness. The results indicated that the overall total goiter rate was 40.62%. The highest goiter rate was found in Kosti town (77.67%) and the lowest in Omdurman Khartoum state (12.22%). The overall median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 6.55 μg/dl. Iodine deficiency was detected in 70.28% of the children and there were great variations in the median UIE from region to anther started from as low as 2.70μg/d1 in Kosti town 46.40 μg/d1 in Port Sudan city (at the cost of the Red Sed). The overall median concentration of urinary thiocyanate was 0.37 mg/d1. There were also variations in the median levels of urinary thiocyanate from city to another and slightly exceeded the cut off point (0.0.46 mg/d1) in pupils from Wau and Nyala cities. The Mean± SD serum concentration of thyroid related hormones T4, T3, TSH and Tg were 103.23±28.15 n mole/1, 1.942.0.52±0.52 n mole/1,2.25±1.58 mu/I and 38.0±22.1 ng/ml respectively. They were all within the normal reference range. Water samples analyses indicated that, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, chloride and fluoride ions were present in high concentrations that exceeded in some samples the maximum permissible concentrations. There were strong correlations between water chemical components and the thyroid related hormones as well as with the goitre prevalence. The results of this study indicated that the high concentrations of water chemicals mainly Ca and Cl are strongly interfering with the iodine metabolism and consequent thyroid function and anatomy. There were no statistical correlations between goitre prevalence and urinary iodine or thiocyanate execrations. The results of thyroid related hormones indicated that serum T4, T3 and TSH were in the normal rang in iodine deficient pupils. measurement of these hormones did no reflect the iodine status or goiter prevalence in the populations studied. Thus, determination of these hormones was not the suitable indicator for goiter monitoring programs. Although there was no statistical correlation between serum thyroglobulin concentration and the prevalence of goitre, the highest serum thyroglobulin concentrations were found in Kosti where the iodine intake was minimum, and in Port Sudan where high concentrations of water chemicals overt antithyroid activity. The serum thyroglobulin level in this study as well as the urinary iodine concentration can be taken as base-line data for the iodine supplementation program.(Author)

  6. Exogenous hormones in the aetiology of cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, M P

    1984-07-01

    Both animal experimental work and epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory research on the effects of endogenous hormones in the human have made it clear that some influence of administered female sex hormones on the risk of certain cancers would be anticipated, and this has turned out to be the case. This review focuses on the administration of hormones during pregnancy, around the time of the menopause, and to prevent pregnancy. In the daughters who were exposed in utero to stilbestrol during the 1950s and 1960s, the most important effect is the development of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina or cervix. Few cases of this disease have been reported before puberty, but the cumulative risk thereafter up to the age of 24 years is estimated to be between 1.4 and 4/10,000 exposed. Much less attention has been paid to the mothers who actually took the stilbestrol than to their daughters, but the published data fail to provide any convincing evidence of an increased risk of either breast or reporductive cancer among them. Regarding the administration of hormones around the time of menopause, it is well established that unopposed estrogen therapy in menopausal women can cause endometrial cancer. This has been demonstrated in a large number of case control studies reported since 1975. Most of these studies were conducted in the US and most concern the drup Premarin (conjugated equine estrogens). Some cohort studies also have been reported, and they largely support the results of the case control studies. There is now little doubt that combined oral contraceptives (OCs) protect against both epithelial ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. Preliminary findings in the major cohort studies concerned with the longterm effects of OC use also are encouraging. A series of large case control studies conducted during the 1970s showed clearly that there is no general association between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk, but these large studies included few women with appreciable OC use at an early age and accordingly the publication by Pike et al. in 1981 caused much concern. Pike's study involved 163 women in Los Angeles County in whom breast cancer has been diagnosed at age 32 or less, together with a like number of neighborhood controls. Vessey et al. (1982) and the Centers for Disease control subsequently published results which did not support the California findings. Preliminary results from a new case control study conducted in Oxford and in London since 1980 suggest an increased risk of breast cancer in young women who have prolonged OC use before 1st pregnancy. The situation is very confusing and it may be some time before there is a conclusive answer. In a large cohort study conducted in Los Angeles, rates of progression from cervical dysplasia to carcinoma in situ were much higher in women using Ovulen than in women using IUDs. PMID:6379176

  7. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Sadhan K; Saha Dilip K; Roy Alok K

    1995-01-01

    Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%), scabies (22.4%) and eczema (17.6%) were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%), popular urticaria with insect bite (4%), vitiligo (3.4%), miliaria (2.8%), nevus (1.6%). Other dermatoses (8%) were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, a...

  8. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%, scabies (22.4% and eczema (17.6% were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%, popular urticaria with insect bite (4%, vitiligo (3.4%, miliaria (2.8%, nevus (1.6%. Other dermatoses (8% were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, angular stomatitis, pruritus vulvae, psoriasis, candidiasis, condylomatalata, fixed drug relation, tinea capitis and corporis, phrynoderma, alopecia areata, phimosis, geographic tongue, trichotillomania, canitis, pediculosis, hypertrophic scar and pityriasis versicolor.

  9. Facial Erythema of Rosacea - Aetiology, Different Pathophysiologies and Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Martin; Schmelz, Martin; Schauber, Jürgen

    2016-06-15

    Rosacea is a common chronic skin condition that displays a broad diversity of clinical manifestations. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of the four subtypes are not completely elucidated, the key elements often present are augmented immune responses of the innate and adaptive immune system, and neurovascular dysregulation. The most common primary feature of all cutaneous subtypes of rosacea is transient or persistent facial erythema. Perilesional erythema of papules or pustules is based on the sustained vasodilation and plasma extravasation induced by the inflammatory infiltrates. In contrast, transient erythema has rapid kinetics induced by trigger factors independent of papules or pustules. Amongst the current treatments for facial erythema of rosacea, only the selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine 0.33% topical gel (Mirvaso®) is approved. This review aims to discuss the potential causes, different pathophysiologies and current treatment options to address the unmet medical needs of patients with facial erythema of rosacea. PMID:26714888

  10. Stemmebåndsparese--aetiologi og forløb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Faber, Christian; Grøntved, Ågot Møller

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The etiology of vocal fold palsy (VFP) is varied, and both Danish and foreign studies report variable frequencies of causes. We have evaluated etiologies of both unilateral (UVFP) and bilateral palsy (BVFP) and also analyzed the outcome of the palsies. As far as we know, our material...

  11. [The aetiology of generalized alopecia in young calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I; Mayr, S; Rademacher, G; Klee, W

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test for correlations between alopecia and ruminal drinking in young calves. 331 calves up to an age of 31 days were tested for evidence of generalized hair loss daily during their stay in the clinic. Incidence of diarrhoea and the results of ruminal fluid and blood analysis were compared between the groups with and without alopecia. Calves with alopecia showed a significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea and of ruminal acidosis persisting for at least 24 hours. Blood analysis revealed significant differences in degree of acidosis, in concentrations of D-lactate, urea, and creatinine in serum as well as in the activities of glutathione peroxidase, aspartate amino transferase, and creatine kinase. Alopecia in calves is correlated to longer periods of diseases, which are known to be accompanied by the production of D-lactate in the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhoea and ruminal drinking. The question, whether alopecia is due to formation of toxic substances or to deficiency of essential substances can not be answered. PMID:17642324

  12. New onset seizures in the elderly: aetiology and prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Timmons, S

    2012-02-03

    Late onset epilepsy is increasing in incidence. These patients often have significant underlying morbidity. This retrospective study in a tertiary referral centre identified 68 patients aged 65 years or older, with new onset seizures over a four-year period. 81% of patients (n = 55) were followed up at an average of 2.7 years post diagnosis. 38% of patients had evidence of cerebrovascular disease (CT visualised focal infarction, haemorrhage or small vessel ischaemia in 32%, clinical diagnosis with normal CT brain in 6%). No patient was found to have a space-occupying lesion. Of the 55 patients followed up, 45% of these had died at a mean age of 82 years old and 1.9 years post diagnosis (range 12 hours to 5 years). Three patients died as a direct result of seizures (trauma and sepsis). 14 patients died of clearly unrelated causes. Eight patients died from underlying vascular disease or Alzheimer\\'s dementia. Patients who died during follow-up were on average 3.4 years older at the time of diagnosis than survivors (p< 0.05). Patients with atrial fibrillation at the time of diagnosis, had increased mortality (relative risk 2.53; 95% C.I. 1.19 - 5.36), but they were older than those without atrial fibrillation. At the time of follow up, 92% of those taking anti-convulsants were maintained seizure free on anticonvulsant monotherapy.

  13. Bacterial infections in Lilongwe, Malawi: aetiology and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoka Mwai H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life-threatening infections present major challenges for health systems in Malawi and the developing world because routine microbiologic culture and sensitivity testing are not performed due to lack of capacity. Use of empirical antimicrobial therapy without regular microbiologic surveillance is unable to provide adequate treatment in the face of emerging antimicrobial resistance. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in order to inform treatment choices and generate hospital-wide baseline data. Methods Culture and susceptibility testing was performed on various specimens from patients presenting with possible infectious diseases at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi. Results Between July 2006 and December 2007 3104 specimens from 2458 patients were evaluated, with 60.1% from the adult medical service. Common presentations were sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and abscess. An etiologic agent was detected in 13% of patients. The most common organisms detected from blood cultures were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Streptococcus pneumoniae, whereas Streptococcus pneumoniae and Cryptococcus neoformans were most frequently detected from cerebrospinal fluid. Haemophilus influenzae was rarely isolated. Resistance to commonly used antibiotics was observed in up to 80% of the isolates while antibiotics that were not commonly in use maintained susceptibility. Conclusions There is widespread resistance to almost all of the antibiotics that are empirically used in Malawi. Antibiotics that have not been widely introduced in Malawi show better laboratory performance. Choices for empirical therapy in Malawi should be revised accordingly. A microbiologic surveillance system should be established and prudent use of antimicrobials promoted to improve patient care.

  14. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  15. Ataxia and deafness in a young male: An unusual aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of 18 year old male with tremors of hands, deafness, tendency to fall while walking, drowsiness and double vision of total duration 1½ years. He had internuclear ophthalmoplegia, broken saccades, hypertonia and hyperreflexia of all four limbs, intention tremors, signs of gait and limb ataxia. Pupillary reactions and fundus examination were normal and signs of meningeal irritation or sensory neurological deficit were absent. MRI head and cervical spine with gadolinium enhancement revealed demyelination as evident from multiple oblong foci isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences in corpus callosum, sub-cortical white matter, right thalamus, pons and periaqueductal region of midbrain. Ill-defined linear hyperintense signals were observed in cervical spinal cord. No skeletal abnormality was noted in the skull or cervical spine. Oligoclonal bands were present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were abnormal, although visual evoked potentials were in normal range. A diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS was made fulfilling the revised criteria as laid down. In view of its presentation, it is a unique case of PPMS from India.

  16. Are congenital vertebral anomalies and spina bifida cystica aetiologically related?

    OpenAIRE

    Lendon, R G; Wynne-Davies, R; Lendon, M

    1981-01-01

    Radiological records of 104 patients with multiple vertebral anomalies without apparent spina bifida and 112 infants with spina bifida cystica were surveyed and the incidences of hemivertebrae and of rib, vertebral body, and vertebral arch fusions were recorded. The distributions of these four anomalies along the vertebral axis were found not to be statistically different between the two age groups. This is additional evidence to support the hypothesis that multiple vertebral anomalies and an...

  17. Prevalence and Aetiology of Congenitally Deafblind People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    were found. Causes of congenital deafblindness were different among adults compared to causes among children. Rubella syndrome (28%, n = 36) and Down syndrome (8%, n = 10) were the largest groups among people above 18 years of age. Among children CHARGE syndrome (16%, n = 13) was the largest group...

  18. Extracranial epidural emphysema: pathway, aetiology, diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Cloran, F; Bui-Mansfield, L T

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial epidural emphysema is an uncommon phenomenon that refers to the presence of gas within the epidural space. As an isolated finding, it is typically benign, but it can be a secondary sign of more ominous disease processes, such as pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum and epidural abscess. Although the phenomenon has been cited in case reports, a comprehensive review of this topic is lacking in the radiology literature. The authors' aim is to report our experience with extracranial epidur...

  19. Sleep disturbances in menopausal women: Aetiology and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Sleep deteriorates with age. The menopause is often a turning point for women's sleep, as complaints of insomnia increase significantly thereafter. Insomnia can occur as a secondary disorder to hot flashes, mood disorders, medical conditions, psychosocial factors, underlying intrinsic sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or restless legs syndrome (RLS), or it can be a primary disorder. Since unrecognized OSA can have dramatic health-related consequences, menopausal women complaining of persisting sleep disturbances suggesting primary insomnia or intrinsic sleep disorders should be referred to a sleep specialist for a comprehensive sleep assessment. Patients suffering from primary insomnia will be preferentially treated with non-benzodiazepine hypnotics or melatonin, or with cognitive behavioural therapy. Insomnia related to vasomotor symptoms can be improved with hormone replacement therapy. Gabapentin and isoflavones have also shown efficacy in small series but their precise role has yet to be established. In patients suffering from OSA, non-pharmacological therapy will be applied: continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, according to the severity of the disorder. In the case of RLS, triggering factors must be avoided; dopaminergic agonists are the first-line treatment for moderate to severe disease. In conclusion, persisting sleep complaints should be addressed in menopausal women, in order to correctly diagnose the specific causal disorder and to prescribe treatments that have been shown to improve sleep quality, quality of life and long-term health status. PMID:26002789

  20. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: AETIOLOGY, CLINICAL FEATURES, PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Bleotu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is characterized by pathogen colonization and endocardium invasion, causing the formation of vegetations - amorphous aggregates, composed of platelets, fibrin, microorganisms and inflammatory cells. IE microbiological aspects are variable from country to country, reason for which, the purpose of this review was to integrate some original data concerning the etiology and antimicrobial resistance markers in microbial strains isolated from infections occurred in patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases in the general microbiological picture IE (i.e. diagnosis, etiology and treatment. In our hospital, the etiology of positive blood cultures and prosthetic devices associated infections occurred in patients with cardiovascular diseases is dominated by Gram-positive cocci, especially S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, followed by Gram-negative fermentative and non-fermentative bacilli. The major concerns regarding the resistance markers of the isolated strains are the methicillin and macrolides lincosamides streptogramines resistance exceeding 50%, both in S. aureus and CNS and the aminoglycosides high level resistance (30% in E. faecium strains.

  1. Vitamin D and autoimmunity: new aetiological and therapeutic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Arnson, Yoav; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin D is frequently prescribed by rheumatologists to prevent and treat osteoporosis. Several observations have shown that vitamin D inhibits proinflammatory processes by suppressing the enhanced activity of immune cells that take part in the autoimmune reaction. Moreover, recent evidence strongly suggests that vitamin D supplementation may be therapeutically beneficial, particularly for Th1‐mediated autoimmune disorders. Some reports imply that vitamin D may even be preventive in certain ...

  2. Helicobacter pylori in colorectal neoplasms: is there an aetiological relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharakan Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study was carried out to determine whether Helicobacter pylori can be detected in normal colon or in association with colorectal neoplasia. Methods Paraffin processed colonic tissue blocks of normal colonic mucosa (n = 60, and patients diagnosed as adenoma (n = 60, and adenocarcinoma (n = 60 were retrieved from our archive; the adenoma group included tubular (n = 20, tubulovillous (n = 20 and villous adenomas (n = 20. 4 μm sections were stained by immunohistochemical methods using anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies (polyclonal NCL-HPp and monoclonal NCL-C-jejuni. Results Significant numbers of Helicobacter pylori were identified in tubular adenomas (OR = 11.13; 95%CI = 1.62–76.70, tubulovillous adenomas (OR = 10.45; 95%CI = 1.52–71.52 and adenocarcinomas (OR = 8.13; 95%CI = 1.40–46.99 compared to controls: there was no association in numbers of Helicobacter pylori and villous adenomas (OR = 2.95; 95%CI = 0.29–9.96. Conclusion We conclude that although, in this pilot study, there appears to be an association in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with some, but not all, colorectal neoplasms, we can not infer causality from these results. These findings need to be further substantiated with a prospective study and the use of molecular biological techniques to determine a causal association.

  3. Den dysplastiske hofte I. Aetiologi, epidemiologi og diagnostik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance scanning, computer tomography, and dynamic ultrasound-scans have recently unveiled a broad spectrum of morphological anomalies of the dysplastic hip. The possibility of individualized treatment of late diagnosed and residual dysplasia of the hip in childhood and adulthood has...

  4. Nescient Aetiology of Splenic Laceration - An Enigma Unveiled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, Saraswathy; Sridevi, Hanaganahalli B; Khadilkar, Urmila N; Adiga, Deepa

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is a common endemic disease prevalent in developing countries like India that presents with wide spectrum of clinical symptoms and complications. Splenic rupture is an uncommon but life-threatening complication which can be either spontaneous or as a result of trauma. We present a case of 50-year-old man with left upper quadrant pain following a polytrauma. Based on the radiological evidence of laceration and rupture of markedly enlarged spleen, emergency splenectomy was performed. Postoperative haematological evaluation established the co-infection of Plasmodium falciparum and vivax with high parasitaemia and marked thrombocytosis. The incidences of splenic rupture due to malaria are under-reported. In endemic areas, the management of splenic rupture in malaria should be focused on splenic preservation, thereby reducing the risk of future attacks of malaria in those patients who are highly susceptible to Plasmodium species and also reducing the incidence of overwhelming sepsis. PMID:27134879

  5. Testing an aetiological model of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, DA; Parkkinen, L.; O'Sullivan, SS; Spratt, A; Shah, A; Davey, CC; Bremner, FD; Revesz, T; Williams, DR; Lees, AJ; Schrag, A

    2011-01-01

    The exact pathogenesis of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease is not known but an integrated model has been proposed that includes impaired visual input and central visual processing, impaired brainstem regulation of sleep–wake cycle with fluctuating vigilance, intrusion of rapid eye movement dream imagery into wakefulness and emergence of internally generated imagery, cognitive dysfunction and influence of dopaminergic drugs. In a clinical study, we assessed motor and non-motor...

  6. Presacral masses in children: presentation, aetiology and risk of malignancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A.L. Bartels; P.J. van Koperen; A.F.W. van der Steeg; E.E. Deurloo; W.A. Bemelman; H.A. Heij

    2011-01-01

    The risk of malignant changes in presacral tumours in children was investigated in relation to age at diagnosis, type of presentation and origin of the tumour. A retrospective review was carried out in 17 patients surgically treated for congenital presacral masses over a 22-year period. Constipation

  7. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis: A new thesis of its aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is drawn to the mode of development of spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis and to the fact that the articular processes of the small vertebrae can exercise an action on the pars interarticularis only if the latter are in oblique position. It is pointed out that the requisite obliqueness of the pars interarticularis is only possible in conjunction with lordosis, so that the latter is an essential condition for the pathogenesis of spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis. It is also pointed out that excessive load due to upright position of the subject is the triggering factor for spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, because it is only from this position that the articular processes of the small vertebrae can exercise an action on the pars interarticularis. (orig./MBC)

  8. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis: A new thesis of its aetiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1988-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the mode of development of spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis and to the fact that the articular processes of the small vertebrae can exercise an action on the pars interarticularis only if the latter are in oblique position. It is pointed out that the requisite obliqueness of the pars interarticularis is only possible in conjunction with lordosis, so that the latter is an essential condition for the pathogenesis of spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis. It is also pointed out that excessive load due to upright position of the subject is the triggering factor for spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, because it is only from this position that the articular processes of the small vertebrae can exercise an action on the pars interarticularis. (orig./MBC).

  9. Ascaris lumbricoides: an unusual aetiology of gastric perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shahana; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides is common in the tropical countries, particularly in children. A wide range of clinical presentations are reported for GI ascariasis in both adults and children. We report a case of gastric perforation due to Ascaris, a rare presentation.

  10. Is sunlight an aetiological agent in the genesis of retinoblastoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of unilateral, but not bilateral, retinoblastoma in human populations at different geographical locations increases significantly with ambient erythemal dose of ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight. This supports the hypothesis that sunlight plays a role in retinoblastoma formation. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

  11. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  12. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Štoković; Vesna Gantner; Miroslav Benić; Vlatko Rupić; Bruna Tariba; Marijan Cergolj; Antun Kostelić

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identifie...

  13. The aetiology of vaginal symptoms in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Desgrottes, Tania; Cutler, Lauren; Cutler, David; Devarajan, Karthika; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Vaginal symptoms are a common chief complaint amongst women visiting outpatient clinics in rural Haiti. A systematic sample of 206 consecutive women over age 18 with gynaecological symptoms underwent gynaecologic examination and laboratory testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV infection, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Among 206 women, 174 (84%) presented with vaginal discharge, 165 (80%) with vaginal itching, 123 (60%) with vaginal pain or dysuria, and 18 (9%) with non-traumatic vaginal sores or boils. Laboratory results were positive forChlamydia trachomatisin 5.4% (11/203), syphilis in 3.5% (7/202), HIV in 1.0% (2/200), andNeisseria gonorrhoeaein 1.0% (2/203). Among those that had microscopy, hyphae suggestive of candidiasis were visualized in 2.2% (1/45) and no cases of trichomoniasis were diagnosed 0% (0/45). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 28.3% (13/46). The prevalence of chlamydia was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-17.7) times greater among those 25 years of age and under (10.8%) than those older (2.3%). Chlamydia and bacterial vaginosis were the most common sexually transmitted infection and vaginal condition, respectively, in this study of rural Haitian adult women. The higher risk of chlamydia in younger women suggests education and screening programmes in young women should be considered. PMID:24352116

  14. The aetiology, pathogenesis and control of theileriosis in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W I

    2015-08-01

    The Theileria genus includes a large number of species of tick-borne parasites that infect domestic animals and wildlife species, predominantly ruminants. These range from species, such as T. parva and T. annulata, which cause acute lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle resulting in high levels of mortality, to others that are non-pathogenic. In the last decade, several new pathogenic species of Theileria have been identified and pathogenic strains of other previously low-pathogenic species have emerged. Theileria parasites are characterised by developmental stages within leukocytes and erythrocytes. The capacity of the most pathogenic species to undergo extensive multiplication during intra-leukocyte development is central to their ability to cause disease. However, this is not the sole property responsible for disease, as illustrated by T. parva, which grows in a similar mannerin buffalo cells butdoes notcause disease inthisspecies. Because of the highly pathogenic nature of these parasites in livestock and the susceptibility of young animals to disease, control of the diseases is challenging. Control by chemotherapy and prevention of tick infestation has proved expensive and difficult to sustain. Vaccines using live parasites are available for T. parva and T. annulata and have been used with some success in the field. However, their widespread use has been hampered by practical constraints in production and distribution of the vaccines. Studies of the immune responses in immune cattle have helped to elucidate the protective immune responses and identified a number of parasite antigens that are currently being explored for development of alternative vaccines. PMID:26601460

  15. Epigenetic modulators, modifiers and mediators in cancer aetiology and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Andrew P; Koldobskiy, Michael A; Göndör, Anita

    2016-05-01

    This year is the tenth anniversary of the publication in this journal of a model suggesting the existence of 'tumour progenitor genes'. These genes are epigenetically disrupted at the earliest stages of malignancies, even before mutations, and thus cause altered differentiation throughout tumour evolution. The past decade of discovery in cancer epigenetics has revealed a number of similarities between cancer genes and stem cell reprogramming genes, widespread mutations in epigenetic regulators, and the part played by chromatin structure in cellular plasticity in both development and cancer. In the light of these discoveries, we suggest here a framework for cancer epigenetics involving three types of genes: 'epigenetic mediators', corresponding to the tumour progenitor genes suggested earlier; 'epigenetic modifiers' of the mediators, which are frequently mutated in cancer; and 'epigenetic modulators' upstream of the modifiers, which are responsive to changes in the cellular environment and often linked to the nuclear architecture. We suggest that this classification is helpful in framing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cancer. PMID:26972587

  16. INCIDENCE, AETIOLOGY AND PATTERN OF MANDIBULAR FRACTURES IN PONDICHERRY

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik; Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The mandible is the second most commonly fractured part of the maxillofacial region after nasal bones. The incidence, etiology and pattern of mandibular fractures vary considerably among the different study population, there is a need to evaluate aspects of mandibular trauma in Pondicherry. This study was undertaken to evaluate the results of mandibular fractures treated in a population of Pondicherry. PATIENT AND METHOD A total of sixty nine patients t...

  17. Úroveň vybraných kondičních schopností žáků základních škol praktických v závislosti na etiologii jejich intelektového postižení Level of selected fitness abilities of pupils at practical elementary schools in relation to the aetiology of their intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lejčarová

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cílem realizované studie bylo zjistit úroveň vybraných kondičních schopností 153 žáků středního školního věku (10,62 ± 0,56 roků na základních školách praktických v Praze s ohledem na etiologii jejich intelektového postižení. K posouzení úrovně motorické výkonnosti se zřetelem ke kondičním schopnostem byla použita testová baterie Unifittest (6–60. Zcela jednoznačné diference byly zjištěny mezi žáky s polygenně podmíněným nižším intelektovým nadáním v kombinaci s výchovnou nepodnětností, popř. zanedbaností, kteří dosáhli nejlepších výkonů, a žáky s multihandicapem, u nichž byly naopak zaznamenány nejnižší motorické výkony. The objective of the study was to determine the level of the selected fitness abilities of 153 pupils (aged 10.62 ± 0.56 years at practical elementary schools in Prague in relation to the aetiology of their intellectual disability. A unifittest battery (6–60 was used to assess the level of motor performance with regard to fitness abilities. Clear differences were found between pupils with polygenetically determined lower intellectual abilities in combination with an unstimulating upbringing or neglect, who achieved the best results, and pupils with multiple disabilities, who recorded the lowest motor performance.

  18. Caracterización etiológica y de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos en pacientes pediátricos con infección urinaria adquirida en la comunidad. Fundación Clínica Noel, Medellín, 2009;Aetiological characterization and antibiotic sensitivity patterns in paediatric patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection. Fundación Clínica Noel, Medellín, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kepa Balparda Arias, MD*

    2011-01-01

    patterns of the strains most prevalent in his or her working place. Methods: This is aretrospective, descriptive study in which the institution's databases were reviewed in search for information concerning urine tests and cultures performed at the laboratory. The information was the processed and analysed focusing on information regarding aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Results: The most common aetiologicagent was Escherichia coli (72.5%, followed by Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococcus faecalis. Those antibiotics with greatest sensitivity rates were ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and amikacin. Conclusions: It seems reasonable that empirical treatment for uncomplicated UTI in paediatric population should be started with gentamicin, except in those children under two years of age, in with both gentamicin and amikacin could be used without difference.Ceftriaxone should be saved for complicated or resistant strains.

  19. Diseases of the nasal cavity in the dog. Aetiology, symptomatology, diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of intravital differential diagnostics of diseases of the nasal cavity was verified in 40 dogs. Nasal cavities were examined by radiography and tissue samples were taken under endoscopic guidance using bioptic forceps. Results of 40 bacteriological cultivation were compared to those obtained by cytology and histology. There were 16 confirmed bacterial rhinitis cases without the presence of fungi and changes typical of neoplastic processes. Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus canis and Pasteurella canis were cultured most frequently. Mycotic infections were found in 7 cases of chronic rhinitis. The genus Aspergillus amounted to more than 85 % of mycotic agent detection. Fungi occured as a complication to a foreign body in the nasal cavity in two cases. Malignant neoplasia were prevailing (77.8 %), osteosarcoma, lymphosarcoma and adenocarcinoma were frequent neoplasia found in the nasal cavity of the dog

  20. Space-time clustering of childhood leukaemia in Greece: evidence supporting a viral aetiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Petridou, E.; Revinthi, K.; Alexander, F E; Haidas, S; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-01-01

    The method introduced by Knox for evaluation of space-time clustering has been applied to 872 cases of childhood (0-14 year old) leukaemia diagnosed in Greece over the 10 year period 1980-89. Greek towns are characterised by substantial population mixing due to internal migration, whereas there is relative isolation in mountainous rural areas. Predetermined space (5 km) and time (1 year) limits were used on the basis of previous reports in order to define the clustering cell. There is highly ...

  1. Lipothymia and Syncope—Aetiology and Outcome in a Prehospital Setting: A Retrospective Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine Thorhauge; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    MECU runs registered, 678 were assignments in which the patients were diagnosed with lipothymia or syncope (3.8%). 578 patients (85%) were admitted to hospital. 278 of the patients were discharged directly from the emergency department, while 271 were admitted to a ward. 112 patients refused treatment...

  2. Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Andrew R; Luben, Robert; Olsen, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of...... was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles. Results: A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were...

  3. Genetic Evidence Implicates the Immune System and Cholesterol Metabolism in the Aetiology of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L; Holmans, P. A.; Hamshere, M. L.; Harold, D.; Moskvina, V; Ivanov, D.; Pocklington, A.; Abraham, R; Hollingworth, P.; Sims, R.; A. Gerrish; J.S. Pahwa; Jones, N.; Stretton, A.; Morgan, A R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Late Onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes. Methodology: We applied a recently developed tool for mining GWAS data for biologically meaningful information to a LOAD ...

  4. Early Childhood Aetiology of Mental Health Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jordana K.; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Methods: "Design" Longitudinal,…

  5. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown. PMID:27043343

  6. Bacterial aetiological agents of intra-amniotic infections and preterm birth in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Louis Mendz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organised and re-analysed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonise the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and points to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion.

  7. STUDY OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN CHILDREN: ITS AETIOLOGY, CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To determine the incidence , age & sex ratio , analyse the spectrum of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in its aetiopathology , complications including mortality , prognostic factors and the role of dialysis in the management. METHODS : This prospective observational study was conducted on serial cases of 30 patients a dmitted in Paediatrics department from Feb 2012 - Aug 2014 (30 months. RESULTS : The incidence of AKI was 0.44%. Children in age group of 0 - 4 yrs were affected most , predominantly males. Distribution of AKI according to aetiopathogenesis was Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN 50% , Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS 19.8% , Glomerulonephritis (GN 13.2% , Obstructive uropathy 9.9% and Acute on Chronic renal failure (CRF 6.6%. Dialysis was required in 53.3% of patients. Mortality was 57%. Patients with complications of sepsis , neurological & respiratory problems , hyperkalemia , metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal bleeding were associated with high mortality. CONCLUSIONS : AKI is a common life threatening condition seen in childhood. Early referral , proper assessment , adequate & timely treatment and prompt institution of dialysis helps in decreasing mortality.

  8. The usefulness of tomodensitometry in the aetiological diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome [hypercorticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using tomodensitometry it is possible to observe, during the same examination, the pituitary region and the adrenal glands. Possible abnormalities in these regions can be interpreted to determine the cause of spontaneous hypercorticism and in this way treatment can be better adapted to the situation

  9. Driveline infections in patients supported with a HeartMate II: Incidence, aetiology and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Tobias Peter Zwergius; Moser, Claus; Sander, Kaare;

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity of 27% and C-reactive protein (CRP) a sensitivity of 28%. In 22 cases of driveline infections plasma pro-calcitonin was found to be normal. Conclusion. Driveline infections are common in HMII recipients but primarily remain superficial and are reasonably easy to manage. Infectious agents mostly...

  10. Cognitive Ability, Self-Assessed Intelligence and Personality: Common Genetic but Independent Environmental Aetiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratko, Denis; Butkovic, Ana; Vukasovic, Tena; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Self-perceived abilities (SPA), which play an important role in academic achievement, have been recently reported to be fully attributable to genetic and non-shared environmental influences. To replicate and extend this finding, 732 Croatian twins (15-22 years old) were assessed on cognitive ability, self-assessed intelligence (SAI), and Five…

  11. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  12. Severe infusion reactions to infliximab: aetiology, immunogenicity and risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Svenson, M; Bendtzen, K;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) elicits acute severe infusion reactions in about 5% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To investigate the role of anti-IFX antibodies (Ab) and other risk factors. METHODS: The study included all IBD patients treated with IFX at a Danish university...... hospital until 2010 either continuously (IFX every 4-12 weeks) or episodically (reinitiation after >12 weeks). Anti-IFX Ab were measured using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Twenty-five (8%) of 315 patients experienced acute severe infusion reactions. Univariate analysis showed that patients who reacted were...... younger at the time of diagnosis (19 vs. 26 years, P=0.013) and at first IFX infusion (28 vs. 35 years, P=0.012). Furthermore, they more often received episodic therapy (72% vs. 31%, P<0.001) and logistic regression revealed this as the only significant predictor of reactions (OR 5 [2-13]; P<0.001). IFX...

  13. Congenital crocodile tears: a key to the aetiology of Duane's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J; Taylor, D

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence from birth of copious lacrimation on eating in some patients with Duane's syndrome suggests that both are caused by dysgenesis or a lesion in the vicinity of the abducens nucleus in the pons. PMID:7426566

  14. Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsen, P. S.; Kamper-Jorgensen, M.; Adamson, A.; Barros, H.; Bonde, J. P.; Brescianini, S.; Brophy, S.; Cacas, M.; Devereux, G.; Eggesbø, M.; Fantini, M. P.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Henriksen, T. B.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Heude, B.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Inskip, H.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Lawlor, D. A.; Ludvigsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kiess, W.; Koletzko, B.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kull, I.; Kyhl, H. B.; Magnus, P.; Momas, I.; Murray, D.; Pekkanen, J.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Poulsen, G.; Richiardi, L.; Roeleveld, N.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Šrám, Radim; Strandberg-Larsen, K.; Thijs, C.; Van Eijsden, M.; Wright, J.; Vrijheid, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), s. 393-414. ISSN 0269-5022 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : European pregnancy birth cohort * cohort characteristics * cross-cohort collaboration Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2013

  15. The selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist E-52862 attenuates neuropathic pain of different aetiology in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris, Georgia; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Aubel, Bertrand; Darbaky, Yassine; Deseure, Kristof; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    E-52862 is a selective σ1R antagonist currently undergoing phase II clinical trials for neuropathic pain and represents a potential first-in-class analgesic. Here, we investigated the effect of single and repeated administration of E-52862 on different pain-related behaviours in several neuropathic pain models in rats: mechanical allodynia in cephalic (trigeminal) neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (IoN), mechanical hyperalgesia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic polyneuropathy, and cold allodynia in oxaliplatin (OX)-induced polyneuropathy. Mechanical hypersensitivity induced after IoN surgery or STZ administration was reduced by acute treatment with E-52862 and morphine, but not by pregabalin. In the OX model, single administration of E-52862 reversed the hypersensitivity to cold stimuli similarly to 100 mg/kg of gabapentin. Interestingly, repeated E-52862 administration twice daily over 7 days did not induce pharmacodynamic tolerance but an increased antinociceptive effect in all three models. Additionally, as shown in the STZ and OX models, repeated daily treatment with E-52862 attenuated baseline pain behaviours, which supports a sustained modifying effect on underlying pain-generating mechanisms. These preclinical findings support a role for σ1R in neuropathic pain and extend the potential for the use of selective σ1R antagonists (e.g., E-52862) to the chronic treatment of cephalic and extra-cephalic neuropathic pain. PMID:27087602

  16. The aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among young adults in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is increasing throughout the world. To date the increases have been proportionally greatest among young people. Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.

  17. The landscape of DNA methylation amid a perfect storm of autism aetiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciernia, Annie Vogel; LaSalle, Janine

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence points to a complex interplay between genes and the environment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including rare de novo mutations in chromatin genes such as methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) in Rett syndrome. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation act at this interface, reflecting the plasticity in metabolic and neurodevelopmentally regulated gene pathways. Genome-wide studies of gene sequences, gene pathways and DNA methylation are providing valuable mechanistic insights into ASD. The dynamic developmental landscape of DNA methylation is vulnerable to numerous genetic and environmental insults: therefore, understanding pathways that are central to this 'perfect storm' will be crucial to improving the diagnosis and treatment of ASD. PMID:27150399

  18. A rare aetiology for increased drain output following a robotic-assisted prostatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyland, Kimberley; Vasdev, Nikhil; Boustead, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Robotic prostatectomies are being performed increasingly, with greater visualisation and improved precision, resulting in fewer postoperative complications. Despite advances in surgical techniques, drain output still remains one of the first signs of potential complications. We present the case of an iatrogenic cause for high drain output postoperatively, in order to highlight the potential problems of the drain itself. A 69-year-old man presented with a pelvic drain output of over 2 L a day ...

  19. The role of impulsivity in the aetiology of drug dependence: reward sensitivity versus automaticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity has long been known as a risk factor for drug dependence, but the mechanisms underpinning this association are unclear. Impulsivity may confer hypersensitivity to drug reinforcement which establishes higher rates of instrumental drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour, or may confer a propensity for automatic (non-intentional) control over drug-seeking/taking and thus intransigence to clinical intervention. Method The current study sought to distinguish these two accounts...

  20. Methodological approaches to assess body-weight regulation and aetiology of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, A.; Miguel, C.; Jebb, S. A.; Lafontan, M; Laville, M; PALOU, A.; REMESAR, X.; Trayhurn, P; J. A. Martinez

    2000-01-01

    Obesity, which is becoming one of the major health hazards in developed and developing societies, results from a long-term positive energy balance. Body-weight regulation and stability depend on an axis with three interrelated components: food intake, energy expenditure and adipogenesis, although there are still many unknown features concerning fuel homeostasis and energy balance. Biochemical processes are interconnected, and a separate consideration of each component is often useful for meth...

  1. Congenital malformations in experimental diabetic pregnancy: aetiology and antioxidative treatment. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simán, M

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy causes congenital malformations in the offspring. The aim of this work was to characterize biochemical and morphologic anomalies in the conceptus of an animal model of diabetic pregnancy. In addition, a preventive treatment against diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis was developed. Congenital cataract was often found in the offspring of diabetic rats. The fetal lenses had increased water accumulation, sorbitol concentration and aldose reductase activity compared to control lenses. The results suggest that the cataracts form via osmotic attraction of water due to sorbitol accumulation in the fetal lens. Another set of malformations, with possible neural crest cell origin, occurred frequently in offspring of diabetic rats. These included low set ears, micrognathia, hypoplasia of the thymus, thyroid and parathyroid glands, as well as anomalies of the heart and great vessels. Furthermore, diabetes caused intrauterine death and resorptions more frequently in the late part of gestation. When the pregnant diabetic rats were treated with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin E or vitamin C, the occurrence of gross malformations was reduced from approximately 25% to less than 8%, and late resorptions from 17% to 7%. This suggests that an abnormal handling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis in vivo. Indeed, an increased concentration of lipid peroxides, indicating damage caused by ROS, was found in fetuses of diabetes rats. In addition, embryos of diabetic rats had low concentrations of the antioxidant vitamin E compared to control embryos. These biochemical alterations were normalized by vitamin E treatment of the pregnant diabetic rats. The antioxidants are likely to have prevented ROS injury in the embryos of the diabetic rats, in particular in the neural crest cells, thereby normalizing embryonic development. These results provide a rationale for developing new anti-teratogenic treatments for pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. PMID:9394431

  2. Environmental risk factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis in Kayseri: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servin Yeşil Günal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: our purpose is to evaluate the possible relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS and environmental factors in Kayseri.Methods: this case control study was conducted on 100 patients with MS and 100 sex-aged and residential area matched control. Data was collected by using face to face interviews. Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part was comprised of items related with the participants’ sociodemographic features. The second part was related with factors thought to be involved in the occurrence or aggravation of the disease. The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Results: logistic regression analysis revealed the following as possible risk factors in MS cases: economic status (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.14 adjusted 7.19; Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.05-0.43, having a sensitive personality (OR:4.51; 95% CI: 1.10-18.45, familial history of MS (OR:3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.27, history of cranial and spinal injury (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.11-8.08, cooking oil consumption (OR:0.07 adjusted 13.5; 95% CI: 0.03-0.20, consumption of legumes and grains (OR: 0.11 adjusted 8.9; 95% CI: 0.03-0.41, and living in dwellings within a distance of 500 meters from transformer basestations (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.54-28.21.Conclusions: we believe that it is necessary to inform the individuals about the risk of MS and their relatives of the results of large-scale joint studies and to offer suggestions based on the data obtained.

  3. One-year clinical evaluation of compomer restorations in cervical lesions of different aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premović Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this one-year prospective clinical study was to evaluate the treatment results of compomer restorations (Dyract® eXtra/ Dentsply/De Trey, Konstanz, Germany with a single step self-etching dental adhesive (Xeno® III Dentsply/De Trey, Konstanz, Germany used for restoring class V lesions (non-carious and primary carious cervical lesions. Material and Methods. A total number of 62 class V restorations (n = 62 were placed by one dentist in 30 patients on incisors, canines and premolars. The fillings were placed due to different indications: non-carious cervical defects (n = 32 and primary carious lesions (n = 30. The restorations were evaluated by a single-blind design, according to the Modified United States Public Health Service system 6 and 12 months following the placement. The following were evaluated: retention, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, wear, postoperative sensitivity and secondary caries. The statistical analysis compared the ratings of each criteria between materials using the Pearson chi-square or Fisher’s exact test at a level of significance of 5% (p<0.05. Results. Two restorations of the non-carious lesion group were lost after 6 months, and after 12 months one restoration was lost in the group of primary carious lesions. There were no statistically significant differences between restorations for all evaluated criteria in both groups. Conclusion. The compomer restorations in combination with a single step self-etching dental adhesive showed acceptable clinical performance in Class V lesions after one year of clinical service.

  4. Aetiology and prognosis of encephalopathic patterns on electroencephalogram in a general hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S S

    2012-02-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical outcome of patients with encephalopathic electroencephalograms (EEGs) in a neurophysiology department based in a general hospital. We performed a retrospective review of all EEGs obtained during an 18-month period in a large tertiary referral hospital. The referral reasons for EEG, the diagnoses reached, and patient outcomes were reviewed according to EEG severity. One hundred and twenty-three patients with encephalopathic EEGs were reviewed. The most common referral reason found was for an assessment of a possible first-onset seizure. The most common diagnosis found was one of dementia or learning disability. Of patients who were followed-up for a median of 19 months, 20.7% had died. The mortality rate generally increased according to the severity of the encephalopathy on EEG. However, 21.4% of those patients with excessive theta activity only on EEG had died. This study highlights an increased mortality even in the apparently \\'milder\\' degrees of EEG abnormalities.

  5. Aetiology of phenomenon of fair play in sport through psychoanalytic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Vodeb

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available When discussing fair play, sports experts nowadays mostly talk about how to "be a sport" on a sport field. It means telling and preaching to athletes to obey all the written rules of sport's ethic and those not written as well. Here we want to explore the other meaning of the term "fair play". We want to really learn about it, because fair play certainly is a psychological category. Psychoanalytic logic teaches us that roots of fair play should be sought in the infantile period of child's development. It seems, that the events caused by the Oedipus complex and the building Superego have the most sufficient impact on someone's sports behavior. Theoretically speaking, fair play cannot be considered as something gained from culture - it is mainly a construct, a symptom of returning infantile repressions in the context of father as a sexual concurrent. "Turning to the opposite side" (reaction-formation is an ego-defense mechanism that in the etiology of fair play ought to be pointed out in particularly. As we are talking about men in sports, let us tell, it is the boy's relation towards his father at the time when he's arrogating the boy's mother to himself, the most crucial for feeling and performing fair play. Fantasies and repressions, which happened in the psychical reality of a child, have the main impact on fair play in sports as well as in other situations.

  6. The aetiology of wobbly possum disease: Reproduction of the disease with purified nidovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Julia; Perrott, Matthew; Roe, Wendi; Dunowska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a role of a recently discovered marsupial nidovirus in the development of a neurological disease, termed wobbly possum disease (WPD), in the Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Four possums received 1mL of a standard inoculum that had been prepared from tissues of WPD-affected possums, 4 possums received 1.8mL (1×10(6) TCID50) of a cell lysate from inoculated cultures, and 4 possums received 1mL (×10(7) TCID50) of a purified WPD isolate. All but one possum that received infectious inocula developed neurological disease and histopathological lesions characteristic for WPD. High levels of viral RNA were detected in livers from all possums that received infectious inocula, but not from control possums. Altogether, our data provide strong experimental evidence for the causative involvement of WPD virus in development of a neurological disease in infected animals. PMID:26874014

  7. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Raboni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV, RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus (AstV. NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26% were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5, HAdV/NoV (3 and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1. The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.

  8. From Bittner to Barr: a viral, diet and hormone breast cancer aetiology hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, James S; Tran, Dinh; Rawlinson, William D.

    2000-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the human homologue of the mouse mammary tumour virus (HHMMTV) and other viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), act as cofactors with diet, oestrogens and other hormones in the initiation and promotion of some types of breast cancer in genetically susceptible women. It is further hypothesized that diet influences the risk of breast cancer, through its influence on oestrogen metabolism and that of other hormones, in combination with ge...

  9. The immunoregulatory and allergy-associated cytokines in the aetiology of the otitis media with effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Pearson

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the middle ear mucosa, which can be provoked by different primary factors such as bacterial and viral infection, local allergic reactions and reflux, is the crucial event in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME. Unresolved acute inflammatory responses or defective immunoregulation of middle inflammation can promote chronic inflammatory processes and stimulate the chronic condition of OME. Cytokines are the central molecular regulators of middle ear inflammation and can switch the acute phase of inflammation in the chronic stage and induce molecular-pathological processes leading to the histopathological changes accompanying OME. In this review we present cytokines identified in otitis media, immunoregulatory [interleukin (IL-2, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β] and allergy associated (IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, as crucial molecular regulators, responsible for chronic inflammation in the middle ear and the chronic condition of OME.

  10. The immunoregulatory and allergy-associated cytokines in the aetiology of the otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Marina G; Birchall, John P; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2004-04-01

    Inflammation in the middle ear mucosa, which can be provoked by different primary factors such as bacterial and viral infection, local allergic reactions and reflux, is the crucial event in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). Unresolved acute inflammatory responses or defective immunoregulation of middle inflammation can promote chronic inflammatory processes and stimulate the chronic condition of OME. Cytokines are the central molecular regulators of middle ear inflammation and can switch the acute phase of inflammation in the chronic stage and induce molecular-pathological processes leading to the histopathological changes accompanying OME. In this review we present cytokines identified in otitis media, immunoregulatory [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta]) and allergy associated (IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), as crucial molecular regulators, responsible for chronic inflammation in the middle ear and the chronic condition of OME. PMID:15203548

  11. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  12. Aetiologic, Clinical and Roentgenographic Investigations on 75 Cases of Hip Arthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, Kamuran

    2004-01-01

    75 cases of hip arthrosis who have applied to our clinic have been evaluated, symptomatological and radiographic examinations have been performed, and the findings obtained have been compared with the findings determined by the other investigators.

  13. Clinical, Aetiologic, And Evolution-Related Aspects Of Pleurisy In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Frecus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Establishing the frequency of pleurisy from the total number of admissions in the Paediatrics Department, as well as the frequency of pleurisy from the total number of respiratory ailments that required hospitalization; evaluating age group distribution and determining the influence of environmental factors; describing clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiologic, and bacteriological investigations in patients with pleurisy; quantifying clinical manifestations and investigations so as to establish an appropriate therapeutic approach; identifying clinical aspects that indicate a favourable/unfavourable evolution; analyzing the evolution of cases after treatment as revealed by radiologic imaging.

  14. Infection and antibiotics in the aetiology, prediction and prevention of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, R S; Lamont, R F

    2013-01-01

    molecular mechanisms responsible for this process have been identified, there is a lack of consensus about effective antibiotic intervention. Systematic reviews of the few well conducted studies suggest that antibiotics active against bacterial vaginosis or related organisms (clindamycin) given to...

  15. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: an analytic review with an emphasis on aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Godbert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP is characterised by the accumulation of numerous pigmented macrophages within most of the distal airspace of the lung and, sometimes, the presence of giant cells. Diagnosis of DIP is not easy and requires surgical lung biopsy. DIP is usually associated with tobacco smoke. However, the association between smoking and DIP is less robust than that with respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial lung disease or pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis; approximately 10–42% of patients with DIP are nonsmokers. DIP can also occur in patients following exposure to certain inhaled toxins (occupational exposure and drugs, and may occur in the context of certain viral illnesses and autoimmune diseases. In the context of DIP, occupational exposure should be systematically investigated.

  16. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: an analytic review with an emphasis on aetiology

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Godbert; Marie-Pierre Wissler; Jean-Michel Vignaud

    2013-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) is characterised by the accumulation of numerous pigmented macrophages within most of the distal airspace of the lung and, sometimes, the presence of giant cells. Diagnosis of DIP is not easy and requires surgical lung biopsy. DIP is usually associated with tobacco smoke. However, the association between smoking and DIP is less robust than that with respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial lung disease or pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis; a...

  17. Pneumonia in slaughtered sheep in south-western Iran: pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lungs of 1,000 sheep carcasses were subjected to gross examination and those suspected to be infected with pneumonia were studied at histopathological level as well as examined for presence of bacteria. Pneumonia was detected in 42 (4.2% carcasses. Based on histopathological lesions, 45.24% were affected with suppurative bronchopneumonia, 20.93% with interstitial pneumonia, 11.9% bronchointerstitial pneumonia, 7.14% with fibrinous bronchopneumonia and 2.38% with embolic pneumonia. In addition, 11.9% of the lungs showed lung abscesses and 2.33% were affected with pleuritis without involving pulmonary parenchyma. Bacteriological examination revealed presence of ovine pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida (24.53%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.75%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.09%, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (7.55% and Actinomyces pyogenes (1.89%. The most common form of pneumonia was suppurative bronchopneumonia with moderate amounts of fibrin deposits on the pleural surface and inside the bronchioles and alveoli.

  18. Expression of connexins 40 and 43 in human left atrium in atrial fibrillation of different aetiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzel, U; Boldt, A; Lauschke, J; Weigl, J; Schirdewahn, P; Dorszewski, A; Doll, N; Hindricks, G; Dhein, S; Kottkamp, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with changes in the expression of connexins 40 and 43 in the left atrium with more pronounced changes in mitral valve disease than in lone AF.

  19. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis of either MTSS or a TSF includes a thorough clinical examination to identify signs of bone stress injury and to exclude other pathologies. This should be followed by an MRI study of the whole tibia. The cause of the injury should be established and addressed in order to facilitate healing and prevent future re-occurrence. PMID:26396934

  20. Aetiology Based Diagnosis and Treatment Selection in Intellectually Disabled People with Challenging Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Since both intellectual disability and challenging behaviour are entities encompassing heterogeneous clinical conditions and current taxonomies are of limited use in this field of psychiatry, diagnosing psychiatric symptoms in intellectually disabled patients is still very complex. In the diagnostic process of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural abnormalities, the first step should be genome profiling using the latest techniques in order to detect pathogenic CNVs or single gene mutations tha...

  1. The aetiology of the number sense and its relationship with mathematics : a genetically sensitive investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tosto, Maria, G.

    2012-01-01

    Number sense is defined as the process of extracting numerical information by estimating numerosity and magnitudes of numerical symbols. Humans show great variability in estimation skills from an early age. Although little is known about the origin of individual differences in number sense, these individual variations positively correlate with mathematics. This thesis presents the first large-scale genetically sensitive investigation into the origins of number sense and into the nature of its...

  2. [Mixed-aetiology extensive ulcers of the crus: postthrombotic disease and gangrenous pyoderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Gangrenous pyoderma (GP) is a rare infectious disease typically manifesting itself by utterly painful crural ulcers. Currently, the disease is considered to be most likely of an autoimmune origin. The author presents herein a case report describing key diagnostic and treatment decisions regarding a 30-year-old woman suffering from extensive crural ulcers. Of special interest was the finding that this patient's ultrasonographic duplex scanning showed the signs corresponding to postthrombotic disease. However, conventional treatment of venous trophic ulcers turned out inefficient. The woman was diagnosed as having GP. Topical therapy with corticosteroid drugs (combined with autodermoplasty and compression therapy) made it possible to achieve complete epithelisation of ulcers. Thus, should conventional treatment of venous trophic ulcers result in the patient's failure to respond properly, it is necessary to take into consideration the probability of gangrenous pyoderma. PMID:22616234

  3. AETIOLOGY OF SUBACUTE COUGH IN PATIENTS PRESENTING AT SLIMS ENT OUTPATIENT CLINIC – A CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common complaint of patients seeking medical attention. A number of patients attend our OPD for complaint of Subacute cough lasting 3-8 weeks. Majority of such cough are due to ENT pathologies. This study aims to evaluate the Otolaryngological causes of Cough in these patients.

  4. Chloroquine-induced bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation: a unique aetiology for a rare clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexander Nicholas; Tsekes, Dimitris; White, William James; Rossouw, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is a rare clinical entity with few case reports and limited series published in the literature. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of them, most are posterior. We present a highly unusual case of bilateral, atraumatic, anterior shoulder dislocation with concomitant comminuted greater tuberosity fracture on the right side, secondary to seizure, in a patient without known epilepsy, induced by oral chloroquine medication. We demonstrate the treatment approach that led to a satisfactory clinical outcome, evidenced by radiological union, clinical assessment and Patient Reported Outcome Measure data, following non-operative management of both shoulders. The unusual mechanism for anterior shoulder dislocation, the asymmetric dislocation pattern and peculiar precipitant for the causative seizure all provide interesting learning points from this case. PMID:27005796

  5. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of aetiological agents of sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Degl’Innocenti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The MALDI-TOF has recently become part of the methods of microbiological investigation in many laboratories of bacteriology with advantages both practical and economical.The use of this technique for the rapid identification of the causative agents of sepsis is of strategic importance to the ability to provide the clinician with useful information for a prompt and rapid establishment of an empirical antimicrobial “targeted” therapy. Methods: It was tested a total of 343 positive blood culture bottles from 211 patients. The samples after collection were incubated in the BACTEC FX (Becton Dickinson, USA. From these bottles were taken a few milliliters of broth culture and transferred into a vacutainer tube containing gel. This was centrifuged, the supernatant was decanted, and finally recovered the bacterial suspension on the gel. With micro-organisms recovered in this way, after several washes with distilled water, was prepared a slide for microscopic examination with Gram stain, and a plate for mass spectrometry (MS-Vitek, bioMérieux, France.Then, the same samples were inoculated on solid agar media according to the protocol in use in our laboratory.The next day was checked the possible bacterial growth on solid media; we then proceeded to the identification of the colonies by Vitek MS and / or with the system Vitek2 (bioMérieux, France. Results: 258 (75.2% positive vials show concordant results between direct identification and identification after growth on agar. For 83 (24.2% positive bottles there has been full compliance with the microscopic examination but not with culture. In particular, two bottles (0.6% have given complete discordance between the direct identification and that after growth. Conclusions: The protocol we use for the direct identification of organisms responsible for sepsis, directly on positive bottles, seems to be a quick and inexpensive procedure, which in less than 60 minutes can give valuable feedback to the clinician.

  6. Primary gastric lymphoma of the MALT-type. Current knowledge of aetiology, therapy and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Options in the therapy of gastric lymphoma are based on their histological grade and stage of the disease. They include surgical resection and/or radiotherapy for local tumor control as well as chemotherapy in the case of disseminated disease or high malignancy. Currently, special interest focuses on the effect of helicobacter pylori eradication. (orig./MG)

  7. Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience

    OpenAIRE

    Karnebeek, van, C.D.; Koevoets, C.; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E.K.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Redeker, E.J.W.; Hennekam, R C M; Hoovers, J.M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre.

  8. Diagnosis of aetiology and complications of relapsing urinary tract infections via imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indication and efficiency of various radiological examination methods in relapsing infections of the urinary tract, as well as the complications of such infections, are described, and characteristic and pathognomical findings are demonstrated. The diagnostic accuracy of the individual imaging methods depends on the site, size, and density of the pathological process. Accurate diagnosis also requires the incorporation of clinical findings including those established by means of clinical pathology setups. (orig.)

  9. PREVALENCE AND AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN FEBRILE CHILDREN 2 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection and etiological factors in recurrent urinary tract infections in febrile children, 2 months to 2 years of age. METHODS It was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital; 239 children between the ages of 2 months to 2 years with fever of more than 5 days were evaluated for UTI. Those who have >5 pus cells in urine analysis, urine culture was done. Children with recurrent UTI were evaluated by abdominal ultrasonogram, MCU and DMSA scan. RESULTS Total number of children studied were 239, prevalence of urinary tract infection was 11.3%, 2-6 months of age (18.75% and 7-12 months of age (14.14%. E. coli constituted 62.96%. Among children with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyelonephritic changes in DMSA scan were present in 4 (36.3% and VUR was present in 2 (16% in MCU. CONCLUSIONS Urinary tract infection is a significant problem to be looked for in febrile children 2 months to 2 years. In recurrent UTI, any underlying problems like VUR should be considered and evaluated.

  10. PREVALENCE AND AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN FEBRILE CHILDREN 2 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, MR; Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection and etiological factors in recurrent urinary tract infections in febrile children, 2 months to 2 years of age. METHODS It was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital; 239 children between the ages of 2 months to 2 years with fever of more than 5 days were evaluated for UTI. Those who have >5 pus cells in urine analysis, urine culture was done....

  11. OCCLUSION OF ARTERY OF PERCHERON: A RARE AETIOLOGY OF BILATERAL THALAMIC INFARCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane Makarand, Mane Priyanka, Mohite Rajsinh , Bhattad Prashant, Bangar Kushal, Mahajani Anup

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Artery of Percheron, a rare anatomical variant of brain vascularisation, arises from the posterior cerebral artery. Occlusion of this artery leads to bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct leads to dysfunction of central nervous system. Incidence of bilateral thalamic infarct secondary to occlusion of artery of Percheron is unknown because of its rarity. Here we report a case of 35 year old female presented with altered state of consciousness and the underlying cause was occlusion of Artery of Percheron which leads to bilateral thalamic infarct detected on MRI scanning. It showed hyperintensities on T2W1 and FLAIR, and hypointensity on T1W1, restricted to bilateral ventromedial thalami showing corresponding area of high signal intensity on diffusion weighted images and hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficient images indicating diffusion restriction, suggestive of infarct. On further investigation magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA of the brain demonstrated a single common artery arising from the left P1 segment which divided into two branches distally supplying bilateral thalami. Patient became alright after 2 weeks of medical line of treatment.

  12. HEARING LOSS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE - AN ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Suja Sreedharan; Vishnu Prasad; Jayashree Bhatt; Mahesh Chandra Hegde; Salil Agarwal; Cherukattil Waheeda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss in chronic renal failure is believed to be of multifactorial etiology. Associated hypertension and diabetes mellitus, use of ototoxic drugs, hemodialysis and the changes in metabolic parameters are the various reasons quoted for the hearing loss. Objectives: Our study attempts to correlate the hearing thresholds with the multiple parameters like blood levels of urea, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and hemoglobin values incriminated in...

  13. HEARING LOSS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE - AN ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Sreedharan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss in chronic renal failure is believed to be of multifactorial etiology. Associated hypertension and diabetes mellitus, use of ototoxic drugs, hemodialysis and the changes in metabolic parameters are the various reasons quoted for the hearing loss. Objectives: Our study attempts to correlate the hearing thresholds with the multiple parameters like blood levels of urea, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and hemoglobin values incriminated in decreased hearing in CRF patients. Materials and methods:Prospective study of 25 patients receiving treatment for CRF. The threshold of the worsen ear was considered for statistical analysis. Results:18% of the patients at low frequencies (250 and 500 Hz, 32% of the patients at mid-frequencies (1000 and 2000 Hz, and 72% of the patients at high frequencies (4000 and 8000 Hz had decreased hearing for both bone and air conduction hearing. We found a positive correlation between hearing loss and increasing number of hemodialysis sessions, the levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, serum sodium and use of ototoxic drugs; while serum calcium, serum potassium and hemoglobin levels had a negative correlation. Conclusion:Though the management of CRF including hemodialysis has been refined, hearing loss continues to cause disability in CRF patients.

  14. The role of perceived parental rearing practices in the aetiology of phobic disorders: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrindell, W A; Emmelkamp, P M; Monsma, A; Brilman, E

    1983-08-01

    The perceived parental rearing practices and attitudes of social phobics, agoraphobics, height phobics and non-patient normal controls were investigated, employing the EMBU, an inventory for assessing memories of upbringing. Findings revealed that, as compared with the controls, social phobics and height phobics scored both parents not only as lacking in emotional warmth, but also as having been rejective and overprotective. Agoraphobics reported both parents as having lacked emotional warmth, but only their mothers as being rejecting. Interestingly, the perception of negative rearing practices of parents appeared to be stronger in height phobics than in either social phobics or agoraphobics. PMID:6616119

  15. Aetiology of anorexia nervosa: from a "psychosomatic family model" to a neuropsychiatric disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Seitz, Jochen; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders and, in particular, anorexia nervosa (AN) have morbidity and mortality rates that are among the highest of any mental disorders and are associated with significant functional impairment. More than 25 years ago, several researchers hypothesised that the prerequisite for the development of AN was a family process characterised by an overprotective and conflict-avoiding parent-child interaction. Family studies, however, suggest that AN is a complex genetic disorder that is likely expressed primarily by temperament and specific traits during childhood, including inhibition, perfectionism and harm avoidance. Recent studies have described an impaired flexibility and deficits in social cognition that are independent of body weight and the current state of the eating disorder, providing further evidence for a genetic component of AN. The physiological and psychological alterations and the increasing societal demands that occur during puberty may trigger onset. The starvation process itself is associated with severe alterations of central and peripheral metabolism, especially neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter changes, which are thought to affect the adolescent brain during the vulnerable period of neural restructuring. Long-standing malnutrition during adolescence and young adulthood associated with hormonal and neuropeptide dysfunctions may produce "biological scars" that maintain and accelerate the disorder and likely result in chronic mental disorders in adulthood as well as poor social functioning. PMID:21866370

  16. Maternal mortality -- aetiological factors: analytic study from a teaching hospital of Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, A R; Singla, P; Kaur, H

    1992-01-01

    A review of maternal deaths at Rajendra Hospital, Punjab, from January 1978 to December 1991 yielded important data for the planning of maternal health services in this area of India, During the 14 year study period, there were 33,160 births and 339 deaths, for a maternal mortality rate of 1002/100,000 live births. Women who had received no prenatal care accounted for 47.4% of deliveries but 92.8% of maternal deaths. In addition, a disproportionate number of deaths involved rural women (74.6%) and poor women (76.4%). 57.8% of maternal deaths involved women 21-30 years of age; 37.1% occurred among primigravidas. Direct obstetrical causes were considered the etiologic factor in 83.1% of these deaths. Primary among these causes were sepsis (37.1%), obstetric hemorrhage (26.2%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (21.4%), and obstructed labor (15.3%). 30.6% of deaths occurred during pregnancy, 50.3% during labor, and 19.1% in the postpartum period. Indirect obstetrical causes, notably severe anemia and anesthesia complications, were implicated in 15.3% of the maternal deaths. Critical analysis of the maternal deaths in this series suggested that 89.6% were totally preventable, 9.6% were probably preventable, and only 0.8% were not avoidable. Factors that would reduce the high rate of maternal mortality in this region include more widespread use of prenatal care, training of traditional birth attendants in asepsis, referral of high-risk pregnancies, and improved transportation in rural areas. PMID:12288813

  17. Bipolar disorder associated with tuberous sclerosis: Chance association or aetiological relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, V.K.; Cintury, Y.; Sinha, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare disorder. Mental retardation, epilepsy, autism and hyperactivity are commonly reported neuropsychiatric disorders associated with tuberous sclerosis. Rarely, other psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression and anxiety associated with this condition have been reported in the literature. A case of bipolar disorder associated with tuberous sclerosis with onset of the first manic episode at the age of 7 years is reported. The possibility of tuberous sclerosi...

  18. Congenital crocodile tears: a key to the aetiology of Duane's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, J.; Taylor, D.

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence from birth of copious lacrimation on eating in some patients with Duane's syndrome suggests that both are caused by dysgenesis or a lesion in the vicinity of the abducens nucleus in the pons.

  19. Osteoarthropathy of unknown aetiology in the long bones of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz W. Huchzermeyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodile bones five particular cases are described. Because of the wide distribution of origin of the affected animals, nutritional or toxicological causes seem unlikely. One of the cases presented was associated with mycoplasmosis. These forms of crocodilian bone pathology need further investigation.

  20. The significance of learned food aversions in the aetiology of anorexia associated with cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, J A; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The results of 24 h food preference tests have suggested that learned food aversions may be involved in the development of anorexia in tumour bearing rats and in patients with cancer. We have performed similar tests over longer periods, up to 10 days, in male rats implanted with Leydig cell tumours, using semisynthetic diets containing differing proportions of fat, protein and carbohydrate. Tumour growth caused anorexia (16-30% decrease in food intake) and cachexia (78% decrease in body fat a...

  1. The aetiology of premature ejaculation and the mind-body problem: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, D L; Motofei, I G

    2007-01-01

    Recent attempts to find effective pharmacological treatments for premature ejaculation (PE) have spurred significant interest in the causes of, consequences of, and existing therapies for this common male sexual dysfunction. The recurring tendency in science and medicine, however, to dichotomise causes of such problems into either biological or psychological is not only counterproductive, it is misguided. Ejaculatory response should be viewed as a system of integrated and inseparable hardwired and softwired central and peripheral responses, some being readily modifiable, others not. Such a view argues that treatment of PE aimed at multiple levels of functioning will be self-enhancing and ultimately more effective in producing positive therapeutic outcomes than strategies relying solely on either psychological or biological approaches. PMID:17229181

  2. Prospective study of pathogens in asymptomatic travellers and those with diarrhoea: aetiological agents revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, T; Antikainen, J; Pakkanen, S H; Kirveskari, J; Kantele, A

    2016-06-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains the most frequent health problem encountered by visitors to the (sub)tropics. Traditional stool culture identifies the pathogen in only 15% of cases. Exploiting PCR-based methods, we investigated TD pathogens with a focus on asymptomatic travellers and severity of symptoms. Pre- and post-travel stools of 382 travellers with no history of antibiotic use during travel were analysed with a multiplex quantitative PCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and five diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli: enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC). The participants were categorized by presence/absence of TD during travel and on return, and by severity of symptoms. A pathogen was indentified in 61% of the asymptomatic travellers, 83% of those with resolved TD, and 83% of those with ongoing TD; 25%, 43% and 53% had multiple pathogens, respectively. EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and Campylobacter associated especially with ongoing TD symptoms. EAEC and EPEC proved more common than ETEC. To conclude, modern methodology challenges our perception of stool pathogens: all pathogens were common both in asymptomatic and symptomatic travellers. TD has a multibacterial nature, but diarrhoeal symptoms mostly associate with EAEC, EPEC, ETEC and Campylobacter. PMID:26970046

  3. Micturition and the mind: psychological factors in the aetiology and treatment of urinary symptoms in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaulay, A. J.; Stern, R S; Holmes, D M; Stanton, S L

    1987-01-01

    The mental state of 211 women attending a urodynamic clinic was assessed using questionnaires. Patients with genuine stress incontinence had scores comparable with other patients with longstanding physical complaints. Patients with sensory urgency were more anxious than those with genuine stress incontinence. Patients with detrusor instability were as anxious as patients with sensory urgency and in addition had higher scores on the hysteria scale. A subset of patients (roughly a quarter of th...

  4. Microbial aetiology and diagnostic criteria of postpartum endometritis in Nairobi, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Temmerman, M; Laga, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Paraskevas, M.; Brunham, R C; Plummer, F A; Piot, P

    1988-01-01

    Using a protected triple lumen device, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis, or both, were isolated from the endometriums of five out of 35 women with clinical postpartum endometritis compared with none of a control group of 30 puerperal women without endometritis (p less than 0.05) in Nairobi, Kenya. These sexually transmitted agents were also found in 12 cervical specimens from women with and three without postpartum endometritis (p = 0.04). Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma ureal...

  5. Aetiology and prediction of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infection in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anette; Nexoe, Joergen; Bistrup, Lene A;

    2007-01-01

    Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. METHOD: A total of 364 adults diagnosed with community-acquired LRTI by their GP were studied with chest radiography, vital signs, biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and leukocyte count), and microbiological examinations......%, P<0.05). Hospitalisation was more common in patients with pneumonia compared to non-pneumonic patients (19 versus 3%, P<0.001); and in patients with pneumococcal infection compared with patients without pneumococcal infection (26 versus 4%, P = 0.001). The positive predictive value of GPs' diagnosis...... of pneumonia was low (0.23), but the vital signs, CRP, and leukocyte count had comparably low positive predictive values (0.23-0.30). CONCLUSION: Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen. The risk of hospitalisation was highest among patients with pneumonia or pneumococcal...

  6. Local Aetiology and Pathways to Care in Malaria among the Ibibio of South-coastal Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajala, A.S.; N. A. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    There is a parallel between local and bio-medical perceptions of malaria among the Ibibio people of South-coastal Nigeria, as in many other societies of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Despite the fact that this accounts for resilience of the disease, earlier studies on malaria in Africa focused on causes, prevalence and socio-environmental factors. Local meanings of malaria and their influence on therapeutic choices have been largely ignored. This study examines local perception...

  7. Role of genetic & environment risk factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hanis Ramzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. In the Asia-Pacific area, it is the highest emerging gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and environmental factors associated with CRC risk in Malaysia from a panel of cancer associated SNPs. Methods: In this case-control study, 160 Malaysian subjects were recruited, including both with CRC and controls. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and protective alleles. Genotyping was carried out using Illumina′s BeadArray platform. Information on blood group, occupation, medical history, family history of cancer, intake of red meat and vegetables, exposure to radiation, smoking and drinking habits, etc was collected. Odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results: A panel of 23 SNPs significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk was identified ( p0 <0.01. Of these, 12 SNPs increased the risk of CRC and 11 reduced the risk. Among the environmental risk factors investigated, high intake of red meat (more than 50% daily proportion was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR=6.52, 95% CI :1.93 - 2.04, P=0.003. Two SNPs including rs2069521 and rs10046 in genes of cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily were found significantly associated with CRC risk. For gene-environment analysis, the A allele of rs2069521 showed a significant association with CRC risk when stratified by red meat intake. Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, a panel of SNPs found to be significantly associated with CRC in Malaysian population, was identified. Also, red meat consumption and lack of physical exercise were risk factors for CRC, while consumption of fruits and vegetables served as protective factor.

  8. A clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae is the aetiologic agent of an emerging avian epidemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; John, Shinto K; Bunbury, Nancy; Bell, Diana J; Tyler, Kevin M

    2011-10-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. The parasite emerged as a novel infection of British passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs). We characterised the extent of T. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild British avifauna by analysing individual isolates from 17 of the species affected. To do so, we employed improved platform-based multilocus typing tools as well as the hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase gene as a single marker locus for fine-typing. We found no evidence of heterogeneity amongst the parasites infecting British passerines, indicating that a clonal strain of T. gallinae is the causative agent of this emerging infectious disease. PMID:21712099

  9. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nils; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    protective effects against goitre, and childbirth is an increased risk factor for goitre in areas with non-optimal iodine intake. Insulin resistance is a recently investigated risk factor, and the risk of goitre may be reversible with metformin treatment. Iodine remains the major environmental risk factor...... prospective data on risk factors for nodular goitre, although few prospective data are available on the effect of iodine and tobacco smoking on goitre development. Goitre is not one single phenotype. Many epidemiological studies do not distinguish diffuse from nodular goitre, as the investigated parameter...

  10. Role of genetic & environment risk factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Nurul Hanis; Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Lye, Say Hean; Munretnam, Khamsigan; Sahadevappa, Kavitha Itagi; Velapasamy, Sharmila; Hashim, Nikman Adli Nor; Cheah, Soon Keat; Lim, Gerard Chin Chye; Hussein, Heselynn; Haron, Mohd Roslan; Alex, Livy; Ler, Lian Wee

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. In the Asia–Pacific area, it is the highest emerging gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and environmental factors associated with CRC risk in Malaysia from a panel of cancer associated SNPs. Methods: In this case-control study, 160 Malaysian subjects were recruited, including both with CRC and controls. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and protective alleles. Genotyping was carried out using Illumina's BeadArray platform. Information on blood group, occupation, medical history, family history of cancer, intake of red meat and vegetables, exposure to radiation, smoking and drinking habits, etc was collected. Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results: A panel of 23 SNPs significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk was identified (P<0.01). Of these, 12 SNPs increased the risk of CRC and 11 reduced the risk. Among the environmental risk factors investigated, high intake of red meat (more than 50% daily proportion) was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR=6.52, 95% CI :1.93 - 2.04, P=0.003). Two SNPs including rs2069521 and rs10046 in genes of cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily were found significantly associated with CRC risk. For gene-environment analysis, the A allele of rs2069521 showed a significant association with CRC risk when stratified by red meat intake. Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, a panel of SNPs found to be significantly associated with CRC in Malaysian population, was identified. Also, red meat consumption and lack of physical exercise were risk factors for CRC, while consumption of fruits and vegetables served as protective factor. PMID:25109722

  11. Epigenetic mechanisms may underlie the aetiology of sex differences in mental health risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigar, S L; Auger, A P

    2013-11-01

    In this review, we propose that experiential and hormonal influences on biological sex during development may produce differences in the epigenome, and that these differences play an important role in gating risk or resilience to a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. One intriguing hypothesis is that the framework belying sex differences in the brain creates differences in methylation and demethylation patterns, and these in turn confer risk and resilience to mental health disorders. Here, we discuss these concepts with regard to social behaviour in rodent models and briefly discuss their possible relevance to human disease. PMID:23841484

  12. Tyrosinemia type I as a model for studying epigenetic events in the aetiology of metabolic disease associated hepatocarcinoma / Gouws, C.

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Chrisna

    2011-01-01

    Occupational risk management can be a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in South Africa have implemented Cardinal Rules of Safety adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the cardinal rules on employee safety behaviour implemented at power stations in Mpumalanga. The empirical study was done by using a questionnaire as measurin...

  13. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    , radiographs, dental casts, and medical records. PATIENTS: Ninety individuals (30 cleft lip, 30 cleft palate, and 30 combined cleft lip and palate), aged 5-27 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual evaluation of tooth number and tooth morphology. RESULTS: Cleft lip: Dental deviations were predominantly observed...... in the frontonasal field. Supernumerary lateral incisors occurred significantly more often in cleft lip compared to other cleft types. Cleft palate: Dental deviations were observed in the maxillary and palatal fields indicating that both fields are involved in the development of cleft palate....... Malformed roots were seen significantly more often in cleft palate. Combined cleft lip and palate: Number and type of dental deviations differed significantly from deviations in other cleft types, e.g. significantly more ageneses. CONCLUSIONS: Cleft lip seems to be caused by a disorder in neural crest...

  14. First attack of acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 – 2003: incidence, aetiological classification, procedures and mortality – a register study

    OpenAIRE

    Stenlund Hans C; Nilsson Erik; Haapamäki Markku M; Rosenmüller Mats; Sandzén Birger; Öman Mikael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies suggest that the incidence of first attack of acute pancreatitis (FAAP) is increasing and that old age is associated with increased mortality. Because nationwide data are limited and information on standardized mortality ratio (SMR) versus age is lacking, we wanted to describe incidence and mortality of first attack acute pancreatitis (FAAP) in Sweden. METHODS: Hospital discharge data concerning diagnoses and surgical procedures and death certificate data ...

  15. Obesity--a disease with many aetiologies disguised in the same oversized phenotype: has the overeating theory failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvinkel, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Evolution has led to metabolic thrift in humans--a genetic heritage that, when exposed to the modern 'obesogenic' milieu with energy-dense food and a sedentary lifestyle, predisposes to obesity. The current paradigm that overeating of easily digestible carbohydrates and the resulting imbalance between energy in and out as the cause of overweight has recently been challenged. Indeed, studies suggest that the host response to various nutrients contributes to overeating and fat accumulation. Alterations in neurotransmitter functions, changes in the epigenome, dysbiosis of gut microbiota and effects of specific nutrients (or lack of such nutrients) on mitochondrial function and signalling pathways may promote fat accumulation independent of calories. Whereas nutrients that stimulate generation of uric acid (such as fructose and purine-rich food) cause insulin resistance and fat accumulation, other nutrients (such as antioxidants, plant food, probiotics, nuts, soy and omega-3) counteract the negative effects of a calorie-rich diet by salutary effects on mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, the specific metabolic effects of different nutrients may be more important than its total energy content. By studying the impact of nutrients on mitochondrial health, as well as the trans-generational impact of nutrients during fetal life, and how specific bacterial species correlate with fat mass accumulation, new dietary targets for obesity management may emerge. Overeating and overshooting of calories could to a large extent represent a symptom rather than a cause of obesity; therefore, hypocaloric diets should probably not be the main, and certainly not the only, focus for treatment of the obese patient. PMID:25361999

  16. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F;

    2015-01-01

    ,000 (95% UI 472,000-802,000) deaths worldwide in 2010. The largest number of cases were caused by norovirus (677 million; 95% UI 468-1,153 million), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (233 million; 95% UI 154-380 million), Shigella spp. (188 million; 95% UI 94-379 million) and Giardia lamblia (179...

  17. Trauma and bereavement : symptomatology, aetiology and interventions : a case of young survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Sezibera, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events has deleterious effect resulting in considerable psychological (cognitive and affective/emotional), physical and social impairments. In contrast to natural disasters, victims of man-made disasters have been reported to be vulnerable to severe psychological and psychiatric disorders affecting a large number of abilities and lasting for many years. Among the most common psychiatric diagnosis associated with violence exposure is the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTS...

  18. Aetiology and pathogenesis of reactive arthritis: role of non-antigen-presenting effects of HLA-B27

    OpenAIRE

    Vähämiko, Sanna; Penttinen, Markus A.; Granfors, Kaisa

    2005-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies are inflammatory diseases closely associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 by unknown mechanisms. One of these diseases is reactive arthritis (ReA), which is typically triggered by Gram-negative bacteria, which have lipopolysaccharide as an integral component of their outer membrane. Several findings in vivo and in vitro obtained from patients with ReA and from different model systems suggest that HLA-B27 modulates the interaction between ReA-triggering bacteria...

  19. Prevalence and Aetiology of Poultry Coccidiosis and Associated Risk Factors in White Leghorn Grower Chickens at Kombolcha Poultry Farm, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi Amare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from October 2009 and March 2010 with the objective of determining the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis and identifying the species of Eimeria at Kombolcha poultry farm. A total of 638 dead White leghorn chickens of age 1 to 60 days were examined on post mortem, mucosal scraping examination, examination of gross and histopathological changes, and identification of Eimeria species. Prevalence rate of 22.3% (142/638 was assessed. A statistically significant difference p< 0.05 (χ2 = 261.995, p = 0.000 was noted among the studied age groups with maximum prevalence at 41-50 days of age. Five Eimeriaspecies were identified, namely: E. tenella(37.86 %, E. brunette (29.22 %, E. necatrix(12.35 %, E. acervulina(15.22 %, and E. maxima (5.35 %which were identified for the first time in the farm. In conclusion, coccidiosis remained still a major problem in the farm by changing its mode of occurrence from time to time as to the variations of the management system. Further strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis

  20. Subcutaneous mycoses: an aetiological study of 15 cases in a tertiary care hospital at Dibrugarh, Assam, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Pallabi; Nath, Reema; Borgohain, Mondita; Huda, M M; Barua, Shyamanta; Dutta, Debajit; Saikia, Lahari

    2015-06-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses are a group of fungal infections of dermis and subcutaneous tissue which consist of sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, mycetoma, subcutaneous zygomycosis, rhinosporidiosis, lobomycosis and disseminated penicilliosis. A total of 46 consecutive patients with clinically suspected subcutaneous mycoses attending various departments of Assam Medical College and Hospital were included in this prospective study to know the prevalence of subcutaneous mycoses in this eastern part of Assam. Direct microscopy in 10 and 40 % KOH, histopathological examination of biopsied tissue, colony characteristics on Sabourauds dextrose agar media both at 25 and 37 °C and detailed morphology of each fungus on lactophenol cotton blue mount were the basis of identification of the fungi. Subcutaneous mycoses were confirmed in 32.6 % (n = 15) cases. Out of 15 positive cases of subcutaneous mycoses, chromoblastomycosis was detected in six cases (n = 40 %), hyalohyphomycosis in three cases (n = 20 %), and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis, disseminated penicilliosis and mycetoma in two cases each (n = 13.3 % each). In this study, seven different species of fungus were found to be responsible for five different clinical types of subcutaneous mycosis. Cladosporium cladosporioides, Bipolaris spicifera and Curvularia lunata were responsible for chromoblastomycosis, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus terreus for hyalohyphomycosis, C. lunata for mycetoma, Sporothrix schenckii for lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis and Penicillium marneffei for disseminated penicilliosis. C. cladosporioides and C. lunata were the commonest black fungi causing subcutaneous mycosis in this sub-Himalayan belt. Rare species C. cladosporioides, B. spicifera and C. lunata were found to be causing chromoblastomycosis in this study. PMID:25596859

  1. Evaluation of steroid laboratory tests and adrenal gland imaging with radiocholesterol in the aetiological diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basal values of the urinary excretion of 17-oxogenic steroids and serum levels of cortisol were not satisfactory in the differentiation of 'suspected' subjects from patients with true Cushing's syndrome. With a RIA method for serum cortisol determination, the overnight dexamethasone suppression test provided the most reliable single test in establishing adrenocortical hyperfunction. Thirty-five normal subjects, fifty-nine obese patients, thirteen 'suspected' patients and thirteen patients with disease states other than Cushing's syndrome had suppressed values below 4.0 μg/100 ml. None of the ten patients with Cushing's syndrome had a cortisol concentration less than 16.3 μg/100ml. Adrenal gland scintigraphy after radiocholesterol injection is a more valuable tool than the metyrapone test and the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test in the localization and differential diagnosis of adrenocortical lesions causing Cushing's syndrome. It obviates the need for angiographic procedure in the localization of adenomas. It is a reliable technique for identifying functioning adrenal remnants. Therefore a schedule is proposed for studying patients with suspected adrenocortical hyperfunction. (author)

  2. Klinefelter syndrome as a window on the aetiology of language and communication impairments in children: the neuroligin–neurexin hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Dorothy VM; Scerif, Gaia

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the phenotype in Klinefelter syndrome (KS) with (i) specific language impairment (SLI) and (ii) XXX and XYY trisomies. Methods Phenotypes of KS, XXX and XYY were based on data from a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes plus a recent parent survey. Phenotype of SLI was based on a published survey of children attending a special school. Results There are close similarities between the KS phenotype and SLI. Furthermore, a minority of children with KS have features of ...

  3. Infective endocarditis in Turkey: aetiology, clinical features, and analysis of risk factors for mortality in 325 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Şimşek-Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In Turkey, IE occurs in relatively young patients and Brucella spp should always be taken into consideration as a cause of this infection. We should first consider streptococci as the causative agents of IE in young patients, those with CRHD or congenital heart valve disease, and cases of community-acquired IE. Staphylococci should be considered first in the case of pacemaker lead IE, when there are high levels of creatinine, and in cases of healthcare-associated IE. Enterococci could be the most probable causative agent of IE particularly in patients aged >50 years, those on dialysis, those with late prosthetic valve IE, and those with a perivalvular abscess. The early diagnosis and treatment of IE before complications develop is crucial because the mortality rate is high among cases with serious complications. The prevention of bacteraemia with the measures available among chronic haemodialysis patients should be a priority because of the higher mortality rate of subsequent IE among this group of patients.

  4. Breast arterial calcifications are correlated with subsequent development of coronary artery calcifications, but their aetiology is predominantly different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Angela H.E.M. [Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.maas@diagram-zwolle.nl; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Atsma, Femke [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J.M. [Preventicon Breast Cancer Screening Center, Stationsplein 91, 3511ED Utrecht (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.Th.M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study whether calcifications in breast arteries, as seen on mammograms, predict future development of coronary artery calcifications. Methods: We studied 499 women, aged 49-70 years, participating in a breast cancer screening program and investigated whether arterial calcifications in the breast (BAC) are associated with coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) after 9 years follow-up. Mammograms were reviewed for the presence of BAC. CAC was assessed by multi slice computed tomography (MSCT). With logistic regression analysis the independent effect of various risk factors on BAC and CAC was measured. Results: BAC was present in 58 of 499 women (12%) and CAC score > 0 was present in 262 of 499 women (53%). BAC was strongly associated with CAC (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.71-6.04) and this remained significant after adjustment for age at baseline and the duration of follow-up (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-4.23). Most CV risk factors were associated with CAC but not with BAC. Only parity was significantly associated with both increased CAC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.60) and increased BAC (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.23-22.43). Breastfeeding was associated with BAC (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.40-8.23) but not with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.84-1.93). Conclusion: Breast arterial calcifications are predictive of subsequent development of calcifications in the coronary arteries.

  5. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  6. Osteoarthropathy of unknown aetiology in the long bones of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz W. Huchzermeyer; Herman B. Groenewald; Jan G. Myburgh; Steyl, Johan C. A.; Martina R. Crole

    2013-01-01

    Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodil...

  7. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic crit...

  8. Energy Gap in the Aetiology of Body Weight Gain and Obesity: A Challenging Concept with a Complex Evaluation and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy gap(s is useful for understanding the consequence of a small daily, weekly, or monthly positive energy balance and the inconspicuous shift in weight gain ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. Energy gap is a dynamic concept: an initial positive energy gap incurred via an increase in energy intake (or a decrease in physical activity is not constant, may fade out with time if the initial conditions are maintained, and depends on the ‘efficiency' with which the readjustment of the energy imbalance gap occurs with time. The metabolic response to an energy imbalance gap and the magnitude of the energy gap(s can be estimated by at least two methods, i.e. i assessment by longitudinal overfeeding studies, imposing (by design an initial positive energy imbalance gap; ii retrospective assessment based on epidemiological surveys, whereby the accumulated endogenous energy storage per unit of time is calculated from the change in body weight and body composition. In order to illustrate the difficulty of accurately assessing an energy gap we have used, as an illustrative example, a recent epidemiological study which tracked changes in total energy intake (estimated by gross food availability and body weight over 3 decades in the US, combined with total energy expenditure prediction from body weight using doubly labelled water data. At the population level, the study attempted to assess the cause of the energy gap purported to be entirely due to increased food intake. Based on an estimate of change in energy intake judged to be more reliable (i.e. in the same study population and together with calculations of simple energetic indices, our analysis suggests that conclusions about the fundamental causes of obesity development in a population (excess intake vs. low physical activity or both is clouded by a high level of uncertainty.

  9. Role of Helicobacter pylori specific heat shock protein-60 antibodies in the aetiology of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruneshwari Dayal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of chronic infections in causing coronary artery disease (CAD has been investigated for the past several years. Among them, the role of Helicobacter pylori has stimulated keen interest. Though initial results were conflicting, there are growing data to support the role of H. pylori in CAD. The main mechanism of endothelial damage is hypothesized to be through molecular mimicry involving heat shock proteins. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of H.pylori and cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA positive H.pylori infection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and the potential role of anti-H. pylori specific heat shock protein-60 (Hp-HSP-60 antibody response in these patients, for cardiac events. One hundred patients undergoing CABG and 100 controls were studied. The H.pylori infection and cagA status were determined serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Hp-HSP-60 Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies were estimated by using an in house ELISA. Although there was no difference in the prevalence of H.pylori infection in patients and controls (74% vs 70%, 58% of patients were infected with cagA positive H.pylori compared to 36% of controls (P=0.002. Mean systemic levels of Hp-HSP-60 IgG were also higher in patients than in controls (27.9 vs 18.7, P=0.0001. These antibody levels were also significantly higher in H.pylori positive patients (P=0.0001. There was a strong correlation between Hp-HSP-60 antibody levels and occurrence of myocardial infarction (P=0.003. CagA positive H.pylori infection may be associated with the development of CAD. High levels of Hp-HSP-60 antibodies may constitute a marker and/or concomitant pathogenic factor of the disease.

  10. Aetiology and factors associated with bacterial diarrhoeal diseases amongst urban refugee children in Eastleigh, Kenya: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqo G. Boru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kenya is home to over 400 000 refugees from neighbouring countries. There is scanty information about diarrhoea amongst urban refugees in Kenya.Objectives: We investigated the enteric bacteria causing diarrhoea amongst urban refugee children and described the associated factors.Method: During the period of August–December 2010, urban refugee children between the ages of two and five who attended Eastleigh County Council Health Centre were enrolled into the study. Diarrhoeal cases were compared with age-matched children with no diarrhoea (controls. Stool specimens were collected and enteric bacteria isolated. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors.Results: A total of 41 cases and 41 controls were enrolled in the study. The age and country of origin were similar for cases and controls. The bacterial isolation rates amongst the cases were: non-pathogenic Escherichia coli 71%, Shigella dysenteriae 2.4%, Shigella flexneri 2.4%, Salmonella paratyphi 5%. For the controls, non-pathogenic E. coli 90% and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC2.4% were amongst the organisms isolated. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin; resistance to other antibiotics varied by isolate type. Factors associated independently with diarrhoea included children not washing their hands with soap (aOR 5.9, p < 0.05, neighbour(s having diarrhoea (aOR 39.8, p < 0.05, children not exclusively breastfed for their first 6 months (aOR 7.6, p < 0.05 and children eating food cooked the previous day (aOR 23.8, p = 0.002.Conclusions: Shigella species, Salmonella species and ETEC were found to be responsible for diarrhoea amongst the urban refugee children. Measures to control and guide the use of antibiotics are critical for the prevention of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to improve personal and domestic hygiene, including educational campaigns to promote appropriate handwashing, should be encouraged.

  11. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  12. A proposal for re-defining the way the aetiology of schizophrenia and bipolar human psychiatric diseases is investigated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar J S Klar

    2010-03-01

    ``The two big problems – the nature of development and the nature of the mind – are being subdued. I don’t know whether there will be beautiful, general theories to come out of this – something really nice like Watson and Crick’s double helix – or whether there will be an accumulation of more and more details. I’ll confess to a secret hope for the former” (Crow 2000).

  13. Role of Helicobacter pylori specific heat shock protein-60 antibodies in the aetiology of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aruneshwari Dayal; Bhat, Kishore G.; Mahadev D. Dixit

    2012-01-01

    The role of chronic infections in causing coronary artery disease (CAD) has been investigated for the past several years. Among them, the role of Helicobacter pylori has stimulated keen interest. Though initial results were conflicting, there are growing data to support the role of H. pylori in CAD. The main mechanism of endothelial damage is hypothesized to be through molecular mimicry involving heat shock proteins. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of H.pylori and cytoto...

  14. The Aetiology of the Bloodstream Infections in the Patients Who Presented to a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Santwana; Raza, Shahid; Bhatta, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infections are associated with a significant patient morbidity and mortality. The detection of microorganisms in the patients’ blood has a great diagnostic and prognostic significance. The early positive results provide valuable diagnostic information, based on which the appropriate antimicrobial therapy can be initiated.

  15. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; Van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K. C., Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacter...

  16. Executive Function in Children with Intellectual Disability--The Effects of Sex, Level and Aetiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, H.; Sinanovic, O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function is very important in the children's overall development. The goal of this study was to assess the executive function in children with intellectual disability (ID) through the use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) teacher version. An additional goal was to examine the differences in…

  17. Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwambo, P M; Brodie, S J; DeMartini, J C

    2001-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) infection in sheep with chronic respiratory disease on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. All seven Merino crossbred sheep with chronic dyspnoea and emaciation examined for gross and microscopic lesions had lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and one also had pulmonary abscesses. Two of the sheep with LIP also had lesions of ovine pulmonary carcinoma (OPC, jaagsiekte). Using in situ hybridization, OvLV DNA localized to a high proportion of pulmonary macrophages in lungs with lesions of LIP. Lung tissue samples from six of these sheep were positive for a syncytium-inducing virus in cultures of lamb testis cells. Thin-section electron microscopy of infected cells showed virions with morphogenesis typical of lentiviruses. In a western blotting assay, monoclonal antibodies to the OvLV capsid (CA, p27) and matrix (MA, p15) proteins of a North American OvLV isolate reacted with similar-sized bands of the virus, and serum from six of the sheep were reactive with CA from the Kenyan viral isolate. Using an OvLV agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, all seven sheep were positive for serum antiviral antibody, as were 29% of 63 clinically normal sheep from Laikipia District. However, when sera from the healthy sheep were tested in a western blot assay, only 52% had IgG reactive to the OvLV CA, indicating a high rate of false negative reactions with the AGID test. Serum samples from 87 Red Maasai or Dorper crossbred sheep from two farms in other parts of Kenya were OvLV seronegative by both the AGID test and the western blot assay. These results document the first identification of OvLV as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in sheep in Kenya and show a high rate of infection in sheep flocks, with a high prevalence of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:11770202

  18. Evidence for varied aetiologies regulating the transmission of prion disease: implications for understanding the heritable basis of prion incubation times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad O Iyegbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of progressive fatal neurodegenerative disorders, triggered by abnormal folding of the endogenous prion protein molecule. The encoding gene is a major biological factor influencing the length of the asymptomatic period after infection. It remains unclear the extent to which the variation between quantitative trait loci (QTLs reported in mouse models is due to methodological differences between approaches or genuine differences between traits. With this in mind, our approach to identifying genetic factors has sought to extend the linkage mapping approach traditionally applied, to a series of additional traits, while minimising methodological variability between them. Our approach allows estimations of heritability to be derived, as well as predictions to be made about possible existence of genetic overlap between the various traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our data indicate a surprising degree of heritability (up to 60%. Correlations between traits are also identified. A series of QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11 and 18 accompany our heritability estimates. However, only a locus on chromosome 11 has a general effect across all 4 models explored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have achieved some success in detecting novel and pre-existing QTLs associated with incubation time. However, aside from the general effects described, the model-specific nature of the broader host genetic architecture has also been brought into clearer focus. This suggests that genetic overlap can only partially account for the general heritability of incubation time when factors, such as the nature of the TSE agent and the route of administration are considered. This point is highly relevant to vCJD (a potential threat to public health where the route of primary importance is oral, while the QTLs being sought derive exclusively from studies of the ic route. Our results highlight the limitations of a single-model approach to QTL-mapping of TSEs.

  19. Getting the phenotypes right: an essential ingredient for understanding aetiological mechanisms underlying persistent violence and developing effective treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilagh Hodgins

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce societal levels of violence, it is essential to advance understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in initiating and maintaining individual patterns of physical aggression. New technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imagining and analyses of DNA provide tools for identifying these mechanisms. The reliability and validity of the results of studies using these tools depend not only on aspects of the technology, but also on the methodological rigour with which the studies are conducted, particularly with respect to characterizing the phenotype. The present article discusses five challenges confronting scientists who aim to advance understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with persistent violence. These challenges are: (1 to develop evidence-based hypotheses and to design studies that test alternate hypotheses; (2 to recruit samples that are homogeneous with respect to variables that may be linked to neurobiological mechanisms underpinning violent behaviour; (3 to use reliable and valid measures in order to fully characterize participants so that the external validity of the results is evident; (4 to restrict the range of age of participants so as not to confuse developmental change with group differences; and (5 to take account of sex. Our goal is to contribute to elevating methodological standards in this new field of research and to thereby improve the validity of results and move closer to finding effective ways to reduce violence

  20. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soori Nnko; Dominic Bukenya; Bazil Balthazar Kavishe; Samuel Biraro; Robert Peck; Saidi Kapiga; Heiner Grosskurth; Janet Seeley

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs) other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda. Methods Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this pape...

  1. Aetiology for the Covariation between Combined Type ADHD and Reading Difficulties in a Family Study: The Role of IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Wood, Alexis C.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Rommelse, Nanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ, recent twin data suggest that the shared genetic…

  2. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  3. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rini I Damayanti; Sudarisman

    2005-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were ...

  4. Ovarian ageing, follicle depletion, and cancer: a hypothesis for the aetiology of epithelial ovarian cancer involving follicle depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The association between ovarian cancer risk and reproductive factors has been well established, and two main theories, incessant ovulation and gonadotropin stimulation, have been proposed to explain the mechanism. Recent studies using animal models of ovarian tumorigenesis, and analysis of ovarian tissues from prophylactic oophorectomies, suggest that depletion of ovarian follicles might underlie the epidemiological findings linking reproductive history and ovarian cancer risk.

  5. Further evidence for the involvement of human chromosome 6p24 in the aetiology of orofacial clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A F; Imaizumi, K; Mirza, G; Stephens, R S; Kuroki, Y; Matsuno, M; Ragoussis, J

    1998-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations affecting the 6p24 region have been associated with orofacial clefting. Here we present a female patient with cleft palate, severe growth retardation, developmental delay, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, antimongoloid slant, bilateral ptosis, flat nasal bridge, hypoplastic nasal alae, protruding upper lip, microretrognathia, bilateral, low set, and posteriorly rotated ears, bilateral microtia, narrow ear canals, short neck, and a karyotype of 46,XX,t(6;9)(p24;p23). The translocation chromosomes were analysed in detail by FISH and the 6p24 breakpoint was mapped within 50-500 kb of other breakpoints associated with orofacial clefting, in agreement with the assignment of such a locus in 6p24. The chromosome 9 translocation breakpoint was identified to be between D9S156 and D9S157 in 9p23-p22, a region implicated in the 9p deletion syndrome. Images PMID:9783713

  6. [SEIP-AEPAP-SEPEAP consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial skin infections in out-patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo-Fernández, A J; Martínez-Chamorro, M J; Couceiro, J A; Moraga-Llop, F A; Baquero-Artigao, F; Alvez, F; Vera Casaño, A; Piñeiro-Pérez, R; Alfayate, S; Cilleruelo, M J; Calvo, C

    2016-02-01

    Skin infections are a common cause for dermatological consultations in the paediatric setting. A review is presented of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the main bacterial skin infections, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of super-infected puncture and bite wounds. The most prevalent bacteria in skin infections are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Treatment is usually empirical, since microbiological studies are only recommended under certain circumstances or lack of improvement with common therapies. Superficial skin infections can be treated with local antiseptics or antibiotics (mupirocin or fusidic acid). Systemic treatment is usually reserved for patients with extensive or severe disease or with other risk factors. Systemic treatment depends on the suspected infecting bacteria, with penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and first or second generation cephalosporin being the most frequently used drugs. Due to the low incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant infection by S. aureus in Spain, the use of clindamycin or co-trimoxazole is only recommended after severe disease, relapses or a clear epidemiological background. PMID:25735876

  7. Audit of ultrasound and decision to operate in groin pain of unknown aetiology with ultrasound technique explained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depasquale, R. [Countess of Chester Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Countess of Chester Health Park, Chester, Cheshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ruben.depasquale@gmail.com; Landes, C.; Doyle, G. [Countess of Chester Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Countess of Chester Health Park, Chester, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Aim: To determine the ability of a groin ultrasound service to identify inguinal/femoral hernias in patients with groin pain and equivocal clinical signs, and to evaluate the number of positive cases undergoing surgery. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 243 examinations performed during the period January 2000 to June 2004 was undertaken. The referral information, as well as details of the examination and subsequent follow-up, were obtained through our hospital/radiological information system. Results: Of 243 patients, 92 (38%) were referrals from general practitioners and 151 (62%) were hospital referrals. The examinations were performed by radiology consultants or specialist registrars, the former accounting for 228 examinations (94%). The age range of the patients was 3 months to 88 years (mean age = 48.7), with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. One hundred and forty-three examinations were negative for hernias. Two of these patients underwent groin explorations and were found to be normal. The rest were discharged and none returned with related complaints. Ninety-four examinations (39%) were positive for hernias, as a result of which 62 patients underwent surgery. Of these, only four were found to be false-positives giving a positive predictive value of 94% in operated patients. Three scans were equivocal, and three were positive for other conditions. Conclusion: In patients with equivocal clinical signs, groin ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying hernias, and therefore, aids surgical management.

  8. Audit of ultrasound and decision to operate in groin pain of unknown aetiology with ultrasound technique explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the ability of a groin ultrasound service to identify inguinal/femoral hernias in patients with groin pain and equivocal clinical signs, and to evaluate the number of positive cases undergoing surgery. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 243 examinations performed during the period January 2000 to June 2004 was undertaken. The referral information, as well as details of the examination and subsequent follow-up, were obtained through our hospital/radiological information system. Results: Of 243 patients, 92 (38%) were referrals from general practitioners and 151 (62%) were hospital referrals. The examinations were performed by radiology consultants or specialist registrars, the former accounting for 228 examinations (94%). The age range of the patients was 3 months to 88 years (mean age = 48.7), with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. One hundred and forty-three examinations were negative for hernias. Two of these patients underwent groin explorations and were found to be normal. The rest were discharged and none returned with related complaints. Ninety-four examinations (39%) were positive for hernias, as a result of which 62 patients underwent surgery. Of these, only four were found to be false-positives giving a positive predictive value of 94% in operated patients. Three scans were equivocal, and three were positive for other conditions. Conclusion: In patients with equivocal clinical signs, groin ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying hernias, and therefore, aids surgical management.

  9. The opposite end of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continuum:genetic and environmental aetiologies of extremely low ADHD traits

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, Corina U.; Merwood, Andrew; van der Meer, Joanna M J; Haworth, Claire M A; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to reflect a continuously distributed quantitative trait, it is assessed through binary diagnosis or skewed measures biased towards its high, symptomatic extreme. A growing trend is to study the positive tail of normally distributed traits, a promising avenue, for example, to study high intelligence to increase power for gene-hunting for intelligence. However, the emergence of such a ‘positive genetics’ model has be...

  10. Congenital hydrocephalus in two pregnancies following the birth of a child with a neural tube defect: aetiology and management.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, R D; Sarti, D A; Brown, W J; Crandall, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    A family is described with congenital hydrocephalus occurring in two pregnancies following the birth of a child with a neural tube defect (NTD). Prenatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus at mid-gestation was achieved by ultrasonography. The increased frequency of hydrocephalus among sibs of probands with a NTD and vice versa suggests that, following the birth of a child with either malformations, subsequent pregnancies should be monitored at mid-gestation by amniotic fluid AFP and serial ultrasound...

  11. Lactose intolerance and risk of lung, breast and ovarian cancers: aetiological clues from a population-based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, J; Sundquist, J.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individuals with lactose intolerance are recommended to avoid milk or dairy products, which may affect the development of cancer. Methods: We identified individuals with lactose intolerance from several Swedish Registers linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers in the breast, lung, and ovary. Results: A total of 22 788 individuals with lactose intolerance were identified, and their risks of lung (SIR=0.55), breast (SIR=0.7...

  12. Role of histamine in the aetiology of byssinosis. I Blood histamine concentrations in workers exposed to cotton and flax dusts.

    OpenAIRE

    Noweir, M H; Abdel-Kader, H M; Omran, F

    1984-01-01

    The formation or the accumulation, or both, of histamine in the lungs may be potentiated by agent(s) present in cotton dust at higher level(s) than in flax dust and negligible in cottonseed dust. It has been suggested that such potentiation may be due to the activation of the ability of the lung to produce histamine and/or produce or recruit mast cells; this may present an acceptable explanation of the mechanism by which the propagation of the chronic effect of the dust proceeds in cotton and...

  13. Breast arterial calcifications are correlated with subsequent development of coronary artery calcifications, but their aetiology is predominantly different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study whether calcifications in breast arteries, as seen on mammograms, predict future development of coronary artery calcifications. Methods: We studied 499 women, aged 49-70 years, participating in a breast cancer screening program and investigated whether arterial calcifications in the breast (BAC) are associated with coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) after 9 years follow-up. Mammograms were reviewed for the presence of BAC. CAC was assessed by multi slice computed tomography (MSCT). With logistic regression analysis the independent effect of various risk factors on BAC and CAC was measured. Results: BAC was present in 58 of 499 women (12%) and CAC score > 0 was present in 262 of 499 women (53%). BAC was strongly associated with CAC (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.71-6.04) and this remained significant after adjustment for age at baseline and the duration of follow-up (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-4.23). Most CV risk factors were associated with CAC but not with BAC. Only parity was significantly associated with both increased CAC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.60) and increased BAC (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.23-22.43). Breastfeeding was associated with BAC (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.40-8.23) but not with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.84-1.93). Conclusion: Breast arterial calcifications are predictive of subsequent development of calcifications in the coronary arteries

  14. Bell麻痹病因及发病机制研究进展%The aetiology and pathogenesis of Bell's palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 凌琳

    2013-01-01

    Bell麻痹占所有单侧周围性面神经麻痹病例的60%~75%,其病因至今仍不清楚,目前认为可能与病毒感染和自身免疫性因素有关.Bell麻痹是细胞免疫介导的周围神经系统脱髓鞘疾病,在大多数病例中,可能是吉兰-巴雷综合征(Guillain-Barré syndrome,GBS)的一种特殊类型.治疗方面,应尽早使用抗病毒药物如阿昔洛韦或伐昔洛韦,并短期口服糖皮质激素治疗;单克隆抗体和/或T细胞免疫治疗有望成为针对Bell麻痹的一种特异性疗法.

  15. Research progress on the aetiology of chicken infectious coryza%鸡传染性鼻炎病原学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗得园; 张培君; 杨汉春; 龚玉梅; 苗德荣

    2001-01-01

    鸡传染性鼻炎是由副鸡嗜血杆菌(Hpg)引起的一种鸡急性上呼吸道传染病。本病由Beach首先报道,DEBlieck于1932年初次分离到了该病的病原体,最初命名为鸡嗜血红蛋白鼻炎芽孢杆菌。目前本病在世界许多地方都有发生和流行,我国从1980年起就有许多疑似本病的病例出现,首先由冯文达于1987年在北京分离到细菌。本病发生后可引起蛋鸡产量下降,育成鸡生长发育受阻和淘汰率增加,肉鸡肉质下降,造成很大的经济损失。现将本病目前在国内外病原学研究进展作一综述,以供同行参考。

  16. A Study on Clinico-Mycological Profile, Aetiological Agents and Diagnosis of Onychomycosis at a Government Medical College Hospital in Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Rubeena; Bashir, Deeba; Ahmad, Shabir; Syed, Arshi; Khurshid, Syed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a major public health problem with a high incidence, associated morbidity and a long lasting treatment with anti-fungal agents. This study was carried out to know the clinico-mycological pattern of onychomycosis, which could help in the control of this infection.

  17. Aetiology and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in physically active conscripts: a follow-up study in the Finnish Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihlajamäki Harri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are the main reason for morbidity during military training. MSDs commonly result in functional impairment leading to premature discharge from military service and disabilities requiring long-term rehabilitation. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between various risk factors and MSDs with special attention to the physical fitness of the conscripts. Methods Two successive cohorts of 18 to 28-year-old male conscripts (N = 944, median age 19 were followed for six months. MSDs, including overuse and acute injuries, treated at the garrison clinic were identified and analysed. Associations between MSDs and risk factors were examined by multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Results During the six-month follow-up of two successive cohorts there were 1629 MSDs and 2879 health clinic visits due to MSDs in 944 persons. The event-based incidence rate for MSD was 10.5 (95% confidence interval (CI: 10.0-11.1 per 1000 person-days. Most MSDs were in the lower extremities (65% followed by the back (18%. The strongest baseline factors associated with MSDs were poor result in the combined outcome of a 12-minute running test and back lift test (hazard ratio (HR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.9-4.6, high waist circumference (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2, high body mass index (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4, poor result in a 12-minute running test (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1 and poor school success (educational level and grades combined; HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0. In addition, risk factors of long-term MSDs (≥10 service days lost due to one or several MSDs were analysed: poor result in a 12-minute running test, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, high waist circumference, high body mass index, not belonging to a sports club and poor result in the combined outcome of the 12-minute running test and standing long jump test were strongly associated with long-term MSDs. Conclusions The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable and favourable for future interventions. An appropriate intervention based on the present study would improve both aerobic and muscular fitness prior to conscript training. Attention to appropriate waist circumference and body mass index would strengthen the intervention. Effective results from well-planned randomised controlled studies are needed before initiating large-scale prevention programmes in a military environment.

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders (Msds) and dental practice. part 1. General information-terminology, aetiology, work-relatedness, magnitude of the problem, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermin, Yamalik

    2006-12-01

    Occupational health hazards are common in many sectors and are on the increase. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), which are problems of musculoskeletal system, are significant and costly workplace problems affecting occupational health, productivity and the careers of the working population. Although there is a lack of uniform medical information and a clear understanding of the nature of MSDs, and significant difficulties in diagnosis which generate an ongoing debate regarding many aspects of these conditions, various risk factors are identified and preventive measures are available. As safety and health at work is a realistic target and prevention is clearly the best approach, the preventive philosophy deserves particular attention. This review aims to provide background information on general features of MSDs, identified risk factors and the basic philosophy of prevention. PMID:17243470

  19. Etiología da paralisia facial periférica: relato de um caso inusitado Aetiology of peripheral facial paralysis: report of an unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rêgo

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Após conceituar a paralisia de Bell, ressaltar sua alta incidência e expor as teorias que se propõem a explicá-la, é relatado um caso de paralisia facial periférica isolada ocorrido durante o retorno de um mergulho, em paciente de 28 anos. Na revisão bibliográfica realizada são mencionadas e discutidas numerosas entidades que têm sido consideradas como causas de paralisia facial periférica, destacando-se um trabalho americano que relata dois casos ocorridos, de forma transitória, durante aumento de altitude e que foram atribuídos à variação de pressão no ouvido médio. Como conclusão, é admitido um mecanismo similar para o caso em pauta.The case of a 28-year-old patient in which a peripheral facial paralysis occurred during raise of diving is reported. In reviewing the literature several conditions are mentioned and discussed as fortuitous causes of peripheral facial paralysis, being emphazised an North-American report about two patients suffering five episodes of transient seventh nerve paresis during ascent to altitude, where a disequilibrium of pressures between the middle ear and the nasopharynx was assumed to be the efective cause of the Bell's palsy. A similar mechanism was admited for the reported case.

  20. Association between 5q23.2-located polymorphism of CTXN3 gene (Cortexin 3) and schizophrenia in European-Caucasian males; implications for the aetiology of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerý, Omar; Lochman, J.; Povová, J.; Janout, V.; Plesník, J.; Balcar, V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2015). ISSN 1744-9081 R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14504 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : DISC1 * SLC12A2 * NKCC1 * GABAergic neurotransmission Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  1. Clinical profile, risk factors and aetiology of young stroke: a tertiary care hospital based study from the Sub-Himalayan region in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Kapoor

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated predominant presence of conventional risk factors in young strokes. There was substantial time delay of presentation. Majority of patients presented in winter months. Prevention of vascular risk factors as well as issue of factors leading to delay in presentation needs to be addressed. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1355-1359

  2. Aetiology of pulmonary symptoms in HIV-infected smear negative recurrent PTB suspects in Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Okwera

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previously treated TB patients with pulmonary symptoms are often considered recurrent TB suspects in the resource-limited settings, where investigations are limited to microscopy and chest x-ray. Category II anti-TB drugs may be inappropriate and may expose patients to pill burden, drug toxicities and drug-drug interactions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes of pulmonary symptoms in HIV-infected smear negative recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis suspects at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. METHODS: Between March 2008 and December 2011, induced sputum samples of 178 consented HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects in Kampala were subjected to MGIT and LJ cultures for mycobacteria at TB Reference Laboratory, Kampala. Processed sputum samples were also tested by PCR to detect 18S rRNA gene of P.jirovecii and cultured for other bacteria. RESULTS: Bacteria, M. tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii were detected in 27%, 18% and 6.7% of patients respectively and 53.4% of the specimens had no microorganisms. S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were 100% susceptible to chloramphenicol and erythromycin but co-trimoxazole resistant. CONCLUSION: At least 81.5% of participants had no microbiologically-confirmed TB. However our findings call for thorough investigation of HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects to guide cost effective treatment.

  3. Semen parameters in men with spinal cord injury: changes and aetiology%脊髓损伤病人的精液参数:变化和病源学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.N.Momen; I.Fahmy; M.Amer; M.Arafa; W.Zohdy; T. A. Nas

    2007-01-01

    目的:评定脊髓损伤(SCI)病人精液参数的变化及其原因.方法:研究对象为45名SCI病人,精液通过手淫法(n=2)、前列腺按摩法(n=13)、阴茎震动刺激法(n=13)或电刺激采精法(n=17)获得.结果:SCI病人的精液有正常的体积(2.3±1.9 mL)和精子数量(85.0×106±83.8×106/mL),但运动性(11.6±10.1%)、活力(18.5±15.2%)和正常形式的精子(17.5±13.4%)下降,脓细胞增多(6.0×106±8.2×106/mL).总运动性(13.4±9.9 vs.7.1±6.8)和前进性(4.4±3.9 vs.2.2±2.1)运动性在低阴囊温度病人中显著提高.采用电刺激采精与阴茎震动刺激采精法取得的精子参数之间无显著的统计学差异.病人的年龄、低频率的射精、伤害持续的时间和激素种类对精子参数也没有显著的影响.结论:SCI病人的精细胞的特征是体积和数量正常,精子运动性、活力和正常形式下降,脓细胞数增多.最可能被接受的导致精液变坏的原因是阴囊温度升高.%Aim: To assess the changes in semen parameters in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible causes of these changes. Methods: The study included 45 subjects with SCI. Semen retrieval was done by masturbation (2),vigorous prostatic massage (n = 13), penile vibratory stimulation (n = 13) or electroejaculation (n = 17). Results:The semen of men with SCI showed normal volume (2.3 ± 1.9 mL) and sperm count (85.0 × 106 ± 83.8 × 106/mL) with decreased motility (11.6% ± 10.1%), vitality (18.5% ± 15.2%) and normal forms (17.5 ± 13.4%), and pus cells has been increased (6.0 × 106 ± 8.2 × 106/mL). Total (13.4 ± 9.9 vs. 7.1 ± 6.8) and progressive (4.4 ± 3.9 vs.2.2 ± 2.1) motility were significantly higher in subjects with lower scrotal temperatures. There was no statistical significant difference between electroejaculation and penile vibratory stimulation groups as regards any of the semen parameters. Subjects' age, infrequent ejaculation, injury duration and hormonal profile showed no significant effect on semen parameters. Conclusion: The defining characteristics of the seminogram in men with SCI are normal volume and count with decreased sperm motility, vitality and normal forms, and the increased number of pus cells.The most acceptable cause of the deterioration of semen is elevated scrotal temperature. (Asian JAndrol 2007 Sep;9: 684-689)

  4. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, John

    2016-04-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda's dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  5. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940–73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, John

    2016-01-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda’s dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  6. [The characteristic of proliferative activity of thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of females with experimental chronic liver diseases of various aetiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhin, G V; Fedosov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of the proliferative activity of thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of female rats with chronic liver pathology of various genesis. In adult female Wistar rats toxic and autoimmune forms of liver lesions were modeled. The offspring of these experimental animals was studied at different time points of postnatal ontogenesis. Proliferative activity of thymocytes and lymphocytes was estimated by counting the proportion of cells with multiple nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs) and using the cytofluorometric method with acridine orange. In the offspring of experimental animals, the depression of proliferative activity of thymocytes as well as the increase of the proliferative activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found at all the time points studied. This was indicated by a change in a relative number of AgNORs-activated cells and a decrease of nucleic acid content in cortical thymocytes. PMID:17201321

  7. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J.; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S.; Martin, B.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  8. Aetiology of bovine abortion in Switzerland from 1986 to 1995--a retrospective study with emphasis on detection of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitt, K; Hilbe, M; Voegtlin, A; Corboz, L; Haessig, M; Pospischil, A

    2007-02-01

    In a retrospective study, covering the period from 1986 to 1995, tissues of aborted fetuses were re-examined. A total of 347 cases were tested immunohistochemically, among them samples of 223 brains were examined for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), and 249 placentae for Chlamydiaceae. Two real-time PCR assays, one for N. caninum, and one for T. gondii, were developed. These potential abortion-inducing agents were detected - and confirmed by PCR, except for BVDV - in 16.1% (N. caninum), 0% (T. gondii), 9.9% (BVDV) and 0.8% (Chlamydiales) of the cases examined. Immunohistochemistry proved to be inadequate for the detection of the protozoal epitopes, whereas it was confirmed as a very useful tool for the detection of BVDV. In abortion material, PCR is considered to be more suitable for the detection of protozoa and Chlamydophila abortus, an adequate sampling presupposed. PMID:17359449

  9. Viral Aetiology of Central Nervous System Infections in Adults Admitted to a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Southern Vietnam over 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Le Van; Thai, Le Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Hien, Vo Minh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better understanding of the viral causes of the diseases is of public health importance, in order to better inform immunization policy, and may influence clinical management. Methodology/Principal Findings Study was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, a primary, secondary, and tertiary referral hospital for all southern provinces of Vietnam. Between December 1996 and May 2008, patients with CNS infections of presumed viral origin were enrolled. Laboratory diagnostics consisted of molecular and serological tests targeted at 14 meningitis/encephalitis-associated viruses. Of 291 enrolled patients, fatal outcome and neurological sequelae were recorded in 10% (28/291) and 27% (78/291), respectively. Mortality was especially high (9/19, 47%) amongst those with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis which is attributed to the limited availability of intravenous acyclovir/valacyclovir. Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses were the most common viruses detected, responsible for 36 (12%), 19 (6.5%), 19 (6.5%) and 8 (2.7%) respectively, followed by rubella virus (6, 2%), varicella zoster virus (5, 1.7%), mumps virus (2, 0.7%), cytomegalovirus (1, 0.3%), and rabies virus (1, 0.3%). Conclusions/Significance Viral infections of the CNS in adults in Vietnam are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive laboratory testing, 68% of the patients remain undiagnosed. Together with our previous reports, the data confirm that Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses are the leading identified causes of CNS viral infections in Vietnam, suggest that the majority of morbidity/mortality amongst patients with a confirmed/probable diagnosis is preventable by adequate vaccination/treatment, and are therefore of public health significance. PMID:25165820

  10. Primary gastric lymphoma of the MALT-type. Current knowledge of aetiology, therapy and prognosis; Primaere Magenlymphome vom MALT-Typ. Gegenwaertiger Wissensstand zu Aetiologie, Therapie und Prognose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, W. [2. Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Aschaffenburg (Germany); Wilms, K. [Medizinische Poliklinik, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    Options in the therapy of gastric lymphoma are based on their histological grade and stage of the disease. They include surgical resection and/or radiotherapy for local tumor control as well as chemotherapy in the case of disseminated disease or high malignancy. Currently, special interest focuses on the effect of helicobacter pylori eradication. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die Therapie primaerer Magenlymphome erfolgt histologie- und stadienadaptiert. Sie umfasst die lokale Tumorkontrolle durch Operation und/oder Strahlentherapie und, bei disseminierten Stadien und hohem Malignitaetsgrad, die Chemotherapie. Darueber hinaus koennte zukuenftig in Einzelfaellen die Eradikation von Helicobacter pylori eine besondere Bedeutung erlangen. (orig./MG)

  11. Iron behaving badly: inappropriate iron chelation as a major contributor to the aetiology of vascular and other progressive inflammatory and degenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell Douglas B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of peroxide and superoxide is an inevitable consequence of aerobic metabolism, and while these particular 'reactive oxygen species' (ROSs can exhibit a number of biological effects, they are not of themselves excessively reactive and thus they are not especially damaging at physiological concentrations. However, their reactions with poorly liganded iron species can lead to the catalytic production of the very reactive and dangerous hydroxyl radical, which is exceptionally damaging, and a major cause of chronic inflammation. Review We review the considerable and wide-ranging evidence for the involvement of this combination of (superoxide and poorly liganded iron in a large number of physiological and indeed pathological processes and inflammatory disorders, especially those involving the progressive degradation of cellular and organismal performance. These diseases share a great many similarities and thus might be considered to have a common cause (i.e. iron-catalysed free radical and especially hydroxyl radical generation. The studies reviewed include those focused on a series of cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological diseases, where iron can be found at the sites of plaques and lesions, as well as studies showing the significance of iron to aging and longevity. The effective chelation of iron by natural or synthetic ligands is thus of major physiological (and potentially therapeutic importance. As systems properties, we need to recognise that physiological observables have multiple molecular causes, and studying them in isolation leads to inconsistent patterns of apparent causality when it is the simultaneous combination of multiple factors that is responsible. This explains, for instance, the decidedly mixed effects of antioxidants that have been observed, since in some circumstances (especially the presence of poorly liganded iron molecules that are nominally antioxidants can actually act as pro-oxidants. The reduction of redox stress thus requires suitable levels of both antioxidants and effective iron chelators. Some polyphenolic antioxidants may serve both roles. Understanding the exact speciation and liganding of iron in all its states is thus crucial to separating its various pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. Redox stress, innate immunity and pro- (and some anti-inflammatory cytokines are linked in particular via signalling pathways involving NF-kappaB and p38, with the oxidative roles of iron here seemingly involved upstream of the IkappaB kinase (IKK reaction. In a number of cases it is possible to identify mechanisms by which ROSs and poorly liganded iron act synergistically and autocatalytically, leading to 'runaway' reactions that are hard to control unless one tackles multiple sites of action simultaneously. Some molecules such as statins and erythropoietin, not traditionally associated with anti-inflammatory activity, do indeed have 'pleiotropic' anti-inflammatory effects that may be of benefit here. Conclusion Overall we argue, by synthesising a widely dispersed literature, that the role of poorly liganded iron has been rather underappreciated in the past, and that in combination with peroxide and superoxide its activity underpins the behaviour of a great many physiological processes that degrade over time. Understanding these requires an integrative, systems-level approach that may lead to novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Faecal urobilinogen levels and pH of stools in population groups with different incidence of cancer of the colon, and their possible role in its aetiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mean faecal urobilinogen levels and the pH of stools were both found to be higher in subjects from a population group at high risk of developing cancer of the colon than in subjects matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status from a low-risk population group. An alkaline reaction of the colon contents seems to have a tumorigenic effect by a direct action on the mucus of the mucous cells. An acidic reaction, on the other hand, appears to be protective. These differences are dependent on the ...

  13. Aetiology and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in physically active conscripts: a follow-up study in the Finnish Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki Harri; Suni Jaana; Taanila Henri; Mattila Ville M; Ohrankämmen Olli; Vuorinen Petteri; Parkkari Jari

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main reason for morbidity during military training. MSDs commonly result in functional impairment leading to premature discharge from military service and disabilities requiring long-term rehabilitation. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between various risk factors and MSDs with special attention to the physical fitness of the conscripts. Methods Two successive cohorts of 18 to 28-year-old male conscripts (N = 94...

  14. Aetiologies of pulseless electrical activity in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests:A retrospective study and analysis of specific causes

    OpenAIRE

    Beun, L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) cardiac arrest is defined as a cardiac arrest (CA) presenting with a residual organized electrical activity on the electrocardiogram. In the last decades, the incidence of PEA has regularly increased, compared to other types of CA like ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. PEA is frequently induced by reversible conditions. The "4 (or 5) H" & "4 (or 5) T" are proposed as a mnemonic to asses for Hypoxia, Hypovolemia, ...

  15. Differential aetiology and impact of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt signalling in skeletal muscle on in vivo insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, P.; Richter, Erik;

    2010-01-01

    signalling was evaluated at three key levels, i.e. the insulin receptor, IRS-1 and V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (Akt) levels, employing kinase assays and phospho-specific western blotting. RESULTS: Proximal insulin signalling was not associated with obesity, age or sex. However, birthweight was......' modifiers of insulin action, including genetics, age, sex, obesity and [Formula: see text], do not seem to mediate their most central effects on whole-body insulin sensitivity through modulation of proximal insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated an association between Akt activity and...

  16. Role of histamine in the aetiology of byssinosis. II. Lung histamine concentrations in guinea pigs chronically exposed to cotton and flax dusts.

    OpenAIRE

    Noweir, M H; Abdel-Kader, H M; Makar, A

    1984-01-01

    Data presented in this study support the finding that cotton and flax dusts contain agents which potentiate the formation or accumulation of histamine or both in the lungs of guinea pigs exposed to dust, and that such agents are present at much higher levels in cotton dust than in flax dust. The potentiating effect may be through the recruitment of mast cells into the lung. Both cotton and flax dusts contain methylating enzyme inhibitory agents, whereas cotton dust also contains agents that i...

  17. 儿童急性白血病合并真菌血症病原学分析%Aetiology analysis of pediatric acute leukemia with fungemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锦; 李楠; 姚佳峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology of fungemia and provide evidence for clinical therapy.Methods A retrospective survey was done with the 42 cases of fungemia in our hospital.Results 42 cases of fungemia include 35 cases acute lymphoid leukemia,6 acute myloid leukemia.95.2% of the fungemia pathogen agent was monilia.8 cases combined with bacterial septicemia,accounting for 19.0%.Drug sensitivity test showed that 2 cases were intermediary to Fluconazole,1 patient was resisdence to Amphotericin B but sensitive to Voriconazole,Itraconazole and fluorocytosine.The main risk factors of fungimia included using wide-spectrum antibiotic,neutophil less than 0.5 × 109/L,central venous indwelling catheter,age and the time of in hospital more than 15 days.Conclusion The effective measure to reduce fungemia morbitity is controlling risk factors.Timely and effectively antifungal therapy is also needed.%目的 分析急性白血病患儿真菌血症的菌群分布及耐药情况,为临床诊治提供参考.方法 对42例恶性肿瘤真菌血症患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 42例真菌血症中急性淋巴细胞白血病35例,急性非淋巴细胞白血病6例.念珠菌血症为真菌血症的主要病原体,占95.2%.8例合并细菌败血症,占19.0%.药物敏感试验结果显示,2例对氟康唑中介,1例对两性霉素B耐药,对伏立康唑、伊曲康唑、氟胞嘧啶均敏感.广谱抗生素的应用、中性粒细胞< 0.5×109/L、中心静脉置管、年龄、住院时间>15 d是引起真菌血症最主要的危险因素.结论 控制易感因素是降低真菌血症发病率的有效措施,及时合理的抗真菌治疗是治疗真菌血症的主要方法.

  18. Etiología y manejo de la neuropatía diabética dolorosa Aetiology and management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    D. Samper Bernal; M.M. Monerris Tabasco; M. Homs Riera; M. Soler Pedrola

    2010-01-01

    Etiología: La neuropatía diabética dolorosa afecta aproximadamente al 25% de los pacientes diabéticos, aquellos tratados con insulina y/o hipoglucemiantes orales, y se caracteriza por presentarse como una neuropatía distal simétrica asociada a dolor crónico. Fisiopatología: Generalmente es de causa vascular, que provoca lesión de los nervios sensitivos primarios por hipoxia neuronal y déficit de nutrientes. Síntomas: El inicio suele ser bilateral en dedos y pies. En los casos de origen asimét...

  19. Depression in Mothers in a Multi-Ethnic Urban Industrial Municipality in Melbourne. Aetiological Factors and Effects on Infants and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Howard; Carmichael, Allan

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of poor Australian-born and immigrant mothers revealed a significantly higher rate of depression among recently arrived, non-English-speaking immigrant mothers having no supporting social network. Depressed Australian-born mothers often had unhappy, unstable, and insecure childhoods. Behavioral problems in infants and preschool children…

  20. RISKS, RIGHTS OR BOTH? EVALUATING THE COMMON AETIOLOGY OF NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO INFORM YOUTH JUSTICE PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Haines

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The policy and practice of the Youth Justice System of England and Wales has become dominated by risk-focused, offender-first approaches underpinned by the deterministic, reductionist and psychosocially-biased risk factor prevention paradigm. Using the All Wales Youth Offending Strategy and the evaluation of the Welsh Assembly Government’s ‘Extending Entitlement’ youth inclusion strategy as its touchstones, this paper explores a rights- and entitlements-based, children first model of working with young people. This model critiques the management of risks and the purported ‘common aetiology’ of negative and positive behaviours/outcomes and evidences the potential advantages of pursuing a proactive, inclusionary, children first, children’s rights agenda when seeking to reduce youth offending.

  1. MDCT in ischaemic colitis: how to define the aetiology and acute, subacute and chronic phase of damage in the emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berritto, Daniela; Iacobellis, Francesca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Volterrani, Luca; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Brunese, Luca; Grassi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic colitis (IC) is the most common vascular disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a reported incidence of 6.1-44 cases/100,000 person years with confirmatory histopathology. However, the true incidence of IC poses some difficulty, and even vigilant clinicians with patients at high risk often miss the diagnosis, since clinical presentation is non-specific or could have a mild transient nature. Detection of IC results is crucial to plan the correct therapeutic approach and reduce the reported mortality rate (4-12%). Diagnosis of IC is based on a combination of clinical suspicion, radiological, endoscopic and histological findings. Some consider colonoscopy as a diagnostic test of choice; however, preparation is required and it is not without risk, above all in patients who are severely ill. There are two manifestations of vascular colonic insult: ischaemic and reperfusive. The first one occurs above all during ischaemic/non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia; in this case, the colonic wall appears thinned with dilated lumen and fluid appears in the paracolic space. When reperfusion occurs, the large bowel wall appears thickened and stratified, because of subepithelial oedema and/or haemorrhage, with consequent lumen calibre reduction. Shaggy contour of the involved intestine and misty mesentery are associated with the pericolic fluid. The pericolic fluid results are a crucial finding for IC diagnosis since its evidence suggests the presence of an ongoing damage thus focusing the attention on other pathological aspects which could be otherwise misdiagnosed, such as thinned or thickened colonic wall. Moreover, the pericolic fluid may increase or decrease, depending on the evolution of the ischaemic damage, suggesting the decision of medical or surgical treatment. Radiologists should not forget the hypothesis of IC, being aware that multidetector CT could be sufficient to suggest the diagnosis of IC, allowing for early identification and grading definition, and in a short-term follow-up, discriminating patients who need urgent surgery from patients in whom medical treatment and follow-up can be proposed. PMID:27007462

  2. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V; Holst, R; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Diet contributes significantly to colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology and may be potentially modifiable.......Diet contributes significantly to colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology and may be potentially modifiable....

  3. Breast cancer risk among women with psychiatric admission with affective or neurotic disorders: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, Karen Margrete; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Keiding, Niels; Sawitz, Allen Ronald; Olsen, J.H.; Mortensen, P.B.; Jørgensen, Torben

    neoplasm breast, aetiology, affective disorder, neurotic disorders, alcohol abuse, non-specified abuse......neoplasm breast, aetiology, affective disorder, neurotic disorders, alcohol abuse, non-specified abuse...

  4. Hipersensibilidad dentinal: Una revisión de su etiología, patogénesis y tratamiento Dentine hypersensitivity: A review of its aetiology, pathogenesis and management

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-01-01

    La hipersensibilidad dentinal se define como un dolor que surge desde la dentina expuesta y representa diferentes entidades clínicas. La presentación de casos en personas jóvenes se está incrementando particularmente al parecer debido a dietas acidogénicas, malos hábitos, técnicas de cepillado deficientes y el uso indiscriminado de productos de blanqueamiento dental. La exposición dentinal se puede deber a procesos, tanto físicos como químicos, que conducen a la pérdida ya sea del esmalte y e...

  5. Seeking the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder. Part 2: functional neuroimaging [W poszukiwaniu przyczyn zaburzeń ze spektrum autyzmu – neuroobrazowanie funkcjonalne (część II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple functional imaging techniques help to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD. The early functional imaging studies on ASD focused on task-specific methods related to core symptom domains and explored patterns of activation in response to face processing, theory of mind tasks, language processing and executive function tasks. On the other hand, fMRI research in ASD focused on the development of functional connectivity methods and has provided evidence of alterations in cortical connectivity in ASD and establish autism as a disorder of under-connectivity among the brain regions participating in cortical networks. This atypical functional connectivity in ASD results in inefficiency and poor integration of processing in network connections to achieve task performance. The goal of this review is to summarise the actual neuroimaging functional data and examine their implication for understanding of the neurobiology of ASD.

  6. Hipersensibilidad dentinal: Una revisión de su etiología, patogénesis y tratamiento Dentine hypersensitivity: A review of its aetiology, pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La hipersensibilidad dentinal se define como un dolor que surge desde la dentina expuesta y representa diferentes entidades clínicas. La presentación de casos en personas jóvenes se está incrementando particularmente al parecer debido a dietas acidogénicas, malos hábitos, técnicas de cepillado deficientes y el uso indiscriminado de productos de blanqueamiento dental. La exposición dentinal se puede deber a procesos, tanto físicos como químicos, que conducen a la pérdida ya sea del esmalte y el cemento o del tejido gingival. Los factores causales rara vez actúan aisladamente e incluyen erosión, atrición, abrasión, bruxismo, blanqueamiento, medicación, envejecimiento, condiciones genéticas, recesión gingival y enfermedad periodontal. Existe un amplio rango de productos disponibles para el tratamiento con el fin de ocluir los túbulos dentinales o bloquear la transmisión neural desde la pulpa. La mayoría de opciones son reversibles y usan agentes químicos tales como fluoruros, oxalato, sales de estroncio o potasio o agentes adhesivo dentinarios. Las opciones no reversibles deben ser empleadas solamente después de intentar varias veces las reversibles. Esto usualmente incluye la colocación de restauraciones permanentes, ajustes oclusales o cirugía periodontal. El diagnóstico adecuado, las estrategias de manejo y la educación del paciente son cruciales para el manejo de cualquier intervención.Dentine hypersensitivity is defined as pain arising from exposed dentine and represents a distinct clinical entity. Reported cases are increasing particularly among the younger age groups and are thought to be due to acidogenic diets, destructive habits, poor tooth brushing techniques, and the increased use of tooth whitening products. Dentine exposure may be due to a number of processes, both physical and chemical, that lead to either loss of enamel/ cementum or loss of gingival tissue. These causative factors seldom act in isolation and include erosion, abrasion, attrition, abfraction, bruxing, bleaching, medication, ageing, genetic conditions, gingival recession, and periodontal disease. There are diverse range of treatment products available, which aim at either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission from the pulp. Most reversible options make use of chemical agents such as fluorides, oxalate, strontium or potassium salts, or dentine-bonding agents. Non-reversible options should only be employed after one or more of the reversible options have been attempted. These usually involve placement of permanent restorations, occlusal adjustments or periodontal flap surgery. Careful diagnosis, patient counseling and management strategies are crucial to the success of any intervention.

  7. Recesión gingival: una revisión de su etiología, patogénesis y tratamiento Gingival recession: a review of its aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La recesión gingival describe la localización del margen gingival libre apical a la unión cemento esmalte; está asociada a estética indeseable, abrasión superficial radicular, sensibilidad y caries radicular. Reportes recientes indican que hay una prevalencia substancial en el aumento de las recesiones en diferentes poblaciones, incrementándose significativamente después de la quinta década. Uno de los objetivos de la terapia periodontal es corregir quirúrgicamente las recesiones, por esta razón, la eficacia y predecibilidad de algunas técnicas son consideraciones importantes para el paciente y el clínico. Una variedad de procedimientos quirúrgicos se han descrito como métodos efectivos para cubrir las superficies radiculares expuestas: injertos gingivales, pediculados, de tejido conectivo, plasma rico en plaquetas, regeneración tisular guiada y combinación de técnicas. El propósito de este artículo es presentar las causas que ocasionan la recesión, sus consideraciones histológicas, su clasificación, las indicaciones y contraindicaciones para el cubrimiento de las recesiones y la evaluación de las técnicas de tratamiento que se utilizan para cubrirlas.The gingival recession describes to the location of the gingival margin free apical to the cement enamel junction; it is associate to aesthetic undesirable, superficial abrasion, sensitivity and radicular decay. Recent reports indicate significantly that there is a substantial prevalence in the increase of the recessions in different populations, being increased after the fifth decade. One of the objectives of the periodontal therapy is to correct the recessions surgically, therefore, the effectiveness and predecibilidad of some techniques are important considerations for the patient and the clinical one. A variety of surgical procedures has been described like effective methods to cover the exposed surfaces: gingivales grafts, pediculades, of conecttive weave, plasma rich in plaquets, tissue regeneration guided and combination of techniques. The aim of this article is to display the causes of the recession, their histologics considerations, their classification, the indications and contraindications for cover the recessions and the evaluation of the treatment techniques that are used to cover them.

  8. THE TREATMENT WITH WATER SEAL CHEST DRAIN (PDU IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENT WITH RIGHT HYDROPNEUMOTHORAX OF TUBERCULAR AETIOLOGY WITH PERSISTENT RIGHT PNEUMOTHORAX WITH BPF AFTER FAILURE OF DECORTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient, D. Sanjeev Rao, aged 50 years, lorry driver by occupation, residing at Vijayawada, AP, presented with Rt. sided chest pain, cough, severe breathlessness, low-grade fever since one day. He was admitted in the casualty under emergency condition and was resuscitated with oxygen inhalation. On inspection, trachea was deviated to right side. Chest was bilaterally asymmetrical. Intercostal tube with underwater seal drainage on right side was found. Right side of chest shows loss of lung volume with wasting of muscles, drooping of shoulder, narrowing of intercostal spaces with crowding of ribs. Apical impulse appears to be shifted to right side. On palpation respiratory movements diminished all over the right chest with increased vocal fremitus over the middle of chest and decreased in base. On percussion dull note was present in base, resonant in middle of the chest. On auscultation, amphoric breathing with metallic quality were heard on right side. CVS-S1, S2 present. On percussion, heart borders were in normal limits. ICD tube column moving continuously. CX-Ray PA view with right pneumothorax encysted with thickened pleural margins with right upper lobe collapse. Patient underwent right decortication on 30th June 2015. Since then lung was not expanded, but landed into continuous air leakage with bronchopleural fistula with persistent right pneumothorax pocket. Patient was diagnosed as hydropneumothorax. 1 on 1-6-15, treated with intercostal tube. 2 drainage, but was failed with occurrence of bronchopleural fistula.3 Later, he underwent decortication. 1 and presented with persistent pneumothorax. 4 Patient is a known case of type-2 diabetic, on medication with Human Mixtard insulin for the past 5years. Diabetes was under control. Pus from ICD bag sent for culture for AFB- not detected by culture, confirmed by “MycoReal” real time PCR by SRL diagnostic test.

  9. Etiología y sensibilidad antibiótica de las infecciones extrahospitalarias más frecuentes Aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity of the most frequent outpatient infections

    OpenAIRE

    C. Martín Salas; A. Gil-Setas; A. Mazón

    2006-01-01

    La difusión de los perfiles de sensibilidad antibiótica es una práctica recomendada para mejorar la prescripción de antibióticos y controlar la aparición y diseminación de resistencias. Durante los años 2003 y 2004, se recogieron los datos de sensibilidad a antibióticos de las principales bacterias aisladas de urocultivos, coprocultivos, frotis faringoamigdalares y óticos extrahospitalarios, en el área de salud de Pamplona que atiende a una población aproximada de 400.000 habitantes. De los 9...

  10. Etiología y sensibilidad antibiótica de las infecciones extrahospitalarias más frecuentes Aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity of the most frequent outpatient infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín Salas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La difusión de los perfiles de sensibilidad antibiótica es una práctica recomendada para mejorar la prescripción de antibióticos y controlar la aparición y diseminación de resistencias. Durante los años 2003 y 2004, se recogieron los datos de sensibilidad a antibióticos de las principales bacterias aisladas de urocultivos, coprocultivos, frotis faringoamigdalares y óticos extrahospitalarios, en el área de salud de Pamplona que atiende a una población aproximada de 400.000 habitantes. De los 9.495 uropatógenos aislados, el 90% fueron sensibles a amoxicilina-clavulánico, el 96,4% a cefalosporinas de 2ª generación, el 95,3% a fosfomicina y el 97,7% a nitrofurantoína. El 1,8% de las cepas de Escherichia coli aisladas en orina fueron productores de b-lactamasas de espectro extendido, mientras que el 0,5% de los aislamientos urinarios de Klebsiella pneumoniae fueron productores de este tipo de β-lactamasas. El 96,5% de los 797 aislamientos de Salmonella serotipo Enteritidis fueron sensibles a cotrimoxazol y el 97,5% de los 1057 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni fueron sensibles a eritromicina. De las 319 bacterias aisladas en otitis media, el 96,5% fueron sensibles a amoxicilina. Los bacilos Gram negativos productores de otitis externa presentaron una sensibilidad superior al 90% para ciprofloxacino, gentamicina y polimixina B. El 29,7% de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pyogenes fueron resistentes a la eritromicina. El 14,3% y el 17.4% de los Staphylococcus aureus aislados durante los años 2003 y 2004 respectivamente fueron resistentes a la meticilina. El conocimiento del mapa de sensibilidad antibiótica de los microorganismos circulantes en cada área geográfica es una información necesaria para la elección empírica del tratamiento antibiótico.The diffusion of the outlines of antibiotic sensitivity is a practice that is recommended for improving the prescription of antibiotics and for controlling the appearance and spread of resistances. During the years 2003 and 2004, data was gathered on the sensitivity to antibiotics of the main bacteria isolated in outpatient urine cultures, coprocultures, faringoamygdal and otic smears in the Pamplona health area, which attends to a population of approximately 400,000 inhabitants. Of the 9,495 uropathogens isolated, 90% were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, 96.4% to 2nd generation cephalosporins, 95.3% to phosphomycin and 97.7% to nitrofurantoin. One point eight percent (1.8% of the strains of Escherichia coli isolated in urine were producers of extended spectrum b-lactamases, while 0.5% of the urinary isolations of Klebsiella pneumoniae were producers of this type of β-lactamases. Ninety-six point five percent of the 797 isolations of Salmonella serotipo Enteritidis were sensitive to cotrimoxazol, and 97.5% of the 1,057 isolations of Campylobacter jejuni were sensitive to eritromycine. Of the 319 bacteria isolated in otitis media, 96.5% were sensitive to amoxyline. The Gram negative bacillae producers of otitis externa showed a sensitivity above 90% to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and polimixin B. Twenty-nine point seven percent of the isolations of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to eritromycine. Fourteen point three percent and 17.4% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the years 2003 and 2004 respectively were resistant to methicillin. Knowledge of the map of antibiotic sensitivity of the microorganisms in circulation in each geographical area is information that is necessary for the empirical choice of antibiotic treatment.

  11. DETECTION OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA ANTIGEN IN LIVER PUS AND SERUM WITH ELISA FOR THE AETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF AMEBIC LIVER ABSCESS%应用ELISA检测阿米巴脓抗原和循环抗原诊断阿米巴肝脓肿的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安亦军; 郭增柱; 谢云秋

    1999-01-01

    应用ELISA法检测阿米巴肝脓肿患者脓液和血标本中的阿米巴抗原.结果42例患者中有41例检出脓抗原,检出率为97.6%,其中包括8例镜检阿米巴滋养体阳性和33例镜检阴性者;有39例检出循环抗原,检出率为92.9%.脓抗原阳性反应强度高于循环抗原者(P<0.05).各种对照标本的阿米巴抗原检出率为0.提示可用ELISA抗原检测法替代镜检和培养法进行阿米巴肝脓肿的病原学诊断.

  12. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocations and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part II. The importance of the iliopsoas tendon, its tenotomy, of the coxa valga antetorta, and correction through osteotomy turning the hip into varus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    The following factors besides spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles contribute to the occurrence of dislocations of the hip in spastic paralysis: Spasm and contraction of the iliopsoas muscle and enhanced valgus position and antetorsion. The author holds the opinion that in case of malformation of the proximal end of the femur, it is not only the indirect action of the spastic musculature via the proximal femur-epiphyseal cartilage which is responsible for this phenomen in accordance with the law on functional adaption through longitudinal growth (Pauwels), but also the direct traction of the iliopsoas tendon. A clue in this direction is the often very pronounced elongation or enlargement of the trochanter minor. The author demonstrates the pathogenetic importance of iliopsoas contracture and malpositioning of the neck of the femur by means of analyses of the course in two patients. The following principles of treatment are postulated for spastic dislocation of the hip: Elimination of the pathogenetic factors through myotenotomy of the adductor muscles and complete resection of the obturator nerve, with observation of strict aftertreatment criteria, tenotomy of the iliopsoas, repositioning and osteotomy with turning into varus. Osteotomy without previous elimination of the pathogenetically acting muscular forces does not appear useful. Likewise, permanent re-positioning by means of muscle-relaxing operation cannot be sufficiently safe-guarded without additional osteotomy once the dislocation has taken place. In twelve patients with spastic dislocation of the hip, treated in accordance with these guidelines (two without osteotomy) aged 6 6/12 and 19 5/12 years, a roentgenologically good result was obtained in half of the cases, whereas the functional result was satisfactory not only with these patients but also with part of the other patients. If surgical treatment is instituted early enough, and if the experiences described here are taken into consideration, it is to be expected that the results will be even more satisfactory. The corset supporting the seated patient, developed by us, has been found very useful during the aftertreatment stage. A definite stand is taken against the therapeutic nihilism which leaves treatment of spastic dislocations to physiotherapy. It is also pointed out that indication for treatment is not represented only by the target of learning how to walk, but also by providing an overall improvement of the life situation of the patient, by either enabling him, or improving his ability, to sit or by "merely" improving the care of the perineum. PMID:425625

  13. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in pneumonias.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerttula, Y; Weber, T H

    1986-01-01

    Serum concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in pneumonias caused by different pathogens and in cases in which the aetiology could not be defined. In all aetiological groups, except in viral pneumonia, there was a significant increase in ACE during recovery (p less than 0.001). In several patients the lowest values during the acute phase of disease and the highest values during recovery were outside the reference limits. In cases with known aetiology the highest AC...

  14. Genetisk udredning ved infantile spasmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjærsgaard; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre;

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms are a symptom of a severe epileptic encephalopathy. It is important to determine the aetiology for a child's disease. When a standard programme for evaluating the aetiology of the infantile spasms is unsuccessful genetic causes should be considered. We suggest array CGH as the...

  15. Too Anxious to Speak? The Implications of Current Research into Selective Mutism for Educational Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Hayley

    2009-01-01

    Selective Mutism is a low incidence disorder but has considerable impact on the school system when it occurs. Over the last decade several research articles have been published which have challenged the understanding of the aetiology of Selective Mutism. Current perceptions about the aetiology of Selective Mutism are considered in order to inform…

  16. Polyneuritis cranialis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutzhard, E; Stanek, G.; Pohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with classical idiopathic polyneuritis cranialis, in whom no other aetiology could be detected, were examined serologically, by means of indirect immunofluorescence test, for antibodies (IgM and IgG) against Borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease. In each case polyneuritis cranialis was caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Therapy with penicillin proved to be effective.

  17. Cerebrale hæmoragier, infarkter og sinus venosus-tromboser hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Sarah; Søndergaard, Mia; Born, Alfred Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe the risk factors and treatment recommendations of intracerebral haemorrhage, arterial ischaemic stroke, and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in childhood. The aetiology in children differ a lot from the aetiology in adults, hence guidelines specifically for children have been written. T...

  18. Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD Symptoms and Very Low-Frequency EEG Activity: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways.…

  19. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  20. Premorbid adjustment in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Friis, Svein; Haahr, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives.......Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives....

  1. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  2. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Early Onset Depressions--Meanings, Mechanisms and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depressive syndromes in children and adolescents constitute a serious group of mental disorders with considerable risk for recurrence. A more precise understanding of aetiology is necessary to improve treatment and management. Methods: Three neuroactive agents are purported to be involved in the aetiology of these disorders: serotonin,…

  3. Genetisk udredning ved infantile spasmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard Hansen, Lars; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre;

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms are a symptom of a severe epileptic encephalopathy. It is important to determine the aetiology for a child's disease. When a standard programme for evaluating the aetiology of the infantile spasms is unsuccessful genetic causes should be considered. We suggest array CGH as the fi...... first-line analysis and present an overview of relevant present possibilities for genetic testing....

  4. Human papillomavirus and tumours of the eye region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution......ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution...

  5. Lungeinfektioner er hyppige hos ældre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    population in Denmark and elsewhere is growing and by 2015 it is estimated to have increased by 15%. The aetiology and empirical antimicrobial therapy is not affected by age per se, but aetiology is influenced by co-morbidity, particularly chronic lung disease. Prophylactic measures include immunization......, smoking cessation, mobilization and oral hygiene....

  6. Postural kyfose og morbus Scheuermann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Brahe; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid

    Scheuermann's kyphosis is the most frequent structural kyphosis in adolescents. There are gaps in the knowledge of epidemiology, aetiology and treatment. There are strong genetic and mechanical factors in the aetiology. Treatment options depend on the cobb's angle measured and the skeletal maturi...

  7. Intensified microbiological investigations in adult patients admitted to hospital with lower respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, TR; Sommer, T;

    2002-01-01

    microbiological sampling. Patients in the study group with known aetiology had higher values of inflammatory markers than patients with unknown aetiology. For Streptococcus pneumoniae infection culture and urine antigen detection were complimentary depending on recent antibiotic therapy since seven of eight...... diagnostic yield from 7% to 51% of patients in the study group with an aetiologic diagnosis. Routine FOB with BAL had no apparent effect on clinical outcome and seems only justified in selected patients with severe LRTI with infiltrates on chest X-ray and signs of severe inflammation where a high diagnostic...

  8. Axillary vein thrombosis mimicking muscular strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, J.

    1999-01-01

    Axillary vein thrombosis may occur on strenuous activity with a clinical picture similar to a simple strain. It carries significant morbidity but a good outcome is possible with early treatment. The aetiology, investigation, and treatment are discussed.

  9. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: A severe complication of liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Lata; Old(r)ch Stiburek; Marcela Kopacova

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a survey of current knowledge concerning one of the relatively frequent and severe complications of liver cirrhosis and associated ascitesspontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Epidemiology,aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and present possibilities of treatment are discussed.

  10. MRI diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the cuboid bone in two infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe two infants in whom MRI diagnosed osteomyelitis of the cuboid bone when conventional X-rays were negative. Neoplastic, traumatic and ischaemic aetiologies could be excluded with the initial MR examinations. (orig.)

  11. Onychomycosis in Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia: A Clinicoaetiologic Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Robaee, Ahmad A. Al; Saif, Ghada A. Bin; Babikir, Ibrahim H. K.; Abdel-Magied, Eltuhami M.; Elsayed, Abeer E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is mainly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and nondermatophyte molds have also been implicated, giving rise to diverse clinical presentations. The aetiological agents of the disease may show geographic variation.

  12. Fetal thrombocytopenia : preventive strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, Eline van den

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) among term neonates is associated with neonatal death or lifelong disability. Between all the proposed aetiological mechanisms, including impairments in coagulation, hypoxic-ischemic injury and birth related trauma, thrombocytopenia seems to be the most important predi

  13. A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Jillian P.; Magalhaes, Tiago; Conroy, Judith M.; Regan, Regina; Shah, Naisha; Anney, Richard; Shields, Denis C.; Abrahams, Brett S.; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Cali, Phil; Correia, Catarina; Corsello, Christina; Coutanche, Marc; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Folstein, Susan E.; Foley, Suzanne; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M.; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T.; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Holt, Richard; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Lamb, Janine A.; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lord, Catherine; Lund, Sabata C.; Maestrini, Elena; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R.; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J.; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M.; Merikangas, Alison; Miller, Judith; Minopoli, Fiorella; Mirza, Ghazala K.; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F.; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R.; Parrini, Barbara; Pickles, Andrew; Pinto, Dalila; Piven, Joseph; Posey, David J.; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L.; Sequeira, Ana F.; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Stoppioni, Vera; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tauber, Maite; Thompson, Ann P.; Thomson, Susanne; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B.; Volkmar, Fred; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wassink, Thomas H.; White, Kathy; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Yaspan, Brian L.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cantor, Rita M.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Monaco, Anthony P.; Nurnberger, John I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Vieland, Veronica J.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Green, Andrew; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise; Vicente, Astrid; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neur

  14. Family matters : The influence of family history on phenomenology and IQ in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The familiarit

  15. First fatal case of CNS infection caused by Enterovirus A in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, D B; Machado, G; Almeida, G.M.F.; P. C. P. Ferreira; C.A. Bonjardim; G. de Souza Trindade; Abrahão, J.S.; E.G. Kroon

    2015-01-01

    We describe what is to our knowledge the first fatal case of central nervous system Enterovirus infection in Brazil. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization revealed that Enterovirus A was the aetiologic agent of this case.

  16. Does Impaired Gallbladder Function Contribute to the Development of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassr, Ayman O

    2011-06-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is aetiologically associated with gastro-esophageal reflux, but the mechanisms responsible for the metaplasia-dysplasia sequence are unknown. Bile components are implicated. Impaired gallbladder function may contribute to duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and harmful GERD.

  17. Genetic evidence of heterogeneity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Savander, M; Ropponen, A; Avela, K.; Weerasekera, N; Cormand, B; Hirvioja, M-L; Riikonen, S.; Ylikorkala, O; Lehesjoki, A-E; C. Williamson; Aittomäki, K.

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic aetiology of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and the impact of known cholestasis genes (BSEP, FIC1, and MDR3) on the development of this disease.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Entamoeba histolytica α-actinin-2 rod domain

    OpenAIRE

    Addario, Barbara; Huang, Shenghua; Sauer, Uwe H.; Backman, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The rod domain of α-actinin-2 from E. histolytica, the aetiological agent of human amoebiasis, was crystallized and synchrotron diffraction data were collected from crystals vitrified in liquid nitrogen.

  19. Effect of human vasoactive intestinal peptide gene transfer in a murine model of Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Lodde; F. Mineshiba; J. Wang; A.P. Cotrim; S. Afione; P.P. Tak; B.J. Baum

    2006-01-01

    Background: Sjogren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy mainly affecting lachrymal and salivary glands, results in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown; currently, only palliative treatment is available. Obje

  20. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden;

    2014-01-01

    findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, andare consistent with leadingpathophysiologicalhypotheses...

  1. Thyrotoxicosis, myasthenia gravis and periodic paralysis in a Chinese man.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. O.; Guan, R.; Ee, B.; Cheah, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The association of myasthenia gravis and periodic paralysis in thyrotoxicosis has not been reported before. We describe a Chinese man with thyrotoxicosis and myasthenia gravis, who subsequently developed periodic paralysis. The possible aetiological links are discussed.

  2. Ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) related necrotising ulcerative gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluis; Lahor-Soler, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is an acute and occasionally recurrent infection of complex aetiology which is characterised by the sudden occurrence of gingival pain, necrosis of interdental tissue, and bleeding...

  3. Disease: H00388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t common sexually transmitted diseases. Mycoplasma genitalium, that shares several features with M. pneumoni...ensen JS Mycoplasma genitalium: the aetiological agent of urethritis and other sexually transmitted diseases

  4. Elite level adolescent athletes with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) display increased lower extremity symptoms and larger postural sway than those without GJH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Schmidt, H; Pedersen, T Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder overuse injuries frequently occur among competitive swimmers (Wanivenhaus et al, 2012), however, the aetiology of shoulder dysfunction remains unclear (Zemek et al., 1995). Increased shoulder mobility as well as Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), are both suggested being predisposing...

  5. The association between Generalized Joint Hypermobility and shoulder mobility in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Henriksen, P; Knudsen, H K;

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder overuse injuries frequently occur among competitive swimmers (Wanivenhaus et al, 2012), however, the aetiology of shoulder dysfunction remains unclear (Zemek et al., 1995). Increased shoulder mobility as well as Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), are both suggested being predisposing...

  6. Adiponectin levels correlate with the severity of hypertriglyceridaemia in glycogen storage disease Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, R. H. J.; Smit, G. P. A.; Reijngoud, D. -J.; Kuipers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is characterized by severe hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Little is known about the aetiology of the hyperlipidaemia in GSD Ia. Adipokines play an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism. We investigated whether adipokine concentratio

  7. Shared genetic influences on ADHD symptoms and very low-frequency EEG activity: a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tye, C.; Rijsdijk, F.; Greven, C.U.; Kuntsi, J.; Asherson, P.; McLoughlin, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibi

  8. The relation of infantile spasms, tubers, and intelligence in tuberous sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    O'CALLAGHAN, F.; Harris, T; Joinson, C; Bolton, P; Noakes, M; Presdee, D; Renowden, S; Shiell, A; Martyn, C.; Osborne, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of the learning difficulty in tuberous sclerosis is debated. It may be related to the amount of tubers in the brain or caused by the infantile spasms that occur in early life.

  9. Frequency and prognostic impact of antibodies to aquaporin-4 in patients with optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarius, Sven; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Waters, Patrick; Paul, Friedemann; Akman-Demir, Gulsen; Marignier, Romain; Franciotta, Diego; Ruprecht, Klemens; Kuenz, Bettina; Rommer, Paulus; Kristoferitsch, Wolfgang; Wildemann, Brigitte; Vincent, Angela

    Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) are found in 60-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severely disabling inflammatory CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.......Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) are found in 60-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severely disabling inflammatory CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord....

  10. A Twin Study into the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Academic Performance in Science in 9-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Claire Margaret Alison; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We investigated for the first time the genetic and environmental aetiology behind scientific achievement in primary school children, with a special focus on possible aetiological differences for boys and girls. For a representative community sample of 2602 twin pairs assessed at 9 years, scientific achievement in school was rated by teachers based on National Curriculum criteria in three domains: Scientific Enquiry, Life Processes and Physical Processes. Results indicate t...

  11. Treatment of renal failure in neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Meeks, A C; Sims, D G

    1988-01-01

    Thirty neonates with acute renal failure were studied, 27 of whom died (90%) including nine of 12 treated by peritoneal dialysis. Three main aetiological groups were identified. Septicaemia was a principal cause of late onset acute renal failure, with an incidence equal to that of serious perinatal disorders. It is recommended that tolazoline should be used with caution in the treatment of hyperkalaemia as it may have a role in the aetiology of acute renal failure, the incidence of which is i...

  12. Role of Homeobox Genes in Tooth Morphogenesis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Suryadeva, Sreevalli; Khan, Mohammadi Begum

    2015-01-01

    In oral cavity, disturbances due to genetic alterations may range from lack of tooth development to morphological defects. Due to technical advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology, valuable information regarding dentofacial growth could be studied in detailed manner. This helped us to explain the aetiology and pathogenesis of many dentofacial disorders. The success in treatment lies first in determining the aetiology of tooth anomalies and finally differentiating the effect of g...

  13. Intracortical inhibition of the motor cortex is normal in chorea

    OpenAIRE

    HANAJIMA, R; Ugawa, Y; Y. Terao; Furubayashi, T.; Machii, K; Shiio, Y.; H. Enomoto; Uesugi, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Kanazawa, I

    1999-01-01

    Intracortical inhibition of the motor cortex was investigated using a paired pulse magnetic stimulation method in 14 patients with chorea caused by various aetiologies (six patients with Huntington's disease, one with chorea acanthocytosis, a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus with a vascular lesion in the caudate, three with senile chorea and three with chorea of unknown aetiology). The time course and amount of inhibition was the same in the patients as in normal su...

  14. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhami Berber; Halit Diri; Mehmet Ali Erkurt; Ismet Aydogdu; Emin Kaya; Irfan Kuku

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiolog...

  15. Acne: a review of immunologic and microbiologic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhart, C.; P. Lehmann

    1999-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a self-limiting skin disorder seen primarily in adolescents, whose aetiology appears to be multifactorial. The four main aetiological factors are hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct, increased sebum production, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, and subsequently the production of inflammation. Considerable investigation has addressed the immunologic reaction to extracellular products produced by the acne-causing organism, P acnes. The immunologic response inv...

  16. Molecular strategies for the detection of measles virus in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypotheses. i) Atypical exposure to measles virus is a factor in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ii) Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is a factor in the aetiology of autistic enteropathy. Aims. i) To compare a range of molecular techniques for measles RNA amplification. ii) To develop a sensitive and robust method for the detection of measles RNA. iii) To analyse clinical samples from IBD patients for the presence of measles RNA. iv) To analyse...

  17. INSTITUTIONALISED MENTALLY RETARDED IN A STATE MENTAL HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, O.; Papakumari, M.; V Jayanthini; Kumar, M Suresh

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 298 institutionalised mentally retarded patients in Institute of Mental Health, Madras were studied for the aetiological factors, levels of intelligence, associated disorders and family structure and compared with 163 matched group of mentally retarded attending the outpatient services of the Institute of Mental Health. In 41% of the institutionalised the cause was unknown, 29.3% had infective aetiology, 18% formed the primary group and 6.4% were due to genetic and chromosomal factors...

  18. Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis – A 5 Year Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Robert; Gillespie, Scott; Loughrey, Maurice; Gardiner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Title Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis – A 5 year experience Aim Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare, life-threatening condition, characterised by a progressive, intra-abdominal inflammatory process resulting in fibrotic visceral constriction. We report the aetiology, management, and outcome of EPS in Belfast. Method All patients diagnosed with EPS in Belfast over the past 5 years are included. Presentation, aetiology, imaging, pathology, and outcome are retrospectively analy...

  19. Visual disorders in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Amita; Lamba P

    1988-01-01

    Seventy children with cere-bral palsy were examined for aetiological factors responsible, type of disorder and ocular abnormalities. The overall inci-dence of ocular abnormalities was 68.69%, the highest frequency being of squint (35.7%). Other anomalies detected inclu-ded refractive errors (28.5%), optic atrophy (10%) and coloboma (2.9%). Most children were spastic quadriplegics with asphyxia as the major aetiological factor. The study created an awareness ...

  20. Oxidative Stress and Exhaled Breath Analysis: A Promising Tool for Detection of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Paul S.; Craig Lewis; Hiang Ping Chan

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the few neoplasia in which the principal aetiology is known, with cigarette smoke donating a considerable oxidative burden to the lungs. This may be part of the aetiology of lung cancer, but the neoplastic process is also associated with increased oxidative stress. Nonetheless, it is difficult to study the mechanisms behind the induction of lung cancer in smokers, but newer techniques of breath analysis targeting markers of oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity show...

  1. Gold Nanoparticles and Lipoic Acid as a Novel Anti-Inflammatory Treatment for Autism, A Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. Its aetiology and pathophysiology are not clearly known. However, mitochondria may play a significant role at least in some cases of autism. There is no therapeutic approach for autism. Moreover, there are only few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for autism. Therefore, providing novel therapeutic approaches are highly required. Oxidative stress is suggested as an important factor in the aetiology of autism. Already some interventi...

  2. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K;

    2010-01-01

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease.......An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease....

  3. Seasonal variations in the onset of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Westerbeek, R. M.; Blair, V; Eden, O B; Kelsey, A M; Stevens, R. F.; Will, A. M.; Taylor, G M; Birch, J M

    1998-01-01

    Infection has long been suspected as a possible factor in the aetiology of leukaemia and lymphoma. If seasonal variation in the onset of disease could be shown in any of the diagnostic subgroups of leukaemia or lymphoma, this would provide supportive evidence of an aetiology linked to exposure to infection. All cases in the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry (aged 0-14 years at diagnosis) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL), Hodgkin's disease (H...

  4. Bakteriel meningitis i Danmark 2002 og 2003. Landsdaekkende registrering baseret på laboratoriedata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Christian N; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Nielsen, Xiaohui C; Møller, Jens K; Mølbak, Kåre; Korshin, André; Rønneberg, Elisabeth; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Høiby, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Notification of bacterial meningitis (BM) is likely to be incomplete, and a recent Danish study indicated that unbalanced notification may bias expected aetiology of BM. Therefore the Danish Bacterial Meningitis Group initiated a national registration of culture-positive BM.......Notification of bacterial meningitis (BM) is likely to be incomplete, and a recent Danish study indicated that unbalanced notification may bias expected aetiology of BM. Therefore the Danish Bacterial Meningitis Group initiated a national registration of culture-positive BM....

  5. Animal models to guide clinical drug development in ADHD: lost in translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Wickens, Jeffery R.; Hyland, Brian I.; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    We review strategies for developing animal models for examining and selecting compounds with potential therapeutic benefit in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology and pathophysiology. Current understanding suggests that genetic factors play an important role in the aetiology of ADHD. The involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of ADHD is probable. We review the clinical features of ADHD includ...

  6. The age of anxiety: role of animal models of anxiolytic action in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cryan, John F; Sweeney, Fabian F.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, serious and a growing health problem worldwide. However, the causative factors, aetiology and underlying mechanisms of anxiety disorders, as for most psychiatric disorders, remain relatively poorly understood. Animal models are an important aid in giving insight into the aetiology, neurobiology and, ultimately, the therapy of human anxiety disorders. The approach, however, is challenged with a number of complexities. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of anx...

  7. The role of lifestyle in perpetuating substance use disorder: the Lifestyle Balance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Glyn; Elison, Sarah; Ward, Jonathan; Laudet, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualizing aetiology underpinning an individual’s substance use disorder (SUD) not only facilitates insight and understanding, but also serves to identify targets for treatment and aid practitioners in selecting the most appropriate interventions. There is now a wealth of literature on aetiology and treatment approaches, and in more recent years, also literature to support the concept of ‘recovery’ from a condition which was previously thought of as a chronic, relapsing condition. The bu...

  8. Uncovering the complexity of Tourette syndrome, little by little.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Abi-Jaoude, Elia

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology of Tourette syndrome is highly complex and still poorly understood. In this issue, using data from a large, prospective, population-based cohort of children, Mathews et al examine associations of pre- and perinatal exposures with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders. Their work illustrates the importance of environmental factors in the aetiology of neuropsychiatric conditions and the value of replication in science. PMID:24385458

  9. Birth defects following maternal exposure to ergotamine, beta blockers, and caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, H E; Goldstein, D A

    1988-01-01

    Ergotamine exposure during pregnancy has been suggested to cause birth defects which have a vascular disruptive aetiology. The present case provides additional support for the possible adverse fetal effects of exposure to ergotamine, caffeine, and propranolol during the first four months of pregnancy. At birth the infant showed evidence of early arrested cerebral maturation and paraplegia. The nature of these defects suggests a primary vascular disruptive aetiology. We hypothesise that ergota...

  10. Diet, Physical Activity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Irish Children: The Cork Children’s Lifestyle Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J; Browne, Gemma M; Harrington, Janas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is complex, and its aetiology is known to be multifaceted. The contribution of lifestyle behaviors, including poor diet and physical inactivity, to obesity remains unclear. Due to the current high prevalence, childhood obesity is an urgent public health priority requiring current and reliable data to further understand its aetiology. Objective The objective of this study is to explore the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with childhood over...

  11. The Prostitution of Women – A Conscious Choice of a Life Path or Economic Duress

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Małgorzata Henryka

    2015-01-01

    Aetiology of indecent behaviours is a multidimensional issue. It is impossible to explain the conditions of prostitution while only referring to mono-causal concepts. In the previous traditional aetiological approaches, the simultaneous perspective is dominating and this emphasises the interrelated systems of factors found in educational environments and resulting from the economic conditions and cultural changes which modify the attitudes towards mores, sexuality and morals. H...

  12. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure is associated with an increased risk of death only in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raunsø, Jakob; Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Dominguez, Helena;

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) populations is controversial and may depend on patient selection. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of AF in a large population with HF of various aetiologies.......The prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) populations is controversial and may depend on patient selection. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of AF in a large population with HF of various aetiologies....

  13. Frequency and prognostic impact of antibodies to aquaporin-4 in patients with optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarius, Sven; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Waters, Patrick;

    2010-01-01

    Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) are found in 60-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severely disabling inflammatory CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.......Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) are found in 60-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severely disabling inflammatory CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord....

  14. Characterization of biofilm-forming microorganisms isolated from vaginal exudate in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, P.; Castro, J.; Cereija, Tatiana Barros Reis; Henriques, Ana Filipa Frutuoso Mendes; Cerca, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynaecological conditions affecting women in the reproductive age, and can lead to increase risk gynaecological infections and pre-term labour. The aetiology of this pathology is still poorly understood, but recent reports referring to the presence of anaerobic biofilms both in the healthy and BV vagina (with different microbial compositions) have led to the theory that the microorganisms that form biofilms may be relevant for the aetiology o...

  15. OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE: A CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Antony,; Rasool Syed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Jaundice is a frequent manifestation of biliary tract disorders and evaluation of obstructive jaundice is a common problem faced by general surgeons. Obstructive jaundice of varied aetiology is one of the main cause of hospital admissions. Hence, comprehensive study of aetiology, clinical presentation, management of obstructive jaundice is important in management of these patients. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES  Study the clinical history and presentation of obstructiv...

  16. The characteristics of adults with upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to Tripoli Medical Center: a retrospective case-series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elghuel, Abdulbaset

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common reason for hospital admissions worldwide. Aetiological causes of UGIB vary according to geographic region and socioeconomic status. However, despite the implementation of early endoscopy as the standard method for the diagnosis and treatment of UGIB, data on the characteristics of patients with UGIB in Libya are still minimal. In this study, we describe patient demographics, aetiological causes for UGIB, and possible risk fa...

  17. Microcephaly: a radiological review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, Ailbhe; Garel, Catherine; Germanaud, David; Lenoir, Marion; Pointe, Hubert Ducou le [Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Radiology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Villemeur, Thierry Billette de; Mignot, Cyril [Universite Paris V Rene Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Paediatric Neurology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France)

    2009-08-15

    Microcephaly results from inadequate brain growth during development. It may develop in utero, and therefore be present at birth, or may develop later as a result of perinatal events or postnatal conditions. The aetiology of microcephaly may be congenital (secondary to cerebral malformations or metabolic abnormalities) or acquired, most frequently following an ischaemic insult. This distinct radiological and pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology. (orig.)

  18. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  19. Discordant Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome in identical twins - a case report and implications for reproduction in MRKH women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Stella Ruth; Ogilvie, Cara Megan; Jefferies, Craig; Cree, Lynsey

    2015-01-01

    Infertility has previously been considered as an inevitable consequence of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. With modern assisted reproductive technology (ART) techniques becoming increasingly accessible, MRKH women have the opportunity for their own genetic offspring. The availability of such technology, however, increases the importance of understanding the aetiology of this complex condition. The literature debating the relevance of genetic versus post-zygotic events in the aetiology of MRKH syndrome is reviewed in the context of this report of monozygotic twins discordant for MRKH syndrome. PMID:26291808

  20. Cellular interactions in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gianluca; Harari, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) encompasses a large and diverse group of pathological conditions that share similar clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations, despite potentially having quite different aetiologies and comorbidities. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) represents probably the most aggressive form of ILD and systemic sclerosis is a multiorgan fibrotic disease frequently associated with ILD. Although the aetiology of these disorders remains unknown, in this review we analyse the pathogenic mechanisms by cell of interest (fibroblast, fibrocyte, myofibroblast, endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells and immune competent cells). New insights into the complex cellular contributions and interactions will be provided, comparing the role of cell subsets in the pathogenesis of IPF and systemic sclerosis. PMID:25726561

  1. Patellar tendon: From tendinopathy to rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patellar tendinopathy is very common in patients complaining of anterior knee pain. Its aetiology is still unclear, but neovascularisation seems to play a role. Different treatments have been proposed overtime, from rehabilitation to platelet-rich-plasma injections, but there is no agreement on the best treatment protocol. The final stage of patellar tendinopathy is patellar tendon rupture. In these cases surgical treatment is often required. The aim of this literature review is to focus on the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of both patellar tendinopathy and rupture. We report the conservative treatments proposed for patellar tendinopathy and the surgical techniques described for its rupture.

  2. Development and clinical application of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of thyroid and parathyroid hormones. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay procedures were utilized to investigate the aetiology and pathology of endemic goitre in Pirque and Petregosa, Chile. The studies were carried out on adult woman and on children. The basal levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were determined. Significant differences were observed between the results in both localities. No children under the age of 5 were observed with goitre in Pedregosa, but goitre incidence increased with age up to 74% at age 18, the percentage being higher for femals. Conclusion: Aetiology and pathology of goitre may vary considerably even within a given country and both dietary and ethnic factors may play a part in this variation

  3. [Thrombotic microangiopathy following kidney transplantation revealing factors H and I deficiencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraison, J-B; Pernin, V; Alméras, C; Vetromile, F; Frémeaux-Bacchi, V; Mourad, G

    2011-06-01

    A 52-year-old man with an end stage renal failure of undetermined aetiology was hemodialysed in 2002. He received a cadaveric kidney transplantation in 2004. After an episode of diarrhea, a thrombotic microangiopathy was diagnosed in July 2009 and during this episode, a low C3 serum level was identified. Plasma exchanges were beneficial. Exploration of the low C3 serum level revealed both factor H and factor I deficiencies. We think that the renal failure of undetermined aetiology was probably an unnoticed haemolytic and uremic syndrome which recurred more than five years after transplantation. PMID:20667630

  4. Acute colonic obstruction due to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Giobuin, S

    2012-02-01

    A seventy two year old man presented to the Emergency Department with clinical features of colonic obstruction. Subsequent radiological investigations confirmed this impression and revealed the aetiology to be compression of the sigmoid colon against the sacrum by a massively distended urinary bladder. Chronic urinary retention due to benign prostatic hypertrophy is an extremely unusual cause of large bowel obstruction. Little in this patient\\'s clinical findings suggested this aetiology. We reviewed the literature in this area and highlight the benefits of CT scanning over contrast studies.

  5. Facts, myths and hypotheses on the zoonotic nature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. PMID:25128370

  6. Complement factor H binds malondialdehyde epitopes and protects from oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weismann, David; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lauer, Nadine;

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and enhanced lipid peroxidation are linked to many chronic inflammatory diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western societies, but its aetiology remains largely unknown. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a common lipid...... polymorphism H402, which is strongly associated with AMD, markedly reduces the ability of CFH to bind MDA, indicating a causal link to disease aetiology. Our findings provide important mechanistic insights into innate immune responses to oxidative stress, which may be exploited in the prevention of and therapy...

  7. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Role of tween 80 and triton X in ascitic fluid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension with hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was admitted in an obtunded condition. Attempts at delineating the aetiology of the SBP using conventional cultures as well as automated systems were not successful. The use of non-anionic surfactant agents such as Tween 80-incorporated blood agar and Triton X treatment of the specimens facilitated the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the ascitic fluid, which otherwise would have been concluded to represent culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Thus, the use of the aforementioned agents could be explored in elucidating the aetiology of body cavity infections when conventional methods fail.

  8. De novo mutations in Plxnd1 and Rev3l cause mobius syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kayserili Karabey, Hülya; Tomas-Roca, Laura; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Jansen, Jacob G.; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Altunoglu, Umut; Verzijl, Harriette; Soria, Laura; van Beusekom, Ellen; Roscioli, Tony; Iqbal, Zafar; Gilissen, Christian; Hoischen, Alexander; de Brouwer,Arjan P. M.; Erasmus, Corrie; Schubert, Dirk; Brunner, Han; Aytes, Antonio Perez; Marin, Faustino; Aroca, Pilar; Carta, Arturo; de Wind, Niels; Padberg, George W.; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Mobius syndrome (MBS) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by paralysis of the facial nerves and variable other congenital anomalies. The aetiology of this syndrome has been enigmatic since the initial descriptions by von Graefe in 1880 and by Mobius in 1888, and it has been debated for decades whether MBS has a genetic or a non-genetic aetiology. Here, we report de novo mutations affecting two genes, PLXND1 and REV3L in MBS patients. PLXND1 and REV3L represent totally unrelated p...

  9. Febrile infection-related status epilepticus in a child after a common infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Helene; Hansen, Lars Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy developed seizures and intractable status epilepticus a week after having had a sore throat. Ketogenic diet possibly had some effect. Antibodies to calmodulin dependent protein kinase II were found and could possibly suggest an immunologic aetiology.......A 13-year-old boy developed seizures and intractable status epilepticus a week after having had a sore throat. Ketogenic diet possibly had some effect. Antibodies to calmodulin dependent protein kinase II were found and could possibly suggest an immunologic aetiology....

  10. Elevated VGKC-Complex Antibodies in a Boy with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy in School-Age Children (FIRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Marjorie A.; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E.; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J. Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C.; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and…

  11. Integrating Shamanic Methodology into the Spirituality of Addictions Recovery Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Marcia L.

    2012-01-01

    Responding to an increased recognition of the importance of spirituality in the aetiology and treatment of addictions, this article provides an overview of the potential contributions of both transpersonal psychology and shamanic methodology for the addictions field. A case study is provided to illustrate the integration of conventional,…

  12. Annotation: The Similarities and Differences between Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder--A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen E.; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    Background: The ongoing controversy over the distinction between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder is important to resolve because of the implications regarding an understanding of the aetiology and prognosis, and the diagnostic and clinical practices relating to these conditions. This paper provides a critical evaluation of current…

  13. Disordered Eating and Disordered Schooling: What Schools Do to Middle Class Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John; Rich, Emma; Holroyd, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses upon relationships barely explored in the sociology of education either in the UK or elsewhere that lie between the practices and processes of formal education and the aetiology (the 'causations') and development of eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa (AN) in young women and girls. In so doing, it also touches on…

  14. A longitudinal twin and sibling study of the hopelessness theory of depression in adolescence and young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, Monika Aldona; Coulson, Alice Elizabeth; Gregory, Alice; Eley, Thalia Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Maladaptive cognitive biases such as negative attributional style and hopelessness have been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, hopelessness mediates the association between attributional style and depression. The aetiological processes underpinning this influential theory remain unknown. The current study investigated genetic and environmental influences on hopelessness and its concurrent and longitudina...

  15. A longitudinal twin and sibling study of the hopeless theory of depression in adolescence and young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, M. A.; Coulson, A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Maladaptive cognitive biases such as negative attributional style and hopelessness have been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, hopelessness mediates the association between attributional style and depression. The aetiological processes underpinning this influential theory remain unknown. The current study investigated genetic and environmental influences on hopelessness and its concurrent and longitudina...

  16. Reciprocal translocation 14q;21q in a patient with the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W G; Kennaugh, J M; Kugler, J P; Wyandt, H E

    1983-01-01

    A patient with the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome was found to have an apparently balanced de novo translocation 14q; 21q. The relationship between this uncommon translocation and the patient's phenotype is unclear. Although most patients with the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome have normal chromosomes, the possibility of aetiological heterogeneity, including some rare chromosomal abnormalities, cannot be dismissed.

  17. Relationship between formaldehyde and quaternium-15 contact allergy. Influence of strength of patch test reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Blok, Janine; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To test our hypothesis that patients with stronger patch test reactions to formaldehyde are more likely to react to quaternium-15, attesting to the aetiological role for formaldehyde in such co-reactivity. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients patch tested with formaldehyde and

  18. Hair loss in hospital medicine: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Abby; Harries, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Alopecia may indicate underlying systemic disease and is associated with significant impairment of quality of life. A thorough history and examination, including specialist techniques, can give vital clues to the aetiology. This article provides an overview of the common and important hair loss disorders for the busy clinician. PMID:22875430

  19. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology. Methodolog

  20. Activity of neutrophil elastase reflects the progression of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders M; Nord, Magnus;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Neutrophil elastase (NE) concentration is associated with progression of acute pancreatitis (AP), but measuring total NE concentration includes biologically inactive NE. This study aims to investigate the relationship between NE activity and the aetiology and severity of AP and...... was associated with predicted severity of AP and AP-associated respiratory failure. Specific NE inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis....

  1. Acute pancreatitis and Cushing's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Clague, H W; B. Warren; Krasner, N.

    1984-01-01

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a 53-year-old man with an ectopic adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) producing bronchial carcinoma is described. The aetiology of acute pancreatitis in relation to steroid therapy and malignancy is discussed and it is suggested that excess endogenous steroid production may also cause acute pancreatitis.

  2. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkhill, J.; Dougan, G.; James, K.D.;

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) is the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, a serious invasive bacterial disease of humans with an annual global burden of approximately 16 million cases, leading to 600,000 fatalities(1). Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface o...

  3. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an...... increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment....

  4. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics. (orig.)

  5. MRI diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the cuboid bone in two infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peene, P.; Celis, I.; Bijnens, E.; Thywissen, C.; Vervloesem, R. [Department of Radiology, Virga Jesse Ziekenhuis, Hasselt (Belgium); Raes, M.; Alliet, P. [Department of Paediatrics, Virga Jesse Ziekenhuis, Hasselt (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    We describe two infants in whom MRI diagnosed osteomyelitis of the cuboid bone when conventional X-rays were negative. Neoplastic, traumatic and ischaemic aetiologies could be excluded with the initial MR examinations. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  6. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...

  7. Evidence for Distinct Cognitive Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2014-01-01

    Findings that a subgroup of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have linguistic capabilities that resemble specific language impairment (SLI) have led some authors to hypothesise that ASD and SLI have a shared aetiology. While considerable research has explored overlap in the language phenotypes of the two conditions, little research…

  8. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  9. Concordant cerebral oligodendroglioma in identical twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Roelvink, N C; Kamphorst, W; Lindhout, D; Ponssen, H

    1986-01-01

    A case of concordant oligodendroglioma in monozygotic twins is reported. The twins were also concordant for uterine leiomyoma and one twin partner had fibroadenoma and lipoma of the breast and myelofibrosis. As very few cases of concordant glioma in monozygotic twins have been published and no such cases in dizygotic twins, a genetic influence in the aetiology of glioma can only be suggested.

  10. Trisomy 13 in monozygotic twins discordant for major congenital anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, N; Amir, Y; Cohen, T; Davidson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of trisomy 13 in twins is very rare. We report a pair of genotypically identical twins with trisomy 13 discordant for major anomalies. This case contributes to the already published data on the contribution of non-genetic factors to the aetiology of congenital malformations in monozygotic twins.

  11. Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures in a Young Man Associated with Idiopathic Osteoporosis - Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Özyürek; Erkan Kaya; Cengiz Yıldırım; Özkan Köse; Kenan Koca; Kenan Keklikci

    2010-01-01

    Stress fractures are defined as a partial or complete fracture of bone due to an inability to endure a non-violent stress. Two factors have been proposed to explain the aetiology of stress fractures: muscle fatigue, and direct muscle action. We want to point to third factor with our case report: Osteoporosis. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:58-60)

  12. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  13. Soft-tissue masses in the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masses involving the abdominal wall arise from a large number of aetiologies. This article will describe a diagnostic approach, imaging features of the most common causes of abdominal wall masses, and highly specific characteristics of less common diseases. A diagnostic algorithm for abdominal wall masses combines clinical history and imaging appearances to classify lesions

  14. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular im...

  15. Delayed diagnosis in a sight-threatening lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2009-06-01

    Acute chiasmal compression has several aetiologies including pituitary apoplexy, a medical emergency caused by acute haemorrhagic or ischemic infarction in pituitary macroadenomas. Clinical diagnosis can often be difficult as the patient is frequently unaware of an existing adenoma. Delayed diagnosis may lead to increased morbidity and mortality.

  16. Evidence for Overlapping Genetic Influences on Autistic and ADHD Behaviours in a Community Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Angelica; Simonoff, Emily; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: High levels of clinical comorbidity have been reported between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study takes an individual differences approach to determine the degree of phenotypic and aetiological overlap between autistic traits and ADHD behaviours in the general population.…

  17. Akut dissemineret encefalomyelitis er en vigtig differentialdiagnose hos det akut påvirkede barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Isa Amalie; Skov, Liselotte; Miranda, Maria Jose

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory paediatric disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). ADEM primarily affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The aetiology of ADEM is unknown, but the illness is often precipitated by an infection, less...

  18. Disease: H01027 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11) PMID:18039390 (description, gene, environmental factor) Verma AS, Fitzpatrick DR Anophthalmia and microp...mosomal, monogenic and environmental causes identified. Eye disease hsa04340(6469+652) Hedgehog signaling pa...nomalies or part of a well defined syndrome. A/M have complex aetiology with chro

  19. The prevalence of genetic and serologic markers in an unselected European population-based cohort of IBD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida; Vermeire, Severine; Wolters, Frank; Katsanos, Kostas; Politi, Patrizia; Freitas, João; Mouzas, Ioannis A; O'Morain, Colm; Ruiz-Ochoa, Victor; Odes, Selwyn; Binder, Vibeke; Munkholm, Pia; Moum, Bjørn; Stockbrügger, Reinhold; Langholz, Ebbe; NN, NN

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it has become evident that genetic factors are involved in disease susceptibility. Studies have suggested a north-south gradient in the incidence of IBD, raising the question whether this difference is caused by...

  20. Multiplex real-time PCR and blood culture for identification of bloodstream pathogens in patients with suspected sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Lisby, G; Breysse, F;

    2009-01-01

    Severe sepsis is increasingly a cause of death. Rapid and correct initial antimicrobial treatment reduces mortality. The aetiological agent(s) cannot always be found in blood cultures (BCs). A novel multiplex PCR test (SeptiFast (alpha version)) that allows identification of 20 bacterial and fung...

  1. Chronic pelvic pain: clinical dilemma or clinician's nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, A.; Chien, P

    2000-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common problem presenting a major challenge to healthcare professionals. This is partly due to the lack of understanding of the aetiology and natural history of the disease. This condition is best managed using a multidisciplinary approach. In recent years, the emphasis in the clinical management has tended towards psychosocial or psychosexual involvement after organic disease has been excluded.

  2. Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Kuiken, Thijs;

    2010-01-01

    in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence...

  3. Psychoneuroendocrinological aspects of anorexia nervosa: predictors of recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elburg, A.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychosomatic eating disorder of unknown aetiology, which primarily affects adolescent girls and young women and is characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behaviour and weight regulation which result in weight loss and endocrine abnormalities such as amenorrhea, dist

  4. Evaluation of severity and therapy in children with atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Wolkerstorfer (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAtopic dennatitis (AD) is a conUllon chronically relapsing skin disorder affecting 9-20% of those born after 1970 [Schultz Larsen 1993]. TI,e aetiology is still not entirely elucidated and research is complicated by the multifactorial nature of the disease. Both genetical and environment

  5. Neutrophilic dermatoses: pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, J. T.; Atherton, M. T.; Byrne, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome are classified as neutrophilic dermatoses as they exhibit intense dermal inflammatory infiltrates composed of neutrophils with little evidence of a primary vasculitis. They share several characteristics and respond to immunosuppressives. Aetiology is felt to represent a manifestation of altered immunologic reactivity. Patients with both conditions concurrently have been described. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings. However,...

  6. Clinical Features Of Acute Febrile Thrombocytopaenia Among Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Fah, Tong Seng; MMed, Noorazah Abdul Aziz; Liew, Chin Gek; Omar, Khairani

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying clinical features that differentiate acute febrile thrombocytopaenia from acute febrile illness without thrombocytopaenia can help primary care physician to decide whether to order a full blood count (FBC). This is important because thrombocytopaenia in viral fever may signify more serious underlying aetiology like dengue infection.

  7. Idiopatisk pulmonal hæmosiderose hos en et-årig piga med Down syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Anna Elisabeth; Høi-Hansen, Christina Engel; Buchvald, Frederik;

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease. We describe a girl with Down syndrome who had no major respiratory symptoms until one year of age, where recurrent airway infections and chronic anaemia of unknown aetiology developed. At 20 months of age she had intermittent haemo...

  8. Attentional Threat Avoidance and Familial Risk are Independently Associated with Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah M.; McAdams, Tom A.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Goodman, Robert; Clark, David M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Twin studies in children reveal that familial aggregation of anxiety disorders is due to both genetic and environmental factors. Cognitive biases for threat information are considered a robust characteristic of childhood anxiety. However, little is known regarding the underlying aetiology of such biases and their role in anxiety…

  9. Twins as a tool for evaluating the influence of genetic susceptibility in thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, T H; Hegedüs, L

    2011-01-01

    By means of large twin cohorts, it has been possible to provide relatively valid and unbiased data regarding the influence of genetic and to some extent epigenetic factors in the aetiology of thyroid autoimmunity. The comparison of concordance rates between monozygotic and dizygotic twins provide...

  10. Måling af prokalcitonin kan muligvis begrænse antibiotikaforbruget ved pneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peter; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is imperative. Pneumonia is important in this matter because of its high incidence, subjective diagnostic criteria, and variations in aetiology. Research has focused on the use of a procalcitonin-guided algorithm for antimicrobial stewardship...

  11. Relationship between landing strategy and patellar tendinopathy in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zwerver, Johannes; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aetiology of patellar tendinopathy ( jumper's knee) remains unclear. To see whether landing strategy might be a risk factor for the development of this injury, this study examined whether landing dynamics from drop jumps differed among healthy volleyball players ( CON) and volleyball

  12. Separation of genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and reaction time performance from those on IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, A. C.; Asherson, P.; van der Meere, J. J.; Kuntsi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a strong phenotypic and genetic association with reaction time (RI) variability, considered to reflect lapses in attention. Yet we know little about whether this aetiological pathway is shared with other affected cognitive processes i

  13. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  14. Necrotising Enterocolitis and Systemic Inflammation: Placental Pathology and Haematological Markers of Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baastad, S

    2011-11-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that affects premature neonates. Associated mortality has not changed appreciably over the past several decades. The underlying aetiology of NEC remains elusive, although bacterial colonization of the gut, formula feeding, and perinatal stress have been implicated as risk factors.\\r\

  15. National cohort study of reproductive risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis in Denmark: a role for hyperemesis, gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Jacobsen, S; Biggar, R J; Frisch, M

    2010-01-01

    While reproductive factors might plausibly be involved in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the female predominance remains unexplained. A study was undertaken to address the possible impact of live births, pregnancy losses and pregnancy complications on the subsequent risk of RA in a n...

  16. The victorian institute of sports assessment - achilles questionnaire (visa-a) - a reliable tool for measuring achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome meas...

  17. Computed tomography findings in fibrosing mediastinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, A. [Departments of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.devaraj@rbht.nhs.uk; Griffin, N. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Nicholson, A.G. [Department of Histopathology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S.P.G. [Departments of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Aim: To describe the CT features of fibrosing mediastinitis. Materials and methods: The clinical notes, histology, and CT images from 12 patients with fibrosing mediastinitis were reviewed. Clinical data regarding the presentation and suspected aetiology were correlated with location of mediastinal disease, calcification, effect on mediastinal structures, and additional pulmonary findings on computed tomography (CT). Results: The mean age was 40.5 years, with seven female and five male patients. The most common presenting symptom was shortness of breath. Fibrosing mediastinitis diffusely infiltrated the mediastinum in five patients and was localized in seven. Calcification was present in two cases. Eleven of 12 cases had narrowing of mediastinal structures, including five with pulmonary artery narrowing, five with superior vena cava obstruction, four with bronchial narrowing, three with tracheal narrowing, and one with narrowing of the pulmonary vein. The disease was considered idiopathic in seven cases with a demonstrable aetiology in five cases. Eight out of 12 patients had additional pulmonary findings, including all patients with a known aetiology. Conclusions: In the present series of patients, fibrosing mediastinitis more commonly presented as a localized mediastinal mass than as diffuse mediastinal disease, with the anterior mediastinal compartment most frequently involved. Most cases were idiopathic compared with the majority of previous cases at this institution being ascribed to tuberculosis. There is a high incidence of concomitant pulmonary findings, in particular when an identifiable aetiology is present. Obstruction of vital structures frequently gives rise to complications.

  18. Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kesby, James P.; Xiaoying eCui; Burne, Thomas H. J.; Darryl Wakter Eyles

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders with unknown aetiology. Although abnormalities in multiple neurotransmitter systems have been linked to schizophrenia, alterations in dopamine neurotransmission remain central to the treatment of this disorder. Given that schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder we have hypothesised that abnormal dopamine signalling in the adult patient may result from altered dopamine signalling during foetal brain development. Environmenta...

  19. Behaviour, Physiology and Experience of Pathological Laughing and Crying in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Nicholas T.; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Whalen, Patrick K.; Williamson, Craig A.; Holley, Deborah E.; Verstaen, Alice; Brown, Laurel M.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kornak, John; Levenson, Robert W.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological laughing and crying is a disorder of emotional expression seen in a number of neurological diseases. The aetiology is poorly understood, but clinical descriptions suggest a disorder of emotion regulation. The goals of this study were: (i) to characterize the subjective, behavioural and physiological emotional reactions that occur…

  20. Granulomatøs perioral dermatitis i barnealderen hos et adoptivbarn fra Madagaskar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard; Deleuran, Mette Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    A case of childhood granulomatous perioral dermatitis (CGPD)/facial Afro-Caribbean childhood eruption (FACE) in a three year old boy from Madagascar is described. This disorder occurs predominantly in black children until puberty. It is a relatively uncommon condition of unknown aetiology...