WorldWideScience

Sample records for aet

  1. Installation complete / Aet Ader, Kadri Klementi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ader, Aet

    2015-01-01

    Linnainstallatsioonidest avalikus ruumis. "Gas Pipe" Venezia Arhitektuuribiennaalil (Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm, Ingrid Ruudi, 2008). "Artificial Queue" (Andra Aaloe, Aet Ader, Flo Kasearu, Grete Soosalu, 2010). "To the Sea" (autorid Tomomi Hayashi, Mihkel Sagar, 2011). "Chimney" (tundmatu autor, 2011). "Straw Theatre" (Salto Arhitektid, 2011). "A Path in the Forest" (Tetsuo Kondo, Mitsuru Maekita, Mutsuro Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Hiraiwa, 2011). "O" (Aet Ader, Andra Aaloe, Kaarel Künnap, Grete Soosalu, Flo Kasearu, 2011)

  2. From Balfron Tower to Crisis Point / Aet Ader

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ader, Aet, 1985-

    2015-01-01

    Londoni arhitektuurifestivalil esindas Eestit arhitektuuribüroo b210 arhitekt Aet Ader, kes valiti Briti Nõukogu poolt osalema festivali alaprogrammi International Architecture Showcase rahvusvahelises residentuuriprogrammis

  3. Aet Piel : oluline sisekujunduselement on viltune sein / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Poolkaares ehitatud korterelamus on Aet Pieli kujundatud korteris üks sein viltu. Esmapilgul häirivana mõjunud sein sai oluliseks sisekujunduselemendiks. Eritellimusel valmistatud mööbel on tammepuidust. A. Pieli kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan enne ja nüüd, 9 värv. vaadet

  4. Kuidas planeerida elamisväärset korterit? / Aet Piel ; intervjueerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piel, Aet, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Aet Piel halva planeeringuga vana korteri planeeringu muutmisest ja korteri kujundamisest. Hruštšovka-tüüpi korteri ümberplaneerimise võimalustest. Muudatuste tegemisest uues korteris. Köökidest

  5. Influence of cysteamine and A.E.T. on cerebral activity of irradiated adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective action of cysteamine and A.E.T. on the central nervous system of rabbits exposed to a whole-body gamma irradiation (650 rads) was studied. The rabbits were given intravenous injection of cysteamine (100 mg/kg) and A.E.T. (50 mg/kg), 20 minutes before irradiation. Modifications of behavior, arousal, electrical activities of different cerebral structures and blood acido-basic equilibrium were used as criteria. It was concluded that cysteamine and A.E.T. had a pronounced radioprotective action on central nervous system. Arousal was normal. Radiation induced hyperexcitability was reduced. Blood acido-basic equilibrium modifications did not appear to play an important role in radiation induced cerebral hyperexcitability

  6. LANL Institutional Decision Support By Process Modeling and Analysis Group (AET-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-04

    AET-2 has expertise in process modeling, economics, business case analysis, risk assessment, Lean/Six Sigma tools, and decision analysis to provide timely decision support to LANS leading to continuous improvement. This capability is critical during the current tight budgetary environment as LANS pushes to identify potential areas of cost savings and efficiencies. An important arena is business systems and operations, where processes can impact most or all laboratory employees. Lab-wide efforts are needed to identify and eliminate inefficiencies to accomplish Director McMillan’s charge of “doing more with less.” LANS faces many critical and potentially expensive choices that require sound decision support to ensure success. AET-2 is available to provide this analysis support to expedite the decisions at hand.

  7. 5-Androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol (β-AET slows thermal injury induced osteopenia in mice: relation to aging and osteoporosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Malik

    Full Text Available 5-Androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol (β-AET, an active metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, reversed glucocorticoid (GC-induced suppression of IL-6, IL-8 and osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and promoted osteoblast differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In a murine thermal injury model that includes glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia, β-AET significantly (p<0.05 preserved bone mineral content, restored whole body bone mineral content and endochondral growth, suggesting reversal of GC-mediated decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, maturation and osteogenesis in the growth plate. In men and women, levels of β-AET decline with age, consistent with a role for β-AET relevant to diseases associated with aging. β-AET, related compounds or synthetic derivatives may be part of effective therapeutic strategies to accelerate tissue regeneration and prevent or treat diseases associated with aging such as osteoporosis.

  8. Characterization of an acidification and equalization tank (AET operating as a primary treatment of swine liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of the acidification equalization tank (AET used as a primary treatment unit, treating the hog farming wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a degritter with a triangular-notch weir, for measuring the flow, a static sieve, and an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, a settling tank, a greenhouse for fertirrigation and two infiltration ponds. The AET had a net capacity of 8,000 liters, internally covered with asphalt blanket, worked based on surface loading rates application. The unit operated continuously, with its flow varying from 0.1 to 10 L s-1. To determine the efficiency, the following parameters were measured: pH; COD; BOD; volatile and fixed solids; settleable solids; total, intermediate and partial alkalinity and total acidity. The COD removal varied from 5 to 20%. The average pH was 7.3 and the total, intermediate and partial alkalinity in the effluent, were 1919, 846, 1197 mg L-1, respectively. The total acidity in the effluent was 34 mg L-1. The influent and effluent total BOD and oil & grease concentrations were 3436 and 3443 mg L-1, and 415 and 668 mg L-1, respectively. It was found that the AET worked properly concerning the acidification, equalization and sedimentation processes, confirming low cost of implementation and easy operation, when compared to other traditional decanters.

  9. Pankur poris / Aet Annist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annist, Aet

    2008-01-01

    Autor annab ülevaate ajalehe Financial Times kolumnisti Gillian Tetti artiklist, kus räägitakse sellest, et tänases pangandusettevõtete segaduses maksab jälgida ka panganduse esindajate kui professionaalse grupi enesekehtestamist ja selle läbikukkumist. Vt. ka Financial Times, 18.01.2008

  10. Expression and clinical significance of the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway during the development and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhaokai; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wang, Qing; Su, Jingqian; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major health problem in reproductive-aged women worldwide, but the precise pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our previous study revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a mediated endothelin (ET)-2 signaling plays an important role in ovulation in rats. Therefore, the present study used a PCOS rat model to test the hypotheses that HIF-1a signaling is expressed and inhibited in ovaries during PCOS formation and that the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway is a target of dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) in the clinical treatment of PCOS. First, the development of a PCOS model and the effect of DMBG treatment were examined through ovarian histology and serum hormone levels, which were consistent with previous reports. Second, HIF-1a and ET-2 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed decreased HIF-1a/ET-2 expression in the ovaries of PCOS rats, whereas DMBG treatment reversed the protein decreases and improved the PCOS symptoms. Third, to understand the molecular mechanism, HIF-1a/ET-2 mRNA expression was also examined. Interestingly, HIF-1a mRNA increased in the ovaries of PCOS rats, while ET-2 mRNA decreased, indicating that HIF-1a protein degradation may be involved in POCS development and treatment. Finally, HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity was examined to further clarify the contribution of HIF-1a signaling to the development and treatment of PCOS. The results suggested that the inhibition of HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling may be caused by increased PHD activity in PCOS. DMBG-treated PCOS may further activate HIF-1a signaling at least partly through inhibiting PHD activity. Taken together, these results indicate that HIF-1a signaling is inhibited in a PCOS rat model through increasing PHD activity. DMBG treatment improved PCOS by rescuing this pathway, suggesting that HIF-1a signaling plays an important role in the development and treatment of PCOS. This HIF-1a-mediated ET-2 signaling pathway

  11. Planeerimine Fordi nimel / Aet Annist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annist, Aet

    2007-01-01

    Püüe muuta planeerimisega inimeste käitumist on sageli juba ette läbikukkumisele määratud. Näiteks toodud 1960. aastatel rajatud Milton Keynesi rattateede võrgustikuga aedlinn, kus elanikud kasutavad peamiselt autosid, nõukogude võimu ajal püstitatud köögita elamud, Rio de Janeiro slummielanikele isetekkeliste hüttide asemele püstitatud korterelamud, kus elamistingimused halvenesid

  12. Turvalisuse sotsiaalsed mehhanismid / Aet Annist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annist, Aet, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Autori hinnangul peaks heaolu ja turvalisuse tagamine olema kõigi ühiskonnaelus osalevate isikute ja rühmade ühine mure ning erinevaid lahendusi suudab kõige paremini korraldada riik oma demokraatlike institutsioonidega

  13. Flat roof integration. CPT solar (AET IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Pola, I.; Bernasconi, A.; Bura, E.; Cereghetti, N.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Rioggi, S.

    2007-11-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a 15.4 kWp solar power installation in Trevano, Switzerland, that features flexible amorphous silicon triple-junction modules, mounted nearly horizontally and directly laminated to flexible polyolefin membranes that form the covering of a flat roof. The main objective of this study was to verify in which order of magnitude the better thermal behaviour of amorphous silicon cells can compensate for losses due to the quasi-horizontal roof integration (lower irradiation and higher reflection), and thus be competitive in the flat roof construction and refurbishment markets. The modules used and their characteristics are described. Performance, temperature levels and energy-production are reviewed for the panels of the installation. The performance of the inverter used is also reviewed. Data on temperatures and production are presented in graphical form and optical losses are examined.

  14. Valitsuse uus kodu / Aet Süvari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    1999-01-01

    Valitsuse ja riigikantselei maja restaureerimine Rahukohtu 3 Toompeal peaks lõppema veebruaris 2000. Tähelepanekuid Eesti Ekspressi külaskäigust, hoone ajaloost. 5 fotot. Alari Paluotsa joonis. Maja ehitamist alustati 1789. a. Hiljem krahv Stenbocki linnaresidents. 1985. aastast ajutiselt kasutamata.

  15. XXI sajandi vaipa otsides / Aet Ollisaar, Vaike Reemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ollisaar, Aet, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi 100. aastapäevale pühendatud vaibakonkursi I etapi võitjad: Reet Talimaa ("Aja kiri"), Signe Kivi ("Igavikuline Eestimaa"), Anu Raud ("Kogujad"), Kaire Tali ("Spiraal"), Monika Järg ("Vöööö"). Konkursi II etapis valitakse teostatav juubelivaip

  16. Ostame maja! / Kersti Pikk, Aet Piel, Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikk, Kersti

    2007-01-01

    Võrreldakse kolme eramut - Pirital, Viimsis (Arhitektuuriagentuur OÜ - arhitektid Inga Raukas, Toomas Tammis, Karli Luik ja Renee Puusepp) ja Harku vallas Vatslas. Lk. Oberhausi kinnisvaraspetsialisti Ene Arro kommentaar

  17. Päev, mil sa midagi ei ostnud / Aet Annist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annist, Aet

    1999-01-01

    Kuus aastat on Kalle Lasni juhitud organisatsiooni Media Foundations, teinud tarbimisvastast reklaami ja kutsunud tähistama 26. nov.-t ostuvaba päevana. Algselt ameerika ostjaskonnale suunatud üleskutse on jõudnud ülejäänud tarbimisühiskondadeni. Ajakirjast 'Ethical Consumerism', mis kogub kirjeldusi Täiesti Mittevajalikest Asjust (TYNKYNS) ning lisab sapiseid soovitusi nende omandajatele

  18. AET III 100 kWp photovoltaic installation in Riazzino - Results of monitoring; Monitoraggio dell'impianto PV da 100 kWp AET III a Riazzino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzonico, S.; Bura, E.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a monitoring project that monitored the performance of the 100 kWp, grid-connected photovoltaic installation in Riazzino in southern Switzerland. The original installation, dating from 1992, was refurbished with three new inverters and new cabling. The results of a three-year monitoring project are presented and discussed. Figures are presented on the plant's power production, which illustrate the improved performance of the new inverters. Further investigations made on the power ratings of the modules and the results of infrared examination are discussed.

  19. Kuulsatel vutimeeskondadel napib raha ja võlad aina kasvavad / Aet Süvari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    UEFA juht Michel Platini tahab, et jalgpalliklubides lõppeks raharaiskamine ning hiigelvõlgade hinnaga mängijate soetamine. 2012. aasta hooajast kuni 2014. aastani pole Euroopa jalgpalliklubidel enam lubatud n.-ö. registreerida suuremat kahjumit kui 45 mln. eurot. USA jalgpalliklubides kehtib palgalimiit. Inglise klubi Liverpool, Manchester Unitedi jt. laenukoormast

  20. Kogukond ja äriettevõte koostöös? / Aet Jaakson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaakson, Aet

    2013-01-01

    Vabaühenduste ja kogukondade kaasamisest äriettevõtte heategevusprojekti värvifirma Caparol heategevuskampaania "Lihtne värvida - lihtne aidata" näitel, mille käigus kingiti lasteaedadele värve

  1. Kristjan Port kaalub Veerpalu juhtumis kuriteoteate esitamist / Kristjan Pihl, Aet Süvari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihl, Kristjan

    2014-01-01

    Maailma antidopingu agentuuri otsus teha kasvuhormooni proovide piirmäärades vigadeparandus võib anda põhjuse algatada Andrus Veerpalu dopingujuhtumi kohta kriminaalmenetlus. Selgitusi jagab Eesti antidopingu nõukogu liige Kristjan Port

  2. Tüüpmaja = Modular house / Kalle Komissarov, Aet Ader, Grete Soosalu ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Artikli tagamõte on rehabiliteerida tööstuslikult toodetavaid tüüpseid eramaju eesti arhitektide silmis, avada tüüpmaja mõistet erinevates arhitektuuri sisuliselt puudutavates teemades: arhitektuurne keskkond, arhitekuurse tüübi määratlus, kohandatavus, modulaarsus ja tootmine, arhitekti roll ja kuvand

  3. Kas eelkoolides "drillitud" laste tulevik on ikka nii heleroosa? / refereerija Aet Karolin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karolin, Aet

    2016-01-01

    Mõtteid ja seisukohti laste kooliks ettevalmistamisest biopsühholoogiadoktor Peter Gray raamatu "Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life" põhjal

  4. Maailma jalgpallis valitseb nooruslik uljus / Aet Süvari, Veiko Visnapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Täna õhtul selgub Zürichis rahvusvahelise jalgpalliliidu FIFA galaõhtul, kes on 2007. aasta parim jalgpallur. Sõelale on jäänud kolm meest - Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, Lionel Andres Messi ja Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite

  5. Keha võõras nahas ehk antropoloogiline eksperimentalism / Aet Annist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annist, Aet

    2009-01-01

    Eksperimentidest kunstis ja antropoloogias. Kristina Normani kunstiprojektist kuldse pronkssõduriga ja Ameerika valge ajakirjaniku John H. Griffini eksperimendist veeta kuus nädalat mustanahalisena USA lõunaosariikides

  6. Kristjan Port: dopinguproovi võtjad ei kiusa mitte kedagi / intervjueerinud Aet Süvari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Port, Kristjan, 1960-

    2011-01-01

    Sihtasutuse Eesti Antidoping nõukogu liige, Tallinna ülikooli terviseteaduste ja spordi instituudi direktor dotsent Kristjan Port selgitab intervjuus sportlastelt dopinguproovide võtmise protsessist, ka Andrus Veerpalult dopinguproovi võtmisest

  7. Miski on mäda, ehk kõik valed Hamletist / Aet Süvari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Autor võtteplatsil toimuvat jälgimas : Ilmar Raag väntab Saaremaal Hamleti-teemalist ingliskeelset mängufilmi inglise näitlejatega esialgse pealkirjaga "Miski on riigis mäda ehk Kogu vale Hamletist" ("Something is Rotten or All the Lie About Hamlet"). Filmi operaator on Madis Mihkelsoo ja kunstnik Liina Unt

  8. Kas Euroopa saab Euroopaks? / Timothy Garton Ash ; tõlk. Aet Varik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garton Ash, Timothy, 1955-

    2002-01-01

    3. aprillil 1996 peetud Sanford S. Elbergi nim. loeng California Ülikooli (Berkeley) Rahvusvaheliste Uuringute Instituudis. Euroopa määratlus enne 1945. aastat, 1945-1989, külma sõja järgsel perioodil ja tänapäeval

  9. Sise- ja rahvusvaheline tasakaal / Ragnar Nurkse ; tõlk. Aet Ringborg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurkse, Ragnar

    2004-01-01

    Keynesi majandusteooriast, rahvatulu ja väliskaubanduse seose multiplikaatoranalüüsist, tööhõivepoliitikast avatud majanduses ja selle rahvusvahelisest koordineerimisest, majanduslikust natsionalismist, rahvusvahelisest valuutapoliitikast ja multilateraalsest kaubandusest. Vt. ka: Kalev Kukk. Kes oli ja on Ragnar Nurkse? Ülevaade eesti soost majandusteadlase Ragnar Nurkse (1907-1959) elukäigust

  10. Analysis of AET and yield predictions under surface and buried drip irrigation systems using the Crop Model PILOTE and Hydrus-2D

    OpenAIRE

    Mailhol, J.C.; Ruelle, P.; Walser, S; Schutze, N.; Dejean, C.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative irrigation solutions have to face water scarcity problems affecting the Mediterranean countries. Generally, surface (DI) or subsurface drip irrigation systems (SDI) have the ability to increase water productivity (WP). But the question about their possible utilisation for crops such as corn would merit to be analysed using an appropriate economic tool. The latter would be necessary based on the utilisation of a modelling approach to identify the optimal irrigation strategy associat...

  11. Omaniku näoga Merirahu galeriimaja / Risto Kozer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozer, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Arhitekt Toivo Tammiku (AD Ansambel) projekteeritud eramust Merirahus. Kaasautor Kadri Randoja (AD Ansambel). Sisearhitektid Aet Grigorjev ja Aet Piel. Projekt: 2005, valmis: 2011/2012. Toivo Tammiku kommentaar

  12. 旱作土壤耕层及其肥力培育途径%The Soli Cultiv aet d Layer in Drylan d and Technical Patterns in Cul tivating Soil Fertilti y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓增; 邹文秀; 陆欣春; 段景海

    2015-01-01

    耕作层是人类为了栽培作物,利用工具对土壤进行扰动的深度层。耕作层的结构和厚度决定了作物的生存环境及养分和水分的供给。随着对粮食需求的不断增加,培育一个肥沃而深厚的耕作层,提高土壤地力得到了越来越多人的关注。文章综合分析了耕作层的演变和功能及其对作物根系生长和产量的重要意义,由此提出了粘质土壤(粘粒含量>35%)的适宜耕作层深度为0~35 cm,沙质土壤为0~20 cm;综述了秸秆和有机肥还田在培育土壤耕作层方面的研究进展。随着种植结构的多元化和农用机械的不断更新,对未来土壤耕作层培育的技术模式进行了展望,即建立集成作物轮作、有机物料还田、耕作强度和频度的综合技术模式,旨在为合理耕作层培育提供理论支撑。图1,参49。%The soil cultivated layer is that human activity disturbed the depth of soil by tools in order to cultivate crops .The structure and depth of soil cultivated layer determined the habitat and supply of nutrient and water for crop .The construction of fertile and deep cultivated soil layer and improvement of soil fertility were attracting more and more attention with the increased demand for food .The e-volution and function of soil cultivated layer and its effect on crop root and yield were reviewed comprehensively , suitable depths of cul-tivated layer were suggested for clay soil ( clay content >35%) with 0~35 cm depth and sandy soil with 0~20 cm depth based on a-bove mentioned.The influence of straw and organic matter incorporation on soil cultivated layer was discussed.The prospective of tech-nical patterns of soil cultivated layer , including the integrated technical pattern involving crop rotation , straw and organic matter incor-poration , depth and frequency of soil tillage , which will provide relevant reference for the construction of suitable soil cultivated layer .

  13. 驾驶员情绪状态对驾驶决策的Logistic回归分析%Logistic Regression Analysis of Driver's EmotionalSt aet tot heD riving Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超; 陈晓晨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze predict effects of the emotional state of the driver on driving decisions .Methods Using the Iowa Gambling Task to classify the driver's decision-making,the emotional state examination(POMS)questionnaire to survey drivers,and pre-dicted the effects of different types of decisions on the emotional state of the driver by logistic regression analysis .Results ①Positive e-motions and negative emotions predicted different types of driving decisions (χ2 =50.639,df=2,P<0.05).(2)Driving experience,gen-der as moderators predicted different types of driving decisions (χ2 =23.811,df=8,P<0.01).Conclusion ① In POMS,the higher the score the positive emotional state ,the lower the score the negative emotional state of the driver ,the types of decisions are more adven-turous;②When taking into account gender and driving experience ,types of decisions are more affected by negative emotional states and novice women's positive emotional state .%目的:分析驾驶员的情绪特征对驾驶决策的预测作用。方法采用爱荷华赌博任务对驾驶员进行决策类型的分类,情绪状态量表测量驾驶员的情绪状态,通过Logistic回归分析预测情绪状态对不同决策类型驾驶员的影响。结果①积极情绪与消极情绪对不同类型的驾驶决策具有预测作用(χ2=50.639,df=2,P<0.05);②驾龄、性别作为调节变量对不同类型驾驶决策具有预测作用(χ2=23.811,df=8,P<0.01)。结论①在情绪状态量表中,积极情绪状态得分越高,消极情绪状态得分越低的驾驶员,决策类型是勇于冒险的可能性更大;②当考虑到性别与驾龄时,决策类型更多的受到新手消极情绪状态和女性积极情绪状态的影响。

  14. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwint, Margriet [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van den [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose, E-mail: j.belderbos@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  15. Modulation of circulating angiogenic factors and tumor biology by aerobic training in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W; Fels, Diane R; West, Miranda; Allen, Jason D; Broadwater, Gloria; Barry, William T; Wilke, Lee G; Masko, Elisabeth; Douglas, Pamela S; Dash, Rajesh C; Povsic, Thomas J; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Marcom, P Kelly; Blackwell, Kimberly L; Kimmick, Gretchen; Turkington, Timothy G; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Aerobic exercise training (AET) is an effective adjunct therapy to attenuate the adverse side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with early breast cancer. Whether AET interacts with the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy has received scant attention. We carried out a pilot study to explore the effects of AET in combination with neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC+AET), relative to AC alone, on: (i) host physiology [exercise capacity (VO2 peak), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BA-FMD)], (ii) host-related circulating factors [circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF)], and (iii) tumor phenotype [tumor blood flow ((15)O-water PET), tissue markers (hypoxia and proliferation), and gene expression] in 20 women with operable breast cancer. AET consisted of three supervised cycle ergometry sessions/week at 60% to 100% of VO2 peak, 30 to 45 min/session, for 12 weeks. There was significant time × group interactions for VO2 peak and BA-FMD, favoring the AC+AET group (P blood flow in the AC+AET group. There were no differences in any tumor tissue markers (P > 0.05). Whole-genome microarray tumor analysis revealed significant differential modulation of 57 pathways (P < 0.01), including many that converge on NF-κB. Data from this exploratory study provide initial evidence that AET can modulate several host- and tumor-related pathways during standard chemotherapy. The biologic and clinical implications remain to be determined. PMID:23842792

  16. Eesti põrsad Hiinas / Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Janno, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Shanghai EXPO Eesti paviljoni konkursi võidutööst "Savecity.org". Võidutöö autorid Illimar Truverk AET-Arhitektid, Priit Hamer AET-Arhitektid, Janno Roos Ruumilabor, Andres Labi Ruumilabor, Ionel Lehari Identity, Kristian Paljasma Identity, Meelis Opmann Identity ja Maret Põldre Identity

  17. Professionalisation processes among adult educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Larson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increased interest in adult education and training (AET) in the EU as well as in national policy, the article looks into policy and practice when it comes to the professionalisation of those responsible for providing the AET – the adult educators. The article takes its theoretical...... is an increase in the provision of AET. A second is a tendency for official requirements for teaching adults to be higher in general and vocational AET than in liberal AE. Also, in spite of the huge interest in AET, qualification of adult educators seems to be a non-issue in the analysed policy papers...... and strategies, especially in Denmark and Sweden. The fi nal common trend is a tendency that most courses and programmes for adult educators are targeted people already working within the field or people interested in a career shift. Very few options exist in the three countries for initial qualifi cation prior...

  18. Studies on the preparation of prophylactic and therapeutic compounds for radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of cysteamine (MEA), Sodiumhydrogen S-(2-Aminoethyl) Phosphorothioate (WR-638), S-2-(w-Aminopropylamino) ethyl Dihydrogen phosphorothioate (WR-2721) and S, 2-Amino-ethylisothiuronium Bromide. HBr (AET) were studied with views of ascertaining reaction conditions and related technological parameters which were not clearly reported in relevant literatures. Laboratory procedure of extracting l-cystine from human hairs was studied and the extraction scheme was established. Using ICR mouse as the testing animal, prepared compounds and mixtures of them were checked for their drug toxicity which revealed some toxic effects in cases of MEA, AET, a mixture of MEA and AET, and mixture of MEA and WR-638, whereas it revealed no toxicity in cases of WR-638 and a mixture of WR-638 and AET. Administering prepared compounds and mixtures of them intraperitoneally in the mouse 15 minutes prior to irradiation, the survival ratio of irradiated mouse was checked after being raised for 30 days and it was found that all tested compounds and mixtures could show 100% survival ratio under 950 R gamma-ray dose. DRF of these compounds and mixtures was surveyed and the following tendencies of DRF of these compounds and mixtures were observed;i.e. 2.0-2.5 for AET, -2.0 for WR-638, and 2.5-3.0 for the mixtures of WR-638 and AET. The mixture of WR-638 and AET had thus shown an additive ratio protective effect. (Author)

  19. Neli Peret Hispaanias, tekstiilikunstnikest rääkimata / Katrin Pere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pere, Katrin, 1952-

    1998-01-01

    9. - 12. märtsini Barcelonas ja Madridis toimunud European Textile Networki aastakonverentsist. Eestist osalesid : Lylian Meister, Lea Pruuli, Aet Ollisaar-Kalamees, Katrin Pere, Merike Männi, Aune Taamal, Anne Tootma, Signe Kivi, Peeter Pere

  20. 21. X avati Kaunase kunstibiennaal "Textile 2005"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eestist osalevad Mare Kelpmann, Marika Kööbi, Aet Ollisaar, Kadi Pajupuu, Ludmilla Svarzhevska, Hanna Tiidus, Helen Kauksi, Krista Leesi, Aune Taamal, Erika Tammpere, Milvi Thalheim ja Erle Võsa-Tangsoo

  1. Arlecchino räägib legendaarse võrgutaja tõelise loo / Anneli Sihvart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sihvart, Anneli, 1964-

    2011-01-01

    Itaalia maskiteatri Pantakin Company etendus "L'Arlecchino don Giovanni" veekarnevalil Admiraliteedi basseini juures 17. juulil 2011. Pantakin Company'st, mis loodi Veneetsias 1995. a., hoidmaks elavana commedia dell'aete ja maskiteatri traditsioone

  2. Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaal : [4.-8. september 2013

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tallinna Arhitektuuribiennaali TAB 2013 teemal "Taaskasutades nõukogude ruumipärandit" kava. Kuraatorid Aet Ader, Kadri Klementi, Karin Tõugu, Kaidi Õis, Mari Hunt (arhitektuuribüroo b210). Peakorraldaja: Eesti Arhitektuurikeskus

  3. Non-destructive methods are useful for detecting any kind of corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive methods are used to detect and follow the evolution of corrosion. The right method to use depends on the type of corrosion we want to study and on the conditions in which the control is performed. The acoustic emission testing (AET) is one of the most promising. Uniform corrosion and localized corrosion can be studied by AET and technologies based on AET are being developed to control the state of pressure vessels or of gas or liquid containers. Other fields of applications are under investigation: the control of the propagation of fissures generated by stress corrosion or by hydrogen embrittlement or by corrosion fatigue. The CETIM (technical center of mechanic industries) has realized a database that gathers all the work made concerning AET and the detection of corrosion. (A.C.)

  4. Maja ja märgid = A house and signs / Jarmo Kauge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kauge, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    2013. a. valminud eramust - Elevandimaja - Maardus. Autor Vilen Künnapu. Arhitektuur: AB Künnapu & Padrik. Sisekujundus: Aet Seire, Vilen Künnapu. Elevandiskulptuur: Vambola Mets, Vilen Künnapu. Ruume kaunistavad August Künnapu maalid

  5. Protective effect of adeturone on protein assimilation in the gastro-intestinal tract following acute X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of adeturone and AET on the process of assimilation of food stuffs in the gastro-intestinal tract and possibilities for its protection from radiation injury were studied. Comparative assessment of the protective capabilities of adeturone and AET on the process of protein hydrolysis and absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract and the loss of serum proteins in the small intestines in acute X-irradiation revealed that the two radioprotectors adeturone and AET, being chemical agents, induce almost identical and transient changes in the absorption of protein hydrolysis products in the gastro-intestinal tract. These changes seem to have no aggravating effect on the course of radiation injury. In comparison with AET, adeturone exerts superior radioprotective effect on the processes studied, following exposure to a lethal X-ray dose of 800 r. (author)

  6. Tagahoovi elluäratamine : TTÜ Kuressaare kolledži väikelaevaehituse kompetentsikeskus = Awakening a backyard to new life : The ship model testing basin for the Tallinn University of Technology`s Small Craft Competence Centre in Kuressaare / Hanne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    TTÜ Kuressaare kolledži väikelaevaehituse kompetentsikeskuse katsebasseinihoone arhitektuurist. Arhitektid: Aet Ader, Mari Hunt, Kadri Klementi, Kalle Komissarov, Lembit-Laur Stöör. Projekt: 2011-2014. Valmis: 2014

  7. Stiilne avarus / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Angelika ja Meelis Maalmanni perekonna korter (93 mø) Rannamõisa teel asuvas ridaelamus. Uue plaanilahenduse ja sisekujunduse autor Aet Piel. Ill.: 8 vaadet, korteri plaan enne ja nüüd. A. ja M. Maalmanni kommentaarid

  8. Kamjo mööblikollektsioonid = Kamjo furniture collections

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Sisearhitektide Hillar Männi (Link OÜ, A₃ OÜ) ja Aet Seire (A₃ OÜ) Rootsi firmale Kamjo disainitud magamistoakollektsioonidest. Kollektsioonid valmistatakse Eestis käsitööna. Loetletud sisearhitektide töid

  9. A million trees for joining Europe / Aleksei Gunter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Mai esimesel nädalal istutavad laulu- ja tantsupeost osavõtjad ligikaudu miljon uut puuistikut. Kommentaarid metsaistutamise eestvedajatelt, Eesti Laulu- ja Tantsupeo Fondi esinaiselt Aet Maateelt ja EL-i infosekretariaadi juhilt Hannes Rummilt

  10. A coupled remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance based algorithms to estimate actual evapotranspiration over the western and southern regions of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    In countries with absolute water scarcity such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), large-scale actual evapotranspiration estimation is of great concern in water use practices. Herein, spatial and temporal distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the western and southern regions of KSA during 1992-2014 was estimated using the SEBAL model with field observations. Zonal statistics for each land use-cover type were also identified, in order to understand their effects on water consumption. In addition, daily and seasonal water consumption for major crops was computed. Results revealed a gradual increase in monthly AET values from January to April and subsequent decline from May to December. The maximum monthly AET values were observed for irrigated cropland in southwestern, central, and southeastern regions of Asir Province, central and southwestern regions of Al-Baha Province, central and the plains region of Jazan Province, southern portion of Makkah Province, and limited areas in the northern regions of Madinah Province. The annual AET ranged from 418.8 to 3442.3 mm yr-1. The normal distribution of mean annual AET values ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. Forty-two percent of the study area had an annual AET that ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. The second highest range of frequencies was concentrated around 1020-1322 mm yr-1, representing the majority of agricultural land. The consumptive water use of the different land cover types in study area indicated that irrigated cropland which occupied 14.6% of the study area had AET rates much higher than other land uses. Water bodies are the next highest, with forest and shrubland and sparse vegetation slightly lower, and very low AET rates from bare soil. Daily and seasonal water consumption of major cropping systems varied spatially depending on cropping practices and climatic conditions.

  11. Technical Note: Development of an automated lysimeter for the calculation of peat soil actual evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Proulx-McInnis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A limited number of publications in the literature deal with the measurement of actual evapotranspiration (AET from a peat soil. AET is an important parameter in the description of water pathways of an ecosystem. In peatlands, where the water table is near the surface and the vegetation is composed of nonvascular plants without stomatal resistance, the AET measurement represents a challenge. This paper discusses the development of an automated lysimeter installed between 12 and 27 July 2010, at a 11-ha bog site, Pont-Rouge (42 km west of Quebec City, Canada. This system was made of an isolated block of peat, maintained at the same water level as the surrounding water table by a system of submersible pressure transmitters and pumps. The change in water level in millimetres in the isolated block of peat was used to calculate the water lost through evapotranspiration (ET while accounting the precipitation. The rates of AET were calculated for each day of the study period. Temperature fluctuated between 17.2 and 23.3 °C and total rainfall was 43.76 mm. AET rates from 0.6 to 6.9 mm day−1 were recorded, with a ΣAET/ΣP ratio of 1.38. The estimated potential ET (PET resulting from Thornthwaite's semi-empirical formula suggested values between 2.8 and 3.9 mm day−1. The average AET/PET ratio was 1.13. According to the literature, the results obtained are plausible. This system, relatively inexpensive and simple to install, may eventually be used to calculate AET on peaty soils in the years to come.

  12. Vapor pressure deficit is as important as soil moisture in determining limitations to evapotranspiration during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, K. A.; Williams, C. A.; Phillips, R.; Oishi, A. C.; Sulman, B. N.; Bohrer, G.; Ficklin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The decoupling between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and actual evapotranspiration (AET) is a useful metric to characterize ecosystem hydrologic stress. As hydrologic stress evolves, PET increases following increases in incident radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). AET, on the other hand, remains stationary or decreases due to declines in surface conductance imposed by decreasing soil water and stomatal closure under high VPD. Historically, it has been difficult to quantify the extent to which soil moisture as compared to VPD ultimately limits AET during hydrologic stress. Part of this difficulty relates to the strong correlation between soil moisture and VPD at timescales over which hydrologic stress evolves (weekly to monthly). Further, while it is relatively easy to manipulate soil moisture in experimental settings, manipulating VPD is much more difficult. Recently, the proliferation of eddy covariance flux sites has produced a rich collection of AET observations at fine timescales (i.e. hourly to daily) over which VPD and soil moisture are more decoupled. In this study, we leverage such data to quantify the extent to which soil moisture versus VPD constrains AET in more than 25 Ameriflux sites spanning a wide climate gradient. We found that AET was most significantly limited by soil moisture in dry sites where the annual PET was much higher than precipitation. VPD limitations to AET dominated in wetter sites, but even among the driest sites, they were of similar magnitude to soil moisture limitations. Our results highlight the critical, if at time underappreciated, role of VPD in determining ecohydrological functioning during periods of hydrologic stress. We also leverage these results together with future projections for VPD, soil moisture, and other relevant meteorological drivers to explore the extent to which the coherence between VPD and soil moisture, and their relative importance for limiting AET, may shift under future climate conditions.

  13. Uued näitused Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Chaplini kunstikeskuses 26. nov.-st Heinz Valgu Lääne-Eesti vaibakollektsiooni näitus "Sängis", 28. nov.-st näitus "Vanaema ja tütretütar", kus esinevad vaibakunstnikud Ellen Hansen ja Aet Ollisaar. 88-aastane E. Hansen on välja pannud viimaste aastate loomingu, mis on inspireeritud peamiselt Juhan Liivi luulest. Kujundajad Heli Tuksam, Aet Ollisaar, Madis Liplap.

  14. Technical Note: Development of an automated lysimeter for the calculation of peat soil actual evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx-McInnis, S.; St-Hilaire, A.; Rousseau, A. N.; Jutras, S.; Carrer, G.; Levrel, G.

    2011-05-01

    A limited number of publications in the literature deal with the measurement of actual evapotranspiration (AET) from a peat soil. AET is an important parameter in the description of water pathways of an ecosystem. In peatlands, where the water table is near the surface and the vegetation is composed of nonvascular plants without stomatal resistance, the AET measurement represents a challenge. This paper discusses the development of an automated lysimeter installed between 12 and 27 July 2010, at a 11-ha bog site, Pont-Rouge (42 km west of Quebec City, Canada). This system was made of an isolated block of peat, maintained at the same water level as the surrounding water table by a system of submersible pressure transmitters and pumps. The change in water level in millimetres in the isolated block of peat was used to calculate the water lost through evapotranspiration (ET) while accounting the precipitation. The rates of AET were calculated for each day of the study period. Temperature fluctuated between 17.2 and 23.3 °C and total rainfall was 43.76 mm. AET rates from 0.6 to 6.9 mm day-1 were recorded, with a ΣAET/ΣP ratio of 1.38. The estimated potential ET (PET) resulting from Thornthwaite's semi-empirical formula suggested values between 2.8 and 3.9 mm day-1. The average AET/PET ratio was 1.13. According to the literature, the results obtained are plausible. This system, relatively inexpensive and simple to install, may eventually be used to calculate AET on peaty soils in the years to come.

  15. Understanding breast cancer patients' preference for two types of exercise training during chemotherapy in an unblinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallance Jeffrey K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient preference for group assignment may affect outcomes in unblinded trials but few studies have attempted to understand such preferences. The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with breast cancer patients' preference for two types of exercise training during chemotherapy. Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 242 completed a battery of tests including a questionnaire that assessed patient preference and the theory of planned behavior (TPB prior to being randomized to usual care, resistance exercise training (RET, or aerobic exercise training (AET. Results 99 (40.9% participants preferred RET, 88 (36.4% preferred AET, and 55 (22.7% reported no preference. Past exercisers (p = 0.023, smokers (p = 0.004, and aerobically fitter participants (p = 0.005 were more likely to prefer RET. As hypothesized, participants that preferred AET had more favorable TPB beliefs about AET whereas participants that preferred RET had more favorable TPB beliefs about RET. In multivariate modeling, patient preference for RET versus AET was explained (R2 = .46; p 2 = .48; p Conclusion Breast cancer patients' preference for RET versus AET during chemotherapy was predicted largely by a difference in motivation for each type of exercise which, in turn, was based on differences in their beliefs about the anticipated benefits, enjoyment, and difficulty of performing each type of exercise during chemotherapy. These findings may help explain patient preference effects in unblinded behavioral trials. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00115713.

  16. Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Actual Evapotranspiration Trends in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M. T.; Funk, C. C.; Michaelsen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is an important moisture flux linking the Earth’s surface to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. Global warming is expected to intensify this cycle, leading to moisture deficits over the sub-tropics, which will influence climate at higher latitudes. The spatio-temporal characterization of tropical AET is critical to understanding regional and global climate. To date, many studies on the temporal characteristics of AET across sub-Saharan Africa have employed vegetation-based indices derived from satellite imagery. Although these studies implicitly reflect trends in AET, they quantify the magnitude of change. In this study, we used the latest developments in remote sensing and land-surface modeling to characterize the magnitude and timing of AET in sub-Saharan Africa. We considered several models were evaluated from 1981-2000 using monthly discharge and precipitation from ten sub-basins representative of hydrology in sub-Saharan Africa. Discharge data was provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre, while precipitation data was comprised of ECMWF, NCAR, NOAA/GDAS, and CMAP reanalysis fields synthesized in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The AET models included the Community Land Model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, Noah, and two hybrids that we developed driven by a dynamic vegetation component defined in Fisher et al. 2008. The dynamic canopy components in our hybrid models were driven by the LTDR AVHRR daily corrected reflectance data over the evaluation period. The evaluation revealed that VIC was superior to the other models in capturing the magnitude and variability of runoff in the sub-basins. A trend analysis was then performed on VIC AET from 1979-2009 using standard parametric and non-parametric techniques. Linear and median trend analysis was performed on seasonal and annual AET totals to measure the magnitude of change. The analysis revealed several alarming patterns, including large and

  17. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP, including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats.

  18. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  19. State-of-the-Art Developments of Acoustic Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rabiul Awal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic energy transfer (AET technology has drawn significant industrial attention recently. This paper presents the reviews of the existing AETs sequentially, preferably, from the early stage. From the review, it is evident that, among all the classes of wireless energy transfer, AET is the safest technology to adopt. Thus, it is highly recommended for sensitive area and devices, especially implantable devices. Though, the efficiency for relatively long distances (i.e., >30 mm is less than that of inductive or capacitive power transfer; however, the trade-off between safety considerations and performances is highly suitable and better than others. From the presented statistics, it is evident that AET is capable of transmitting 1.068 kW and 5.4 W of energy through wall and in-body medium (implants, respectively. Progressively, the AET efficiency can reach up to 88% in extension to 8.6 m separation distance which is even superior to that of inductive and capacitive power transfer.

  20. Operational Actual Wetland Evapotranspiration Estimation for South Florida Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal N. Ceron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration is a reliable indicator of wetland health. Wetlands are an important and valuable ecosystem on the South Florida landscape. Accurate wetland Actual Evapotranspiration (AET data can be used to evaluate the performance of South Florida’s Everglades restoration programs. However, reliable AET measurements rely on scattered point measurements restricting applications over a larger area. The objective of this study was to validate the ability of the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB approach and the Simple Method (also called the Abtew Method to provide large area AET estimates for wetland recovery efforts. The study used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor spectral data and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD solar radiation data to derive weekly AET values for South Florida. The SSEB-Simple Method approach provided acceptable results with good agreement with observed values during the critical dry season period, when cloud cover was low (rave (n = 59 = 0.700, pave < 0.0005, but requires further refinement to be viable for yearly estimates because of poor performance during wet season months, mainly because of cloud contamination. The approach can be useful for short-term wetland recovery assessment projects that occur during the dry season and/or long term projects that compare site AET rates from dry season to dry season.

  1. Insights into the surface and redox properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-cobalt(II) tetra-aminophthalocyanine self-assembled on gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozoemena, Kenneth I. [Chemistry Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)]. E-mail: kenneth.ozoemena@up.ac.za; Nyokong, Tebello [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Nkosi, Duduzile [Chemistry Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Chambrier, Isabelle [School of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cook, Michael J. [School of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-10

    This paper describes for the first time the electrochemical properties of redox-active self-assembled films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coordinated to cobalt(II)tetra-aminophthalocyanine (CoTAPc) by sequential self-assembly onto a preformed aminoethanethiol (AET) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold electrode. Both redox-active SAMs (Au-AET-SWCNT and Au-AET-SWCNT-CoTAPc) exhibited reversible electrochemistry in aqueous (phosphate buffer) solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the appearance on the gold surface of the various elements found on the SAMs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images prove, corroborating the estimated electrochemical surface concentrations, that these SAMs lie normal to the gold surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses in the presence of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} as a redox probe revealed that the Au-AET-SWCNT-CoTAPc showed much lower ({approx}10 times) electron-transfer resistance (R {sub et}) and much higher ({approx}10 times) apparent electron-transfer rate constant (k {sub app}) compared to the Au-AET-SWCNT SAM. Interestingly, a preliminary electrocatalytic investigation showed that both SAMs exhibit comparable electrocatalytic responses towards the detection of dopamine in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS). The electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and EIS) prove that SWCNT greatly improves the electronic communication between CoTAPc and the Au electrode surface.

  2. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline V. Bacurau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers, is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF.

  3. Variability in riparian zone potential and actual evapotranspiration in a 1st order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. English

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological and hydrological measurements were made over one growing season using automatic weather stations and weighing lysimeters at several locations within a multiple land-use agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario. This paper compares modelled potential evapotranspiration (PET and measured actual evapotranspiration (AET values obtained from the soil weighing lysimeters, and determines the spatial variability in riparian zone AET in a multiple land-use agricultural watershed in Southern Ontario. Two sites were chosen in two different riparian areas of the watershed, representing the surface conditions dominant in the upper and lower reaches of the basin. The results indicated that AET was higher in the northern end of the basin than in the southern portion of the basin, while the hydrological and energy balance components were similar at both sites. The causes of the different rates are attributed to the surrounding vegetation on adjacent fields and the differing wind regimes.

  4. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  5. Changes in effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau during the period 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, S.; Zhao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Observed evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, actual evapotranspiration trends and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are poorly understood. We analyzed the spatiotemporal changes in potential evapotranspiration(PET), actual evapotranspiration(AET) and effective moisture (defined as AET/PET) during 1981-2010. Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010. New plant functional types were defined for the Tibetan Plateau and evapotranspiration is simulated by the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). The results show regional trends towards decreasing PET and statistically significant increases in AET (p PET occurred in 1997. Additionally, a pronounced increase in effective moisture occurred during the period 1981-1997 because of significant decreased PET before 1997.

  6. Ethnic differences in initiation and timing of adjuvant endocrine therapy among older women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Albert J; Du, Xianglin L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are racial/ethnic differences in initiation and timing of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) after Medicare Part D drug coverage. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked data to assess ethnic, socio-demographic, and tumor characteristic variations in the initiation of AET among patients ≥65 with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in 2007-2009 enrolled in Medicare Part D through 2010. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between race/ethnicity and the initiation of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and overall AET (tamoxifen or AIs) within the first 12 months of diagnosis. Of the 12,198 women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, 74.8 % received AET within 12 months of diagnosis, of which 17.3 % received tamoxifen and 82.8 % received AIs. After controlling for all variables, only Asian women were found to have a greater odds of initiation of overall AET compared to non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio (OR): 1.28, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.58). Hispanic Mexicans and non-Hispanic black patients had a significantly lower odds of tamoxifen initiation (0.70, 0.54-0.91; 0.25, 0.10-0.62). For AI initiation, Hispanic Mexicans and Asians had a higher odds compared to non-Hispanic white women (2.06, 1.34-3.10; 1.33, 1.11-1.61). A suboptimal proportion of women (25.2 %) did not initiate AET within 12 months of diagnosis and therefore did not receive the full benefits of treatment to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality. Racial/ethnic differences in the initiation of tamoxifen and AIs have important implications that require further investigation.

  7. A New Temperature-Vegetation Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE for Satellite-Based Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of spatially-variable actual evapotranspiration (AET is a critical challenge to regional water resources management. We propose a new remote sensing method, the Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE, to generate daily AET estimates based on satellite-derived land surface temperature and the vegetation index NDVI. The TAVE captures heterogeneity in AET across elevation zones and permits variability in determining local values of wet and dry end-member classes (known as edges. Compared to traditional triangle methods, TAVE introduces three unique features: (i the discretization of the domain as overlapping elevation zones; (ii a variable wet edge that is a function of elevation zone; and (iii variable values of a combined-effect parameter (that accounts for aerodynamic and surface resistance, vapor pressure gradient, and soil moisture availability along both wet and dry edges. With these features, TAVE effectively addresses the combined influence of terrain and water stress on semi-arid environment AET estimates. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in one of the driest countries in the world—Jordan, and compare it to a traditional triangle method (TA and a global AET product (MOD16 over different land use types. In irrigated agricultural lands, TAVE matched the results of the single crop coefficient model (−3%, in contrast to substantial overestimation by TA (+234% and underestimation by MOD16 (−50%. In forested (non-irrigated, water consuming regions, TA and MOD16 produced AET average deviations 15.5 times and −3.5 times of those based on TAVE. As TAVE has a simple structure and low data requirements, it provides an efficient means to satisfy the increasing need for evapotranspiration estimation in data-scarce semi-arid regions. This study constitutes a much needed step towards the satellite-based quantification of agricultural water consumption in Jordan.

  8. Aerobic exercise training improves oxidative stress and ubiquitin proteasome system activity in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Henrique Soares; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Matsuo Junior, Eduardo Hiroshi; de Orleans Carvalho de Moura, Elizabeth; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Montemor, Jairo; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the level of oxidative stress contribute to the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertension. Moreover, aerobic exercise training (AET) is an important therapy for the treatment of hypertension, but its effects on the UPS are not completely known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AET on UPS's activity and oxidative stress level in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 53 Wistar and SHR rats were randomly divided into sedentary and trained groups. The AET protocol was 5×/week in treadmill for 13 weeks. Exercise tolerance test, non-invasive blood pressure measurement, echocardiographic analyses, and left ventricle hemodynamics were performed during experimental period. The expression of ubiquitinated proteins, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), Akt, phospho-Akt(ser473), GSK3β, and phospho-GSK3β(ser9) were analyzed by western blotting. The evaluation of lipid hydroperoxide concentration was performed using the xylenol orange method, and the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity was measured by fluorimetric assay. Sedentary hypertensive group presented cardiac hypertrophy, unaltered expression of total Akt, phospho-Akt, total GSK3β and phospho-GSK3β, UPS hyperactivity, increased lipid hydroperoxidation as well as elevated expression of 4-HNE but normal cardiac function. In contrast, AET significantly increased exercise tolerance, decreased resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive animals. In addition, the AET increased phospho-Akt expression, decreased phospho-GSK3β, and did not alter the expression of total Akt, total GSK3β, and ubiquitinated proteins, however, significantly attenuated 4-HNE levels, lipid hydroperoxidation, and UPS's activity toward normotensive group levels. Our results provide evidence for the main effect of AET on attenuating cardiac ubiquitin proteasome hyperactivity and oxidative stress in SHR

  9. Non-invasive methods to study lung inflammation in work-related asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vidaurre, Sara

    2012-01-01

    El asma relacionado con el trabajo (ART) incluye el asma ocupacional (AO) y el asma exacerbado por el trabajo (AET), y representa un problema de salud importante con un negativo impacto socio-económico. El AO se refiere al asma causado de novo por exposición a un agente específico en el lugar de trabajo, y el AET se define como un empeoramiento de un asma preexistente o concomitante agravado por las condiciones de trabajo. Al igual que el asma bronquial, el ART es una enfermedad inflamato...

  10. Non-invasive methods to studi lung inflamation in work-related asthma = Métodos no invasivos de estudio de la inflamación bronquial en el asma relacionado con el trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vidaurre, Sara

    2012-01-01

    El asma relacionado con el trabajo (ART) incluye el asma ocupacional (AO) y el asma exacerbado por el trabajo (AET), y representa un problema de salud importante con un negativo impacto socio-económico. El AO se refiere al asma causado de novo por exposición a un agente específico en el lugar de trabajo, y el AET se define como un empeoramiento de un asma preexistente o concomitante agravado por las condiciones de trabajo. Al igual que el asma bronquial, el ART es una enfermedad inflamatoria ...

  11. Phenomenon of human T cells rosetting with sheep erythrocytes analyzed with monoclonal antibodies. “Modulation” of a partially hidden epitope determining the conditions of interaction between T cells and erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, A.; Gelin, C; Raynal, B.; Pham, D; Gosse, C.; Boumsell, L

    1982-01-01

    Anti-D66 is a monoclonal antibody able to inhibit E-rosette formation of T cells both at 4 degrees C and at 37 degree C but that does not inhibit T cell rosette formation with neuraminidase or 2-amino-ethylisothiouronium bromide (AET)-pretreated E. As demonstrated by capping experiments, it defines an epitope, D66, that is directly involved in E-rosette formation. D66 is distinct from the epitope defined by 9.6 because 9.6, a previously defined “pan-T” monoclonal antibody, inhibits E(AET) ros...

  12. Drivers of actual evapotranspiration and runoff in East Africa during the mid-Holocene: assessments from an ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fer, Istem; Jeltsch, Florian; Tietjen, Britta; Trauth, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the evolution and response of the hydrological cycle under changing climate is of vital importance for human populations all around the world. Especially so in regions like East Africa, where society largely depends on the availability of water and the hydrologic conditions are highly sensitive to changes in the distribution and amount of precipitation. In this endeavor, studying past hydrological changes provides us realistic scenarios and data to better understand and predict the extent of the future hydrological changes. However while studying the past, paleovegetation, which plays a pivotal role in the paleo-hydrological cycle, is difficult to determine from fossil pollen records as pollen data can provide very limited information on spatial distribution and composition of the vegetation cover. Here ecosystem models driven by paleo-climate conditions can provide spatially-extensive information on the coupled dynamics of past vegetation and hydrological measures such as actual evapotranspiration (AET), potential evapotranspiration (PET) and runoff. In this study, we looked at AET and runoff estimates of an ecosystem model as these are important elements of water transfer in the hydrological cycle and critical for water balance calculations. We applied the ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, for present-day with data from Climatic Research Unit CRU TS3.20 climate dataset, and for mid-Holocene (6 kyrs BP) with data from an atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate model EC-Earth. Climate data for both periods were downscaled to a 10 arc min resolution in order to better resolve the impacts of the complex topography on vegetation distribution, AET and runoff. Comparison of the simulated AET and runoff values for East Africa, show similar patterns as annual AET estimates for the period 1961-1990 by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and with the observed runoff data from Cogley (1998), respectively. Comparison of simulated present

  13. Tekstiilikonverents Hispaanias / Lea Pruuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruuli, Lea

    1998-01-01

    8. - 16. märtsini Barcelonas ja Madridis European Textile Networki konverentsist. Eesti tekstiilikunstnike delegatsiooni kuulusid Katrin Pere, Signe Kivi, Lylian Meister, Merike Männi, Aune Taamal, Aet Ollisaar, Anne Tootma ja Lea Pruuli. Eesti tekstiilikunstist kõnelesid Signe Kivi, Katrin Pere. K. Pere valiti ETN juhatuse vaatlejaliikmeks.

  14. Improving process representation in conceptual hydrological model calibration using climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minville, Marie; Cartier, Dominique; Guay, Catherine; Leclaire, Louis-Alexandre; Audet, Charles; Le Digabel, Sébastien; Merleau, James

    2014-06-01

    Different sets of calibrated model parameters can yield divergent hydrological simulations which in turn can lead to different operational decisions or scientific conclusions. In order to obtain reliable hydrological results, proper calibration is therefore fundamental. This article proposes a new calibration approach for conceptual hydrological models based on the paradigm that hydrological process representation, along with the reproduction of observed streamflows, need to be taken into account when assessing the performance of a hydrological model. Several studies have shown that complementary data can be used to improve hydrological process representation and make hydrological modeling more robust. In the current study, the process of interest is actual evapotranspiration (AET). In order to obtain a more realistic representation of AET, meteorological variables and the AET mean annual cycle simulated by a regional climate model (RCM) driven by reanalysis are used to impose constraints during the optimization procedure. This calibration strategy is compared to a second strategy which relies on AET derived from reference data and to the classical approach based solely on the reproduction of observed discharges. The different methodologies are applied to calibrate the lumped conceptual model HSAMI, used operationally at Hydro-Québec, for six Canadian snow-dominated basins with various hydrometeorological and physiographical characteristics.

  15. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed. PMID:26650230

  16. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  17. Mining the human phenome using allelic scores that index biological intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, D.M.; Brion, M.J.; Paternoster, L.; Kemp, J.P.; McMahon, G.; Munafo, M.; Whitfield, J.B.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Consortium, G.; Consortium, C.R.P.; Consortium, T.A.G.; Timpson, N.J.; Pourcain, B. St; Lawlor, D.A.; Martin, N.G.; Dehghan, A.; Hirschhorn, J.; Smith, G.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aet

  18. Developing a Consensus-Driven, Core Competency Model to Shape Future Audio Engineering Technology Curriculum: A Web-Based Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this online study was to create a ranking of essential core competencies and technologies required by AET (audio engineering technology) programs 10 years in the future. The study was designed to facilitate curriculum development and improvement in the rapidly expanding number of small to medium sized audio engineering technology…

  19. Multivariable normal-tissue complication modeling of acute esophageal toxicity in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated (chemo-)radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, R.; Dankers, F.; Troost, E.G.; Hoffman, A.L.; Heijden, E. van der; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Bussink, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for acute esophageal toxicity (AET) in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (AS-NSCLC) patients treated with (chemo-)radiotherapy are based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Due to d

  20. Etnomodernne palkmaja = Etno Modern Log House

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eramu (153 m2) katus on ülestõstetud äärtega ja keskele kaldu. Fassaadiaknad on kitsad, roostemetallist uks on klaasseinas. Arhitektid: Tauno Aadma, Laur Pihel. Projektbüroo: Eensalu & Pihel. Sisearhitekt Aet Piel. Valmis: 2007. 2 plaani, 3 värv. välisvaadet, sisevaade

  1. Viimsi keskkool, pälvis konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2006" eriauhinna liimpuidu parima kasutamise eest / Illimar Truverk, Raul Järg, Priit Pent...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    14 värv. välis- ja 4 sisevaadet; projekteerija: AET Arhitektid OÜ; betoonist maja juures leidub liimpuitu kandetaladena maja keskses aatriumis ning fassaadidel aknaid liigendava materjalina; arhitektid I. Truverk, R. Järg, P. Pent, E. Endjärv, sisearhitektid K. Lents, H. Pihlak

  2. Investigation of sensitizer ions tunable-distribution in fluoride nanoparticles for efficient accretive three-center energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Yu, Hua; Lao, Aiqing; Chang, Lifen; Gao, Shaohua; Zhang, Haoxiong; Zhou, Taojie; Zhao, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    Cooperative upconversion luminescence of Yb3+-Yb3+ couples and three-center energy transfer mechanisms have been deeply investigated in Yb3+ doped and Yb3+-Tb3+ co-doped β-PbF2 nanoparticles. As sensitizer ions, the distribution of Yb3+ ions, which is a key factor that affects the cooperative upconversion luminescence and three-center energy transfer processes, can be tuned by the structure of nanoparticles. Based on the three-center distributions in tetragonal PbYbxTb1-xF5 nanoparticles, two different energy transfer models, Cooperative Energy Transfer (CET) and Accretive Energy Transfer (AET) mechanisms were established. Especially, AET model is observed and verified in this work for the first time. Experimental results obtained from photoluminescence spectroscopy study are in agreement with the theoretical calculations by applying rate equations in these models, strongly supporting the proposed three-center energy transfer mechanisms. The sensitization between Yb3+ ions only existing in AET process can greatly improve the energy transfer rates, further to enhance the quantum efficiency. The results that the calculated luminescence quantum efficiency in AET quantum cutting process is much higher than that in CET process (134% and 104%, respectively), can benefit for further increasing the conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cells.

  3. 76 FR 49494 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard DHS/USCG-027...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... (retests); the Cooperative Tests for Advanced Electronic Training (AET TESTS); the 16 Personality Fact Test... name; Individual's home address; Date of birth; Social security number; Program of interest... implementing a law, rule, regulation, or order, where a record, either on its face or in conjunction with...

  4. A study of local turbulence and anisotropy during the afternoon and evening transition with an unmanned aerial system and mesoscale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Astrid; Pätzold, Falk; Jiménez, Maria Antonia; Lobitz, Lennart; Martin, Sabrina; Lohmann, Gerald; Canut, Guylaine; Legain, Dominique; Bange, Jens; Martínez-Villagrasa, Dani; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-07-01

    Observations of turbulence are analysed for the afternoon and evening transition (AET) during the Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) experimental field campaign that took place in Lannemezan (foothills of the Pyrenees) in summer 2011. The case of 2 July is further studied because the turbulence properties of the lower atmosphere (up to 300 m above ground level) were sampled with the Meteorological Mini Aerial Vehicle (M2AV) from turbulently mixed to stably stratified atmospheric conditions. Additionally, data from radiosoundings, 60 m tower and UHF wind profiler were taken together with the model results from a high-resolution mesoscale simulation of this case. Weak large-scale winds and clear-sky conditions were present on the studied AET case favouring the development of slope winds and mountain-plain circulations. It is found that during the AET the anisotropy of the turbulent eddies increases as the vertical motions are damped due to the stably stratified conditions. This effect is enhanced by the formation of a low-level jet after sunset. Finally, the comparison of the anisotropy ratio computed from the different sources of observations allow us to determine the most relevant scales of the motion during the AET in such a complex terrain region.

  5. Cultivating Knowledge and Skills to Grow African Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Agwe, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This Program states that larger investments in agricultural research, extension, and education systems are required to achieve the targeted increase in agricultural output of 6 percent a year over the next 20 years.To enhance the quality and productivity of Agricultural Education and Training (AET) in Africa, the case for improving its agricultural education capacities is compelling in vie...

  6. Presence Pedagogy: Teaching and Learning in a 3D Virtual Immersive World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronack, Stephen; Sanders, Robert; Cheney, Amelia; Riedl, Richard; Tashner, John; Matzen, Nita

    2008-01-01

    As the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education expands, it is important to examine which pedagogical approaches are most likely to bring about success. AET Zone, a 3D immersive virtual world in use for more than seven years, is one embodiment of pedagogical innovation that capitalizes on what virtual worlds have to offer to social…

  7. Combining surface reanalysis and remote sensing data for monitoring evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marshall

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET, a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a model driven by dynamic canopy AET was combined with the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the NOAH Land Surface Model (GNOAH wet canopy and soil AET for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against AET from the GNOAH model and dynamic model using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance are at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites is poor, but better than individual models. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a dynamic vegetation component with land surface model estimates, improved model parameterization, and reduction of multiplicative effects of uncertain data.

  8. HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrad, D.; Wang, A.; Pieters, R.; Nicoletti, F.; Mangano, K.; van Heeckeren, A.; White, S.K.; Frincke, J.; Reading, C.L.; Stickney, D.; Auci, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 17α-Ethynyl-5-androsten-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (HE3286) is a synthetic derivative of an endogenous steroid androstenetriol (β-AET), a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid deyhdroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with broad anti-inflammatory activities. We tested the ability of this nove

  9. Лесозвук = Forest-sound / Ксения Литвиненко

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Литвиненко, Ксения

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia sisearhitektuuri osakonna üliõpilaste kolmest ruuporist puitinstallatsioon "RUUP" Võrumaa metsas. Projekti idee autor Birgit Õigus,juhendaja Aet Ader (arhitektuuribüroo b210). Installatsioon on mõeldud loodushäälte kuulamiseks

  10. Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuister, SF; Swart, A.N.; van Driel, F; Hickey, SG; Donega, CD; Swart, Ingmar

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal CdTe quantum dots prepared in TOP/DDA (trioctylphosphine/dodecylamine) are transferred into water by the use of aminoethanethiol.HCl (AET) or mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). This results in an increase in the photoluminescence quantum efficiency and a longer exciton lifetime. For the first t

  11. LIFT 11 kutsub kogemist väärt kohtadesse / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Installatsioonide festivalist LIFT 11 Tallinnas, kuraator Margit Aule. Margus Tamme ja Argo Peeveri installatsioonist "Face It", Raul Kalvo skulptuurist "Uurijad", Raul Kelleri installatsioonist "Tütarlaps kloaagis", Aet Aderi, Kaarel Künnapi, Grete Soosalu, Flo Kasearu, Andra Aaloe kunstiprojektist "O"

  12. Mees värvilise klaasi taga / Aate-Heli Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aate-Heli, 1940-

    2007-01-01

    Eestis tegutsenud, Peterburist pärit vitraažimeistrist Boriss Morejevist (surn. 2007) ja tema abikaasast Dolores Hoffmannist. Kommenteerivad Valev Sein, Urve Sunny-Dzidzaria, Rait Prääts, Eva-Aet Jänes, Andrei Lobanov ja Mats Õun

  13. Combining surface reanalysis and remote sensing data for monitoring evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K.; Funk, C.; Michaelsen, J.; Williams, P.; Williams, C.; Ardö, J.; Marie, B.; Cappelaere, B.; Grandcourt, A.; Nickless, A.; Nouvellon, Y.; Scholes, R.; Kutsch, W.

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET), a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a model driven by dynamic canopy AET was combined with the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the NOAH Land Surface Model (GNOAH) wet canopy and soil AET for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against AET from the GNOAH model and dynamic model using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance are at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites is poor, but better than individual models. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a dynamic vegetation component with land surface model estimates, improved model parameterization, and reduction of multiplicative effects of uncertain data.

  14. The potential of observed soil moisture dynamics for predicting summer evapotranspiration in a successional chronosequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Breña Naranjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydrology of ecosystem succession gives rise to new challenges for the analysis and modeling of water balance components. Recent large-scale alterations of forest cover across the globe suggest that a significant portion of new biophysical environments will influence the long-term dynamics and limits of water fluxes compared to pre-succession conditions. This study explores the potential of modeling actual evapotranspiration (AET in the summer along a successional forest by observed soil moisture dynamics. We applied two parsimonious data-driven soil water balance models to the Canadian FLUXNET sites at Campbell River, British Columbia. Simulated AET was compared to water vapor measurements from 2001 to 2008 and the models' sensitivity to inter-annual climatic variability and computation time step was tested. With the exception of the mature forest during an extremely dry summer, the results confirm the potential of using observed soil moisture dynamics as a method to estimate summer AET within an acceptable error range albeit substantial differences along the successional forested ecosystem. The study suggests that summer AET could be estimated and monitored in many more places than those equipped with eddy-covariance or sap-flow measurements to advance the understanding of the water balance of different successional ecosystems.

  15. Kirjanduskriitikute suvemängud / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Lodge, David. Ühest kohast teise / tlk. Aet Varik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2005 ; Lodge, David. Väike maailm / tlk. Kersti Unt. Tallinn : Varrak, 1996 ; Lodge, David. Väärt töö / tlk. Kersti Unt. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006

  16. Interfacing Self-Assembled Nanostructures with Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias

    DNA nanoteknologi har gennem de seneste to ̊artier gennemg ̊aet en forblø↵ende udvikling. Brugen af DNA til bottom-up fabrikation af selvsamlende nanopartikler har vist sig uhyre succes- fuld. Teknologien har s ̊aledes været i stand til at producere nanostrukturer af højere strukturel kompleksite...

  17. Kuidas me Afganistani õpetajaid õpetasime / Maari Ross, Silja Mets-Oja, Irena Bartels, ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Sel kevadel käisid Tallinna tervishoiu kõrgkoolis täienduskoolitusel Afganistani ämmaemandad, kes ise õpetavad Afganistani meditsiinikoolides. Uutmoodi kogemust kirjeldavad TTK ämmaemanduse õppetooli juhataja Silja Mets-Oja ning ämmaemanduse õppejõud Irena Bartels, Annely Kärema, Kaire Sildver, Aet Maarja Leberecht ja Marika Merits

  18. Kuidas me Afganistani õpetajaid õpetasime / Silja Mets-Oja, Irena Bartels, Annely Kärema ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Sel kevadel käisid Tallinna tervishoiu kõrgkoolis täienduskoolitusel Afganistani ämmaemandad, kes ise õpetavad Afganistani meditsiinikoolides. Uutmoodi kogemust kirjeldavad TTK ämmaemanduse õppetooli juhataja Silja Mets-Oja ning ämmaemanduse õppejõud Irena Bartels, Annely Kärema, Kaire Sildver, Aet Maarja Leberecht ja Marika Merits

  19. Kolm põnevat raamatut / Kristiina Ehin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehin, Kristiina, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Coelho, Paulo. Palverännak: maagi päevik : [romaan] / tõlkinud Kadre Vaik, Tiina Ristimets. [Tallinn] : Philos, 2002 ; Lescuyer, Jean ; Benchelah, Mehdi. Palverännak Jeruusalemma / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Jaanus Õunpuu. Tallinn : Olion, 2001 ; Kureishi, Hanif. Lähedus : [romaan] / tõlkinud Aet Varik. [Tallinn] : Huma, 2002

  20. LIFT11 väisas Venemaad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" kutsus linnainstallatsioonide festivali LIFT11 installatsiooni "O" koos autoritega Moskvasse ja Peterburi tutvustama kaasaegset avaliku ruumi kunsti ja kohaliku linnaruumi probleemidele tähelepanu juhtima. "O" autorid on arhitektid Aet Ader, Kaarel Künnap, Grete Soosalu, kunstnikud Flo Kasearu, Andra Aaloe

  1. Towards real energy economics: Energy policy driven by life-cycle carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission 'Ponzi Schemes' are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon-neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.

  2. Eestikeelsed Kummi-Tarzan ja Väike Virgilius : tõlge või tõlgendus? / Lea Reitel Høyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reitel Høyer, Lea, 1972-

    2009-01-01

    Ole Lund Kirkegaardi lasteraamatutest ja nende tõlkimisest eesti keelde. Lähemalt analüüsitakse kahte raamatut: "Kummi-Tarzan", mille on tõlkinud Arvo Alas ja "Väike Virgilius", mille on tõlkinud Aet Püssim

  3. Stiilsed emad ja tütred / Keilit Aedma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aedma, Keilit

    2016-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Aet Pieli ja tema tütre Anrike Pieli, moedisainer Roberta Eineri ja tema ema Ljudmilla Eineri, tekstiilikunstnik Signe Kivi ja tema tütre Liisa Kivi, ajakirjanik Keilit Aedma ja tema ema Kadi Aedma-Reiningu riietumisstiilist

  4. Старые "хрущевки" на новый лад / Кадри Тамм

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Тамм, Кадри, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Aet Piel kujundas Interjöörimessile 2011 kaks funktsionaalset näidiskorterit, mille lähteallikaks olid Mustamäe paneelmajade väikeste korterite tavalised planeeringud. Ühest korterist kujundati modernne kodu, kus rõhk matrjalidel ja ebatavalistel kaunistustel. Teisest 2-toalisest korterist tehti 3-toaline klassikaline noore pere kodu

  5. Sisustusmess annab ideid / Kätlin Viksne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viksne, Kätlin

    2011-01-01

    Sisustusmessist Interjöör 2011 ning aiandus- ja haljastusmessist Aiandus 2011 Eesti Näituste messikeskuses. Pikemalt projektidest "Vana hea"Hruštšovka"" (noore pere kodu ja modernse kodu kujundas Aet Piel), "Kirgas suvemaja" ja Eesti Kunstiakadeemia disainitudengite "Välknõuandla"

  6. 2x väikesest saab suur / Varje Talivee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talivee, Varje

    2011-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Aet Piel kujundas osavate kujundusvõtetega väikesest 43 m² kahetoalisest tüüpkorterist kaks ruumikalt mõjuvat tervikut, millest üks on elegantselt hall ning teine valge ja helge. Mõlemaid näidislahendusi esitleti sisustusmessil Interjöör 2011

  7. Köök kui arhitektuurne vorm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Aet Piel annab nõu, mida pidada silmas trendika köögi kujundamisel. Vaatluse all: isikupära, värvid, valgustus, avatud ja suletud köök, viimistlusmaterjalid, riiulid, sahtlid, käepidemed, tööpind, lett, lükanduksed, külmik, pliit ja valamu, segisti, õhupuhasti

  8. Tutikad hruštšovkad Interjööri messil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Messi Interjöör 2011 (6.-8. maini Eesti Näituste messikeskuses) raames messihalli valmivast kahest nutikalt planeeritud ja sisustatud "hruštšovka"-tüüpi korterist (sisearhitekt Aet Piel), korteri läbimõeldud planeeringu olulisusest. Korteriprojektist messi projektijuhi Kätlin Viksnega

  9. Both aerobic exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy reduce chronic fatigue in FSHD: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.; Bleijenberg, G.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Groot, I.M. de; Padberg, G.W.; Engelen, B.G. van; Geurts, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training (AET) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: We performed a multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial (RCT). Fifty-seven patien

  10. [Both aerobic exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy reduce fatigue in FSHD: an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, V.B.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Padberg, G.W.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training (AET) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). DESIGN: A multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial (Dutch Trial Register No 1447). METHOD:

  11. Rannamaja Laulasmaal = Beach house in Laulasmaa / Kätlin Ölluk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ölluk, Kätlin, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Kätlin Ölluki kujundatud suvila interjöör (Lohusalu küla, Harku vald, Harjumaa). Kaasautorid Aet Kiivet, Katy Seppel. Ümmarguse põhiplaaniga hoone projekteeris ÖÖ-ÖÖ Arhitektid. Arhitekt Peeter Pere arvamus. Lühidalt sisearhitekt Kätlin Öllukist

  12. Make love and war ehk ükssarvede ilmumine Tallinnasse = Make love and war, or the unicorns' advent in Tallinn / Rebeka Põldsam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldsam, Rebeka, 1989-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna linnainstallatsioonide festivali "LIFT11" installatsioonist "Queer-kleepekavihik". Kuraatorid Anna-Stina Treumund ja Jaanus Samma. Autorid Helin Tikerpuu, Katia Weber Piscitelli, Ly Lestberg, Mare Tralla, Ott Pilipenko, Mae Köömnemägi, Andreas Kalkun, Rebeka Põldsam, Lilli-Krõõt Repnau, Aet Kuusik, Jaanus Samma

  13. An orally bioavailable synthetic analog of an active dehydroepiandrosterone metabolite reduces established disease in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offner, H.; Firestein, G.S.; Boyle, D.L.; Pieters, R.; Frincke, J.; Garsd, A.; White, S.K.; Reading, C.L.; Auci, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment provides diverse anti-inflammatory benefits in rodent models of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but only limited benefits to patients. In rodents, DHEA is metabolized to (among others) androstene-3beta,7beta,17beta-triol (AET), which retains pot

  14. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training and Irbesartan on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Marquis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aerobic exercise training (AET program alone or combined with an antihypertensive agent (irbesartan to reduce blood pressure (BP and enhance heart rate variability (HRV in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  15. Writing-Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottarsdottir, Unnur

    2010-01-01

    In the art educational therapy (AET) method introduced in this article, school coursework is integrated into art therapy with the aim of facilitating such learning and enhancing the emotional well-being of children with learning difficulties who have experienced stress or trauma. A grounded theory research study based on the cases of 5 middle…

  16. Tegijad meenutavad "52 üllatust ja ideed" / Annika Maior, Ats Parve, Epp Kubu ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kultuuripealinna ootussarjas osalenud räägivad, kuidas idee teostamine kulges. Projektidest "Fantaasiaaed" (Annika Maior), "Camera obscura" (Ats Parve), "Tallinna bussijaam heliseb" (Epp, Kubu, Tõnis Hiiesalu), "Tänavamiimid" (Mihkel Ernits, Kaarel Väli), "Kunstijärjekord" (Flo Kasearu, Aet Ader, Grete Soosalu, Andra Aaloe)

  17. Inferring long-term water balance dynamics in forested watersheds: Tracing vegetation cover transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, Agustin; Weiler, Markus; Stahl, Kerstin

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of catchment water balance remains a challenging question in hydrology especially within an environmental change context. While the temporal variability of catchment response to internal -land use- and external -climate- forcings is important for human and environmental needs, understanding the spatial variability of this response is relevant for prediction and regionalization. Among the water balance components evapotranspiration (AET) is the most difficult to measure and estimate but it is also the component that varies highly with climate and land surface conditions. Therefore, new approaches are needed that allow the attribution of variability and changes in AET through exploration of observed hydroclimatic records in watersheds. Due to an unprecedented large-scale tree epidemic, significant land use changes in natural watersheds are currently occurring in British Columbia, Canada. The aim of this work is to study the role of long-term land use history, i.e. forest harvesting or dying and subsequent regrowth, in the long-term water balance variability in forest watersheds of this region. We first test the transferability of an ecohydrological curve suggested by Krestovsky (1980) and Kuczera (1987) that describes the landscape response of AET following forest regrowth after clear-cutting. During this recovery period a "peak" reference AET is reached approximately 60 years after the forest disturbance occurred followed by another 60 years to reach constant AET. We assume that these changes in AET will directly impact the streamflow response and apply this curve to watersheds with different patterns of forest age. We studied 8 watersheds with different size, topography, hydroclimatology and land cover history located throughout the Pacific Northwest. Since the historical land use is different in every watershed, results show a different trend and magnitude of observed and simulated actual evapotranspiration. For the 2 paired watersheds the observed

  18. Climatic water deficit, tree species ranges, and climate change in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  (1) To calculate annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (AET) and climatic water deficit (Deficit) with high spatial resolution; (2) to describe distributions for 17 tree species over a 2300-m elevation gradient in a 3000-km2 landscape relative to AET and Deficit; (3) to examine changes in AET and Deficit between past (c. 1700), present (1971–2000) and future (2020–49) climatological means derived from proxies, observations and projections; and (4) to infer how the magnitude of changing Deficit may contribute to changes in forest structure and composition.Location  Yosemite National Park, California, USA.Methods  We calculated the water balance within Yosemite National Park using a modified Thornthwaite-type method and correlated AET and Deficit with tree species distribution. We used input data sets with different spatial resolutions parameterized for variation in latitude, precipitation, temperature, soil water-holding capacity, slope and aspect. We used climate proxies and climate projections to model AET and Deficit for past and future climate. We compared the modelled future water balance in Yosemite with current species water-balance ranges in North America.Results  We calculated species climatic envelopes over broad ranges of environmental gradients – a range of 310 mm for soil water-holding capacity, 48.3°C for mean monthly temperature (January minima to July maxima), and 918 mm yr−1 for annual precipitation. Tree species means were differentiated by AET and Deficit, and at higher levels of Deficit, species means were increasingly differentiated. Modelled Deficit for all species increased by a mean of 5% between past (c. 1700) and present (1971–2000). Projected increases in Deficit between present and future (2020–49) were 23% across all plots.Main conclusions  Modelled changes in Deficit between past, present and future climate scenarios suggest that recent past changes in forest structure and

  19. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2,* Stefanie Jossen,2,* Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Uwe Pühse,2 Markus Gerber21Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this work and share the first authorshipBackground: Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Method: Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG] and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire. MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results: Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07, sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38, and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09, as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0

  20. Influencia de la analgesia epidural sobre la incidencia de taquiarritmias en el postoperatorio de la cirugía pulmonar Influence of epidural analgesia on the incidence of tachyarrhythmia during pulmonary surgery postoperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gutiérrez-Guillén

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar la influencia del uso de analgesia epidural torácica (AET intra y postoperatoria sobre la presentación de taquiarritmias en el postoperatorio de las resecciones pulmonares. Material y métodos: Se han analizado, de forma retrospectiva, los cursos postoperatorios de 200 pacientes consecutivos intervenidos de resecciones pulmonares mayores (lobectomías, bilobectomías y neumonectomías en nuestro hospital durante el periodo comprendido entre octubre de 1998 y junio de 2002. En este tiempo se ha introducido progresivamente en nuestro Servicio la AET como parte de la técnica anestésica en cirugía pulmonar. Se ha analizado la influencia del empleo de AET en la presentación de episodios de taquiarritmia supraventricular en las primeras 48 horas de postoperatorio. Resultados: Se empleó AET para el manejo anestésico y control del dolor postoperatorio en el 49,5% de los casos (99/200. No existen diferencias significativas entre los grupos de pacientes con y sin AET en cuanto a edad, sexo, riesgo ASA, duración de la intervención y tipo de resecciones practicadas. Presentaron crisis de taquiarritmia el 9,5% de los pacientes (19/200, tratándose, en todos los casos, de fibrilación auricular paroxística. Entre los pacientes que no recibieron AET la tasa de arritmias fue del 13,86% (14/101, mientras que en aquellos en los que se empleó AET como parte de la técnica anestésica y durante el postoperatorio, dicha tasa fue del 5,05% (5/99, siendo dicha diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,034. Conclusiones: El empleo de AET como parte de la técnica anestésica y para el manejo del dolor postoperatorio en cirugía de resección pulmonar parece ejercer un efecto protector en cuanto al desarrollo de fibrilación auricular en el postoperatorio inmediato. Se discuten las posibles causas de este efecto.Objectives: To assess the impact of intra- and post-operative thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA on the incidence of tachy

  1. HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frincke James M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17α-Ethynyl-5-androsten-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (HE3286 is a synthetic derivative of an endogenous steroid androstenetriol (β-AET, a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid deyhdroepiandrosterone (DHEA, with broad anti-inflammatory activities. We tested the ability of this novel synthetic steroid with improved pharmacological properties to limit non-productive lung inflammation in rodents and attempted to gauge its immunological impact. Methods and Results In mice, oral treatment with HE3286 (40 mg/kg significantly (p in vivo (ovalbumin immunization. When mice treated for two weeks with HE3286 were challenged with K. pneumoniae, nearly identical survival kinetics were observed in vehicle-treated, HE3286-treated and untreated groups. Conclusions HE3286 represents a novel, first-in-class anti-inflammatory agent that may translate certain benefits of β-AET observed in rodents into treatments for chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease.

  2. Repair and biochemical protection in life shortening of mice exposed to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male mice of the BALB/c+ strain were exposed to X-rays at fractionation intervals of 7, 15, 30, and 60 days. One group received a mixture of radioprotectors, another only AET (only 30 days fractionation), a third one served as control. The doses ranged, dependent on the treatment, from 300-1,500 R. When survival was corrected for acute death, the control and AET treated animals died after an accumulated dose of about 2,000 R whereas those treated with a mixture of radioprotectors died after about 4,000 R. Bone marrow failure and lung damage is the main cause of death within the initial 200 days after start of the exposure. At later times, fibrotic changes and in particular glomerulosclerosis are observed. (orig.)

  3. Mees kudus sõnad vanasse triibumustrisse / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    2011. aastal toimuva 11. Noorte laulu- ja tantsupeo kujundusest, rahvarõivaste õigesti kandmisest. Peo kujunduses kasutatud triipudelt-lilleõitelt võib lugeda ridu laulutekstidest või peo juhtmõtteid. Peo peadisaineri Kristjan Mändmaa, Laulu- ja Tantsupeo SA juhataja Aet Maatee ja Eesti Rahvakunsti ja Käsitöö Liidu rahvarõiva alaliidu juhi Anu Randmaa kommentaarid

  4. Lugemisnoppeid: antropoloogia / Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Marek, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    Tutvustus: Jürgenson, Aivar. Ladina rahva seas : Argentina ja sealsed eestlased. Tallinn, 2011 ; Annist, Aet. Otsides kogukonda sotsialismijärgses keskuskülas : arenguantropoloogiline uurimus. Tallinn : Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2011. (Acta Universitatis Tallinnensis. Socialia) ; Hiiemäe, Reet. Kaitsemaagia eesti rahvausundis. Tallinn, 2012 ; Augé, Marc. Kohad ja mittekohad : sissejuhatus ülimodernsuse antropoloogiasse. Tallinn : Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2012. (Bibliotheca controversiarum)

  5. Eesti disain / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Ahti Grünbergi ja Tõnis Kalve mööbliseeria Derelict. Maile Grünbergi disainitud toolid ja laud Madis. Taniel Kolpakovi kaubamärgile Rough Bloom disainitud köögimööbel. Kaubamärgi Varm Country uus kollektsioon Basic no 2. Kersti Laanmaa keraamilised teekannud Kiviaeg ja Jänes kapsas. Tiina Mangi kavandatud diivan Sik-Sak. Tõnis Vellama valgustimudel AET27

  6. EKA - suur tükk ajab suu lõhki / Tuuli Jõesaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõesaar, Tuuli

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö "Art Plaza" projekti muutmisest. Kadunud on korruseid läbinud avatud aatrium. Uuenenud plaanid ei ole veel EKA nõukogu ette jõudnud. Projektis saab muudatusi teha töö autor (Taani bürood SEA ja Effekt koos AET Arhitektide ja Allianss Arhitektidega) koostöös dekaanide, õppejõudude ja tehniliste ekspertidega. Lisandunud on tudengite algatusrühm

  7. Development of Acoustic Emission Technology for Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Rotating Machines; Bearings, Pumps, Gearboxes, Engines and Rotating Structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Mba, David; Rao, Raj B. K. N.

    2006-01-01

    One of the earliest documented applications of Acoustic Emission Technology (AET) to rotating machinery monitoring was in the late 1960s. Since then there has been an explosion in research and application based studies covering bearings, pumps, gearboxes, engines and rotating structures. This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review to date on the application of Acoustic Emission Technology to condition monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery.

  8. Emergency Diesel Generator reliability at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report is the culmination of the first phase of a comprehensive effort by the Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) Office of Self-Assessment and Emergency Management (DP-9) to assess the reliability and availability of emergency power supplies (i.e., standby or backup supplies providing electric power to systems or equipment that perform functions important to safety) at DOE management concerns over the recent number of reported failures of emergency and back-up supplies to provide power when required. Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) on-site reviews were conducted during the week of September 30, 1991 at Rocky Flats (RF), and the week of October 7, 1991 at the Richland (RL) and Savannah River (SR) sites to investigate the failures. The AET reviews focused on Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) failures because they were identified as the dominant contributor to power supply failures (46 of the 77 failures involved EDG's, as opposed to other sources such as batteries, motor-generator sets, etc.). The RF, RL, and SR sites were chosen because they were among the leaders in numbers of EDG failures. The objectives of the AET investigations were to collect, analyze, and document factual information concerning the causes, conditions, and circumstances surrounding EDG failures, to conduct a preliminary assessment of the safety significance of the failures and the site specific and generic safety implications for DOE facilities, and to identify appropriate follow-on actions necessary to complete the overall assessment of the adequacy of emergency and back-up power sources. This report presents the AET findings concerning the reliability of EDG's at the RF, RL, and SR sites, and the safety significance of EDG failures.

  9. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  10. Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Wuister, SF; Swart, A.N.; van Driel, F; Hickey, SG; Donega, CD; Swart, Ingmar

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal CdTe quantum dots prepared in TOP/DDA (trioctylphosphine/dodecylamine) are transferred into water by the use of aminoethanethiol.HCl (AET) or mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). This results in an increase in the photoluminescence quantum efficiency and a longer exciton lifetime. For the first time, water-soluble semiconductor nanocrystals presenting simultaneously high band-edge photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (as high as 60% at room temperature), monoexponential exciton decays, a...

  11. ESL aastapreemia konkurss 2010. Žürii koosoleku protokoll = ESL awards 2010. Minutes of the meeting of the panel of judges = Конкурс на соискание премии ESL за 2010 год. Протокол собрания жюри

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2010 žürii otsustas 7. aprillil 2011. a. välja anda söögikoha interjööri (kohvik Supelsaksad), ühiskondliku interjööri (ADM Interactive'i büroo), ajaloolise interjööri (Kihnu muuseum) ning näituse ja installatsiooni kujunduse (välinäitus "Eesti kirjanikud karikatuuris") preemia. Tudengipreemia: Aet Tera

  12. Uus korter ja midagi veel / Eve Kaunis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaunis, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Uus Maa kinnisvarabüroo eluruumide konsultant Eve Kaunis ostjate eelistustest korterite valikul. Peamised müügiargumendid on soodne hind ja rohked lisaväärtused. Näiteks toodud 2-toaline korter (sisekujundus: Aet Piel, 71 m2) Põhja-Tallinnas Eugen Sachariase projekti järgi ehitatud majas ja 3-toaline korter (66,4 m2) Keilas 1980. aastatel ehitatud elamus

  13. Efekne eramu Kiili vallas / Regina Viljasaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljasaar, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Ühekorruseline eramu Kangru külas. Arhitekt Peeter Pere (Arhitektid Muru & Pere). Köögi, söögi- ja vannitoa ning köögi-ja vannitoa mööbli kavandas Aet Piel. Kamina kujundas Peeter Pere. Väline puitvooderdis on elukorpuse seintel vertikaalne ja tume, ümbriskarkassil palkidest ja hele. Projekt 2002, valminud 2004. 5 välis- ja 10 sisevaadet

  14. Modeling of seasonal water balance for crop production in Bangladesh with implications for future projection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed R. Karim; Mamoru Ishikawa; Motoyoshi Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Expecting the projected regional or global climate change, weather could have a significant effect on soil moisture and thereby affecting the plant growth. Water deficiency is considered as one of the major climatic restraints for crop production in Bangladesh, especially in the dry season. To better understand the crop responses to moisture variation, a quantitative analysis is done for major water balance components named, potential evapotranspiration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (AET),...

  15. Viimsi keskkool / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2006" liimpuidu parima kasutamise eest erihauhinna pälvinud Viimsi keskkooli hoonest. Arhitektid Illimar Truverk, Raul Järg, Priit Pent ja Eero Endjärv. Sisearhitektid Kristi Lents ja Hannelore Pihlak. Projekteerija: AET Arhitektid OÜ. Betoonist maja juures leidub liimpuitu kandetaladena maja keskses aatriumis ning fassaadidel aknaid liigendava materjalina. Ill.: 14 värv. välis- ja 4 sisevaadet

  16. 沙地灌木林群落土壤水分平衡关系的研究%Study on Relation of Soil Wate Balance to Shrub Community in Sand Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣远; 杨素堂

    2004-01-01

    在半干旱地区沙地中,如何使有限的降水被植被利用,植被不发生水分亏缺的情况下,植被密度如何?植被依赖于土壤水分环境的分布格局如何?如何对沙地水资源植被利用的管理等?这些对于沙地生态恢复与重建具有重要的意义.根据沙地灌木林群落土壤水分平衡关系的研究,建立了沙地土壤根际水分消耗模型:AET=(1-e-k)Wt或AET=(1-K1)Wt;提出了灌木林密度计算公式:D=(1/ac)(∑P/∑AET)1/2或D=(1/ac)(1-β)(∑P/β∑AET-1);并对沙柳和杨柴两种灌木林群落的土壤水分消耗和密度进行了模拟和计算.沙地灌木林群落土壤根际水分消耗模型和密度公式的物理意义明确,参数易于确定,对于指导固沙造林实践具有重要的价值.模型强调土壤水分平衡关系的原理对于其它类型植被-土壤水分关系的研究也有指导意义.

  17. Tund nagu viiekäiguline õhtusöök / Philipe Prowse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prowse, Philipe

    2002-01-01

    12. ja 13. märtsil 2002.a. külastas Eestit mitme õpikusarja autor ja õpetaja Philip Prowse Inglismaalt, kes pidas Briti Nõukogus ja Tartu Miina Härma Gümnaasiumis loengu "Get Real! - myth and reality in the classroom" ning oma uut õpikut "Shine" tutvustava workshop℗ѫi Allecto raamatupoes. Intervjuu Philip Prowsèga / vahendas Aet Sarv

  18. Enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity in breast-cancer cells by localized attachment of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tao; Zeng, Jie; Wang, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jing; McQuarrie, Steve; McEwan, Alexander; Roa, Wilson; Chen, Jie; Xing, James Z

    2008-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and modified GNPs having two kinds of functional molecules, cysteamine (AET) and thioglucose (Glu), are synthesized. Cell uptake and radiation cytotoxicity enhancement in a breast-cancer cell line (MCF-7) versus a nonmalignant breast-cell line (MCF-10A) are studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that cancer cells take up functional Glu-GNPs significantly more than naked GNPs. The TEM results also indicate that AET-capped GNPs are mostly bound to the MCF-7 cell membrane, while Glu-GNPs enter the cells and are distributed in the cytoplasm. After MCF-7 cell uptake of Glu-GNPs, or binding of AET-GNPs, the in vitro cytotoxicity effects are observed at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The results show that these functional GNPs have little or no toxicity to these cells. To validate the enhanced killing effect on cancer cells, various forms of radiation are applied such as 200 kVp X-rays and gamma-rays, to the cells, both with and without functional GNPs. By comparison with irradiation alone, the results show that GNPs significantly enhance cancer killing. PMID:18712753

  19. The Basic Study on the Method of Acoustic Emission Signal Processing for the Failure Detection in the NPP Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Jae Seong; Lee, Bo Young [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung; Kwag, No Gwon [SAEAN, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The thermal fatigue crack(TFC) is one of the life-limiting mechanisms at the nuclear power plant operating conditions. In order to evaluate the structural integrity, various non-destructive test methods such as radiographic test, ultrasonic test and eddy current are used in the industrial field. However, these methods have restrictions that defect detection is possible after the crack growth. For this reason, acoustic emission testing(AET) is becoming one of powerful inspection methods, because AET has an advantage that possible to monitor the structure continuously. Generally, every mechanism that affects the integrity of the structure or equipment is a source of acoustic emission signal. Therefore the noise filtering is one of the major works to the almost AET researchers. In this study, acoustic emission signal was collected from the pipes which were in the successive thermal fatigue cycles. The data were filtered based on the results from previous experiments. Through the data analysis, the signal characteristics to distinguish the effective signal from the noises for the TFC were proven as the waveform difference. The experiment results provide preliminary information for the acoustic emission technique to the continuous monitoring of the structure failure detection

  20. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  1. Effects of radioprotectors on the cAMP and cGMP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulphur-containing radioprotectors mercaptoethylamine (MEA), aminoethylisothiourea (AET), 2-aminothiazoline, 4-oxo-2-amino-thiazoline, and S-S-oxapentane-1,5-diisorthiourea, and the radioprotective biogenic amines serotonin, histamine, and dopamine, caused the elevation of cAMP content and intensified the rate of cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation in tissues of animals following intraperitoneal injection at radioprotective doses. Biogenic amines stimulated the adenylate cyclase activity in membrane preparations from liver, spleen, and small-intestine mucosa; sulphur-containing radioprotectors caused no such effects. None of the radioprotectors affected CAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterases in vitro. AET and MEA inhibited guanylate cyclase in vitro, whereas serotonin and dopamine stimulated the enzyme. A biphasic change in the level of cGMP was observed in tissues after the administration of MEA and AET (more than 2-fold fally by 1-3 min after the administration of drug and 1.4-fold rise after 15-20 min); serotonin and dopamine caused a slow rise in the cGMP level, the cAMP/cGMP ratio in liver showed biphasic changes in level during the 20 min following injection of serotonin. The data obtained support the conclusion that the action of radioprotectors on cellular metabolism in animals may be mediated by the cAMP system.The reciprocal regulation of radioresistance by cAMP and cGMP is unlikely to exist. (orig.)

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise training and cognitive behavioural therapy on reduction of chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: protocol of the FACTS-2-FSHD trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Engelen Baziel GM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD muscle function is impaired and declines over time. Currently there is no effective treatment available to slow down this decline. We have previously reported that loss of muscle strength contributes to chronic fatigue through a decreased level of physical activity, while fatigue and physical inactivity both determine loss of societal participation. To decrease chronic fatigue, two distinctly different therapeutic approaches can be proposed: aerobic exercise training (AET to improve physical capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT to stimulate an active life-style yet avoiding excessive physical strain. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-FSHD (acronym for Fitness And Cognitive behavioural TherapieS/for Fatigue and ACTivitieS in FSHD trial is to study the effect of AET and CBT on the reduction of chronic fatigue as assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength subscale fatigue (CIS-fatigue in patients with FSHD. Additionally, possible working mechanisms and the effects on various secondary outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF are evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial is conducted. A sample of 75 FSHD patients with severe chronic fatigue (CIS-fatigue ≥ 35 will be recruited and randomized to one of three groups: (1 AET + usual care, (2 CBT + usual care or (3 usual care alone, which consists of no therapy at all or occasional (conventional physical therapy. After an intervention period of 16 weeks and a follow-up of 3 months, the third (control group will as yet be randomized to either AET or CBT (approximately 7 months after inclusion. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3 and 6 months follow up. Discussion The FACTS-2-FSHD study is the first theory-based randomized clinical trial which evaluates the effect and the

  3. Improving Evapotranspiration Estimates Using Multi-Platform Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Kyle; Hogue, Terri; Franz, Kristie; Scott, Russell

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the linkages between energy and water cycles through evapotranspiration (ET) is uniquely challenging given its dependence on a range of climatological parameters and surface/atmospheric heterogeneity. A number of methods have been developed to estimate ET either from primarily remote-sensing observations, in-situ measurements, or a combination of the two. However, the scale of many of these methods may be too large to provide needed information about the spatial and temporal variability of ET that can occur over regions with acute or chronic land cover change and precipitation driven fluxes. The current study aims to improve the spatial and temporal variability of ET utilizing only satellite-based observations by incorporating a potential evapotranspiration (PET) methodology with satellite-based down-scaled soil moisture estimates in southern Arizona, USA. Initially, soil moisture estimates from AMSR2 and SMOS are downscaled to 1km through a triangular relationship between MODIS land surface temperature (MYD11A1), vegetation indices (MOD13Q1/MYD13Q1), and brightness temperature. Downscaled soil moisture values are then used to scale PET to actual ET (AET) at a daily, 1km resolution. Derived AET estimates are compared to observed flux tower estimates, the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) model output (i.e. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model, Mosiac Model, and Noah Model simulations), the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Model (SSEBop), and a calibrated empirical ET model created specifically for the region. Preliminary results indicate a strong increase in correlation when incorporating the downscaling technique to original AMSR2 and SMOS soil moisture values, with the added benefit of being able to decipher small scale heterogeneity in soil moisture (riparian versus desert grassland). AET results show strong correlations with relatively low error and bias when compared to flux tower

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy on functioning and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: protocol of the FACTS-2-ALS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Weerd Margreet GH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, leading to muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may result in the avoidance of physical activity, which exacerbates disuse weakness and cardiovascular deconditioning. The impact of the grave prognosis may result in depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Since there is no cure for ALS, optimal treatment is based on symptom management and preservation of quality of life (QoL, provided in a multidisciplinary setting. Two distinctly different therapeutic interventions may be effective to improve or preserve daily functioning and QoL at the highest achievable level: aerobic exercise therapy (AET to maintain or enhance functional capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT to improve coping style and cognitions in patients with ALS. However, evidence to support either approach is still insufficient, and the underlying mechanisms of the approaches remain poorly understood. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-ALS trial is to study the effects of AET and CBT, in addition to usual care, compared to usual care alone, on functioning and QoL in patients with ALS. Methods / Design A multicentre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with a postponed information model will be conducted. A sample of 120 patients with ALS (1 month post diagnosis will be recruited from 3 university hospitals and 1 rehabilitation centre. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1 AET + usual care, (2 CBT + usual care, (3 Usual care. AET consists of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme, on 3 days a week. CBT consists of individual psychological support of patients in 5 to 10 sessions over a 16-week period. QoL, functioning and secondary outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. Discussion The FACTS-2-ALS study is the first

  5. Spatial uncertainty in remote sensing generated hydrological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren González, Gorka; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The use of satellite remote sensing (RS) has proven its potential to generate different hydrological variables such as Land Surface Temperature (LST), Leaf Area Index (LAI) or Evapotranspiration (ET) among others. In the case of ET different methods combine spectral and thermal information to estimate Actual ET (aET) coincident with satellite overpass. These estimates from space has become popular in the hydrological modeling community. The information obtained from RS estimates can be used to calibrate and validate hydrological models not just at single points or catchment averages, but also the simulated spatial patterns. It is a common assumption that although the RS estimates are uncertain, their strength lies in the spatial pattern information, due to the unprecedented spatial coverage of the observations. When spatial patterns obtained from remote sensing estimates are intended for evaluating the spatial patterns of distributed hydrological models, it will however be necessary to challenge that assumption. This study aims at quantifying the uncertainty of the estimated spatial pattern of temporally aggregated monthly LST and AET maps derived from the MODIS satellite. The proposed approach is based on a cluster analysis performed on hundreds of possible realizations of the estimates generated by sampling within the uncertainty of the individual pixels estimates and taking into account temporal variation and the correlation length of the error. The result is not only monthly maps of LST and AET, but also maps of the uncertainty of the spatial pattern. This type of information is critical when evaluating the spatial pattern performance of hydrological models, because the performance criteria can be adjusted for areas of high and low confidence in the observational data set. The resulting maps are finally utilized for an evaluation of the spatial performance of the 43,000 km2 national hydrological model of Denmark.

  6. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  7. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT.

  8. Investigation of geometric design in piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems diaphragms for ultrasonic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic energy transfer (AET) has been widely used for contactless energy delivery to implantable devices. However, most of the energy harvesters (ultrasonic receivers) for AET are macro-scale transducers with large volume and limited operation bandwidth. Here, we propose and investigate two microelectromechanical systems diaphragm based piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvesters (PUEHs) as an alternative for AET. The proposed PUEHs consist of micro-scale diaphragm array with different geometric parameter design. Diaphragms in PUEH-1 have large length to width ratio to achieve broadband property, while its energy harvesting performance is compromised. Diaphragms in PUEH-2 have smaller length to width ratio and thinner thickness to achieve both broadband property and good energy harvesting performance. Both PUEHs have miniaturized size and wide operation bandwidth that are ideally suitable to be integrated as power source for implantable biomedical devices. PUEH-1 has a merged -6 dB bandwidth of 74.5% with a central frequency of 350 kHz. PUEH-2 has two separate -6 dB bandwidth of 73.7%/30.8% with central frequencies of 285 kHz/650 kHz. They can adapt to various ultrasonic sources with different working frequency spectrum. Maximum output power is 34.3 nW and 84.3 nW for PUEH-1 and PUEH-2 at 1 mW/cm2 ultrasound intensity input, respectively. The associated power density is 0.734 μW/cm2 and 4.1 μW/cm2, respectively. Better energy harvesting performance is achieved for PUEH-2 because of the optimized length to width ratio and thickness design. Both PUEHs offer more alignment flexibility with more than 40% power when they are in the range of the ultrasound transmitter.

  9. Disease: H00119 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00119 Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) type II Congenital disorders of ...glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in various genes for N-g...1 (CDG type IIa) Cormier-Daire V, Amiel J, Vuillaumier-Barrot S, Tan J, Durand G, Munnich A, Le Merrer M, Seta N Congenital disorders...loning identifies CDG-IIc, a new type of congenital disorders of glycosylation, a...et T Deficiency in COG5 causes a moderate form of congenital disorders of glycosylation. Hum Mol Genet 18:43

  10. Australian Hajj pilgrims’ knowledge about MERS-CoV and other respiratory infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Tashani; Mohammad; Alfelali; Osamah; Barasheed; Fayeza; Nusrat; Fatema; Amani; Alqahtani; Harunor; Rashid; Robert; Booy

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,With the intense crowding in mass gatherings such as Hajj,there is a high risk of acquisition of airborne in-fections with the potential for its transmission in the pilgrims’country of origin(Memish Z A,et al.,2014).The risk of importing serious infections from Hajj has escalated since the emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus(MERS-CoV)in Saudi Arabia and other neighbouring countries from September2012.Active surveillance of Hajj pilgrims in 2012 and 2013

  11. Algebra de clifford del espacio tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Spinel G., Ma. Carolina

    2012-01-01

    En un artículo previo, presentamos la estructura y relaciones básicas del algebra de Clifford Gn generada por el producto geométrico de los vectores de un espacio vectorial Vn sobre el cuerpo de los reales en la versión moderna de Hestenes. Este artículo se dedica a los aspectos fundamentales algebra de Clifford del espacio-tiempo plano (A.E.T.) muestra algunos hechos interesantes relacionados con teoría de Dirac, que ponen de manifiesto la importancia sencillez de la aplicación de algebras d...

  12. Modernistlik ruumikontseptsioon ja nõukogude ideoloogia kohtuvad Viru hotellis / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Ajavahemikul 1964-1968 arhitektide Henno Sepmanni ja Mart Pordi poolt projekteeritud ning 1972. a. valminud Viru hotellist Tallinnas, põhjalikum ülevaade hoone interjöörist. Sisearhitektid Väino Tamm, Vello Asi, Taevo Gans, Mait Summatavet ja Loomet Raudsepp. II korruse naiste juuksuri ruumid kujundas Kirsti Laanemaa. II korruse banketisaalis oli Mari Adamsoni gobelään "Tare", suures restoranisaalis Aet Andresma-Tamme ja Mare Soovik-Lobjakase klaaskompositsioon "Pilved", Viru väljakul Edgar Viiese skulptuur "Merepiiga" (1981)

  13. [BMIM] [BF4] ionic liquid assistance effect on the crystallinity and morphology of Sb2S3 nanostructures synthesized by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidimensional crystalline Sb2S3 nanostructures were successfully synthesized by ultrasound irradiation assisted with the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM][BF4]. The starting reagents were SbCl3, thioacetamide, absolute ethanol (AET), and the used ionic liquid was [BMIM][BF4]. The resultant materials were thermally annealed at 155 and 200 oC under controlled vacuum conditions. The experiments showed that IL assistance played a key role in the crystallinity and morphology of the obtained products. The resultant materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). (author).

  14. Radioprotector modifying influence upon the ion transport ATPase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of aminothiol and biogenic amine radioprotectors (β-mercaptoethylamine, AET, serotonin, dopamine, histamine) on the basic ion transport enzymes, such as Na, K-ATP ase and Mg, Ca-ATPase activities were investigated in the tissues of numerous organs, with different radiosensitivity in the wistar rats. Experimental results showed that intraperitoneal injection of the used radioprotectors caused preliminary inhibition of the Na, K-ATPase activity in tissues from organs with different radioresistance, but had no influence on the Mg, Ca-ATPase activity in membranes of erythrocytes and rat brain cells. (2 tabs.)

  15. Problems in the Descriptions of the Psychiatric Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Publications of Antidepressant Efficacy Trials: A Qualitative Review and Recommendations for Improved Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Multach, Matthew; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia K; Gazarian, Douglas; Clark, Heather L

    2016-03-01

    We recently conducted a comprehensive review of the psychiatric inclusion and exclusion criteria used in 170 placebo-controlled antidepressant efficacy trials (AETs) that were published between 1995 and 2014. In conducting this literature review, we identified a number of instances in which the descriptions of the inclusion/exclusion criteria were vague, redundant, or difficult to interpret. In the present article, we describe nine problems we encountered in our literature review. We recommend that future publications follow the examples found in a few studies in which the inclusion/exclusion criteria are clearly defined and listed in a table.

  16. Kujundusideid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Aet Pieli projekteeritud minimalistlik ja eestiaegses majas asuv köök. Vana muljega köök, mille mööbel on valmistatud firmas Moons. Kadri Pärtelpoja projekteeritud ehitusfirma NCC kinnisvaraosakonna paekiviseintega näidisköök. Köök Ivi-Els Schneideri kujundatud elamus. Hansperdis disainitud ja valmistatud noore perekonna erksates toonides köögimööbel. Arensis disainitud ja valmistatud seriaali "Kodu keset linna" köök. 22 värv. ill

  17. Evaluation of Physically and Empirically Based Models for the Estimation of Green Roof Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.; Gaffin, S.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2010-12-01

    Green roofs and other urban green spaces can provide a variety of valuable benefits including reduction of the urban heat island effect, reduction of stormwater runoff, carbon sequestration, oxygen generation, air pollution mitigation etc. As many of these benefits are directly linked to the processes of evaporation and transpiration, accurate and representative estimation of urban evapotranspiration (ET) is a necessary tool for predicting and quantifying such benefits. However, many common ET estimation procedures were developed for agricultural applications, and thus carry inherent assumptions that may only be rarely applicable to urban green spaces. Various researchers have identified the estimation of expected urban ET rates as critical, yet poorly studied components of urban green space performance prediction and cite that further evaluation is needed to reconcile differences in predictions from varying ET modeling approaches. A small scale green roof lysimeter setup situated on the green roof of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School in the Bronx, NY has been the focus of ongoing monitoring initiated in June 2009. The experimental setup includes a 0.6 m by 1.2 m Lysimeter replicating the anatomy of the 500 m2 green roof of the building, with a roof membrane, drainage layer, 10 cm media depth, and planted with a variety of Sedum species. Soil moisture sensors and qualitative runoff measurements are also recorded in the Lysimeter, while a weather station situated on the rooftop records climatologic data. Direct quantification of actual evapotranspiration (AET) from the green roof weighing lysimeter was achieved through a mass balance approaches during periods absent of precipitation and drainage. A comparison of AET to estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from empirically and physically based ET models was performed in order to evaluate the applicability of conventional ET equations for the estimation of ET from green roofs. Results have

  18. Kinetic parameters of biomass growth in a UASB reactor treating wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Milton Montenegro Campos; Marco Antonio Calil Prado; Erlon Lopes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatment of wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP) in an anaerobic treatment system at a laboratory scale. The system included an acidification/equalization tank (AET), a heat exchanger, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB), a gas equalization device and a gas meter. The minimum and maximum flow rates and volumetric organic loadings rate (VOLR) were 0.004 to 0.037 m 3 d -1 and 0.14 to 20.29 kgCOD m -3 d -1 , respectively. The kinetic parameters mea...

  19. Konkursi "Parim puitehitis 2006" võitjad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Parim puitehitis 2006 - Veriora noortekeskus (arhitekt Tiina Komissarov, projekteerija Tiina Levtshenko). Äramärgitud - Alasniidu elurajooni ridaelamud (arhitekt Jüri Kliimask, projekteerija KPME ), Rakvere eragümnaasiumi algklasside hoone (arhitektid Tauno Aadma, Laur Pihel, projekteerija Eensalu ja Pihel). Eriauhinnad: liimpuidu kasutuse eest - Viimsi keskkool (arhitektid Illimar Truverk, Raul Järg, Priit Pent, Eero Endjärv, sisearhitektid Kristi Lents, Hannelore Pihlak, projekteerija AET Arhitektid), höövelpuidu kasutuse eest - Koidu t. elamud Tallinnas (arhitektid Anu Tammemägi, Erkki Ristoja, projekteerija IB Peipman), vineeri kasutuse eest - Mammaste Tervisespordikeskuse interjöör (arhitekt Tiina Komissarov, sisearhitekt Tiia Savi). Žürii koosseis

  20. Relativity and Aether Theory, a Crucial Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We study the case of two rockets which meet at a point O of an inertial co-ordinate system S, and are scheduled to move at constant speed, in opposite directions, toward two targets placed at equal distances from point O. At the instant they meet, the clocks inside the rockets are set to zero. When they reach the targets the rockets meet two clocks A and B whose reading is identical. This question which was tackled in ref [1] is studied here in depth. Assuming the existence of a preferred aet...

  1. Radiosensitivity of marrow stromal cells and the effect of some radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that marrow stromal cells include fibroblasts, reticular cells, macrophages and adipocytes. The capability of the adherent layer derived from marrow cells of 2 mouse femurs to support hematopoietic stem cells was stronger than those of layers derived from 0.5 or 1 mouse femurs. The radiosensitivity of bone marrow stromal cells was lower than that of hematopoietic stem cells. The radioprotective effect of AET and PLP (polysaccharide of Lobaria Pulmonaria Hoffm) on the bone marrow stromal cells and their capability to support hematopoietic stem cells was clearly demonstrated

  2. Overcoming toxicity-challenges in chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the treatment of choice for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a modest survival benefit over sequential chemoradiation or radiotherapy (SCRT) alone. However, this benefit is at the cost of increasing acute toxicity such as esophagitis. Previous analysis revealed several predictive parameters in dose-volume and patient characteristics which helped us to identify those patients at risk for severe esophagus toxicity. As a result, supportive care interventions including individualized patient information, dietary guidance, adequate medication, hydration and tubefeeding could be initiated. This paper discusses the challenges in overcoming chemoradiation induced acute esophageal toxicity (AET).

  3. Phenotypic Analysis Reveals that the 2010 Haiti Cholera Epidemic Is Linked to a Hypervirulent Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Karla J F; Jones, Christopher J; Wong, Jennifer; Queen, Jessica; Agarwal, Shivani; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains have been responsible for pandemic cholera since 1961. These strains have evolved over time, spreading globally in three separate waves. Wave 3 is caused by altered El Tor (AET) variant strains, which include the strain with the signature ctxB7 allele that was introduced in 2010 into Haiti, where it caused a devastating epidemic. In this study, we used phenotypic analysis to compare an early isolate from the Haiti epidemic to wave 1 El Tor isolates commonly used for research. It is demonstrated that the Haiti isolate has increased production of cholera toxin (CT) and hemolysin, increased motility, and a reduced ability to form biofilms. This strain also outcompetes common wave 1 El Tor isolates for colonization of infant mice, indicating that it has increased virulence. Monitoring of CT production and motility in additional wave 3 isolates revealed that this phenotypic variation likely evolved over time rather than in a single genetic event. Analysis of available whole-genome sequences and phylogenetic analyses suggested that increased virulence arose from positive selection for mutations found in known and putative regulatory genes, including hns and vieA, diguanylate cyclase genes, and genes belonging to the lysR and gntR regulatory families. Overall, the studies presented here revealed that V. cholerae virulence potential can evolve and that the currently prevalent wave 3 AET strains are both phenotypically distinct from and more virulent than many El Tor isolates. PMID:27297393

  4. Characterization of microstructures in metallic materials using static and dynamic acoustic signal processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2006-07-01

    Stainless steels are used in the industrial components of many chemical, petrochemical, process and nuclear industries. The microstructural characteristics of these materials can be determined by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as ultrasonic and acoustic emissions. Ultrasonic techniques are used primarily for detecting defects and static changes in materials, while acoustic emission techniques (AET) reveal the dynamic changes occurring in materials. This paper focused on the use of ultrasonic techniques to detect welding defects in austenitic stainless steel and maraging steel. The study addressed issues facing the use of ultrasonic techniques based on time and frequency domain signal analysis for characterizing changes in the microstructure of type 316 stainless steel and 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel; thermomechanical processing of 15Cr-15Ni-2.3Mo-titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (alloy D9); and, the isothermal annealing behaviour of alloy D9. Ultrasonic spectral analysis based methodologies were also developed for grain size measurement in AISI type 316 stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel. The feasibility of using acoustic emission techniques for detecting fatigue crack growth in 316 stainless steel was also discussed along with the use of AET for on-line monitoring of the aluminium alloy forging process. This study revealed the possibility of finding viable solutions for characterizing conventional processes and components, based on careful selection of parameters of the techniques and appropriate signal analysis methods. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Assessing water availability over peninsular Malaysia using public domain satellite data products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water availability monitoring is an essential task for water resource sustainability and security. In this paper, the assessment of satellite remote sensing technique for determining water availability is reported. The water-balance analysis is used to compute the spatio-temporal water availability with main inputs; the precipitation and actual evapotranspiration rate (AET), both fully derived from public-domain satellite products of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and MODIS, respectively. Both these satellite products were first subjected to calibration to suit corresponding selected local precipitation and AET samples. Multi-temporal data sets acquired 2000-2010 were used in this study. The results of study, indicated strong agreement of monthly water availability with the basin flow rate (r2 = 0.5, p < 0.001). Similar agreements were also noted between the estimated annual average water availability with the in-situ measurement. It is therefore concluded that the method devised in this study provide a new alternative for water availability mapping over large area, hence offers the only timely and cost-effective method apart from providing comprehensive spatio-temporal patterns, crucial in water resource planning to ensure water security

  6. Analyses of radioprotective action and cytotoxicity of various sulfhydryl compounds in cultured mouse L cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective action and cytotoxicity of various sulfhydryl compounds; 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), 2-mercaptopropionylglycine-amide (MPG-amide), 2-mercaptopropionylphenylalanine (MPPA), 2-mercaptopropionylphenylglycine (MPPG), 3-mercaptopropionylglycine (3-MPG), AET, cysteine and cysteamine were compared in irradiated and unirradiated mouse L cells using colony forming ability as a criterion. It was indicated that the sulfhydryl compounds divided into three classes, according to their radioprotective action and toxicity. Most effective radioprotection was obtained by cysteamine and cysteine, followed by AET and MPG-amide in that order. Toxicity of these sulfhydryl compounds were generally observed in concentrations in the range of 0.1 - 2 mM, while they are much less toxic and effectively radioprotective in higher concentration, especially in cysteamine and cysteine. On the other hand, MPG, MPPA, MPPG, and 3-MPG were all non-toxic and generally ineffective in protecting irradiated cells, except that MPG in concentrations around 0.02 mM and 15 mM and MPPA and 3-MPG around 15 mM have a slight but significant protective action. (auth.)

  7. Fire activity and severity in the western US vary along proxy gradients representing fuel amount and fuel moisture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Parks

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET and water deficit (WD, that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET but has a unimodal (i.e., humped relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD; fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios.

  8. Assessing water availability over peninsular Malaysia using public domain satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. I.; Hashim, M.; Zin, H. S. M.

    2014-02-01

    Water availability monitoring is an essential task for water resource sustainability and security. In this paper, the assessment of satellite remote sensing technique for determining water availability is reported. The water-balance analysis is used to compute the spatio-temporal water availability with main inputs; the precipitation and actual evapotranspiration rate (AET), both fully derived from public-domain satellite products of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and MODIS, respectively. Both these satellite products were first subjected to calibration to suit corresponding selected local precipitation and AET samples. Multi-temporal data sets acquired 2000-2010 were used in this study. The results of study, indicated strong agreement of monthly water availability with the basin flow rate (r2 = 0.5, p water availability with the in-situ measurement. It is therefore concluded that the method devised in this study provide a new alternative for water availability mapping over large area, hence offers the only timely and cost-effective method apart from providing comprehensive spatio-temporal patterns, crucial in water resource planning to ensure water security.

  9. Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested.

  10. Results from the Mayson Lake Hydrological Processes Study 2008 Summer Field Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; McKee, A. J.; Lishman, C. E.; Giesbrecht, W. J.; Kinniburgh, S. M.

    2009-05-01

    The Mayson Lake Hydrological Processes Study area is located in the southern interior of British Columbia ˜ 60 km NNW of the City of Kamloops, British Columbia on the Thompson-Bonaparte Plateau (51.2° N, 120.4° W; 1260 m a.m.s.l.). During the summer of 2008 a series of projects were carried out in preparation for a larger, more detailed study of the impact forest disturbance and subsequent re-growth has on hydrological processes. Results from the 2008 field season suggest that canopy interception loss of rainfall in a mixed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Dougl.) - hybrid spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. x engelmanni Perry x Engelm.) - subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stand, where pines were at the grey - attack stage of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Scolytidae) infestation, is comparable to healthy mature stands, but significantly greater (α = 0.05) than that from the burned stand. Canopy interception loss, throughfall and stemflow for 14 events totalling 50.1 mm were found to be 41.2, 58.7, and 0.1 % of rainfall, respectively. Near-surface (surface to 20 cm depth) soil moisture depletion was determined using weekly TDR measurements at 32 points in each plot during a two-month dry- down period (June 16 -August 18) in which only 30.8 mm of rain fell. Soil depletion was found to be ˜ 2.6 times greater from juvenile stands than from a clear-cut, while in the beetle infested stands soil depletion averaged ˜ 1.6 times greater than in the clear-cut. Assuming no deep drainage past a depth of 20 cm or lateral throughflow out of the study plots, actual evapotranspiration (AET) was estimated at 53.2 ± 4.0 mm from the clear-cut during the dry-down period, while from two healthy juvenile stands AET was estimated at 87.1 ± 7.0 and 87.8 ± 4.0 mm. In two beetle infested forests AET during the dry-down period was estimated at 63.4 ± 5.0 and 69.8 ± 3.2 mm. The larger AET losses from the juvenile stands compared to the clear

  11. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model using observed spatial patterns from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; González, Gorka M.; Mai, Juliane; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are typically calibrated against streamflow observations at the outlet of the basin. Along with these observations from gauging stations, satellite based estimates offer independent evaluation data such as remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration (aET) and land surface temperature. The primary objective of the study is to compare model calibrations against traditional downstream discharge measurements with calibrations against simulated spatial patterns and combinations of both types of observations. While the discharge based model calibration typically improves the temporal dynamics of the model, it seems to give rise to minimum improvement of the simulated spatial patterns. In contrast, objective functions specifically targeting the spatial pattern performance could potentially increase the spatial model performance. However, most modeling studies, including the model formulations and parameterization, are not designed to actually change the simulated spatial pattern during calibration. This study investigates the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM). This model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the optimization of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) values directly as input. In addition the simulated aET can be estimated at a spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed with MODIS data. To increase our control on spatial calibration we introduced three additional parameters to the model. These new parameters are part of an empirical equation to the calculate crop coefficient (Kc) from daily LAI maps and used to update potential evapotranspiration (PET) as model inputs. This is done instead of correcting/updating PET with just a uniform (or aspect driven) factor used in the mHM model

  12. A novel hybrid drug between two potent anti-tubulin agents as a potential prolonged anticancer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Paolo; Pavan, Barbara; Simoni, Daniele; Baruchello, Riccardo; Rondanin, Riccardo; Mischiati, Carlo; Feriotto, Giordana; Ferraro, Luca; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Lee, Ray M; Dalpiaz, Alessandro

    2016-08-25

    We report the design, synthesis and biological characterisation of a novel hybrid drug by conjugation of two tubulin inhibitors, a hemiasterlin derivative A (H-Mpa-Tle-Aha-OH), obtained by condensation of three non-natural amino acids, and cis-3,4',5-trimethoxy-3'aminostilbene (B). As we have previously demonstrated synergy between A and B, we used a monocarbonyl derivative of triethylene glycol as linker (L) to synthesise compounds A-L and A-L-B; via HPLC we analysed the release of its potential hydrolysis products A, A-L, B and B-L in physiological fluids: the hybrid A-L-B undergo hydrolysis in rat whole blood of the ester bond between A and L (half-life=118.2±9.5min) but not the carbamate bond between B and L; the hydrolysis product B-L was further hydrolyzed, but with a slower rate (half-life=288±12min). The compound A-L was the faster hydrolyzed conjugate (half-life=25.4±1.1min). The inhibitory activity of the compounds against SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell growth was analysed. The IC50 values were 7.48±1.27nM for A, 40.3±6.28nM for B, 738±38.5nM for A-L and 37.9±2.11nM for A-L-B. The anticancer effect of A-L-B was evidenced to be obtained via microtubule dynamics suppression. Finally, we stated the expression of the active efflux transporters P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP1 (ABCC1) in the human normal colon epithelial NCM460 cell line by reverse-transcription PCR. Via permeation studies across NCM460 monolayers we demonstrate the poor aptitude of A to interact with active efflux transporters (AET): indeed, the ratio between its permeability coefficients for the basolateral (B)→apical (A) and B→A transport was 1.5±0.1, near to the ratio of taltobulin (1.12±0.06), an hemiasterlin derivative able to elude AETs, and significantly different form the ratio of celiprolol (3.4±0.2), an AET substrate. PMID:27262542

  13. Modelling short-term variability in carbon and water exchange in a temperate Scots pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, M. H.; Kruijt, B. J.; Hickler, T.; Kabat, P.

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation-atmosphere carbon and water exchange at one particular site can strongly vary from year to year, and understanding this interannual variability in carbon and water exchange (IAVcw) is a critical factor in projecting future ecosystem changes. However, the mechanisms driving this IAVcw are not well understood. We used data on carbon and water fluxes from a multi-year eddy covariance study (1997-2009) in a Dutch Scots pine forest and forced a process-based ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator; LPJ-GUESS) with local data to, firstly, test whether the model can explain IAVcw and seasonal carbon and water exchange from direct environmental factors only. Initial model runs showed low correlations with estimated annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET), while monthly and daily fluxes showed high correlations. The model underestimated GPP and AET during winter and drought events. Secondly, we adapted the temperature inhibition function of photosynthesis to account for the observation that at this particular site, trees continue to assimilate at very low atmospheric temperatures (up to daily averages of -10 °C), resulting in a net carbon sink in winter. While we were able to improve daily and monthly simulations during winter by lowering the modelled minimum temperature threshold for photosynthesis, this did not increase explained IAVcw at the site. Thirdly, we implemented three alternative hypotheses concerning water uptake by plants in order to test which one best corresponds with the data. In particular, we analyse the effects during the 2003 heatwave. These simulations revealed a strong sensitivity of the modelled fluxes during dry and warm conditions, but no single formulation was consistently superior in reproducing the data for all timescales and the overall model-data match for IAVcw could not be improved. Most probably access to deep soil water leads to higher AET and GPP simulated

  14. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p < 0.001), and LE-MD (0.27 kg/kg; p < 0.001). Chi-square analyses revealed significant effects of RET, compared to UC/AET combined, on reversing sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL. PMID:27394134

  15. Modelling short-term variability in carbon and water exchange in a temperate Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Vermeulen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation – atmosphere carbon and water exchange at one particular site can strongly vary from year to year, and understanding this interannual variability in carbon and water exchange (IAVcw is a critical factor in projecting future ecosystem changes. However, the mechanisms driving this IAVcw are not well understood. We used data on carbon and water fluxes from a multi-year Eddy Covariance study (1997–2009 in a Dutch Scots pine forest and forced a process-based ecosystem model (LPJ-GUESS with local data to, firstly, test whether the model can explain IAVcw and seasonal carbon and water exchange from direct environmental factors only. Initial model runs showed low correlations with estimated annual gross primary productivity (GPP and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET, while monthly and daily fluxes showed high correlations. The model underestimated GPP and AET during winter and drought events. Secondly, we adapted the temperature inhibition function of photosynthesis to account for the observation that at this particular site, trees continue to assimilate at very low atmospheric temperatures (up to daily averages of −10 °C, resulting in a net carbon sink in winter. While we were able to improve daily and monthly simulations during winter by lowering the modelled minimum temperature threshold for photosynthesis, this did not increase explained IAVcw at the site. Thirdly, we implemented three alternative hypotheses concerning water uptake by plants in order to test which one best corresponds with the data. In particular, we analyse the effects during the 2003 heatwave. These simulations revealed a strong sensitivity of the modelled fluxes during dry and warm conditions, but no single formulation was consistently superior in reproducing the data for all time scales and the overall model-data match for IAVcw could not be improved. Most probably access to deep soil water leads to higher AET and GPP simulated during the heat wave of 2003

  16. 萍乡地区O139群霍乱弧菌TcpA基因序列分析%Gene Sequencing Analysis on Vibrio Cholera O139 Strains TcpA of Pingxiang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长奇; 姚彬泉; 贺丁山; 陈燕萍; 罗娜; 周文峰

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨O139群霍乱JX株的TcpA基因序列,分析该株基因的特点.方法采用PCR扩增技术,检测含O139群霍乱标本,对TcpA基因阳性者进行核苷酸序列测定,分析基因变异情况.结果发现阳性标本中,对其中1株进行了TcpA基因序列测定,该序列与TcpAET(O139株)同源性为100%,与EVC序列同源性为96%.结论本株与O1群(EVC)遗传关系最近,对萍乡地区霍乱防治具有重要意义.

  17. A hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    (i.e. F_0.99 ) was explained by two terms of the climatic water balance: i) mean annual actual evapotranspiration (AET), which is a proxy for fuel productivity, and ii) mean annual water deficit (D=PET-AET, where PET is mean annual potential evapotranspiration), which is a measure of fuel drying potential. As expected, F_0.99 was close to zero in environments of low AET (e.g. deserts) or low D (e.g. wet forests), due to strong fuel productivity or fuel dryness constraints, and maximum for environments of intermediate AET and D (e.g. tropical savannas). The topography of the F_0.99 response surface was analysed to explore how the relative importance of fuel productivity and fuel dryness constraints varied with the climatic water balance, and geographically across the continents. Consistent with current understanding of global pyrogeography, the hydroclimatic fire model predicted that fire activity is mostly constrained by fuel productivity in arid environments with grassy fuels and by fuel dryness in humid environments with litter fuels derived from woody shrubs and trees. The model provides a simple, yet biophysically-based, approach to evaluating potential for incremental change in fire activity or transformational change in fire types under future climate conditions.

  18. Assessing diffuse and concentrated recharge in average and dry rainfall year in a semiarid carbonate sloping aquifer a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala, F. J.; Were, A.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Canton, Y.; Sole, A.; Villagarcia, L.; Contreras, S.; Kowalski, A. S.; Marrero, R.; Puigdefabregas, J.; Domingo, F.

    2009-07-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) method was applied in the unsaturated zone to estimate potential recharge (R{sub t}) rainfall in two small catchment of southern mid-to-high slope of Sierra de Gador carbonate aquifer (SE Spain) , in the average hydrological year 2003-04 and the unusually dry 2004-05. Unknown fractions of diffuse (R{sub D}) and concentrated recharge (R{sub c}) into R{sub t} were firstly evaluated to fit average and lower R{sub T} thresholds for modeling further long-term recharge. Daily rainfall and actual evapotranspiration (AET) from the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique provided yearly R{sub T} of 189 mm year{sup -}1 in 2003-04 and 8 mm year{sup -}1 in 2004-05.

  19. Potential control of horseradish peroxidase immobilization on gold electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE; Cunwang; YU; Wei; LI; Changan; WANG; Nanping; GU; Ning

    2004-01-01

    A new approach based on potential control was firstly used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the model protein. The self-assembly monolayer (SAM) was prepared with 2-aminoethanethiol (AET) on the gold electrode. The charge on HRP was adjusted by means of the acidity of the phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for dissolving the HRP. The influence of electric potential on HRP immobilization was investigated by means of colorimetric immunoassay of enzyme-substrate interaction (CIESI) using an automatic plate reader. The HRP modified electrodes were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as atomic force microscope (AFM) on template-stripped gold surface. The potential for maximum immobilization of HRP was near the zero charge potential. The result indicates that controlled potential can affect the course of HRP immobilization without the loss of enzymic activity. It is of great significance for the control of biomolecular self-assembly and the intrinsic electric device.

  20. Tendances Carbone no. 72 'EU ETS links to Australia: Lifted up from Down Under'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: On August 28 2012, the European Commission and the Australian Department for Climate Change announced that they will link their carbon markets. This link will take place in two stages: Australia will retain a fixed emission price of AU$ 23/tCO2 ( euros 17.00) until 2015. Then, from July 1 2015 onwards, when the Australian Emission Trading Scheme (AETS) is introduced, EUAs will be eligible for Australian firms' domestic compliance, up to a usage limit of 50%. From 2018, the EU ETS facilities will become able to surrender Australian emissions allowances (AEUs) for their compliance purposes

  1. Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. I. Purification and surface marker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1978-01-01

    By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form simultan......By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form...... simultaneously. The dominant marker of these E- Fc- cells was surface Ig, and during 4 days of culture this population did not alter its surface markers. Subset 2 was obtained in two ways following rosette centrifugation with AET-treated SRBC and rabbit anti-human Ig-coated autologous RBC. This 'Null cell...

  2. Potential control of DNA self-assembly on gold electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The self-assembly monolayer (SAM) was prepared with 2-aminoethanethiol (AET) on the gold electrode.A new approach based on potential was first used to control DNA self-assembly covalently onto the SAM with the activation of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS). The influence of potential on DNA self-assembly was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), AC impedance, Auger electron spectrometry (AES) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result proves that controlled potential can affect the course of DNA self-assembly. More negative potential can restrain the DNA self-assembly, while more positive potential can accelerate the DNA self-assembly, which is of great significance for the control of DNA self-assembly and will find wide application in the field of DNA-based devices.

  3. Protection to glycolysis by a combination of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and 2-aminoethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide in lethally irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate of glycolysis in vivo at different time intervals following 8 Gy[LDsub(100(30)] whole body gamma radiation (WBGR) was evaluated by estimating liver glycogen, blood sugar, serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactic acid concentration in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Within 1 hr of radiation exposure, a significant fall in liver glycogen was observed in rats fed food and water ad libitum. The glycogen content increased after 24 hr and had returned to control level on 7th day after radiation exposure. Blood sugar, serum LDH and blood lactate levels increased significantly as compared to non irradiated controls. Pretreatment with 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP;100 mg/kg) + 2-aminoethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET;20 mg/kg)ip 30 min before 8 Gy WBGR, modified these values and restored them to normal level on 7th day post-irradiation. (author). 24 refs

  4. Haapsalu Piiskopilinnuse uuendamine / Lilian Hansar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hansar, Lilian, 1949-

    2015-01-01

    Sihtasutus Haapsalu ja Läänemaa Muuseumid koostöös Eesti Arhitektide Liiduga korraldasid arhitektuurivõistluse, et valida välja parim arhitektuurne ja kasutusfunktsioonile sobiv lahendus Haapsalu piiskopilinnuse pealinnuse rekonstrueerimiseks kaasaegseks muuseumikompleksiks. Esimese koha sai töö märgusõnaga "Salaaed" (Margit Aule, Margit Argus, Siim Karro ja Mart Kadarik arhitektuuribüroost KAOS Arhitektid). Teise koha sai töö märgusõnaga "Helevalge" (Mari Hunt, Kalle Komissorov, Silver Liiberg, Kadri Klementi, Aet Ader ja Karin Tõugu arhitektuuribüroost b210). Kolmanda koha sai töö märgusõnaga "Ristvõlv" (Indrek Laos ja Andreas Kivi arhitektuuribüroost Flux projekt)

  5. Wood Bond Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  6. Design and operation of the JET articulated boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After tritium introduction, planned for JET about 1991, remote handling maintenance is vital to the continued operation of the machine. An articulated boom has been designed at JET as the sole support device for in-vessel transport of all equipment and servo-manipulators and is part of the JET Remote Handling plan. The boom was manufactured by NEI Thompson of Wolverhampton and AET of Coventry, England, delivered to JET in October 1984 and has been commissioned successfully to its full design performance. The boom has been used during the June 1985 maintenance period as a hands-on lifting device using a hand-held, push-button controller. Dynamic computer modelling of the boom has been carried out to analyse cross-coupling inertial effects arising in the horizontal plane. A/sup 1//5-scale, mechanical model has also been used to control the boom in a master-slave mode

  7. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2015 = The annual prize of 2015 of the Union of Estonian Architects / Rainer Mahlamäki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mahlamäki, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Soome arhitekti Rainer Mahlamäki mõtteid Eesti kaasaegsest arhitektuurist, tema ringsõidust Tallinnasse, Kuressaarde, Pärnusse ja Tartusse. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2015 äramärkimine: villa Pärnus Lõuna 2a restaureerimine (arhitekt Jaak Huimerind, sisearhitekt Mari Kurismaa). Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2015 kandidaadid: elu- ja ärihoone Tallinnas Kentmanni 6 (arhitekt Indrek Allmann); büroohoone Tallinnas Sõpruse pst 157 (arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar); Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Kuressaare kolledži väikelaevaehituse kompetentsikeskuse katsebasseini ja laboratooriumite hoone Kuressaares Tallinna 19 (arhitektid Kalle Komissarov, Aet Ader, Mari Hunt, Kadri Klementi, Lembit-Kaur Stöör); White Beach golfi klubihoone Valgerannas Pärnumaal (arhitektid Jaan Port, Markus Nimik, Katrin Kaevats, Neeme Tiimus)

  8. Overview of recent tritium target filling, layering, and material testing at Los Alamos national laboratory in support of inertial fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebey, P. S.; Dole, J. M.; Geller, D. A.; Hoffer, J. K.; Morris, J.; Nobile, A.; Schoonover, J. R.; Wilson, D. [MS-C927, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bonino, M.; Harding, D.; Sangster, C.; Shmayda, W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE, Univ. of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Nikroo, A.; Sheliak, J. D. [General Atomics GA (United States); Burmann, J.; Cook, B.; Letts, S.; Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Science and Engineering (AET-3) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performs a variety of activities to support Inertial Fusion (IF) research - both to further fundamental fusion science and to develop technologies in support of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power generation. Inertial fusion ignition target designs have a smooth spherical shell of cryogenic Deuterium-Tritium (DT) solid contained within a metal or plastic shell that is a few mm in diameter. Fusion is attained by imploding these shells under the symmetric application of energy beams. For IFE targets the DT solid must also survive the process of injecting it into the power plant reactor. Non-ignition IF targets often require a non-cryogenic DT gas fill of a glass or polymeric shell. In this paper an overview will be given of recent LANL activities to study cryogenic DT layering, observe tritium exposure effects on IF relevant materials, and fill targets in support of IF implosion experiments. (authors)

  9. A climate response function explaining most of the variation in the forest floor needle mass and the needle decomposition in pine forests across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurz-Besson, C.; Coûteaux, M.M.; Berg, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    and a recalcitrant one. NF was correlated with actual evapotranspiration (AET) whereas the decomposition parameters (decomposition rate of the decomposable fraction, first year mass loss, forest floor needle mass, age of the most-decomposed category) were related to a combined response function to climate (CRF......The forest floor needle mass and the decomposition rates of pine needle litter in a European climate transect were studied in order to estimate the impact of climate change on forest soil carbon sequestration. Eight pine forests preserved from fire were selected along a climatic latitudinal...... gradient from 40° to 60° N, from Spain and Portugal to Sweden. The forest floor (Oi and Oe layers) was sorted into five categories of increasing decomposition level according to morphological criteria. The needle mass loss in each category was determined using a linear mass density method. The needle...

  10. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M

    1994-01-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) $\\Gamma$ and an input formula $F$ are given, and the goal is to construct a fo...

  11. Spatial validation of large scale land surface models against monthly land surface temperature patterns using innovative performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Julian; Siemann, Amanda; Stisen, Simon; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are a key tool to enhance process understanding and to provide predictions of the terrestrial hydrosphere and its atmospheric coupling. Distributed LSMs predict hydrological states and fluxes, such as land surface temperature (LST) or actual evapotranspiration (aET), at each grid cell. LST observations are widely available through satellite remote sensing platforms that enable comprehensive spatial validations of LSMs. In spite of the availability of LST data, most validation studies rely on simple cell to cell comparisons and thus do not regard true spatial pattern information. This study features two innovative spatial performance metrics, namely EOF- and connectivity-analysis, to validate predicted LST patterns by three LSMs (Mosaic, Noah, VIC) over the contiguous USA. The LST validation dataset is derived from global High-Resolution-Infrared-Radiometric-Sounder (HIRS) retrievals for a 30 year period. The metrics are bias insensitive, which is an important feature in order to truly validate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis evaluates the spatial variability and pattern seasonality, and attests better performance to VIC in the warm months and to Mosaic and Noah in the cold months. Further, more than 75% of the LST variability can be captured by a single pattern that is strongly driven by air temperature. The connectivity analysis assesses the homogeneity and smoothness of patterns. The LSMs are most reliable at predicting cold LST patterns in the warm months and vice versa. Lastly, the coupling between aET and LST is investigated at flux tower sites and compared against LSMs to explain the identified LST shortcomings.

  12. Light use efficiency over two temperate steppes in inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Vegetation light use efficiency (LUE is a key parameter of Production Efficiency Models (PEMs for simulating gross primary production (GPP of vegetation, from regional to global scales. Previous studies suggest that grasslands have the largest inter-site variation of LUE and controlling factors of grassland LUE differ from those of other biomes, since grasslands are usually water-limited ecosystems. Combining eddy covariance flux data with the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy from MODIS, we report LUE on a typical steppe and a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Results show that both annual average LUE and maximum LUE were higher on the desert steppe (0.51 and 1.13 g C MJ(-1 than on the typical steppe (0.34 and 0.88 g C MJ(-1, despite the higher GPP of the latter. Water availability was the primary limiting factor of LUE at both sites. Evaporative fraction (EF or the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration (AET/PET can explain 50-70% of seasonal LUE variations at both sites. However, the slope of linear regression between LUE and EF (or AET/PET differed significantly between the two sites. LUE increased with the diffuse radiation ratio on the typical steppe; however, such a trend was not found for the desert steppe. Our results suggest that a biome-dependent LUE(max is inappropriate, because of the large inter-site difference of LUE(max within the biome. EF could be a promising down-regulator on grassland LUE for PEMs, but there may be a site-specific relationship between LUE and EF.

  13. Strategies for Astronomers in the Preparation of Pre-Service Elementary and Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Making an impact on pre-service teacher preparation is challenging and requires a multi-faceted approach. To begin with, it's advisable to be informed by the education research and consensus policy statements published by the teacher education community, and to make meaningful connections with educators in this field. Two significant books to consult in this area come from the National Academy Press: "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (NRC, 2000; see in particular chapter 8 on 'Teacher Learning') and "Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millennium" (NRC, 2001). Much can also be learned from joining the Association for the Education Teachers of Science (AETS; www.TheAETS.org) and/or attending its annual conferences, which attract various science teacher educators. It goes without saying that most teachers tend to teach science the way they learned it themselves, at least as a "default" pedagogical approach. Thus, initiatives in pre-service teacher preparation should include efforts to involve constructivist, inquiry-based teaching and learning in the undergraduate science lecture and laboratory courses that future teachers are enrolling in. Another important area in teacher education is the "science methods" course that a pre-service teacher enrolls in, through a college or school of education. Science methods courses are usually offered in both elementary and secondary education, and the approaches in each are of course different. Pre-service teachers in methods courses are often most concerned with classroom management strategies, and there is usually not much time in these courses for guidance on astronomy-specific (or any discipline-specific) curriculum and instruction. But experiences with short "interventions" in both elementary and secondary science methods courses have demonstrated that talking about and working hands-on with a well-designed space science curriculum resource (e.g. "The

  14. A hybrid wireless sensor network for acoustic emission testing in SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christian; McLaskey, Greg; Bachmaier, Sebastian; Glaser, Steven D.; Krüger, Markus

    2008-03-01

    Acoustic emission techniques (AET) have a lot of potential in structural health monitoring for example to detect cracks or wire breaks. However, the number of actual applications of conventional wired AET on structures is limited due to the expensive and time consuming installation process. Wires are also vulnerable to damage and vandalisms. Wireless systems instead are easy to be attached to structures, scalable and cost efficient. A hybrid sensor network system is presented being able to use any kind of commercial available AE sensor controlled by a sensor node. In addition micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) can be used as sensors measuring for example temperature, humidity or strain. The network combines multi-hop data transmission techniques with efficient data pre-processing in the nodes. The data processing of different sensor data prior to energy consuming radio transmission is an important feature to enable wireless networking. Moreover, clusters of sensor nodes are formed within the network to compare the pre-processed data. In this way it is possible to limit the data transfer through the network and to the sink as well as the amount of data to be reviewed by the owner. In particular, this paper deals with the optimization of the network to record different type of data including AE data. The basic principles of a wireless monitoring system equipped with MEMS sensors is presented along with a first prototype able to record temperature, moisture, strain and other data continuously. The extraction of relevant information out of the recorded AE data in terms of array data processing is presented in a second paper by McLaskey et al. in these proceedings. Using these two techniques, monitoring of large structures in civil engineering becomes very efficient.

  15. A participação dos ergonomistas nos projetos organizacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marçal Jackson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, pretende-se apresentar, em resposta às condicionantes conceituais e metodológicas colocadas por Salerno, uma abordagem metodológica, a abordagem da atividade futura (AAF, que viabiliza a participação dos ergonomistas em projetos organizacionais. Nessa abordagem, que tem a Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET como base, os ergonomistas não sustentam unicamente a posição clínica, característica da AET, mas assumem o papel de "atores do processo de projeto" a fim de cooperar com os diferentes atores da empresa: diretores, gerentes, engenheiros, trabalhadores. Todavia, a participação efetiva da Ergonomia depende de nova forma de conceber a organização, que deve ser abordada não somente através de sua dimensão estrutural, mas também através das "regulações sociais necessárias à manutenção e à construção da organização do trabalho".In response to Salerno's theoretical and methodological constraints to ergonomists participation in organisational design process, this paper proposes a new approach based in future work activity forecasting. Even if the Ergonomie Work Analysis (EWA is the underlying methodological tool, in this approach, ergonomists must assume a new role, as "actors of the design process", and co-operate with the others company actors: managers, engineers, foremen and workers. But to be more effective, ergonomie intervention needs a new framework of "organisation" issues. To be more effective, it will be argued that one must approach organisâtionnal design not only by its structural components but also by its inherent social interactions and adjustments.

  16. Water deficit and water surplus maps for Brazil, based on FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalton Evandro Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climatological water balance (CWB proposed by Thornthwaite and Mather (1957 is a useful tool for agricultural planning. This method requires the soil water holding capacity (SWHC, rainfall (R and potential evapotranspiration (PET data as input. Among the methods used to estimate PET, the one proposed by Thornthwaite (1948 is the simplest and the most used in Brazil, however it presents limitations of use, which is caused by its empirical relationships. When Thornthwaite PET method is used into the CWB, the errors associated to PET are transferred to the output variables, mainly water deficit (WD and water surplus (WS. As all maps of WD and WS for Brazil are based on Thornthwaite PET, the objective of this study was to produce new maps of these variables considering Penman-Monteith PET. For this purpose, monthly normal climate data base (1961-1990 from Brazilian Meteorological Service (INMET, with 219 locations in all country, was used. PET data were estimated by Thornthwaite (TH and FAO Penman-Monteith (PM methods. PET, from both methods, and R data were used to estimate the CWB for a SWHC of 100 mm, having as results actual ET (AET, WD and WS. Results obtained with PET from the two methods were compared by regression analysis. The results showed that TH method underestimated annual PM PET by 13% in 84% of the places. Such underestimation also led to AET and WD underestimations of 7% (in 69% of places and 40% (in 83% of places, respectively. For WS, the use of TH PET data in the CWB resulted in overestimations of about 80% in 78% of places. The differences observed in the CWB variables resulted in changes in the maps of WD and WS for Brazil. These new maps, based on PM PET, provide more accurate information, mainly for agricultural and hydrological planning and irrigation and drainage projects purposes.

  17. The Role of Flavonoids as Potential Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations for effective and non toxic compounds with radioprotection capability led to increasing interest in naturally occurring antioxidants since most of known chemical radioprotectors (AET, WR2721, WR 1065, etc.) express toxic side effects that limit their use in medical practice. Among the promissing compounds there are flavonoids, whosentioxidant activity is based on ability of direct free radicals scavenging or stabilizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by interacting with the reactive compound of the radical. Because of the high reactivity of the hydroxyl substituents of flavonoids, radicals are made inactive. Flavonoids can also increase the function of the endogenous antioxidant enzyme systems: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and gluthation. Antioxidant effects may be also a combined result of radical scavenging and interaction with enzyme functions. Flavonoids induce activities of the immune system as well. Increased hematopoietic activity could account for the improved hematopoietic tolerance to radiotherapy. In this study we evaluated radioprotective effects of selected flavonoids (caffeic acid, chrysin, naringin and quercetin) administered to mice prior to whole-body irradiation with γ-rays (absorbed dose was 9 Gy). The survival analysis and alkaline comet assay on white blood cells were employed both on irradiated and non-irradiated animals. Blood samples were taken 30 min. after irradiation. Appropriate negative and positive control groups (administered chemical radioprotector AET, S-(2-Aminoethyl) isothiouronium bromide hydrobromide, i. p. at a dose of 281 mg kg-1 body weight) were also selected and handled in the same manner. We observed statistically significant difference in surviving time of mice pre-treated with test components and the most effective radioprotector was quercetin. Tested flavonoids were not genotoxic to non-irradiated mice and offered good

  18. Coupled Ground- and Space-Based Assessment of Regional Inundation Dynamics to Assess Impact of Local and Upstream Changes on Evaporation in Tropical Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schwerdtfeger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of human land use and climate change are known to be a threat for the health and proper functioning of tropical wetlands. They interfere with the seasonal flood pulse, which is seen as the most important driver for biodiversity and directly controls evaporation. In order to investigate the impact of local and upstream changes on wetlands, a regional assessment of evaporation is crucial but challenging in such often remote and poorly gauged ecosystems. Evaporation is the major water balance component of these wetlands and links the flood pulse with the ecosystem. It can therefore be seen as a proxy for their functioning. In the last decades, information from space became an important data source to assess remote wetland areas. Here, we developed a new approach to quantify regional evaporation driven by inundation dynamics as its dominant control. We used three water and vegetation indices (mNDWI (modified Normalized Difference Water Index, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance products to assess regional inundation dynamics between the dry and wet seasons. Two years of continual in situ water level measurements at different locations in our study area, the Pantanal wetland of South America, provided the reference to evaluate our method. With process-based modeling that used the inundation dynamics to determine the water available for evaporation, we were able to estimate actual evaporation (AET on a regional scale. Relating AET to changes in discharge due to upstream flow modifications and on local precipitation over the last 13 years, we found that the Pantanal is more vulnerable to alternated inundation dynamics than to changes in local precipitation. We concluded that coupling ground- and space-based information in this remote wetland area is a valuable first step to investigate the status of the Pantanal

  19. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  20. Challenges of educational and cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, S; White, S

    1993-01-01

    In South Africa, the estimate of HIV-infected population was 300,000 in September 1993, with 500 new infections occurring daily, mostly in poor neighborhoods with illiteracy rates of 25-50%. The AIDS Education and Training (AET) targeted low-literate groups by developing an educational package for the workplace. The methodology included repetition of key messages, stories from their own culture with pictures, interaction in groups, and visual aids to retain information. The content involved biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS, testing and counseling, safe sex, traditional healers, the needs of the infected, and workplace/community issues. The pictures depicted men and women of all racial varieties to drive home the message that the infection can infect everybody. 31 colorful laminated posters were developed for the AIDS flip chart kit, and over 100 flip chart sessions were conducted at workplaces. An evaluation of the flip chart sessions queried 143 English- and 897 Tswana-speaking people at one company. 58% of respondents considered condom use and reducing the number of partners the most important message. 28% deemed biomedical facts and latency of the infection important, 25% the deadly nature of the disease, and 15% the modes of transmission. 44% desired to learn about prevention and 30% appreciated the interactive method of learning. All participants sought more information on STDs, where to get an HIV test, and how to have safer sex. AET provides assistance to clients to become educators themselves by means of policy development, refresher courses for educators, and action planning (condom distribution, STD control, referral for testing, and follow-up). The flip chart is also used for other health and lifestyle education regarding family planning, tuberculosis, sexuality, and communication skills aimed at company managers, union officials, and supervisors.

  1. Design of Hexapod Bionic Robot Based on STC Microcontroller%基于STC单片机的仿生六足机器人设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宏岐; 郭梦宇

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the requests of special conditions for the robot, a hexapod robot is designed by using bionics principle which can mimic the motion of some animal. The STC microcontroller is used as the core of control circuit. The AET168P1 steering gear control panel is used to drive the sports joints through the YZW-Y 09G type steering gear. It can achieve each function of application requirements under software control. The robot has a strong adaptability to all sorts of the ground condition, such as it is not easy to fall into the soft ground. The system has shown its high value such as low cost,strong anti-interference capacity,high sensitivity and reliability.%为满足特殊环境对于机器人的提出的要求,应用仿生学原理,设计一六足机器人,可模仿生物的运动形式;它以STC12C5A60S2型单片机为控制核心,通过YZW-Y09G型舵机来驱动的运动关节,选用AET168P1舵机控制板,在系统软件控制下来实现其各项功能.这种仿生六足机器人对各种地面有很强的适应能力,不易陷入松软地面里,且制作成本低,抗干扰能力强、灵敏度高、安全可靠,具有较高的使用价值.

  2. Poisson formulas for circular functions on some groups of type H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KORáNYI; Adam

    2006-01-01

    [1]Gaveau B,Greiner P,Vauthier J.Polyn(o)mes harmoniques et problème de Dirichlet de la boule du groupe de Heisenberg en présence de symétrie radiale.Bull Sc Math,1984,108:337-354[2]Korányi A,Reimann H M.Horizontal normal vectors and conformal capacity of spherical rings in the Heisenberg group.Bull Sc Math,1987,111:3-21[3]Kaplan A.Fundamental solutions for a class of hypoelliptic PDE generated by composition of quadratic forms.Trans AMS,1980,258:147-153[4]Garofalo N,Vassilev D.Symmetry properties of positive solutions of Yamabe-type equations on groups of Heisenberg type.Duke Math J,2001,106:411-448[5]Gaveau B.Principe de moindre action,propagation da la chaleur et estimées sous-elliptiques sur certains groupes nilpotents.Acta Math,1977,139:95-153[6]Cowling M,Dooley A H,Korányi A,et al.H-type groups and Iwasawa decompositions.Adv Math,1991,87:1-41[7]Erdélyi A,et al.Higher transcendental functions.New York:McGraw-Hill,1953[8]Korányi A.Kelvin transforms and harmonic polynomials on the Heisenberg group.J Funct Analysis,1982,49:177-185[9]Garofalo N,Vassilev D.Regularity near the characteristic set in the non-linear Dirichlet problem and conformal geometry of sub-Laplacians on Carnot groups.Math Ann,2000,318:453-516

  3. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water–groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000–2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006–2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE (most values lie below 4 m and correlation coefficient (R (0.36–0.97 are obtained. The simulated evapotranspiration (ET is then compared with the remote sensing (RS-based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of simulated actual evapotranspiration (AET and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ; about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping. Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g. by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  4. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kulandaivelu; P Senthil Kumar; S Sundaram

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines the flank and crater wear characteristics of coated carbide tool inserts during dry turning of steel workpieces. A brief review of tool wear mechanisms is presented together with new evidence showing that wear of the TiC layer on both flank and rake faces is dominated by discrete plastic deformation, which causes the coating to be worn through to the underlying carbide substrate when machining at high cutting speeds and feed rates. Wear also occurs as a result of abrasion, as well as cracking and attrition, with the latter leading to the wearing through the coating on the rake face under low speed conditions. When moderate speeds and feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear mechanism maps linking the observed wear mechanisms to machining conditions are presented for the first time. These maps demonstrate clearly that transitions from one dominant wear mechanism to another may be related to variations in measured tool wear rates. Comparisons of the present wear maps with similar maps for uncoated carbide tools show that TiC coatings dramatically expand the range of machining conditions under which acceptable rates of tool wear might be experienced. However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the stability, applicability and relative sensitivity of AET in tool condition monitoring in turning.

  5. Challenges of educational and cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, S; White, S

    1993-01-01

    In South Africa, the estimate of HIV-infected population was 300,000 in September 1993, with 500 new infections occurring daily, mostly in poor neighborhoods with illiteracy rates of 25-50%. The AIDS Education and Training (AET) targeted low-literate groups by developing an educational package for the workplace. The methodology included repetition of key messages, stories from their own culture with pictures, interaction in groups, and visual aids to retain information. The content involved biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS, testing and counseling, safe sex, traditional healers, the needs of the infected, and workplace/community issues. The pictures depicted men and women of all racial varieties to drive home the message that the infection can infect everybody. 31 colorful laminated posters were developed for the AIDS flip chart kit, and over 100 flip chart sessions were conducted at workplaces. An evaluation of the flip chart sessions queried 143 English- and 897 Tswana-speaking people at one company. 58% of respondents considered condom use and reducing the number of partners the most important message. 28% deemed biomedical facts and latency of the infection important, 25% the deadly nature of the disease, and 15% the modes of transmission. 44% desired to learn about prevention and 30% appreciated the interactive method of learning. All participants sought more information on STDs, where to get an HIV test, and how to have safer sex. AET provides assistance to clients to become educators themselves by means of policy development, refresher courses for educators, and action planning (condom distribution, STD control, referral for testing, and follow-up). The flip chart is also used for other health and lifestyle education regarding family planning, tuberculosis, sexuality, and communication skills aimed at company managers, union officials, and supervisors. PMID:12345400

  6. Modeling of seasonal water balance for crop production in Bangladesh with implications for future projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R. Karim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Expecting the projected regional or global climate change, weather could have a significant effect on soil moisture and thereby affecting the plant growth. Water deficiency is considered as one of the major climatic restraints for crop production in Bangladesh, especially in the dry season. To better understand the crop responses to moisture variation, a quantitative analysis is done for major water balance components named, potential evapotranspiration (PET, actual evapotranspiration (AET, soil moisture storage (ST, water deficiency (WD and water surplus (WS with the use of Thornthwaite monthly water balance program. Analyses were carried out for three different seasons, together with interannual variability for 12 major rice growing districts of Bangladesh representing the north, central, southern and coastal zones. Hindcasted monthly average surface air temperature and precipitation data were collected from Bangladesh meteorological department during 1986 to 2006. Results suggested, trend of PET was same in every station and generally higher values were observed in the month of July and August. Khulna, the coastal station had the highest annual average PET of 1369 mm. The lowest annual AET of 1108 mm was estimated for Teknaf, while Dinajpur stood in second lowest position. ST was found almost at field capacity from July to September and, the southern station Chittagong experienced the highest average monthly ST. Maximum WD was found in Bogra and second highest shortage was in Dinajpur. The assessment of average WD of 178 mm yr-1 in northern Bangladesh reflected the worst situation among all regions, besides focusing the winter as the most crucial season regarding the water scarcity. Least amount of WS was noticed for the southern station Khulna. Significant positive relationship (p<0.05 between soil moisture and current rice yields proved the importance of surplus water conservation for the drought prone zone of Bangladesh. To boost up the

  7. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL.

  8. Integrated Hydrological Modeling of the North China Plain and Implications for Sustainable Water Management (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Zheng, C.; Cao, G.; Kristensen, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Rasmussen, M. O.; He, X.; Liu, J.; Shu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water-groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000-2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006-2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE) (most values lie below 4 m) and correlation coefficient (R) (0.36-0.97) are obtained. The calculated evapotranspiration (ET) is then compared with the remote sensing (RS) based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of calculated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ); about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping). Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g., by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  9. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Cao, G.; Kristensen, M.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Rasmussen, M. O.; He, X.; Liu, J.; Shu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water-groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000-2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006-2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE) (most values lie below 4 m) and correlation coefficient (R) (0.36-0.97) are obtained. The simulated evapotranspiration (ET) is then compared with the remote sensing (RS)-based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of simulated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ); about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping). Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g. by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  10. Carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions and water balance of Sudanese savannah woodlands in relation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 deg N; 21-36 deg E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world's major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed

  11. Définition des limites de flexibilité des apports en acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique sur la lipidémie et les paramètres d’athérothrombose chez l’homme : intérêt des huiles végétales combinées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les maladies cardiovasculaires représentent le premier problème de santé publique des pays occidentaux. Des études récentes de prévention secondaire ont montré que des régimes maintenant un apport en acide oléique de 10 à 13% de l’apport énergétique total (AET pouvaient protéger de l’apparition d’accidents cardio-vasculaires [8], mais augmenter cet apport d’acide oléique à plus de 20% de l’AET pourrait limiter cet effet bénéfique en induisant une augmentation du LDL-C [12, 34]. Grundy, dans le but de clarifier le ratio nécessaire entre acides gras saturés et insaturés (mono and poly, concluait en 1997 à d’« insufficient data for recommended Oleic intake », et proposait pour le moment 15-16% d’acide oléique à titre de « reasonable compromise ». L’objectif de notre étude était de définir des rapports entre acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique (OL/LA/ALA ratio et de valider l’apport oléique après avoir stabilisé le rapport linoléique/alphalinolénique du régime d’hommes normolipidémiques (n = 40. Pour atteindre 11, 13 et 16% de l’AET sous forme d’acide oléique, nous avons utilisé des huiles de tournesol, de tournesol oléique (HOSO et de colza pour obtenir des mélanges spécifiques ajustés à l’apport en acides gras proposés au protocole. Chacun de ces trois régimes (comportant 11, 13 et 16% d’acide oléique a été suivi pendant 16 semaines et l’épuration postprandiale d’un repas gras (1 000 Kcal, 62,5% lipides a été suivie pendant 8 heures à la fin de chaque période de régime. Les résultats indiquent que la stabilité des paramètres d’athérogenèse évalués à jeun et en postprandial est maintenue à un niveau favorable après ces régimes à 11, 13 et 16% d’apport en acide oléique : il n’y a pas de différences statistiques significatives sur les concentrations à jeun de LDL-C, non-HDL-C, HDL-C, TG, ApoB, ApoAI ou sur l’amplitude de la r

  12. How many cases of laryngopharyngeal reflux suspected by laryngoscopy are gastroesophageal reflux disease-related?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicola de Bortoli; Andrea Nacci; Edoardo Savarino; Irene Martinucci; Massimo Bellini; Bruno Fattori; Linda Ceccarelli

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with a laryngoscopic diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).METHODS:Between May 2011 and October 2011,41 consecutive patients with laryngopharyngeal symptoms (LPS) and laryngoscopic diagnosis of LPR were empirically treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for at least 8 wk,and the therapeutic outcome was assessed through validated questionnaires (GERD impact scale,GIS; visual analogue scale,VAS).LPR diagnosis was performed by ear,nose and throat specialists using the reflux finding score (RFS) and reflux symptom index (RSI).After a 16-d wash-out from PPIs,all patients underwent an upper endoscopy,stationary esophageal manometry,24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) esophageal monitoring.A positive correlation between LPR diagnosis and GERD was supposed based on the presence of esophagitis (ERD),pathological acid exposure time (AET) in the absence of esophageal erosions (NERD),and a positive correlation between symptoms and refluxes (hypersensitive esophagus,HE).RESULTS:The male/female ratio was 0.52 (14/27),the mean age ± SD was 51.5 ± 12.7 years,and the mean body mass index was 25.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2.All subjects reported one or more LPS.Twenty-five out of 41 patients also had typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or regurgitation).The most frequent laryngoscopic findings were posterior laryngeal hyperemia (38/41),linear indentation in the medial edge of the vocal fold (31/41),vocal fold nodules (6/41) and diffuse infraglottic oedema (25/41).The GIS analysis showed that 10/41 patients reported symptom relief with PPI therapy (P < 0.05); conversely,23/41 did not report any clinical improvement.At the same time,the VAS analysis showed a significant reduction in typical GERD symptoms after PPI therapy (P < 0.001).A significant reduction in LPS symptoms.On the other hand,such result was not recorded for LPS.Esophagitis was detected in 2/41 patients

  13. Energy absorption capabilities of composite sandwich panels under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ray, Tirtha

    As blast threats on military and civilian structures continue to be a significant concern, there remains a need for improved design strategies to increase blast resistance capabilities. The approach to blast resistance proposed here is focused on dissipating the high levels of pressure induced during a blast through maximizing the potential for energy absorption of composite sandwich panels, which are a competitive structural member type due to the inherent energy absorption capabilities of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the middle core in the sandwich panels can be designed as a sacrificial layer allowing for a significant amount of deformation or progressive failure to maximize the potential for energy absorption. The research here is aimed at the optimization of composite sandwich panels for blast mitigation via energy absorption mechanisms. The energy absorption mechanisms considered include absorbed strain energy due to inelastic deformation as well as energy dissipation through progressive failure of the core of the sandwich panels. The methods employed in the research consist of a combination of experimentally-validated finite element analysis (FEA) and the derivation and use of a simplified analytical model. The key components of the scope of work then includes: establishment of quantified energy absorption criteria, validation of the selected FE modeling techniques, development of the simplified analytical model, investigation of influential core architectures and geometric parameters, and investigation of influential material properties. For the parameters that are identified as being most-influential, recommended values for these parameters are suggested in conceptual terms that are conducive to designing composite sandwich panels for various blast threats. Based on reviewing the energy response characteristic of the panel under blast loading, a non-dimensional parameter AET/ ET (absorbed energy, AET, normalized by total energy

  14. Climatic water deficit and wildfire: predicting spatial patterns in forest ecosystem sensitivity to warming and earlier spring snowmelt. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A. L.; Keyser, A.; Milostan, J.

    2013-12-01

    Western U.S. forest wildfire area burned increased significantly in recent decades, with much of the increase in the US Rocky Mountains (Westerling et al 2006). While Westerling et al (2006) noted that interannual variability in aggregate regional forest wildfire has been highly correlated with regional indices of warming and spring snowmelt, our analysis of the hydroclimatic conditions coincident with the occurrence of large forest wildfires in recent decades reveals that sensitivity of wildfire in specific forest areas has been characterized by a narrow range of climatic conditions: long-term average snow-free season of ~2-4 months and relatively high cumulative water-year actual evapotranspiration (AET). These forests have shown large increases in cumulative water year moisture deficit concomitant with large increases in wildfire in recent years with warmer than average temperatures and earlier spring snowmelt. Forests with high AET and snow-free seasons between 4 and 5 months have exhibited significant but more moderate increases in wildfire activity. Mean snow-free season length and cumulative AET may also be predictive of forest wildfire sensitivity to projected warming. Recent climate change impact studies indicate that the same forests where wildfire activity has exhibited the most sensitivity to observed warming in recent decades may continue to exhibit large increases in the next few decades, until reductions in fuel availability and continuity become dominant constraints on the growth of large wildfires (e.g., Westerling et al 2011a, Litschert et al 2012, Westerling et al unpublished data). We also find that similar forests that may have been buffered from recent climate change by elevation or latitude may also show very large increases in wildfire under projected warming. Conversely, warmer, drier forests where recent changes in moisture deficit and fire activity have been more moderate (particularly those with snow-free seasons ~4-5 months), are

  15. Covalent modification of carbon electrode with 2-aminoethanethiol and its application for the trace determination of uric acid%2-氨基乙硫醇在玻碳电极表面的共价键合及其对尿酸的痕量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春花; 廉继英; 张雷

    2008-01-01

    2-Amincethanethiol (2-AET) was eovalently grafted on glassy carbon electrode (CCE) by amine cation radical formation in the electro-oxidation process of the amino-containing compound. The improved electrochemical behavior of uric acid at the modified electrode showed that the electrode modified with 2-AET exhibited efficient elec-tro-catalytic oxidation for uric acid. The anodic overpotential was reduced about 230 mV compared with that obtained at bare GCE. The enhanced voltammetric response can be used for the determination of uric acid. The linear calibra- tion curve was obtained over the range from 8.0×10-6 mol/L to 2.0×10-4 mol/L with slop (μA/μM) and coefficient correlation of 3.5 and 0.9976, respectively. The detection limit (3σ) for uric acid was 4.8×10-7 mol/L. The relative standard derivation was 2.7% at a concentration of 5.0×10-3 mol/L uric acid. The practical utility of the proposed method was demonstrated by the measurement of uric acid in human urine without any preliminary treatmeut. Moreover, the catalytic effect of 2-AET/GCE to uric acid led to the voltammetric resolution of the overlapping oxidation wave of uric acid and ascorbic acid in a mixture, which allows the simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid in a same sample.%采用电化学氧化法将2-氨基乙硫醇共价键合在玻碳电极表面,并采用X-射线光电子能谱和电化学方法对其进行了表征.2-氨基乙硫醇修饰的玻碳电极对尿酸显示出较好的催化氧化作用,表现在尿酸氧化过电位的负移(230 mV)和峰电流的增加.并且,尿酸的氧化峰电流在8.0×10-6~2.0×10-4mol/L内随尿酸浓度的增加而线性增大,相关系数为0.9976,检测限为4.8×10-4mol/L.该法被成功地用于人尿中尿酸含量的测定.另外,该修饰电极可将常规电极上尿酸和抗坏血酸重叠的氧化波进行有效的分离,由此,该法有望用于两者的同时测定.

  16. Contrastive analysis on gastrointestinal motility after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer and open operation%胃穿孔腹腔镜修补术与开腹修补术术后胃肠动力恢复对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡生之; 张永振; 管小青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To contrastively analyze the gastrointestinal motility after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer and open operation. Method 51 patients with gastric perforation in our hospital from March 2012 to May 2013 were selected as control group and treated by laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer while other 50 patients treated by open operation were selected as experimental group. GAS, peristaltic sound recovery time (PSRT), anorectum exhaust time (AET) and the mean postoperavtive hospitalization on repair of gastric perforation were compared between control group and experimental group. Result Compared with the experimental group, GAS better, PSRT, AET and the mean postoperative hospitalization on repair of gastric perforation were much better of patients in control group. And the differences were signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer can help improve GAS and shorten PSRT, AET and the mean postoperative hospitalization on repair of gastric perforation which can be promoted and applied as an effective therapeutic regimen. However, indications should be taken into consideration and appropriate surgical procedure should be adopted according to different patients.%目的:对比分析胃穿孔腹腔镜修补术与开腹修补术术后患者胃肠动力恢复的具体情况。方法将2010年3月至2013年5月在本院治疗的胃穿孔患者51例纳入试验组,采用腹腔镜修补术治疗,以同期采用开腹修补术治疗的胃穿孔患者50例作为对照组,比较两组患者在血清胃泌素(GAS)水平、术后肠鸣音恢复时间、肛门排气时间、术后平均住院时间等方面的差异。结果试验组患者GAS、术后肠鸣音恢复时间、肛门排气时间、术后平均住院时间明显优于对照组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论采用腹腔镜修补术治疗胃穿孔,有利于改善GAS水平、缩短术后肠鸣音恢

  17. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  18. Simulação humana digital na concepção de postos de trabalho: estudo comparativo de casos Digital human simulation for ergonomic workplace design: comparative study of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braatz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta como a ferramenta computacional de Modelagem e Simulação Humana contextualizada pela Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET e pela análise da Atividade Futura Possível pode auxiliar nos processos de projeto de postos de trabalho. São analisados dois estudos de caso nos quais a Simulação Humana foi empregada com auxílio do software Jack. O primeiro estudo aborda a concepção de um balcão de atendimento em uma empresa pública de serviços postais. O segundo apresenta o desenvolvimento de uma estação de trabalho de abastecimento de agulhas cirúrgicas em uma empresa de manufatura de produtos relacionados às áreas de saúde e higiene. A partir dos resultados dos estudos de caso, são explicitadas as contribuições e desafios da utilização dessa tecnologia em projetos visando equacionar as questões de saúde e produtividade. O uso da simulação integrada ao processo de intervenção da AET permitiu melhorar a antecipação das futuras atividades prováveis das novas situações de trabalho e auxiliou a integração e comunicação dos atores envolvidos nesses processos sociais.This paper investigates a computational tool for Human Modeling and Simulation contextualized by Ergonomic Analysis of Work (EAW and future work activity forecasting that can assist in the design processes of workplaces. Two case studies using Human Simulation was employed and the software Jack were analyzed. The first study presents the design of a counter in a public post office. The second shows the development of a workstation for the supply of surgical needles in a company that manufactures hygiene and healthcare products. The results of the case studies show the contributions and challenges of using this design technology aiming to solve problems related to health and productivity. The use of simulation combined with EAW helped to improve future work activity forecasting of new work situations and helped the integration and

  19. Forest tree growth response to hydroclimate variability in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine J; Miniat, Chelcy F; Pederson, Neil; Laseter, Stephanie H

    2015-12-01

    Climate change will affect tree species growth and distribution; however, under the same climatic conditions species may differ in their response according to site conditions. We evaluated the climate-driven patterns of growth for six dominant deciduous tree species in the southern Appalachians. We categorized species into two functional groups based on their stomatal regulation and xylem architecture: isohydric, diffuse porous and anisohydric, ring porous. We hypothesized that within the same climatic regime: (i) species-specific differences in growth will be conditional on topographically mediated soil moisture availability; (ii) in extreme drought years, functional groups will have markedly different growth responses; and (iii) multiple hydroclimate variables will have direct and indirect effects on growth for each functional group. We used standardized tree-ring chronologies to examine growth of diffuse-porous (Acer, Liriodendron, and Betula) and ring-porous (Quercus) species vs. on-site climatic data from 1935 to 2003. Quercus species growing on upslope sites had higher basal area increment (BAI) than Quercus species growing on mesic, cove sites; whereas, Acer and Liriodendron had lower BAI on upslope compared to cove sites. Diffuse-porous species were more sensitive to climate than ring porous, especially during extreme drought years. Across functional groups, radial growth was more sensitive to precipitation distribution, such as small storms and dry spell length (DSL), rather than the total amount of precipitation. Based on structural equation modeling, diffuse-porous species on upslope sites were the most sensitive to multiple hydroclimate variables (r(2)  = 0.46), while ring-porous species on upslope sites were the least sensitive (r(2)  = 0.32). Spring precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, and summer storms had direct effects on summer AET/P, and summer AET/P, growing season small storms and DSL partially explained growth. Decreasing numbers of

  20. YPHON: A package for calculating phonons of polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2014-11-01

    In our recent works, we have developed a mixed-space approach within the framework of direct method for the first-principle calculation of phonon properties. It makes full use of the accuracy of the force constants calculated in the real space and the dipole-dipole interactions in the reciprocal space, making the accurate phonon calculation possible with the direct method for polar materials. In this paper, an efficient C++ implementation of the mixed-space approach, YPHON, is provided as open source, including demos and Linux scripts for extracting input data to YPHON from the output of VASP.5. The functions of the current package include the calculations of: (1) the phonon dispersions; (2) the phonon density of states; (3) the neutron scattering section weighted phonon density of state; (4) the phonons of the high symmetry structure using the force constants from low symmetry structure; (5) the phonon dispersions of random alloys; and (6) the analysis of the vibrational modes using the point group theory. Catalogue identifier: AETS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 567815 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9763594 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Linux scripts. Computer: Linux systems with a g++ or C++ compiler. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to a few Gbytes, dynamically depending on the system size. Classification: 7.8. External routines: GSL-the GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a numerical library for C and C++ programmers. VASP.5 or later for the calculations of force constants and dielectric constants and Born effective charge for polar materials. Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing

  1. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectral analysis, vibrational assignments, normal coordinate analysis, and quantum mechanical calculations of 2-Amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Ahmed E.; Abuelela, Ahmed M.; Zoghaieb, Wajdi M.; Mohamed, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Raman (3500-55 cm-1) and infrared (4000-300 cm-1) spectra of 2-Amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AET; C4H7N3S) have been recorded in the solid phase. In addition, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of AET were obtained in DMSO-d6. As a result of internal rotations of either methyl and/or ethyl groups around the C-C bonds with NH2 moiety being planar (sp2) and/or non-planar (sp3) eight structures are theoretically proposed (1-8). The conformational energies and vibrational frequencies have been calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the methods of B3LYP and B3PW91 utilizing 6-31G (d) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. And then S-4 (the only conformer with real frequencies) was optimized, to yield S-9, however the Thiadiazole ring slightly twisted (tilt angle is 0.9°). The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were also predicted using a GIAO approximation at 6-311++G(d,p) basis set utilizing B3LYP and B3PW91 methods with solvent effects using PCM method. The computational outcomes favor S-9; the methyl group being staggered to the lone pair of N4 and reside trans position to the S atom, whereas NH2 is non-planar in good agreement with the current study. Aided by the above mentioned DFT computations, a complete vibrational assignment of the observed infrared and Raman bands along with NMR chemical shifts has been proposed. The vibrational interpretations have been supported by normal coordinate analysis and potential energy distributions (PEDs). Finally, NH2, CH3 and C2H5 barriers to internal rotations were carried out using B3LYP/6-31G(d) optimized structural parameters (S-9). The results are reported herein and compared with X-ray structural parameters.

  2. As estratégias operatórias e a gestão da informação no trabalho de enfermagem, no contexto hospitalar Las estrategias operatórias y la gestión de la información del trabajo de enfermeros en el entorno hospitalario The operatory strategies and information process of the nursing work in hospital context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lúcia Moura Pinho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa as estratégias operatórias de gestão da informação, utilizadas pelos enfermeiros no contexto hospitalar para regular o trabalho. O quadro teórico inscreve-se no campo da ergonomia, articulando conceitos de regulação da atividade, representações para e na ação. A Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho - AET orientou a coleta de dados. Os resultados demonstram que as estratégias adotadas pelos enfermeiros apóiam-se na utilização de um recurso informal externo (anotações pessoais que visa, sobretudo, reduzir a carga mental de trabalho e garantir a fiabilidade de suas ações.El presente estudio investiga las estrategias operatorias en la gestión de la información utilizadas por los enfermeros, en el entorno hospitalario, para regular su trabajo. El cuadro teórico de referencia adoptado se incluye en el campo de la ergonomía articulando conceptos de conducta de regulación y representaciones para y en la acción. El " Análisis Ergonómico del Trabajo - AET " orientó la recolección de los datos. Los resultados demuestran que las estrategias cognitivas adoptadas por los enfermeros en la gestión de la información se apoya en la elaboración de anotaciones personales, con el objetivo, sobretodo, de reducir la carga de trabajo mental y garantizar la fiabilidad de sus acciones.The paper examines the relationship between operatory strategies and information process used by nurses, in hospital context, in order to regulate their ongoing activities. As a conceptual framework, a cognitive ergonomics model was adopted, linking concepts of work regulation and representation to action. The Ergonomics Work Analyses tool (EWA was used to collect data. The results show that the cognitive strategies used by nurses, in the decision-making process, are based on their ongoing activities as in the preparation of personal notes, aiming, in particular, at reducing their mental workload and assuring the viability of their actions.

  3. 萍乡地区O_(139)群霍乱弧菌TcpA基因序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长奇; 姚彬泉; 贺丁山; 陈燕萍; 罗娜; 周文峰

    2003-01-01

    目的 探讨O13 9群霍乱JX株的TcpA基因序列 ,分析该株基因的特点。方法 采用PCR扩增技术 ,检测含O13 9群霍乱标本 ,对TcpA基因阳性者进行核苷酸序列测定 ,分析基因变异情况。结果 发现阳性标本中 ,对其中 1株进行了TcpA基因序列测定 ,该序列与TcpAET(O13 9株 )同源性为 10 0 % ,与EVC序列同源性为 96%。结论 本株与O1群 (EVC)遗传关系最近 ,对萍乡地区霍乱防治具有重要意义。

  4. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings.

  5. Clinical experiences with a chemical radioprotector in tumor radiotherapy: WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since cysteine was found to protect lethally irradiated rats, sulfhydryl compounds that provide protection of laboratory animals against lethal doses of ionizing radiations have also been given much attention. The SH compounds have been the most extensively investigated, and β-aminoethylisothiouronium (AET) and cysteamine have been selected as being representative of those drugs that are highly protective. However, clinical application is limited, as the toxicity of these compounds is high. In a series of experiments to reevaluate radioprotective agents with low toxicity, the authors found that 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) and adrenochrome monoguangylhydrazone methanesulfonate (AMM) have a potent radioprotector effect in a dose far below their toxic doses in both mice and humans. Recently, the development of effective thiophosphate derivatives of cysteamine, namely WR-2721 [S-2-(3-amino-propylaminoethyl)phosphorothioate] by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Commands, led to a reevaluation of these compounds and their potential in radiotherapy. Initial investigations indicated that WR-2721 provided a considerable degree of radioprotection to normal tissues. This compound provided excellent protection for normal tissues (DMF = 2-2.5) but little protection for the transplanted tumor. Thus this drug may have a differential protection in vivo and may be useful for improving the therapeutic ratio in cancer radiotherapy. The results of animal and chemical experiments in Japan are summarized herein

  6. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Quintana, Donald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Vigil, Gabrielle M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Perraglio, Martin Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Farley, Cory Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Tafoya, Jose I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Martinez, Adam L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  7. Esileedi Evelin Ilves läheb Kaleviga kommisõtta / Priit Pullerits ; kommenteerinud Monika Heinrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2009-01-01

    Liikuvat eluviisi ja tervislikku toitumist propageeriv proua Evelin Ilves on otsustanud alustada võitlust transrasvhappeid sisaldavate toiduainete vastu. Proua E. Ilves koostas nimekirja maiustustetootja Kalevi kommidest, mis märgistuse järgi sisaldavad transrasvu. Arvamust avaldavad Kalevi turundus- ja müügidirektor Monika Heinrand, kirjanik Andrus Kivirähk, koduperenaine Kadi Tarand, Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli toiduainete instituudi direktor professor Raivo Vokk. Vastukajad artiklile vt. Postimees 30. sept. 2009, lk. 15: Petrone, Epp. Poes tuleb tähelepanelik olla; Tuiksoo, Ester. Hoidkem Eesti toitu ja toiduainetetööstust; Õhtuleht 3. okt. 2009, lk. 7: Kerge, Rainer. Mahetomat tapab!; Eesti Päevaleht 5. okt. 2009, lk. 2: Teemägi, Tiina. Aasta turundustegu; Pehme, Sirli. Transrasvu tuleb vältida; Õhtuleht 5. okt. 2009, lk. 8: Kummardus Evelinile!; Rulluisud ja transrasvad; Terviseleht 6. okt. 2009, lk. 2: Laane, Aleksander. Solaariumid ja transrasvad; Postimees 13. okt. 2009, lk. 12-13: Strider, Roy. Kellele on transrasvad kasulikud?; Kambek, Liis. Transrasvhapped on üleilmne probleem; Postimees 17. okt. 2009, lk. 14: Kuusk, Hendrik. Toidupoes ei müüda mürgikokteile; Õhtuleht 24. okt. 2009, lk. 9: Levin, Adik. Igaühel on õigus toituda tervislikult; Eesti Päevaleht 27. okt. 2009, lk. 3: Trisberg, Aet. Luubiga poodi; Postimees : AK 5. dets. 2009, lk. 12 karikatuur transrasvade teemal

  8. The hydrochloride of methyl(amino 2 ethylthio) 2 glycolate (C511). Its position in chemical radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effectiveness of a protective agent it is necessary to estimate the radiobiological damage or lack of damage if the protector is efficient. This study covers action mechanisms on the one hand and present-day possibilities of biological dosimetry on the other, concentrating essentially on chemical radioprotection in mammals. The methods normally used are described first, then the tests developed and employed to estimate the radioprotective power of C511. Systematization of the sorting of radioprotective substances is presented as the only method by which the protective capacity of a chemical substance can be evaluated strictly. An obstacle still frequently encountered in this sorting process is the fact that apart from propylene glycol and mygliol no solvent exists for the water-insoluble products. The result is a substantial wastage in the products adressed after synthesis. An effort should be made with chemists concerned to find a wider range of solvents. C511 or the hydrochloride of methyl (amino 2 ethylthio) 2 glycolate has proved an especially efficient radioprotector worth investigating further. Its atoxicity and effectiveness when administered 24 hours before irradiation give it a clear superiority over the traditional radioprotectors AET and 5HT and over more recent substances of the WR series which are not without toxicity. A product such as C511, while opening the way to new syntheses and new research on action mechanisms, may already be considered for use in human therapy

  9. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moon Moon; Bhotra, Tilothama; Zala, Dolatsinh; Singh, Durg Vijai

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and ctxB gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical ctxB in four strains and Haitian ctxB in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, Vibrio seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to tcpAET and rstRET, the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian ctxB and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination.

  10. Comparative predictions of discharge from an artificial catchment (Chicken Creek using sparse data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Holländer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We used ten conceptually different models to predict discharge from the artificial Chicken Creek catchment in North-East Germany. Soil textural and topography data were given to the modellers, but discharge data were withheld. We compare the predictions with the measurements from the 6 ha catchment and discuss the conceptualization and parameterization of the models. The predictions vary in a wide range, e.g. the predicted actual evapotranspiration ranged from 88 to 579 mm/y and the discharge from 19 to 346 mm/y. All model simulations revealed systematic deviations between observations of major components of the hydrological cycle (not known to the modellers and the simulation results. Discharge was predicted mainly as subsurface discharge with little direct runoff. In reality, surface runoff was a major flow component despite the fairly coarse soil texture. The actual evapotranspiration (AET was systematically overestimated by nine of ten models as was the ratio between actual and potential ET. Overall, none of the model simulations came close to the correct water balance during the entire 3-year study period. The comparison indicated that the personal judgement of the modellers was a major source of the differences between the model results. The most important parameters to be guessed were the soil parameters and the initial soil water content while plant parameterization had in this particular case of a sparse vegetation only a minor influence on the results.

  11. Comparative predictions of discharge from an artificial catchment (Chicken Creek using sparse data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flühler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten conceptually different models in predicting discharge from the artificial Chicken Creek catchment in North-East Germany were used for this study. Soil texture and topography data were given to the modellers, but discharge data was withheld. We compare the predictions with the measurements from the 6 ha catchment and discuss the conceptualization and parameterization of the models. The predictions vary in a wide range, e.g. with the predicted actual evapotranspiration ranging from 88 to 579 mm/y and the discharge from 19 to 346 mm/y. The predicted components of the hydrological cycle deviated systematically from the observations, which were not known to the modellers. Discharge was mainly predicted as subsurface discharge with little direct runoff. In reality, surface runoff was a major flow component despite the fairly coarse soil texture. The actual evapotranspiration (AET and the ratio between actual and potential ET was systematically overestimated by nine of the ten models. None of the model simulations came even close to the observed water balance for the entire 3-year study period. The comparison indicates that the personal judgement of the modellers was a major source of the differences between the model results. The most important parameters to be presumed were the soil parameters and the initial soil-water content while plant parameterization had, in this particular case of sparse vegetation, only a minor influence on the results.

  12. A novel electro analytical nanosensor based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles for simultaneous determination of quercetin and morin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with the mean diameters of 10-30 nm were self-assembled onto the surfaces of 2-aminoethanethiol (2-AET) functionalized graphene oxide (AETGO) sheets. The graphene oxide (GO) and AgNPs-AETGO nanocomposites were characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and the x-ray diffraction (XRD). The simultaneous determination of quercetin (QR) and morin (MR) has been performed on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with AgNPs-AETGO (AgNPs-AETGO/GCE). QR presented an oxidation step at Ea of 200 mV and reduction step at Ec of 150 mV and RT presented an oxidation step at Ea of 600 mV at AgNPs-AETGO/GCE by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The linearity ranges and the detection limits of QR and MR were 1.0 × 10-8 - 5.0 × 10-6 M and 3.3 × 10-9 M, respectively. The AgNPs-AETGO/GCE was also applied to real samples for the simultaneous determination of QR and MR. Thus the developed method can be adopted as an alternative to the published chromatographic, spectrophotometric and electroanalytical methods for simultaneous determination of QR and MR

  13. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness. PMID:9883098

  14. Animal exposure during burn tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An animal exposure test system has been designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consists of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram and respiration. The ECG and respiration sensors are located in a belt placed around the torso of the subject, electrode wires forming an umbilical to a connector in the top of the compartment. A cable extends from the connector to the power supply and signal conditioning electronics. These are connected to a dual-beam oscilloscope for real time monitoring and a magnetic tape recorder having three or more channels. Endpoints observed are bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, changes in respiratory pattern, respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest. The ECG record also appears to be a good method of monitoring animal activity as indicated by an increase in EMG noise superimposed on the record during increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases.

  15. How to compute the land cover evapotranspiration at regional scale? A spatial approach of Emilia-Romagna region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Mărgărit NISTOR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is rapidly changing in both its climate and its land distribution. The numerous methods from the literature show various possibilities to assess the crop evapotranspiration and evaporation rate, both with direct measurements and empirical formulas. The present paper brings forward a methodology that demonstrates how to compute the potential land cover evapotranspiration (ETc at regional scale using climate data from 13 meteorological stations, empirical equations, Corine Land Cover data, and the Geographical Information System (GIS. Based on Thornthwaite method and evapotranspiration coefficients, the study assesses the ETc of Emilia-Romagna region in four stages. Moreover, the Budyko approach was applied to calculate the actual evapotraspiration (AET0 and actual land cover evapotranspiration (AETc to identify the critical areas of water deficit. Po Plain represents an area with high evapotranspiration rate, due to temperatures and cultivation patterns. A value of 778.87 mm/year at Ferrara station was calculated for the potential evapotranspiration (ET0, while the ETc ranging to 800-1000 mm/year in the central and northeastern part of the region. The AETc reached the maximum values of724 mm in the southcentral part of the Emilia-Romagna

  16. 基于认知和情绪的个体内OCB和CWB的动态转化机制探究%The Explanation of the Intraindividual Dynamic Interplay between CWB and OCB Based on Cognition and Emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严瑜; 邹瑾

    2014-01-01

    近年来,组织公民行为(OCB)和反生产工作行为(CWB)的研究受到组织科学的关注.最新的研究已经逐渐将OCB和CWB概念化为情节性的行为,它们是随着时间而发生动态改变的行为序列.基于Lazarus的认知动机关系理论(CMR)和Weiss的情感事件理论(AET),采用个体内的方法,提出的以认知和情绪为中介,伴随着时间变化,OCB和CWB在个体内实现动态转化的理论框架模型,可以揭示OCB和CWB之间动态转化的本质,同时也可为组织干预——增加建设性行为(OCB)和减少破坏性行为(CWB)提供理论和方法的指导.

  17. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings. PMID:21728437

  18. Human reliability and the control of continuous processes: case study of TRANSPETRO gas control center room; A confiabilidade humana no controle de processos continuos: estudo de caso no centro de controle de gasodutos da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia; Zamberlan, Maria Cristina; Setti, Egle [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Figueiras, Luciana Heil; Marques, Arnaldo; Franca, Andre Guedes da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, Vaner; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    This review presents a study using data from the activities of control of operations into the Center of Control Operational of Gas pipelines from TRANSPETRO. These study used the methodology of Analysis Ergonomic of Work (AET). Twenty hours of systematic observation have been performed from the activities of the operators and the supervisors into the CCG in different shifts with different staffs. The data obtained reveals the dynamics from the activities of control facing the increase of automation as well the strategies and adjustments that are performed by the operators with the increase of complexity of the systems they shall control. With the treatment of data we verify that occurs an important increasing of the activities, that interferes on to another, and that generates the loss of cooperation between operators, errors on the exchanges of information and so on. The survey from real activity at work was fundamental for the apprehension of the existing risks and for the generation of proposals to the improvement of the control of the process in the CCG. (author)

  19. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  20. Assessment of water availability in Chindwinn catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water balance over Chindwinn Catchment has been carried out by using three decades of available climatological and hydrological data (i.e. from 1967). The study was based on the monthly, annual and normal values. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) computed by as well as on the using Penman (1963) as well as Hargreaves (1985) methods. Some of the reliable data of evaporation at the stations were also used to estimate actual evaporation with the pancoefficient value 0.7. The values of actual evapotranspiration estimated by Hargreaves method was lower than the values estimated by Penman, but most followed the same significant trend. The soil moisture deficiency generally occurs during November and April. A few cases of soil moisture deficiency do occur in August, September and October. However, on the overall availability of water in the catchment is quite promising. The residual resulted from the water balance estimation may be assumed as soil moisture in the catchment by neglecting some losses from the catchment. (author)

  1. Radiosensitivity of mice and its modifiers based on the endogeneous spleen colony formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Jindo; Wagatuma, Kaoru

    1987-02-01

    In irradiated mouse hematopoietic tissue, there is a group of cells which can proliferate and form macroscopic colonies. In the spleen, the colonies formed in this manner are discrete and easy to count. In order to look into a difference of radiosensitivity between male and female and the mechanisms of the modification, such as protective agent and hormones on radiosensitivity, the spleen colony forming (SCF) is used as an indicator of reactions in the x-rays irradiated mice. A linear decrease was found in SCF depended on x-rays dose. From the colony forming after irradiation the male was more radiosensitive than female. AET protected from the injury depended on the radiation dose in male mice, but in female mice, protection effects were not observed. Gonatropin showed protective effects for radiation injury on high dose irradiation both in male and female mice. Adrenaline showed similar effects as Gonatropin. Insuline showed a negative effects of protection on 400 R irradiation, while on 600 R irradiation, protective effects were observed.

  2. Chemical protection against life shortening and radio-induced leukemias and cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantage gained on the long term survival and the induction of leukemias and cancers in mice exposed to a single dose of ionizing radiation by a combination of radiochemical protectors, are examined. The results show clearly that chemical protective compounds protect mice against radiation-induced life-shortening, They demonstrate also that the obtained protection was improved by combination of various protectors acting in a supplementary manner. The optimum dose reduction factor obtained was 1.5 for AET and about 2 for a mixture of 5 radioprotectors. These dose reduction factors are lower than those offered with these two treatments against the acute effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, the dose effect curve for the long term survival obtained for irradiated untreated mice and for mice treated with a mixture of radioprotectors are not parallel. Thus, the dose reduction factors vary with the X-ray dose administered. The best protection was achieved for X-ray doses from 500 to 1000 R. After an exposure to 100 R (BALB/c+ mice) and 350 R (C5781 mice) of X-rays, the total incidence of leukemias and cancers was significantly lower in treated irradiated mice than in non treated mice

  3. An introduction of remotely sensed drought estimation in the Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, C.; Choi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, natural disaster like flood and drought has become more frequent and severer due to climate change. Since period of drought is ambiguous and its quantification is difficult, the related researches are rarely performed. To analyze drought processes, an intercomparison among conventional and remote sensing based drought indices was conducted using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imageries, during the period from 2003 to 2012. Conventional ground-based drought indices had a serious limitation which was large spatio-temporal heterogeneity. As an alternative, remote sensing technology was used to assess drought events more accurately. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) represents ratio of actual evapotranspiration (AET) to potential ET (PET) mapped using satellite imageries. The conducted ESI for these various ground observation were compared with other drought indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI; and Standardized Precipitation Index, SPI) during 2003-2012. The results indicate that the ESI characterized groundwater response and surface water variations as well as or better than the conventional drought indices. It also had a merit of providing drought information at a higher spatial resolution.

  4. Kinetic parameters of biomass growth in a UASB reactor treating wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the treatment of wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP in an anaerobic treatment system at a laboratory scale. The system included an acidification/equalization tank (AET, a heat exchanger, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, a gas equalization device and a gas meter. The minimum and maximum flow rates and volumetric organic loadings rate (VOLR were 0.004 to 0.037 m 3 d -1 and 0.14 to 20.29 kgCOD m -3 d -1 , respectively. The kinetic parameters measured during the anaerobic biodegradation of the WCWP, with a minimal concentration of phenolic compounds of 50 mg L - ¹, were: Y = 0.37 mgTVS (mgCODremoved -1 , Kd = 0.0075 d-1 , Ks = 1.504mg L -1 , μmax = 0.2 d -1 . The profile of sludge in the reactor showed total solids (TS values from 22,296 to 55,895 mg L -1 and TVS 11,853 to 41,509 mg L -1 , demonstrating a gradual increase of biomass in the reactor during the treatment, even in the presence of phenolic compounds in the concentration already mentioned.

  5. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moon Moon; Bhotra, Tilothama; Zala, Dolatsinh; Singh, Durg Vijai

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and ctxB gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical ctxB in four strains and Haitian ctxB in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, Vibrio seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to tcpAET and rstRET, the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian ctxB and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination. PMID:27255911

  7. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa, Beatriz C S; Souza, Maria das Graças C; Leite, Richard D; da Silva, Simone V; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30) starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change), return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30), high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET) (HFEX, n = 30) and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30). Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM) (HF)4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX)4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC)*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX)*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8) M (HF)87.9±2.7%; (HFSC)*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX)*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX)*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6) M (HF)95.3±3.1%; (HFSC)*126±6.2%; (HFEX)*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX)*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4) M (HF)109.5±4.8%; (HFSC)*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX)*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX)*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF)40.5±4.2; (HFSC)*19.0±1.6; (HFEX)*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX)* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2), decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial

  8. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  9. Do prescrito ao real: a gestão individual e coletiva dos trabalhadores de enfermagem frente ao risco de acidente de trabalho From prescribed to real: the collective and individual management of nursing workers toward the risk of workplace accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Passos Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem por objetivo levantar os constrangimentos enfrentados pelos auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem (AeTE de uma instituição pediátrica, vinculada a uma fundação estatal, em sua atividade de trabalho e identificar estratégias utilizadas por eles que garantam as metas de produção, a satisfação do trabalhador e a sua autoproteção contra os acidentes de trabalho. Por meio do método da AET, foram utilizados para análise e coleta de dados 34 trabalhadores de enfermagem - nível médio e técnico -, entre efetivos e contratados e, observadas as estratégias de ação e regulação destes trabalhadores frente às interfaces com que lidam. Os resultados mostram que entre os constrangimentos levantados nesta Instituição, os mais evidentes são: a dupla jornada de trabalho, a diversidade de vínculos empregatícios, os riscos a que estes profissionais estão expostos e o não conhecimento do objeto de trabalho. Verifica-se que esses constrangimentos ocasionam uma elevação das cargas de trabalho física, psíquica e cognitiva. Visando reduzir essas cargas de trabalho, o trabalhador tenta criar estratégias que são adquiridas por meio da vivência com o trabalho, das experiências e valores, para se regular frente ao risco no trabalho.The objective of this study is to analyze the constraints faced by the nursing assistants and technicians in a pediatric clinic sponsored by a state foundation during their work activities and identify the strategies adopted by them in order to guarantee the achievement of their production goals and job satisfaction and ensure their protection against workplace accidents. The method of Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA was used for analysis and data collection of 59 tenured and temporary nursing workers with intermediate and technical level of education and to investigate the strategies related to actions and employment regulation concerning the interfaces they deal with. The results show that among

  10. Ergonomia e complexidade: o trabalho do gestor na agricultura orgânica na região de Campinas - SP Complexity and ergonomy: the manager work at the organic agriculture in Campinas - SP Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Francisca Bezerra Gemma

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A lacuna de pesquisas sobre o trabalho humano na agricultura orgânica motivou este estudo, que teve por objetivos caracterizar e compreender o trabalho do gestor no manejo orgânico da produção agrícola. A pesquisa de campo, realizada em duas etapas, permitiu investigar o trabalho dos gestores em Unidades de Produção Agrícola Orgânica (UPAO do interior de São Paulo, por meio da adaptação do método da Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET e de entrevistas estruturadas. Os dados de campo foram posteriormente interpretados à luz da Teoria da Complexidade (TC. Constatou-se que o gestor da agricultura orgânica é responsável por um macrossistema (produção vegetal, produção animal, processamento e serviços, atuando concomitantemente como administrador e executor do trabalho. A grande variedade de produtos oferecidos pela agricultura orgânica gera a necessidade de expertise do gestor no trato com as diferentes espécies vegetais e na sua integração com os demais sistemas de produção. Concluiu-se que o trabalho executado pelos gestores é caracterizado pela diversidade de atividades que precisam ser realizadas e integradas dentro do macrossistema, em associação com os determinantes do processo de certificação num contexto de falta de tecnologia adequada e de cenários incertos e variados. Cabe ao gestor incorporar e transformar em práticas de trabalho os preceitos ecológicos, econômicos e sociais de sustentabilidade, que podem ser contraditórios entre si, integrar essas múltiplas dimensões, por meio do desenvolvimento e da conexão de variados saberes e competências, e elaborar estratégias para superar as diversas dificuldades relacionadas com os aspectos tecnológicos, financeiros e humanos na agricultura orgânica.The lack of research about the human work at the Organic agriculture stimulated this study, which purpose was to characterize and understand the manager's job in managing organic farming. The field

  11. Avaliação do potencial de produção de biogás e da eficiência de tratamento do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB alimentado com dejetos de suínos Potential evaluation of biogas production and treatment efficiency of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB fed with swine manure liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho de pesquisa objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência na remoção de poluentes orgânicos e a produção de biogás de um sistema de tratamento de efluentes de dejetos de suínos em escala laboratorial (bancada. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia (LAADEG da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. O sistema de tratamento foi constituído por um Tanque de Acidificação e Equalização (TAE, Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB com medidor de biogás (gasômetro e uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF. A alimentação foi realizada em bateladas no TAE, onde o efluente líquido era bombeado para um sistema de aquecimento sendo então introduzido no reator UASB e finalmente conduzido para polimento na LAF. O biogás acumulado na parte superior do UASB, após passar por um equalizador de pressão, era canalizado e armazenado no gasômetro. O valor médio do Tempo de Detenção Hidráulica (TDH foi de 30 horas. Os valores médios de remoção da DQO T, DBO5, ST, STF e STV, foram: 1755, 670, 1089; 142 e 948 mg.L-1, respectivamente. As eficiências de remoção da DQO T e DBO5 no reator UASB foram de 78 e 75%, respectivamente. A produção média de biogás e metano (CH4 foi de 0,14 e 0,10 L.d-1. O potencial de produção de CH4 em termos de DBO5 removida foi de 0,01 m³CH4.(kg.DBO removida -1. O sistema apresentou boa eficiência quanto a remoção de DQO T, DBO5 e Sólidos.The present research aimed at evaluating in lab-scale system the removal of pollutants and biogas production efficiency in treating a swine liquid effluent. The research was carried out in the Laboratory of Water Analysis from the Engineering Department of Federal University of Lavras (LAADEG. The system parts built up were: Acidification Equalization Tank (AET, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB with biogas measurement and an Aerated Facultative Pond (AFP. The batch feeding process was carried

  12. RESPONSES OF THE PHOTO-SYNTHESIS OF RECLAMATION PHRAGMITES AUSTRALISIN EASTERN CHONGMING ISLAND ON ELEVATED TEMPERATURE%崇明东滩围垦湿地芦苇光合作用对模拟升温的响应初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑慧; 祁秋艳; 仲启铖; 张超; 王开运

    2012-01-01

    An open-top chamber(OTC) system was used on the dominant species Phragmites australis in reclaimed marsh in Eastern Chongming island to study the effects of elevated temperature(ET) on the photosynthesis of leaves in rapid growth season.Photosynthetic parameters containing maximum net photosynthetic rate(Pmax),dark respiration rate(Rd),apparent quantum yield(AQY),light compensation point(LCP),light saturation point(LSP) and light response processes of leaves of Phragmites australis were measured after one-and two-year treatment.The results showed that these physical characteristics were diverse under different ET time.Comparing with the control(CK),the OTC manipulation showed positive effects,Pmax and LSP increased significantly,Rd and LCP decreased significantly after one-year treatment(1aET).The opposite results happened to two-year treatment(2aET).No significant differences happened to AQY between years.The net photosynthetic rate-light intensity(Pn-PAR) curves which were nonlinear(R20.98) fitted moved up and jumped down after 1aET and 2aET respectively.Furthermore,the effect of ET on transpiration rate(Tr) was enhanced significantly,which served as a self-protection response for dissipating heat.The responses of stomatal conductance(Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) were correlated with photosynthetic active radiation(PAR).All results implied that photosynthetic acclimatization occurred due to non-stomatal factors limited under longer time scale.%采用开顶式气室法(Open-top Chamber,OTC)模拟升温,分别于升温1a和升温2a后,测定崇明东滩围垦湿地代表植物——芦苇快速生长期叶片的光响应进程,分析最大净光合速率(Pmax)、暗呼吸速率(Rd)、表观量子效率(AQY)、光补偿点(LCP)、光饱和点(LSP)等光合参数对升温时间的累积响应。结果表明:与对照样地相比,升温1a后,Pmax、LSP显著增

  13. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Eugene Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  14. Análise ergonômica do trabalho em unidades de beneficiamento de tomates de mesa: movimentação manual de cargas Ergonomic work analyses method in fresh tomato packing houses: manual material handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Augusto Vall Ribeiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A movimentação manual de cargas (MMC nas unidades de beneficiamento de tomates (UB é a atividade laboral mais freqüente nas etapas do processo de beneficiamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar, sob a ótica da ergonomia, as tarefas de MMC em seis UB de tomate de mesa do Estado de São Paulo. Foi aplicado o método da análise ergonômica do trabalho (AET para conhecimento dos problemas associados à carga laboral. Nos postos de trabalho onde a MMC foi predominante, aplicou-se o método da equação do National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH para determinar o Limite de Peso Recomendado e o método do Diagrama das Áreas Dolorosas para identificar as áreas do corpo dos trabalhadores que apresentam desconforto. Em todas os casos estudados, o peso real da carga movimentada manualmente superou o limite de peso recomendado pelo NIOSH.The manual material handling (MMH is the most frequent labor activity in tomato packing houses. The main goal of this paper was to analyze, under an ergonomic point of view, the MMH tasks in six fresh tomato packing houses. The ergonomic work analyses method was applied for an overall approach of work activities. The NIOSH equation was applied to calculate the recommended weight limit and a Body Discomfort Diagram was used to identify the painful body workers areas. In all cases, the actual load overcame the recommended weight limits by NIOSH.

  15. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun's performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ''State-of-the-art'' microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of ec · μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread ±10%. These emittances are for up to 5 x 109e- per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically e · μm

  16. Ligand-induced dependence of charge transfer in nanotube-quantum dot heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Han, Jinkyu; Sundahl, Bryan; Thornton, Scott; Zhu, Yuqi; Zhou, Ruiping; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Taylor, Gordon T; Fischer, Daniel A; Appenzeller, Joerg; Harrison, Robert J; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2016-08-25

    As a model system to probe ligand-dependent charge transfer in complex composite heterostructures, we fabricated double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT)-CdSe quantum dot (QD) composites. Whereas the average diameter of the QDs probed was kept fixed at ∼4.1 nm and the nanotubes analyzed were similarly oxidatively processed, by contrast, the ligands used to mediate the covalent attachment between the QDs and DWNTs were systematically varied to include p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2-aminoethanethiol (AET), and 4-aminothiophenol (ATP). Herein, we have put forth a unique compilation of complementary data from experiment and theory, including results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrical transport measurements, and theoretical modeling studies, in order to fundamentally assess the nature of the charge transfer between CdSe QDs and DWNTs, as a function of the structure of various, intervening bridging ligand molecules. Specifically, we correlated evidence of charge transfer as manifested by changes and shifts associated with NEXAFS intensities, Raman peak positions, and threshold voltages both before and after CdSe QD deposition onto the underlying DWNT surface. Importantly, for the first time ever in these types of nanoscale composite systems, we have sought to use theoretical modeling to justify and account for our experimental results. Our overall data suggest that (i) QD coverage density on the DWNTs varies, based upon the different ligand pendant groups used and that (ii) the presence of a π-conjugated carbon framework within the ligands themselves coupled with the electron affinity of their pendant groups collectively play important roles in the resulting charge transfer from QDs to the underlying CNTs. PMID:27368081

  17. Untangling human and environmental effects on geographical gradients of mammal species richness: a global and regional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Romero, Erik Joaquín; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Á

    2015-05-01

    Different hypotheses (geographical, ecological, evolutionary or a combination of them) have been suggested to account for the spatial variation in species richness. However, the relative importance of environment and human impacts in explaining these patterns, either globally or at the biogeographical region level, remains largely unexplored. Here, we jointly evaluate how current environmental conditions and human impacts shape global and regional gradients of species richness in terrestrial mammals. We processed IUCN global distributional data for 3939 mammal species and a set of seven environmental and two human impact variables at a spatial resolution of 96.5 × 96.5 km. We used simple, multiple and partial regression techniques to evaluate environmental and human effects on species richness. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is the main driver of mammal species richness globally. Together with our results at the biogeographical realm level, this lends strong support for the water-energy hypothesis (i.e. global diversity gradients are best explained by the interaction of water and energy, with a latitudinal shift in the relative importance of ambient energy vs. water availability as we move from the poles to the equator). While human effects on species richness are not easily detected at a global scale due to the large proportion of shared variance with the environment, these effects significantly emerge at the regional level. In the Nearctic, Palearctic and Oriental regions, the independent contribution of human impacts is almost as important as current environmental conditions in explaining richness patterns. The intersection of human impacts with climate drives the geographical variation in mammal species richness in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Oriental regions. Using a human accessibility variable, we show, for the first time, that the zones most accessible to humans are often those where we find lower mammal species richness. PMID:25355656

  18. Windows Me想说爱你不容易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晨星; 浩然

    2000-01-01

    微软公司9月14日开始零售的新操作系统Windows Me当是目前最热的话题了,据微软的Windows Me产品经理Aet Pettigrue说:“Windows Me是我们推出的百分之百家用产品,它提供带有友好界面的功能,例如影像编辑、数字音乐软件和家用联网工具……”看来微软正努力把普通用户朝着Windows Me的方向引导,他们希望Windows Me能够取代Windows 98,占领每一台家用PC。但是根据许多用户的反映,Windows Me只不过相当于多年来Windows 9X的一次扩展,实际上并无实质的飞跃,微软发布它不过是想在下一个Windows版本——Whistler(它是基于Windows NT内核的消费型Windows)到来前的空隙多赚点钱而己!作为普通用户,我们有必要跟着微软亦步亦趋地升级操作系统么?请看一位软件发烧友对Windows Me的使用感想。

  19. Implementation of digital optical capillaroscopy for quantifying and estimating the microvascular abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Suchkova, O. V.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed to define the extent of digital capillaroscopy possibilities for the quantification and estimation of microvascular abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 196 adult persons were enrolled in the study including the group of compensated T2DM (n = 52), decompensated diabetics (n = 68), and healthy volunteers (n = 76) with normal blood glucose and without signs of cardiovascular pathology. All participants of the study were examined with the digital optical capillaroscope ("AET", Russia). This instrument is equipped with an image-processing program allowing for quantifying the diameters of the arterial and venous segments of the capillaries and their ratio (coefficient of remodeling), perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, and the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network. Also we estimated the relative amount of coil-shaped capillaries. The study revealed significant difference in the capillary density and the remodeling coefficient in comparison of T2DM patients with non-diabetic individuals. Significant changes are found in the decompensated T2DM group compared to the compensated group of diabetic patients. Furthermore, the number of coil-shaped capillaries differed greatly in T2DM patients as compared to the healthy subjects. The study did not reveal any statistically significant differences in the capillary density between the patients with compensated and decompensated T2DM. The digital optical capillaroscope equipped with the advanced image-processing algorithm opens up new possibilities for obtaining clinically important information on microvascular abnormalities in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus.

  20. Famous Hyperboreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Sandin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The individual Hyperboreans appearing in ancient literature are presented with a review of the Greek and Latin sources and collections of references. Most of the mythological characters are briefly discussed, but the literary evolution of the legends of Abaris and of the “Hyperborean maidens” are treated in some detail. Some of the literary sources receive scholarly treatment, the paper including philological notes on [Aristeas Epic.] fr. 11 Bernabé (the passage is inspired by an interpretation of the name Abaris; Call. Dian. 204–5 (includes an allusion to the Hyperborean maiden Upis/Opis; Call. Del. 293–95 (the passage hints at an etymology of the word Περφερέες; and ἐκεῖνοι in 295 is sound; Call. Aet. fr. 186.26–30 Pfeiffer (discussion of the myth of Orion and Opis; D.H. 1.43.1–2 (discussion of the myth of Palantho and Heracles; Hecat.Abd. FGrH 264 frr. 7, 12 (discussion of the different information about the Hyperborean leadership that is given in the two fragments; Hdt. 4.35 (interpretation of the phrase ἅμα αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι θεοῖσι; Iambl. VH 32.217 (the stated opinions of Abaris seem similar to those professed in Heraclid.Pont. fr. 75 Wehrli; Verg. Aen. 11.857–58 (the utterance of Opis alludes to the death of Orion as presented in Euphorion, Callimachus and pseudo-Apollodorus.

  1. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F; Spargo, Adam T; Jones, Julia A; Buttle, Jim M; Adams, Mary B; Beall, Fred D; Booth, Eric G; Campbell, John L; Clow, Dave; Elder, Kelly; Green, Mark B; Grimm, Nancy B; Miniat, Chelcy; Ramlal, Patricia; Saha, Amartya; Sebestyen, Stephen; Spittlehouse, Dave; Sterling, Shannon; Williams, Mark W; Winkler, Rita; Yao, Huaxia

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is projected to affect forest water yields but the effects are expected to vary. We investigated how forest type and age affect water yield resilience to climate warming. To answer this question, we examined the variability in historical water yields at long-term experimental catchments across Canada and the United States over 5-year cool and warm periods. Using the theoretical framework of the Budyko curve, we calculated the effects of climate warming on the annual partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield. Deviation (d) was defined as a catchment's change in actual ET divided by P [AET/P; evaporative index (EI)] coincident with a shift from a cool to a warm period – a positive d indicates an upward shift in EI and smaller than expected water yields, and a negative d indicates a downward shift in EI and larger than expected water yields. Elasticity was defined as the ratio of interannual variation in potential ET divided by P (PET/P; dryness index) to interannual variation in the EI – high elasticity indicates low d despite large range in drying index (i.e., resilient water yields), low elasticity indicates high d despite small range in drying index (i.e., nonresilient water yields). Although the data needed to fully evaluate ecosystems based on these metrics are limited, we were able to identify some characteristics of response among forest types. Alpine sites showed the greatest sensitivity to climate warming with any warming leading to increased water yields. Conifer forests included catchments with lowest elasticity and stable to larger water yields. Deciduous forests included catchments with intermediate elasticity and stable to smaller water yields. Mixed coniferous/deciduous forests included catchments with highest elasticity and stable water yields. Forest type appeared to influence the resilience of catchment water yields to climate warming, with conifer and deciduous catchments more susceptible to

  2. Generalised Linear Spatial Model for Tree Species Richness in Eastern US Forest using FIA plot data and Climate variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale patterns of woody plant species diversity have long been studied yet it is still one of the most controversial issues in biogeography. At continental to global scale, energy availability measured by potential evapotranspiration (PET) (i.e. PET-only model) and related water-energy dynamics model (i.e. Wang's model based on China's woody plant richness) has been two primary determinants for species richness. We identified several issues in existing modeling approaches that 1) species richness are derived from species range map not a plot data, 2) they over-predicted richness in Florida peninsular at the cost of R square values for better overall model fit and 3) they lack thorough examination for spatial autocorrelation of residuals. The plot-level forest inventory and analysis (FIA) program data set (total 2,745,363 tally trees from 79,145 ground plots in the eastern US forest) used for species richness showed different pattern to range-map based richness. We applied Elastic-Net regularization for variable selections then used spatial Poisson Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and to handle spatial autocorrelations. Elastic-Net approach produced Frost frequency days (FRS), PET, AET, and seasonality of precipitation (PSN, defined as the coefficient of variation of monthly mean precipitation) as best explanatory variables and produced good model fit (R2 of 0.67) without over-prediction for Florida peninsular. Partial regression revealed that PSN successfully accounted for very low species richness in Florida. The seasonality of precipitation as climatic variability explained climatic stability permitted species specialization than greater seasonality. Also, we compared our best model with two other richness models (i.e. PET-only and Wang's model) and demonstrated that spatial autocorrelation was highest for the use of just PET-only, intermediate for Wang's model, and lowest for ours.

  3. Ineffective oesophageal motility: Manometric subsets exhibit different symptom profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Horst Gunter Haack; Ross David Hansen; Allison Malcolm; John Edward Kellow

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the demographic and clinical features of different manometric subsets of ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM; defined as ≥30% wet swallows with distal contractile amplitude <30 mmHg), and to determine whether the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux differs between IOM subsets.METHODS: Clinical characteristics of manometric subsets were determined in 100 IOM patients (73 female, median age 58 years) and compared to those of 100 age-and gender-matched patient controls with oesophageal symptoms, but normal manometry. Supine oesophageal manometry was performed with an eight-channel DentSleeve water-perfused catheter, and an ambulatory pH study assessed gastrooesophageal reflux.RESULTS: Patients in the IOM subset featuring a majority of low-amplitude simultaneous contractions (LASC) experienced less heartburn (prevalence 26%), but more dysphagia (57%) than those in the IOM subset featuring low-amplitude propagated contractions (LAP; heartburn 70%, dysphagia 24%; both P≤0.01). LASC patients also experienced less heartburn and more dysphagia than patient controls (heartburn 68%, dysphagia 11%; both P<0.001). The prevalence of heartburn and dysphagia in IOM patients featuring a majority of non-transmitted sequences (NT) was 54% (P=0.04 vs LASC) and 36% (P<0.01 vs controls), respectively. No differences in age and gender distribution, chest pain prevalence, acid exposure time (AET) and symptom/reflux association existed between IOM subsets, or between subsets and controls.CONCLUSION: IOM patients with LASC exhibit a different symptom profile to those with LAP, but do not differ in gastro-oesophageal reflux prevalence. These findings raise the possibility of different pathophysiological mechanisms in IOM subsets, which warrants further investigation.

  4. Cyclization Phenomena in the Sol-Gel Polymerization of a,w-Bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes and Incorporation of the Cyclic Structures into Network Silsesquioxane Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, T.M.; Carpenter, J.P.; Dorhout, P.K.; Greaves, J.; Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.; Shea, K.J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-01-04

    Intramolecular cyclizations during acid-catalyzed, sol-gel polymerizations of ct,co- bis(tietioxysilyl)aWmes substintidly lengtien gelties formonomers witietiylene- (l), propylene- (2), and butylene-(3)-bridging groups. These cyclizations reactions were found, using mass spectrometry and %i NMR spectroscopy, to lead preferentially to monomeric and dimeric products based on six and seven membered disilsesquioxane rings. 1,2- Bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (1) reacts under acidic conditions to give a bicyclic drier (5) that is composed of two annelated seven membered rings. Under the same conditions, 1,3- bis(triethoxysilyl)propane (2), 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (3), and z-1,4- bis(triethoxysilyl)but-2-ene (10) undergo an intramolecular condensation reaction to give the six membemd and seven membered cyclic disilsesquioxanes 6, 7, and 11. Subsequently, these cyclic monomers slowly react to form the tricyclic dirners 8,9 and 12. With NaOH as polymerization catalyst these cyclic silsesquioxanes readily ~aeted to afford gels that were shown by CP MAS z%i NMR and infr=d spectroscopes to retain some cyclic structures. Comparison of the porosity and microstructwe of xerogels prepared from the cyclic monomers 6 and 7 with gels prepared directly from their acyclic precursors 2 and 3, indicate that the final pore structure of the xerogels is markedly dependent on the nature of the precursor. In addition, despite the fact that the monomeric cyclic disilsesquioxane species can not be isolated from 1-3 under basic conditions due to their rapid rate of gelation, spectroscopic techniques also detected the presence of the cyclic structures in the resulting polymeric gels.

  5. Conditional dependence of evaporative fraction on surface and root-zone soil moisture and its application to soil moisture retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, D.; Akuraju, V.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) or evapotranspiration (ET) estimates from space have been gaining growing attention as an input to retrieve root-zone soil moisture. The rationale behind the approach is that i) there exists a strong causal link between the evapotranspiration and the vegetation canopy temperature and ii) under water-limited conditions soil water available for transpiration controls the evaporative fraction (EF) or the actual evapotranspiration (AET) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio of vegetated surfaces. In this work, we examine the relationship between EF and surface to root-zone soil moisture content collected from two study sites (wheat and pasture fields) at the Dookie research farm site in Victoria, Australia. EF estimated from the eddy covariance system is compared with soil moisture content under various ranges of soil depths (5 depths from surface to 120 cm), net radiation, soil wetness and biomass. In both wheat and pasture fields, EF is highly correlated with surface (0-8 cm) soil moisture when the soil surface is bare-to-lightly vegetated, but the correlation decreases as vegetation grows or as the net radiation decreases. On the other hand, EF shows strong correlation with root-zone soil moisture during the growing seasons of the fields. Under similar ranges of soil moisture and net radiation, EF can have different ranges depending on the vegetation height and density. These results indicate the importance of biophysical parameters and processes in estimating surface and root-zone soil moisture contents using surface energy flux. We propose an exponential and a spherical model to fit EF versus soil moisture and show how their uncertainty changes with biophysical parameters.

  6. Strategies for protection against exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiations are known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cyto-lethal depending on the total dose, dose rate, quality of radiation and many other factors related to the person exposed. Therefore strategies for protection against exposure to ionizing radiations have to be accordingly planned. Radioprotection, though remains prophylactic in principle, includes mitigating and therapeutic modalities also. Initially, the central theme of biological radioprotection has been to protect against radiation-induced lethality and to optimize radiotherapy of tumours; the emphasis has now extended to cover many more situations of planned and unplanned nature. The central dogma of radioprotection work has been antioxidant action, which is relevant indeed against low LET radiation. The increasing understanding of the mechanism of radiation damage, however, permitted the advent of newer agents of both synthetic and natural origin. Sulfhydryl compounds like cysteamine, AET, Amifostine and endogenous molecules like GSH, SOD etc have been very important agents. Molecules like cytokines, immunomodulators, anti-inflammatory agents, angiotensin converting enzymes, metallo-elements and metallothionins, DNA ligands and Calcium antagonists have also been investigated recently. Unfortunately, no single agent could yield desired results especially due to toxicity at their radioprotective concentration. This led to the emergence of combinational modality where two or more agents working with different mechanisms could synergistically complement radioprotective action.. Recently, herbal extracts and dietary agents, which are the natural combinations of a large number of compounds that have important attributes to counter the damaging effects of ionizing radiations, have gained world-wide interest.. These agents have been found to be less toxic. Decorporation of radionuclei and protection against low dose chronic exposures like space flights and long haul inter-continental flights need to be

  7. Simulations of Hydrologic Response to Land Cover Change in the Laohahe Watershed in Northern China%老哈河流域土地覆被变化水文响应模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 任立良; 刘晓帆; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    Over the recent 30 years, durative drought has been threatening the environment in northern China, resulting in water resources scarcity, environmental degradation, and desertification. To make an attempt to investigate the effects of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes in northern China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. Direct evaporation from intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration, and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration (PET) model, which constituted input to the distributed hydrological model for computation of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff. The Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. Land cover maps of 1980 and 1996 were used for characterizing vegetation cover over the area controlled by the Taipingzhuang hydrologic station in the Laohahe watershed during the periods of 1964-1979 and 1990-1999, respectively.Results of the runoff simulation show that saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. The model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data of the corresponding period. The streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these two land cover scenarios. Effects of land use/cover change on "green water" and "blue water" were quantified by comparing calculated PET, AET, and runoff under different land cover scenarios. Blue water is referred to as visible liquid water moving above and below the ground as surface or groundwater runoff, respectively. Blue water can thus be in the form of surface runoff in rills, gullies and rivers, or water stored in reservoirs and lakes, or water flowing underground,recharging water tables and aquifers. Green water is defined as the invisible vapor moving to the atmosphere, including

  8. Ecohydrology of root zone water fluxes and soil development in complex semiarid rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jurado, Hugo A.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Harrison, J. Bruce J.; Guan, Huade

    2006-10-01

    soil water pressure over an 8-year period in the opposing ecosystems. It is believed that these variations in water fluxes reinforce the development of CaCO3 horizons present in the soil profiles, leading to a feedback between vegetation establishment, soil water fluxes and geomorphic processes in the catchment. Our results also indicate that soil properties and water fluxes compensate for large differences in evaporative demand and lead to similar actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the opposing slopes.

  9. Computational Study of the Effect of Confinement within Microporous Structures on the Activity and Selectivity of Metallocene Catalysts for Ethylene Oligomerization

    KAUST Repository

    Toulhoat, Hervé

    2011-03-02

    The effect of confinement within some zeolitic structures on the activity and selectivity of metallocene catalysts for the ethylene oligomerization has been investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations (GCMC). The following zeolite (host) frameworks displaying different pore sizes, have been studied as solid hosts: mazzite (MAZ), AIPO-8 (AET), UTD-1F (DON), faujasite (FAU), and VPI-5 (VFI). Intermediates and transition states involved in the ethylene trimerization reaction catalyzed by a Ti-based catalyst [(η5-C5H4CMe2C6H 5)TiCl3/MAO] have been used as sorbates (guests). We have demonstrated linear correlations with slope aH,j between the adsorption enthalpy and the molecular volume Vm of the sorbates, each holding for a given microporous host below a host-specific threshold V mmax,j. Beyond this maximal molecular volume, the adsorption vanishes due to steric exclusion. aH,j increases, and Vmmax,j decreases with decreasing host pore size, in line with the confinement concept. We moreover showed that, in the limit of vanishing loading (Henry regime), the enthalpies and entropies of adsorption in a given host are linearly correlated. We have defined a host-specific confinement compensation temperature a j, which refers to a temperature where the stabilizing adsorption enthalpic interactions are canceled out against the loss in entropy. However, calculated aj are much larger than the operating temperatures. With a setup microkinetic model, we predict that the activity and selectivity of the confined Ti-catalyst in ethylene oligomerization can be significantly altered with respect to homogeneous phase conditions, since the adsorption free energies of transition states and intermediates also become functions of aH,j and Vm. We have applied this theory to predict the optimum host pore size to get maximum α-octene production, instead of α-hexene, which is primarily produced in the homogeneous phase. We also predict a significantly increased activity for

  10. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  11. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-03-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and

  12. Global carbon-water cycles patterns inferred from FLUXNET observations - useful for model evaluation? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.; Beer, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Tomelleri, E.; Papale, D.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

    2010-12-01

    The current FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org) of CO2, water and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere contains almost 1000 site-years with data from more than 250 sites, encompassing all major biomes of the world and being processed in a standardized way (1-3). In this presentation we show that the information in the data is sufficient to derive generalized empirical relationships between vegetation/respective remote sensing information, climate and the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges across global biomes. These empirical patterns are used to generate global grids of the respective fluxes and derived properties (e.g. radiation and water-use efficiencies or climate sensitivities in general, bowen-ratio, AET/PET ratio). For example we re-estimate global “text-book” numbers such as global Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as ca. 123PgC (4), or global evapotranspiration (ET) as ca. 65km3/yr (5) - for the first time with a more solid and direct empirical basis. Evaluation against independent data at regional to global scale (e.g. atmospheric carbon dioxide inversions, runoff data) lends support to the validity of our almost purely empirical up-scaling approaches. Moreover climate factors such as radiation, temperature and water balance are identified as driving factors for variations and trends of carbon and water fluxes, with distinctly different sensitivities between different regions. Hence, these global fields of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and the inferred relations between climate, vegetation type and fluxes should be used for evaluation or benchmarking of climate models or their land-surface components, while overcoming scale-issues with classical point-to-grid-cell comparisons. 1. M. Reichstein et al., Global Change Biology 11, 1424 (2005). 2. D. Baldocchi, Australian Journal of Botany 56,1 (2008). 3. D. Papale et al., Biogeosciences 3, 571 (2006). 4. Beer et al. Science 329 (2010). 5. Jung et al. Nature in press (doi:10

  13. THE USE OF INTERNET IN ENHANCING STUDENT’S ACADEMIC STUDIES: A CASE STUDY AT ADAMAWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE (ASCOA GANYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the Information Communication Technology (ICT is growing across the state and the entire country. This study examines the use of the internet in enhancing studies in Adamawa State College of Agriculture (ASCOA Ganye. The use of the internet is increasingly becoming an expectation for higher education students. In this paper, a range of case studies are described which illustrate methods of engaged students with technology enhanced learning and improve academic studies and students satisfaction. The sample was taken from five (5 departments in Adamawa State College of Agriculture namely, Animal Health Production (AHP, Agricultural Extension (AGT, Computer Science (CS, Agricultural Engineering technology (AET, and Forestry Technology (FOT. The aim of the study is to examined, the Bio-data characteristics of the internet users, the information on users of internet during studies and the effects of the internet. A sampling technique was used to select 101 students from Animal Health Production (AHP Department, 66 students from Agricultural Extension (AGT Department and 36 students from Computer Science (CS Department; totaling 266 students. A survey questionnaire was employed to determine the use of internet, the researcher analysed the data collected using descriptive, percentages, frequency and influential statistics. The study shows that 78.2% of the students were between the ages of 25 – 29 years 13.2% (30 – 34 years, and only 8.6% were between the age of 18 – 24 years. 81.6% of the students were single while 24.8% were female. The finding also shows that 80.8% download material (e-book from the internet, 89.5% got an e-mail account (address, 273 of the respondents across the department accept that the introduction of a course called GNS 211 Computer Appreciation makes students to have interest of surfing the internet, The first result of the chi-square shows that there is a significant relationship between the users of

  14. The effect emergent leader plays on group emotion and employee innovative behavior%涌现型领导对团队情绪、员工创新行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭正龙; 王红丽; 谷峰

    2011-01-01

    Based on the AET, the paper proclaimed the cross - level effect of group emotion in the relationship between emergent leader and employee innovative behavior. Surveying on the local company and getting 524 sample, the paper test the suppose by virtue of HLM. The result shows that: obstacle has a negative effect on group emotion, which could be impaired by emergent leader and it takes access to group management through the emotion management. Furthermore, the emergent leader includes higher relationship between leader and member, which makes the member to be generous and shows more innovative behavior. The research also finds that, the leader have the impact on it with the complete help of group emotion, because of employee innovative behavior belonging to the emotion - driven behavior. In the end, the paper discusses the theoretical value and practical enlighten.%应用情绪事件理论,揭示团队情绪在涌现型领导与员工创新行为之间的跨层次作用机制.通过对企业不同团队主管及成员524个样本的调研,运用HLM分析方法对假设进行验证.结果表明,挫折对团队情绪有负面影响,而涌现型领导可以削弱挫折事件对团队情绪的负面作用,显示出在管理团队情绪方面的突出优势.此外,涌现型领导产生所内涵的高质量领导-成员关系,更容易对员工创新这种情感驱动型行为产生作用,其中借助了团队情绪的完全中介作用.文章最后讨论了本研究的理论价值和实践启示.

  15. Dois estudos sobre o trabalho dos petroleiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Leal Ferreira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo traz um resumo de dois estudos realizados na área do petróleo, o primeiro feito em uma unidade de refino e o segundo abarcando o trabalho de operadores exercendo várias funções dentro de uma refinaria e de terminais marítimos de petróleo. Nos dois casos, o ponto central foi a análise da atividade dos trabalhadores, isto é, o que eles faziam e como o faziam para dai conta das exigências de produção que lhes eram atribuídas. No entanto, os métodos utilizados foram diferentes: no primeiro caso utilizou-se a Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET e no segundo, a Análise Coletiva do Trabalho (ACT. Além de apresentar os principais resultados destes estudos, a autora faz considerações sobre as diferenças entre os dois métodos e um apelo à comunidade científica para que se preocupe mais em estudar a atividade real dos trabalhadores e assim contribuir para um melhor conhecimento do que se passa no interior das unidades produtivas, evitando que sofrimentos humanos inúteis e até catástrofes industriais continuem a ocorrer.This paper describes two studies about petroleum industry. The first was developed in a refinery and the second focuses on the work of operators in various jobs within a refinery and maritime petroleum units. In both cases, the focal point was the analyses of activities, that is, what the workers do and how they do it in order to meet production demandai put on them. However, two different methods were applied in the studies. Ergonomics Work Analyses (EWA was used on the first case and Collective Work Analyses (CWA, on the second. Besides showing the main results, the author compares the two methods. She also draws the scientific community attention to the importance of studding the workers actual activity in order to contribute to a better understanding of what is going on inside production units, avoiding useless human suffering, and the still ocurring undustrial disasters.

  16. Metafora i (giperëkstensija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Jovanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (ruski Termin 'ëkstensija' imeet gorazdo bolee opredelennoe značenie po sravneniju s terminom metafora: ëkstensija podrazumevaet sposobnost' vyraženija (obyčno leksičeski zavisimogo slova k rasšireniju i vyraženiju svojstv predmetov, kotorye nastol'ko različny po svoej prirode, čto isključena vsjakaja vozmožnost' podobija ljubogo iz ih svojstv (ide čovek, ~ paun, ~ lav, ~ ekser, ~ voda; meka maca, ~ igračka, ~ bunda, meke papuče meko krzno, meka kruška, ~ voda, i t. p. Ëkstensija, v ukazannom značenii svjazana s giperëkstensiej, a takže s metaforoj ne po analogii, t. e. s pervymi tremja 'vidami' metafory, vydelennymi v 'Poëtike' Aristotelja ('perenesenie naimenovanija s odnogo predmeta na drugoj, pričem ili s roda na vid, ili s vida na rod, ili s vida na vid'. Različie meždu (1 poëtičeskoj metaforoj ('ukrašenie', 'stilističeskaja figura', zamečaemoj potomu, čto ona osnovyvaetsja na sbliženii dvuh ponjatij po analogii i tem samym 'soobščaet novoe znanie' ili 'živo predstavljaet vešč'', i (2 metaforoj ne po analogii t. e. perenosom naimenovanija, kotoryj neograničenno i nezametno rasširjaetsja, t. k. on ne osnovan na ustanovlenii svjazej po analogii meždu predmetami (ponjatijnaja metafora - aspekt, kotoryj do nedavnego vremeni vključalsja v termin polisemija, - možno dostatočno točno oboznačit' pri pomošči terminov intensivnaja i ëkstensivnaja metafora, sostavljajuščih oppoziciju. Takim obrazom, možno govorit' ob ëkstensivnoj metafore, kotoraja razvivaetsja v širinu i nezametna, i ob intensivnoj metafore, kotoraja zamečaetsja, t. k. razvivaetsja ne v širinu, a v glubinu.

  17. Apports spontanés en acides gras oméga 3 chez des diabétiques de type 2 tunisiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamoussi Henda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il est admis à l’unanimité que les acides gras oméga 3 ont de multiples bénéfices pour la santé et plus précisément des effets protecteurs contre les maladies cardiovasculaires et neurodégénératives. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer les apports spontanés en acides alphalinolénique (ALA, docosahexaénoïque (DHA, éicosapentaénoïque (EPA et linoléique (LA. Cette étude d’observation a été réalisée auprès de 42 diabétiques de type 2 (21 hommes et 21 femmes âgés de 30 à 75 ans. L’estimation des apports en acides gras a été réalisée en utilisant la méthode d’enregistrement sur sept jours. Les résultats ont montré que l’apport moyen en ALA était de 0,99 ± 0,40 g/j soit 0,42 ± 0,13 % de l’apport énergétique total (AET. Aucun de nos patients n’avait un apport suffisant en ALA. Les apports quotidiens moyens en DHA et en EPA étaient respectivement de 90,0 ± 85 mg/j et de 83,5 ± 80 mg/j. Quant à la contribution des aliments aux apports en EPA et en DHA, les poissons et les fruits de mer représentaient la part la plus importante (57 % de ces deux acides gras. Nos résultats appellent à renforcer l’éducation nutritionnelle des diabétiques afin d’augmenter les apports en acides gras oméga 3 et d’assurer un rapport LA/ALA optimal qui contribuerait à la prévention des maladies cardiovasculaires.

  18. Frações de Trichilia pallens com atividade inseticida sobre Tuta absoluta Fractions of Trichilia pallens with insecticidal activity against Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemerson Silva da Cunha

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar frações de extratos aquosos e orgânicos da meliácea Trichilia pallens, com atividade inseticida sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Extratos aquosos liofilizados (EAL a 3% de folhas e ramos de T. pallens foram ressuspendidos em água e aplicados sobre folíolos de tomateiro infestados com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Com base na mortalidade aos 5 e 10 dias após a infestação (dai, os EAL de folhas foram mais eficientes que os de ramos. Numa segunda etapa, foram obtidos, por maceração, extratos de folhas a 1%, em hexano (HEX, diclorometano (DIC e metanol (MET como descrito anteriormente, tendo-se incluído acetona e água como controles. Entre os extratos, o DIC foi o mais promissor como fonte de substâncias com atividade inseticida sobre lagartas de T. absoluta. Na seqüência, por meio de partição líquido-líquido do extrato DIC de folhas, obtiveram-se as frações em HEX, MET, acetato de etila (AET, n-butanol (NBU e aquosa (AQ. Destas frações, a AQ a 0,1% do extrato em DIC foi considerada a mais promissora como fonte de substâncias com atividade inseticida sobre T. absoluta.This work aimed at identifying fractions of aqueous and organic extracts of the meliaceous Trichilia pallens with insecticidal activity against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Leaf and twig freeze-dried aqueous extracts (FDA of T. pallens were resuspended in water at a concentration of 3% and sprayed over tomato leaflets, which were infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at 5 and 10 days after infestation (dai were higher for leaf extracts. In a second set of experiments, 1% leaf extracts were produced by maceration in hexane (HEX, dichloromethane (DIC and methanol (MET, and tested as described before, using acetone and water as controls. DIC extracts were the most promising as a source of substances with insecticidal activity against T. absoluta larvae, and were further

  19. Avaliando desempenho de espaços de trabalho sob o enfoque da ergonomia do ambiente construído: an ergonomic assessment of the constructed environment Measuring performance of work spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Villarouco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Representando segmento recente da ergonomia, os estudos que cuidam da adequabilidade do ambiente construído à realização das tarefas que abriga, vem agregando profissionais preocupados com a satisfação do usuário/trabalhador e com o incremento da produtividade focada em melhores condições de trabalho. Embora apresentando preocupações presentes em outras áreas do conhecimento, a ergonomia do ambiente extrapola as questões puramente arquitetônicas, focando seu posicionamento na adaptabilidade e conformidade do espaço ao trabalho que nele é desenvolvido. Nesse sentido, evoca elementos do conforto ambiental, da antropometria, da psicologia ambiental, da ergonomia cognitiva e da AET (Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho. Nesse contexto, este artigo propõe uma metodologia de Avaliação Ergonômica do Ambiente Construído, seguida de sua aplicação através de um estudo de caso, que busca inclusive a identificação da interferência da configuração espacial de ambientes de trabalho na produtividade de um sistema de produção, a partir de uma análise ergonômica do ambiente construído.Representing a recent segment of ergonomics, studies that address the suitability of the constructed environment to the tasks performed within it have been uniting professionals concerned with the user/worker satisfaction and increased productivity focused on better working conditions. Although it presents concerns from other fields of knowledge, environment ergonomics extrapolates purely architectural issues and focuses its positioning on the adaptability and conformity of the physical space to the work developed within it. It therefore addresses elements of environment comfort, anthropometry, environmental psychology, cognitive ergonomics and ergonomic work analysis. The present article proposes a methodology for an Ergonomic Assessment of the Constructed Environment, followed by its application through a case study that also aims to identify the

  20. Los sistemas de autorregulación como mecanismos de control de la publicidad de tabaco: evaluación mediante análisis empírico Self-regulation systems to control tobacco advertising: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martín

    2004-10-01

    manifiestos no respeta las normas referentes a la leyenda de advertencia. Discusión: A la vista de las «sutilezas creativas» utilizadas por el sector que vulneran las normas autoimpuestas, se plantea la necesidad de controlar la fórmula del autocontrol cuando hay indicios de que un fallo en el sistema puede acarrear consecuencias de peligro para los ciudadanos.Objective: Against the background of the debate aroused by the tobacco advertising ban as a result of Directive 98/43/EC and of the Proposed Directive of 5/9/2001, we aimed to evaluate how self-regulation of tobacco advertising systems has worked in the last 5 years and to evaluate its effectiveness and relevance as a potential tool in public health prevention. Methods: We performed a content and discourse analysis of all advertisements appearing in the Sunday supplements of the three weekly newspapers with the widest circulation in Spain (El País, El Mundo, and ABC between January 1995 and January 2000 to detect infractions of the norms of the self-regulation code of the Spanish Tobacco Association (Asociación Española de Tabaco [AET] regarding: a the identity of models used in advertising; b direct or indirect claims for the therapeutic properties of smoking; c depiction of cigarettes in advertisements, and d printed warnings on advertisements. Results: We examined 910 banners and 369 advertisements. Very few advertisements displayed rational arguments on elements such as price (13% or product components (7%. Although the AET's code was generally respected, the advertisements displayed a series of subtleties that allowed the industry to get around the code: 10 of the 369 advertisements reviewed depicted famous people (mainly pilots and artists and one third of them used iconic personages (Joe Camel or Marlboro Man; one advertisement suggested the therapeutic properties of tobacco and almost all linked smoking with social success and leisure. Although cigarettes were not depicted, 18% of the advertisements

  1. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  2. 消极情绪在程序和互动不公正感与员工偏离行为间的中介作用:传统性的调节机制%Organizational Injustice Perception and Workplace Deviance: Mechanisms of Negative Emotion and Traditionality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇清; 龙立荣; 周浩

    2012-01-01

    Workplace deviance, a negative extra-role behavior, is commonly regarded as detrimental for both employees and organizations in the workplace. Recently, increasing research interests have been raised by western scholars in this area. Workplace deviance has been studied from various perspectives, the most promising one of which is organizational injustice. Accumulating studies have investigated the mechanisms underlie and processes of the relationship between employees' perceptions of injustice and deviant behaviors. Despite fruitful findings have been obtained from those research based on the social exchange theory, the mechanisms of affect and emotion have long been neglected and under-studied. Drawing upon the Affective Event theory (AET) framework, the present study initially aims to interpret the mediating role of negative emotion played in the relationship between injustice perception and deviant behavior. Additionally, our second objective is to examine the moderating role of traditionality. More importantly, we integrate the moderating and mediating effects in the same framework, and propose that traditionality exerts stronger moderating effect on the second stage of the mediational model, that is, the relationship between negative emotion and deviance behavior.To avoid the common method bias, a paired survey for employees and their co-workers was used. Questionnaire A included scales of organizational justice perception, negative emotion, traditionality, and workplace deviance was appraised on Questionnaire B. The survey was distributed via MBA students and acquaintances. Participants were asked to appraise one of their familiar coworkers (Questionnaire B), and send the Questionnaire A to the target coworker. In total, 341 dyads of employees and their coworkers from 280 enterprises were sampled. Hierarchical Regression Modeling (HRM) and Total Effect Moderation Model with bootstrap methods were used to test the hypotheses. The results of mediating test

  3. Chemical composition of volcanic gases emitted during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Dionis, Samara; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Silva, Sónia; Fernandes, Paulo; Cardoso, Nadir; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio; Alfama, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Pico do Fogo volcano (2,800 m) is the youngest and most active volcano of the Cape Verde archipelago and is located in Fogo Island. In November 23, 2014, a new volcanic eruption occurred at the west flank of Pico do Fogo, near the site of the 1995 eruption. From November 28, 2014, daily SO2 ground-based plume measurements have been performed by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV/SNPC research team, representing the first SO2 plume measurements ever performed during an eruption of this volcano. Measurements were carried out with a miniature ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer miniDOAS to estimate the SO2 emission from the volcanic plume. On November 30th by combining mini-DOAS and a portable multi-sensor gas (Shinohara et al., 2005), we were able to quantify the SO2, H2S, H2, CO2 and H2O emission rates from the plume. Multi-sensor gas measurements were performed about 1 km distance from the eruptive vent. Average SO2 emission rate calculated from 4 traverses on November 30, 2014, was 117 kg s-1 (10,118 t d-1). Combining this value with the estimated average CO2/SO2, SO2/H2S, and H2S/H2 and H2O/SO2 mass ratios (1.06, 178, 568 and 2.40, respectively), we calculated the CO2, H2S, H2 and H2O plume emissions: 124 kg s-1 (10,688 t d-1), 0.7 kg s-1 (57 t d-1), 0.2 kg s-1 (18 t d-1), and 281 kg s-1 (24,245 t d-1), respectively. Plume gas composition obtained in November 30 indicated average CO2/SO2, CO2/H2O and SO2/H2S molar ratios of 1.5, 0.3 and 7.5, respectively. These values were remarkably different from those molar ratios measured at the fumarole discharges from summit crater previously to the eruption onset, and representative of the ascent of magma to the surface and the injection of SO2-rich hot magmatic gases in the H2S-rich hydrothermal system of Pico do Fogo volcano as was observed through the increase on the SO2/ H2S and decrease on the CO2/SO2 measured molar plume ratios. Based on the measured chemical composition of the plume, the apparent equilibrium temperature (AET) was

  4. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e

  5. Effects of microtubule stabilizer on connexin 43 of isolated cardiac myocytes under hypoxia injury%微管稳定剂Taxol对缺氧心肌细胞Cx43蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德国; 王新; 刘玉; 王星; 邢文; 李祥东; 杨胜; 王安才; 孙贤林

    2012-01-01

    Aim To observe the effects of mierotu-bule stabilizer ( Taxol) on eonnexin43 ( Cx43 ) expression and distribution of eardiae myoeyles and investi-gate its new value as an anti-arrhylhmie agent. Methods Cardiae myoevles isolated from aduk rats were exposed to hypoxia for 120 min with or without taxol ( a kind of mierotubule stabilizer ) in different. eoneentra-tions. Cellular survival was assayed by trypan blue dye-exelusion. Cx43 expression was determined by western blots. Cx43 distribution was deteeted by immu-nofluoreseenee staining and observed under laser sean-ning eonfoeal mieroseope. Results The cell viability under hypoxie eondition was redueed signifieantly whieh showed only few numbers of rod-shaped eells. Taxol promoted cell survival in a dose-dependent man- ner at the range of0. 1~10 nmol · L-1 . At the range of 100 nmol o L-1~ 10 μmol · L~1 , taxol lead toredueed cell survival. Taxol in a dose-dependent manner improved Cx43 expression even although exeessive taxol also suppressed Cx43. Cx43 was loeat ed in both ends of intaet eardiae myoeyles ( interealated disk ) and redistributed in both sides of the cell under hypoxie eonditions. Taxol dose-dependently inhibited lateraliza-tion of Cx43 in lower eoneentration and further de-ereased Cx43 in the interealated disk. Conclusions Cx43 redistribution indueed by hypoxie is proteeted by low dosage of taxol. Mierotubule stabilizer may be ae-ted as a new anti-arrhythmie agent.%目的 观察微管稳定剂Taxol对缺氧心肌细胞Cx43表达和分布的影响,探讨其作为新的抗心律失常药物的潜在价值.方法 酶解法分离的大鼠心肌细胞缺氧120 min,并以不同浓度的Taxol干预;台盼蓝排斥实验测定细胞存活率;免疫印迹检测Cx43的蛋白表达,免疫荧光染色后激光共聚焦显微镜观察分析Cx43的分布.结果 Taxol在0.1~10 nmol·L-1浓度下成剂量依赖性地提高杆状细胞数,促进细胞存活,而100 nmol·L-1~10 μmol·L-1浓度下杆状细胞数

  6. Multi-scale Characterization and Modeling of Surface Slope Probability Distribution for ~20-km Diameter Lunar Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    computed over multiple scales. This slope analysis showed that local slope distributions are non-Gaussian for both crater walls and floors. Over larger baselines (~100 meters), crater wall slope probability distributions do approximate Gaussian distributions better, but have long distribution tails. Crater floor probability distributions however, were always asymmetric (for the baseline scales analyzed) and less affected by baseline scale variations. Accordingly, our results suggest that use of long tailed probability distributions (like Cauchy) and a baseline-dependant multi-scale model can be more effective in describing the slope statistics for lunar topography. Refrences: [1]Moore, H.(1971), JGR,75(11) [2]Marcus, A. H.(1969),JGR,74 (22).[3]R.J. Pike (1970),U.S. Geological Survey Working Paper [4]N. C. Costes, J. E. Farmer and E. B. George (1972),NASA Technical Report TR R-401 [5]M. N. Parker and G. L. Tyler(1973), Radio Science, 8(3),177-184 [6]Alekseev, V. A.et al (1968), Soviet Astronomy, Vol. 11, p.860 [7]Burns et al. (2012) Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XXXIX-B4, 483-488.[8]Smith et al. (2010) GRL 37, L18204, DOI: 10.1029/2010GL043751. [9]Wagner R., Robinson, M., Speyerer E., Mahanti, P., LPSC 2013, #2924.

  7. Radioprotectors in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, C.K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Parida, D.K.; Nomura, Taisei

    2001-03-01

    This review article focuses on clinically relevant radioprotectors and their mechanisms of radioprotection. Radiotherapy is the most common modality of human cancer therapy. Obtaining optimal results requires a judicious balance between the total dose of radiotherapy delivered and the threshold limit of critical surrounding normal tissues, and the normal tissues need to be protected against radiation injury to obtain better tumor control by using a higher dose. For this reason, radiation-protective agents play an important role in clinical radiotherapy. Radiation-protective agents can be classified into three groups: radioprotectors, adaptogens, and absorbents. The first group generally consists of sulfhydryl compounds and other antioxidants. They include several myelo-, entero-, and cerebro-protectors. Adaptogens act as promotors of radioresistance. They are natural protectors that offer chemical protection against low levels of ionizing radiation. Absorbents protect organs from internal radiation and chemicals. They include drugs that prevent incorporation of radioiodine by the thyroid gland and absorption of radionuclides. This article thoroughly describes the properties, mechanisms of action, and perspectives on clinical application of the following categories of radioprotectors: sulfhydryl compounds (e.g., cysteine, cysteamine, glutathione, AET, WR 2127, and other WR-compounds), antioxidants (e.g., tempace, Hoechst 33342, vitamin A, E, and C, TMG, melatonin), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., captopril, elanopril, penicillamine, pentoxifylline, L-158, 809), cytoprotective agents (mesna, dexrazoxane, and amifostin), metalloelements (e.g., manganese chloride, cadmium salts, bismuth subnitrate), immunomodulators (gamma-interferon, polysaccharides AM5, AM218, heat-killed lactobacillus cells, broncho-vaxom, trehalose dicorynomycolate, and AS101), lipopolysaccharides and prostaglandins, plant extracts and compounds isolated from plants (curcmin

  8. Identification and virulence gene detection of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio chol-erae isolates causing septicemia%致血流感染非 O1群非 O139群霍乱弧菌的鉴定及毒力基因检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玖明; 张爱平; 李智山; 杨燕; 赵建忠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify an suspected Vibrio cholerae isolated from Xiangyang Central Hospital and characterize the strain in terms of antibiotic resistance and relevant virulence genes.Methods Pathogen identification and susceptibility testing were completed with MicroScan WalkAway 40 Automated Microbiology System.Slide agglutination was used for serotyping. PCR and sequencing technology were employed for 16s RNA gene analysis.PCR technique was used to detect six major viru-lence genes.Results This suspectedVibrio cholerae isolate was confirmed as non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae .Suscep-tibility testing results indicated that the strain was sensitive to ampicillin,chloramphenicol,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline.16s RNA gene sequence analysis showed 100% homologous with the registered sequence in National Center for Biotechnology Information database.Virulence genes rtxC and toxR were identified.The other virulence genes such as tcpAET,ctxA,hlyA,and tcpACL were negative.Conclusions This suspected Vibrio cholerae isolate is confirmed as non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae .The pathogenic factors may be related to the virulence genes rtxC and toxR.%目的:对襄阳市中心医院分离1株疑似霍乱弧菌进行鉴定及药物敏感性试验,并检测其主要毒力基因。方法利用MicroScan WalkAway 40鉴定仪进行生化鉴定及药物敏感性试验,玻片凝集法确定其血清型别,应用 PCR 及测序技术分析其16SrRNA 基因;PCR 检测其6个毒力基因。结果经鉴定,该株疑似霍乱菌株为非 O1群非 O139群霍乱弧菌,经16SrRNA分析与美国国家生物技术信息中心数据库中霍乱弧菌相似性达100%。药敏试验结果显示该菌对氨苄西林、氯霉素、甲氧苄啶-磺胺甲口恶唑、四环素均敏感,毒力基因检测 rtxC 和 toxR 阳性,tcpAET、ctx A 、hlyA、tcpACL 阴性。结论该株疑似霍乱弧菌为非 O1群非 O139群霍乱弧菌,其致病与 rtxC、toxR 毒力基因有关。

  9. Desenvolvimento e operação de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento dos efluentes da suinocultura em escala laboratorial Development and operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure in laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade suinícola vem, desde meados da década de 70, sendo uma das mais poluidoras atividades agroindustriais no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket visando tratar os dejetos produzidos com máxima eficiência dentro de um tempo e com custo reduzidos. Para tanto um experimento em escala laboratorial foi projetado e monitorado no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (LAADEG, sendo composto por um Tanque de Acidificação e Equalização (TAE, um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo e uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF, o qual foi alimentado com fluxo contínuo. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: DQO, DBO5, Sólidos Totais (Fixos e Voláteis, Temperatura, pH, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Acidez e Alcalinidade Total. O sistema proporcionou eficiência de remoção média de 93% de DQO, 84% de DBO5 e 85% de Sólidos Totais Voláteis, demonstrando adequada adaptação aos diversos tempos de detenção hidráulica adotados (55, 40, 30, 25, 18 e 15 horas. Os parâmetros adotados na partida do reator UASB foram: COV: 1,11kgDQO.m-3.d-1, COB: 0,019 kgDBO5.kgSVT-1.d-1 e TDH: 55h.The swine production, since 70th , is one of the most pollutant agro-industrial activities in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, aiming at treating the effluent generated within a maximum efficiency and minimum time and cost. Therefore, a lab-scale reactor was built up and monitored in the laboratory of Engineering Department at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system consisted of an Acidification and Equalization Tank (AET, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB, and an Aerated Facultative Pond (AFP. The system was fed continuously. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: COD, BOD5, Total

  10. 有替代硅酸盐水泥熟料的生产的选择吗?(英文)%Are There Any Practical Alternatives to the Manufacture of Portland Cement Clinker?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellis GARTNER

    2012-01-01

    There is a continuing need to look for alternative hydraulic binders with lower associated CO2 emissions than conventional Portland clinker(PC) based cements.Several novel non-PC-based binder systems that are at various different stages of development are reviewed.Currently,most cement makers are trying to replace PC to as great an extent as possible with supplementary cementi-tious materials(SCMs) in order to reduce the carbon footprint of cements,but are reaching limits due to the low hydraulic reactivity of pozzolans.In favorable cases this may be compensated by activation with concentrated basic alkali metal solutions,e.g.in complex formulations lying in between "geopolymers" and lime-activated pozzolanic binders.But an alternative approach,using clinkers based on belite,calcium sulfoaluminate and calcium aluminoferrite,such as Lafarge′s Aether?,also shows promise,as such clinkers can be made in conventional cement kilns.In the longer term,binders based on raw materials with no fossil CO2 content,such as magnesium silicates,might allow cements to be manufactured with zero carbon footprints.However,proof of durability in service seems likely to be the rate-limiting step for the acceptance of all such alternative binders,and the binder′s ability to protect reinforcing steel from corrosion remains the most critical issue for many applications.%人们一直在寻找CO2排放量低的水硬性胶凝材料,用它替代传统的以硅酸盐水泥熟料(Portland clinker,PC)为主的水泥。介绍了几种处于不同发展时期的新型非PC基的胶凝材料体系。目前大多数水泥生产商都尽可能多地用辅助性胶凝材料替代硅酸盐水泥熟料。火山灰材料具有低的水硬活性,它可使用高浓度碱金属溶液来激发,得到介于"地聚合物"和石灰激发火山灰胶凝材料间的复合胶凝材料。较远期可以期待基于贝利特、硫铝酸钙和铁铝酸钙矿物组成的水泥熟料,如拉法基公司的Aet

  11. MRI patterns of grey matter atrophy in amnestic Mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害的全脑灰质基于体素的MRI形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志莲; 韩璎; 卢洁; 贾秀琴; 李坤成; 张苗; 戎冬冬; 贾建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the patterns of grey matter loss between subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal health eldly. Methods: We studied 20 patients with aMCI and 18 age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D data aets. The data were collected on a 3 T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate grey matter volume maps. Results: VBM revealed diffusively reduccd grey matter in aMCI prominently including the right uncus, the bilateral inferior, superior and midial frontal gyrus, the bilatcral medial temporal gyrus , the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the right superior parietal gyrus ,and the left middle occipital gyrus ( P <0. 001). Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automatic approach providing a full brain assessment of aMCI grey morphology. It is important for diagnosing aMCI.%目的:利用优化基于体素的MRI形态分析(voxel-based morphometry,VBM),研究遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)和正常老年人的脑灰质体积变化.方法:选取aMCl患者20例和正常老年对照18例,MRI排除脑内其他病变,然后行高分辨率三维T1 WI扫描.应用优化VBM方法处理数据,将脑组织分割成灰质、白质和脑脊液,最后应用两样本t检验比较两组被试灰质体积改变.结果:VBM结果显示与正常老年对照组比较,aMCI患者组双侧额颞叶出现广泛的灰质体积减少,具体脑区为右侧海马钩回、双侧额下回、双侧额中回、右侧额上回、双颞叶额中回、左侧颞下回、左侧颞上回,右侧顶上小叶、左侧枕中回等结构灰质体积小于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:VBM方法可显示aMCI患者全脑灰质萎缩情况,对临床早期诊断aMCl患者有重要价值,具有广阔的临床应用前景.

  12. 慢速冷冻胚胎TET周期当天与解冻后培养1d移植结果分析%Outcome of Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer between Different Culture Time In Vitro in Natural Cycles and Artificial Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞岐; 王文军; 麦美琪; 欧阳能勇; 马芸; 陈静华; 张宁锋

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the outcome of slow-frozen/thawed embryo transfer (TET) between different culture time of the embryos frozen at day 3(D3) in vitro in natural and artificial cycles. [Methods] A database was analyzed retrospectively concerning TET cycles covered 552 cycles, in which the number of thawed embryos ^1 and ^3 from February 2009 to December 2010. According to the different culture time after embryo thawing, they were divided into group A(ET at the thawing day) and group B (ET at the next day ofter embryo thawed). And these two groups were further divided into nature cycle and artificial cycle. [Results] Although there were not significantly different between the couples age, the number of embryos transferred and the embryos scale (P > 0.05).The implantation rates of D3 frozen embryos in group B were significantly higher than those in group A in both of the nature cycles and the artificial cycles (17.9 vs 12.3,P< 0.05; 17.3% vs 8.7%,P< 0.05), respectively.[Conclusion] The effect of extending incubation time of thawed embryos does not significantly effect the outcome of D2 freezing embryos. But in the TET cycles of D3 frozen embryos, ET at the next day of embryo thawed will be better for the embryo implantation.%[目的]探讨第3天(D3)慢速冷冻胚胎解冻后当天行胚胎移植(ET)和体外培养1d后ET在自然周期和人工周期中对临床结局的影响.[方法]回顾性分析本中心2009年1月至2010年12月期间的解冻胚胎数≥1,且≤3的552个卵裂期冷冻胚胎TET周期的临床结果,根据解冻后体外培养时间分为A组(当天ET)和B组(培养1d后ET),这两个组再分为自然周期组和人工周期组.[结果]D3冷冻胚胎在自然周期和人工周期,A、B两组女方年龄、平均移植胚胎数、胚胎评分以及妊娠率均没有统计学意义(P>0.05),但是,在自然周期和人工周期中B组种植率较A组均有统计学意义(17.9 vs 12.3,P< 0.05;17.3%vs 8.7%,P< 0.05).[结

  13. Malpractice claims and unintentional outcome of tonsil surgery and other standard procedures in otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2013-12-01

    compensation of malpractice after LN (16; 57%, TE (10; 37%, SP (8; 57% and AE (2; 100%. There were 16 cases of PTH amongst 27 trials after TE resulting either in death (5 or apallic syndrome (5. Bleeding complications had occurred on the day of surgery in only 2 patients. 16 trials were based on malpractice claims following SP encompassing lack of informed consent (6, anosmia (4, septal perforation (2, frontobasal injury (2 and dry nose (2. Trials after LN procedures were associated exclusively with a lesion of the spinal accessory nerve (28, including lack of informed consent in 19 cases. 49 cases (69% were decided for the defendant, 22 (31% were decided for the plaintiff with monetary compensation in 7 of 29 AE/TE-trials, 9 of 28 LN-trials and 6 of 14 SP-trials. Lack of informed consent was not registered for AE/TE but LN (11 and SP (2. Conclusion: Complicated cases following TE, TT, ATE, SP and LN are not systematically collected in Germany. It can be assumed, that not every complicated case is published in the medical literature or law journals and therefore not obtainable for scientific research. Alleged medical malpracice is proven for less than 6% before trial stage. Approximately half of all cases result in a plaintiff verdict or settlement at court. Proper documentation of a thourough counselling, examination, indication, informed consent and follow-up assists the surgeon in litigation. An adequate complication management of PTH is essential, including instructions for the patients/parents, instructions for the medical staff and readily available surgical instruments. Successful outcome of life-threatening PTH is widely based on a proper airway management in an interdisciplinary approach. Electrosurgical tonsillectomy techniques were repeatedly labeled as a risk factor for bleeding complications following TE. Institutions should analyse the individual PTH rate on a yearly basis. Contradictory expert opinions and verdicts of the courts concerning spinal accesory nerve

  14. Uso de lagoa aerada facultativa como polimento do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo UASB no tratamento de dejetos de suínos em escala laboratorial The efficiency of an aerated pond used for treating the effluent of an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating swine manure in a lab-scale system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro do Carmo

    2004-06-01

    Acidification Equalization Tank (AET, an UASB reactor and an Aerobic Facultative Pound (AFP for polishing the UASB effluent. The physical-chemical analysis carried out through out the experiment, were: pH, BOD5, COD T, Total Solids, Temperature, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Alkalinity, and total acidity. The AFP unity showed an average efficiency of 83 and 42% for remooing COD T and total Nitrogen, respectively. The whole system operated with an average of 93, 84 and 85% of COD T, BOD5 and Total Volatile Solids, respectively.

  15. Subsidence history and forming mechanism of anomalous tectonic subsidence in the Bozhong depression, Bohaiwan basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; XiNong

    2007-01-01

    [1]Li D S.Tectonic framework of the Bohai Gulf and coastal basins.Mar Sci,1982,1:82-93[2]Li S T.Basin geodynamics background of formation of huge petroleum systems (in Chinese).Earth Sci-J China Univ Geosci,2004,29(5):505-512[3]Allen M B,Macdonald D I M,Zhao X,et al.Early Cenozoic two-phase extension and late Cenozoic thermal subsidence and inversion of the Bohai basin,northern China.Mar Petrol Geol,1997,14(7/8):951-972[4]Gong Z S,Wang G C.Neotectonism and late hydrocarbon accumulation in Bohai Sea.Acta Pet Sin (in Chinese),2001,22(2):1-8[5]Hu S B,O'Sullivan P B,Raza A,et al.Thermal history and tectonic subsidence of the Bohai Basin,northern China:a Cenozoic rifted and local pull-apart basin.Phys Earth Planet Int,2001,126:221-235[6]Ren J Y,Tamaki K,Li S T,et al.Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in Eastern China and adjacent areas.Tectonophysics,2002,344:175-205[7]Li D S.Tectonics of Petroliferous Basins in China (in Chinese).Beijing:Petroleum Industry Press,2002.674[8]Xu J,Ma Z J,Deng Q D,et al.Regional tectonic conditions for intensive subsidence of the middle Bohai Sea since Oligocene.Acta Pet Sin (in Chinese),2004,25(5):11-16[9]Sclater J G,Christie P A F.Continental stretching:an explanation of the post Mid-Cretaceous subsidence of the central North Sea basin.J Geophys Res,1980,85:3711-3739[10]Xie X N,Müller R D,Li S T,et al.Origin of anomalous tectonic subsidence along the northern South China Sea Margin and its relationship to dynamic topography.Mar Pet Geol,2006,23(7):745-765[11]White N.Recovery of strain-rate variation from inversion of subsidence data.Nature,1993,366(6454):449-452[12]White N.An inverse method for determining lithosphere strain rate variation on geological time scales.Earth Planet Sci Lett,1994,122:351-371[13]Xie X N,Bethke C M,Li S T,et al.Overpressure and Petroleum generation and accumulation in the Dongying Depression of the Bohaiwan Basin,China.Geofluids,2001,1(4):257-271[14]Hall R.Reconstructing Cenozoic SE

  16. Records of Toba eruptions in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlANG; Xirong

    2001-01-01

    12]Rampino, M. R., Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74, 000 years ago, Quaternary Research, 1993, 40:269-280.[13]Wang, P., Prell, W. L., Blum, P. et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 184 [CD-ROM], 2000, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845-9547, USA.[14]Ninkovich, D., Shackleton, N. J., Abdel-Monem, A. A. et al., K-Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra, Nature, 1978, 276: 574-577.[15]Chesner, C. A., Rose, W. I., Deino, A.et al., Eruptive history of Earth's largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clari fied, Geology, 1991, 19: 200-203.[16]Zhao Quanhong, Jian Zhimin, Li Baohua et al., Microtektites in the Middle Pleistocene deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea, Science in China, Set. D, 1999, 42 (5): 531-535.[17]Baksi, A. K., Hsu, V., McWilliams, M. O. et al., 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic field reversal,Science, 1992, 256: 356-357.[18]Schneider, D. A., Kent, D. V., Mello, G. A., A detailed chronology of the Australasian impact event, the Brunhes-atuyama geomagnetic polarity reversal, and global climate change, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1992, 111: 395-405.[19]Zielinski, G. A., Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D. et al., A ll0,000-Yr record of explosive volcanism from the GISP2(Greenland) ice core, Quaternary Research, 1996, 45: 109-118.[20]McGuire, W. J., Howarth, R. J., Firth, C. R. et al., Correlation between rate of sea-level change and frequency of explosive volcanism in the Mediterranean, Nature, 1997, 389: 473-476.[21]Schulz, H., Rad, U. V., Erlenkeuser, H., Correlation between Arabian Sea and Greenland climate oscillations of the past 110,000 years, Nature, 1998, 393: 54-57.[22]Ledbetter, M., Sparks, R. S. J., The duration of large-magnitude silicic eruptions deduced from graded bedding in deep-sea tephra layers, Geology, 1979, 7: 240-244.[23]Wei Gangjian, Gui Xuntang, Li Xianhua et al., Strontium and

  17. 幽门螺杆菌与少见的胃外疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾掌生

    2001-01-01

    ,348(9022):268-269 [12]Fishbach W,Tacke W,Greiner A,et al.Regression of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.Lancet,1997,349(9044):31-32 [13]Matsumoto T,Iida M,Shimizu M.Regression of mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma of rectum after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.Lancet,1997,350(9071):115-116 [14]Siringo S,Vaira D,Menegatti M,et al.High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in liver cirrhosis:Relationship with clinical and endoscopic features and the Rish of peptic ulcer.Dig Dis Sci,1997,42(10):2024-2030 [15]McCormick PA,Sankey EA,Cardin F,et al.Congestive gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori:an endoscopic and morphometric study.Gut,1991,32(4):351-354 [16]Figura N,Cetta F,Angeiico M,et al.Most Helicobacter pylori-infected patients have specific antibodies,and some also have H.pylori antigens and genomic material in bile.Is it a risk factor for gallstone formation.Dig Dis Sci,1998,43(4):854-862 [17]Pattison CP,Marshall BJ.Proposed link between Helicobacter pylori and sudden infant death syndrome.Med Hypotheses,1997,49(5):365-369 收稿日期:2000年6月7日

  18. Determination of kinetic parameters of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reator (uasb removing organic loading from swine manure effluents Determinação de parâmetros cinéticos utilizando reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (uasb em escala laboratorial para remoção da carga orgânica de efluentes de suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at determining and evaluating the kinetic parameters from the UASB reactor treating swine manure effluent in a lab-scale experiment. The research was carried out in the Laboratory of Water Analysis at the Engineering Department (LAADEG at the campus of Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The system was assembled with an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an UASB reactor and an aerated facultative pond (AFP. The hydraulic retention time (HRT adopted in the UASB reactor were: 55; 39; 34; 24; 17; and 16 hours. The operational average temperature in the UASB reactor was 25 ± 2ºC. The kinetic studies used the following parameters: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD T, Total Volatile Solids (TVS, Temperature, Flowrate and Total Solids Profile (TVS P, in the reactor, and the number of analyses were: 72; 72; 250; 250; and 30, respectively. The frequency was twice a week for COD T, and TVS, and daily for temperature and flowrate. The kinetic parameters determined were: yield coefficient Y=0.3046 to 0.4231mg COD T mgTVS-1.d-1, decay coefficient Kd=0.0125 to 0.0173d-1, maximum growth rate coefficient ìmax=0.2835 to 0.03938d-1 and limiting substrate concentration coefficient Ks= 51.70 to 71.80mg COD T.L-1. The values found were within the range appointed in the specific literatures and were determined based on linear regression studies, giving in this way, a technical scientific support to the physical chemical operational data collected during the operational research period.Com a presente pesquisa, objetivou-se determinar os parâmetros cinéticos de um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket, em escala laboratorial, empregado para reduzir a carga orgânica poluidora de dejetos de suínos. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia LAADEG localizado no campus da UFLA, utilizando dejetos de suínos coletados da granja de suínos do Departamento

  19. Mass budgets of the Lambert, Mellor and Fisher Glaciers and basal fluxes beneath their flowbands on Amery Ice Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; JiaHong

    2007-01-01

    measurement of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet,1978―1988,from satellite radar altimetry.IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sensing,2001,39(3):635―644[52]Wingham D J,Ridout A J,Scharroo R,et al.Antarctic elevation change from 1992-1996.Science,1998,282:456―458[53]McConnell J R,Arthern R J,Mosley-Thompson E,et al.Changes in Greenland ice sheet elevation attributed primarily to snow accumulation variability.Nature,2000,406:877―879[54]Thomas R,Csathó B M,Davis C,et al.Mass balance of higher-ele-vation parts of the Greenland ice sheet.J Geophys Res,2001,106(D24):33707―33716[55]Higham M,Craven M,Ruddell A,et al.Snow-accumulation distribution in the interior of the Lambert Glacier basin,Antarctica.Ann Glaciol,1997,25:412―417[56]Fricker H A,Young N W,Allison I,et al.Iceberg calving from the Amery Ice Shelf,East Antarctica.Ann Glaciol,2002,34:241―246[57]Jezek K C.Recent changes in the dynamic condition of the Ross Ice Shelf,Antarctica.J Geophys Res,1984,89 (B1):409―416[58]Phillips H A.Applications of ERS satellite radar altimetry in the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf system,East Antarctica.Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree,Hobart,Univ.of Tasmania,Australia.1999,1―308[59]Allison I.The AMISOR project:ice shelf dynamics and ice-ocean interaction of the Amery Ice Shelf,FRISP Report No.14,2003[60]Penrose J,Conde M,Pauly T.Acoustic detection of ice crystals in Antarctic waters.J Geophys Res,1994,99(C6):12573―12580[61]Leffanue H,Craven M.Circulaition and water masses from current meter and T/S measurements at the Amery Ice Shelf.FRISP Report No.15,2004[1]IPCC.Climate Change 2007:The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers.Paris,February 2007