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Sample records for aestivum por incorporacion

  1. Suspended sediment entrainment estimation in unsteady turbulent flows by means of a stochastic meted; Computo de la incorporacion de sedimento en suspension en flujos turbulentos no permanentes utilizando un enfoque estocastico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Jose Fernando; Garcia, Marcelo Horacio [Universidad de Illinois (United States); Admiraal, David Mark [Universidad de Nebraska en Lincoln (United States)

    2001-06-01

    In order to compute the total amount and vertical distribution of suspended sediment, a reference concentration near the bed or entrainment function is needed, and considerable research effort has been dedicated to obtain such formulae. Several entrainment functions are available in the literature, but all of them have been developed for steady, uniform flow conditions. The ability of such relationships to predict entrainment rates in unsteady flows has not been demonstrated, nor has there been any attempt to develop a general formulation that work for both steady and unsteady flow conditions. The traditional approach relates the entrainment of sediment to the wall shear stress associated with skin friction in a deterministic way, providing only a relation between mean values. An alternative is to consider both the shear stress and the entrainment as stochastic turbulent quantities and to express them in terms of their probability density functions (PDFs). In this way, statistics of the entrainment can be obtained from measured shear stress PDFs, either in steady or unsteady situations, since the effect of unsteadiness is embedded in the PDF. This new methodology was used to estimate sediment entrainment produced by the passage of vessels in the Mississippi River and the Illinois River. Using a low order cumulant expansion to describe the PDF of the shear stress and a generalized version of Garcia and Parker's entrainment relationship, an expression for the average of the entrainment as a function of the average, variance, skewness of the shear stress distribution was obtained. Predictions compared favourably with values reported in the literature. [Spanish] Para calcular la cantidad total y distribucion vertical de sedimento en suspension es preciso conocer una concentracion de referencia cerca del lecho o funcion de incorporacion, para lo cual se ha hecho un considerable esfuerzo por obtener dichas formulas. Existen varias funciones de incorporacion en la

  2. Contribución de la fotosíntesis de la espiga al rendimiento de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum) en condiciones limitadas por la disponibilidad de asimilados post-antesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maydup, María Luján

    2013-01-01

    Las partes verdes de la espiga (e.g. brácteas, aristas) son fuente de asimilados en cereales C3. Sin embargo, la contribución de la fotosíntesis de la espiga en trigo pan (Triticum aestivum L.) es menos conocida que el resto de las fuentes de asimilados (v.g. fotosíntesis de la hoja bandera, retranslocados del tallo). En trigo es ampliamente aceptado que la limitación por fuente no está presente en cultivares antiguos (Kruk et al. 1997; Borrás et al. 2004). Sin embargo, en germoplasma moderno...

  3. Influence of the nitrate concentration and source in the incorporation of 14{sub C}O2 by the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat (triticum aestivum) and maize (zea mays); Influencia de la concentracion y fuente de nitrogeno en la incorporacion de 14{sub C}O2 por la RuBp-carboxilasa de trigo (triticum aewtivum) y maiz (zea mays)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez Angulo, R. M.; Gines Diaz, M. J.; Garcia Pineda, M. D.

    1982-07-01

    The effect of the concentration and source of nitrogen in the culture media has been studied regarding its influence in the activity of the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat and maize during the first month of development. Wheat and maize has been chosen as plants representatives of two different types of CO{sub 2} assimilation: C3 and M- respectively. Plants have been grown in hydroponic media and under temperature, humidity and nutrient salts control. A negative effect of NH{sub 4} has been observed in the enzymatic activity of wheat seedlings, being this effect more remarkable as NH{sub 4} concentration increases and as long the time of treatment. In our experimental conditions the most favorable source of nitrogen has been N0{sub 3}NH{sub 4}. The specific activity of the enzyme from wheat is about four times higher than in maize, even it decreases with time. This decreasing has not been observed in maize, with the exception of total absence of nitrogen in the media. We have not seen significant differences between the two photo periods which have been tested. Also, no differences have been found in the enzyme activities at the different NO{sub 3}NH{sub 4} concentrations assayed, and it seems that RuBP-carboxylase metabolism is only affected in the case of absolute stress. (Author) 20 refs.

  4. Study of the properties of Ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from maize (Zea mays) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) by incorporation of 14{sub C}O2; Estudio de las propiedades de la Ribulosa-1,5-Difosfato Carboxilasa/Oxigenasa de maiz (Zea Mais) y de trigo (Triticum Aestivum), por incorporacion de CO{sub 2} marcado con 14{sub C}O2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. D.; Saez, R. M.

    1982-07-01

    After a bibliographic review of the properties of RuBP-carboxylase/oxygenase, a methodology is described which allows the treatment of a large number of samples for the assay of the enzyme activity. 14{sup C}O{sub 3}HNa is used as a marker for the counting of the incorporated radioactivity as acid insoluble material. 14''CC{sub 2} from the labeled sodium bicarbonate is the species used by the enzyme both as an activator as well as a substrate. The following experiments are described and its results given: Determination of the optimal conditions for the activation of the enzyme; study of the kinetics of the catalytic action; effect of the Mg{sup 2} concentration and determination of the Km{sub (s)} from CO{sub 2} and ribulose 1,5-biphosphate; also determination of the optimum pH at different concentrations of CO{sub 2}2 and Mg{sup 2}. (Author) 64 refs.

  5. Valor nutritivo de pan con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo (Triticum aestivum por arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft, fortificado

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    María Elena León Marroú

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la composición química y el valor nutricional de pan fortificado con hierro, elaborado en Perú, con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo en un 40 % por una masa de consistencia pastosa de raíces de Arracacha, un cultivo andino subexplotado por la aplicación de tecnologías empíricas y desplazado por patrones de consumo foráneo. Se describen brevemente aspectos tecnológicos de la elaboración del pan. El pan fortificado presenta contenidos de proteína 8,32 %; grasa 10,11 % y carbohidratos 55,13 % con un valor energético de 344,79 kcal/100 g; aporta principalmente K (77,05 mg/100 g, Fe (> 5 mg/100 g, P (19,87 mg/100 g, Ca (19,29 mg/100 g y Mg (11,93 mg/100 g, entre otros y vitaminas A (28,52 UI y C (10,75 UI, estando presentes en menor cuantía las vitaminas E y del complejo B. Para los elementos y vitaminas, el pan satisface parte de las Cantidades Diarias Recomendadas y en ninguno de los casos los Niveles de Ingesta Máximos Tolerables son excedidos.

  6. Valor nutritivo de pan con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo (Triticum aestivum por arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft, fortificado

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    María Elena León Marroú

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la composición química y el valor nutricional de pan fortificado con hierro, elaborado en Perú, con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo en un 40 % por una masa de consistencia pastosa de raíces de Arracacha, un cultivo andino subexplotado por la aplicación de tecnologías empíricas y desplazado por patrones de consumo foráneo. Se describen brevemente aspectos tecnológicos de la elaboración del pan. El pan fortificado presenta contenidos de proteína 8,32 %; grasa 10,11 % y carbohidratos 55,13 % con un valor energético de 344,79 kcal/100 g; aporta principalmente K (77,05 mg/100 g, Fe (> 5 mg/100 g, P (19,87 mg/100 g, Ca (19,29 mg/100 g y Mg (11,93 mg/100 g, entre otros y vitaminas A (28,52 UI y C (10,75 UI, estando presentes en menor cuantía las vitaminas E y del complejo B. Para los elementos y vitaminas, el pan satisface parte de las Cantidades Diarias Recomendadas y en ninguno de los casos los Niveles de Ingesta Máximos Tolerables son excedidos.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE LA TOLERANCIA A LA SEQUÍA EN GENOTIPOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. OBTENIDOS EN CUBA POR INDUCCIÓN DE MUTACIONES

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    L. M. González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la tolerancia a la sequía en genotipos cubanos de trigo obtenidos por inducción de mutaciones sobre la base de la germinación y el crecimiento de las plántulas y sobre la base del rendimiento agrícola y la profundidad que exploran las raíces en el suelo. A través del análisis de Conglomerado Jerárquico y de Ligamiento Completo sobre la base de la distancia Euclidiana, los genotipos se reunieron en dos grupos según los índices de tolerancia medidos en las etapas iniciales del desarrollo de las plantas y en tres sobre la base de los índices medidos en la cosecha, indicando la existencia de variabilidad genética. en los materiales introducidos, destacándose las variedades INIFAT RM-26 e INIFAT RM-36 como las de mejor comportamiento, por lo que pueden ser introducidas en áreas con bajos suministros de agua. El valor del coeficiente de coincidencia W=0.82 reveló la existencia de un alto grado de congruencia entre las clasificaciones establecidas, lo que denota la posibilidad de complementar las evaluaciones de la tolerancia a la sequía con indicadores del crecimiento de las plántulas e indicadores agronómicos durante la cosecha.

  8. Balanço de água por aquisição automática de dados em cultura de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. The daily water consumption of a wheat culture using atmospheric and soil data

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    Celso Luiz Prevedello

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando técnica de aquisição automática de dados atmosféricos e de teor de água do solo, este trabalho quantificou o consumo diário de água em cultura do trigo em Latossolo Vermelho do município de Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, durante o período de agosto a dezembro de 2003, procurando dar ênfase à contribuição das chuvas e dos fluxos ascendentes de água das camadas mais profundas do solo nesse consumo. Os resultados mostraram que no período monitorado: (a a lâmina média diária de água evapotranspirada pela cultura do trigo foi de 6,75 mm, com o fluxo ascendente de água no perfil de solo contribuindo com 62 % desse total; (b as taxas de evapotranspiração estimadas pelo método de Penman e pela equação do balanço hídrico (pedológico se transladaram no tempo com simetria aproximadamente igual, mas com defasagem aproximada de sete dias, como se o solo respondesse às variações impostas pela atmosfera cerca de uma semana depois; (c as chuvas tiveram efeito importante no armazenamento de água no solo, contribuindo para elevação das taxas evapotranspirativas; e (d pelo fato de o potencial mátrico médio na zona das raízes ter-se apresentado próximo do limite crítico para a cultura, concluiu-se que a irrigação poderia produzir impactos potencialmente positivos para a cultura, por disponibilizar mais água no solo e garantir níveis evapotranspirativos mais altos, como é agronomicamente desejável.The daily water consumption of a wheat culture was quantified on an Oxisoil using atmospheric and soil data measured automatically on an experimental farm in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The measurement period was August through December 2003. The rain contribution to soil moisture and the vertical upward movement of water within the soil were particularly emphasized. Our results show that in the evaluated period (a wheat evapotranspiration amounted to 6.75 mm a day, to which upward water flux contributed with 62

  9. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE GLUTENINAS Y GLIADINAS EN TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L.) MEXICANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Eliel Martínez-Cruz; Eduardo Espitia-Rangel; Héctor E. Villaseñor-Mir; José D. Molina-Galán; Ignacio Benítez-Riquelme; Amalio Santacruz-Varela; Roberto J. Peña-Bautista

    2010-01-01

    Las gluteninas y las gliadinas del trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L.) tienen una función fundamental en la definición de la calidad de panificación. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la composición de las subunidades de gluteninas de alto (G-APM) y bajo (G-BPM) peso molecular, y de las omega;-gliadinas, en 72 progenitores usados por el programa de fitomejoramiento de trigo harinero para temporal del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (CEVAMEX-INIFAP) y en...

  10. Steady state analysis and Eastern power system dynamic PDVSA EyP considering incorporating Furrial and PIGAP II generation plants; Analisis en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de PDVSA EyP Oriente considerando la incorporacion de las plantas de generacion Furrial y PIGAP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sergiodrg200@gmail.com; Vasquez, C [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: vasquezcp@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    This paper is focused on steady state and dynamic analysis of Eastern Power System of Petroleum of Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploration and Production, considering new single cycle gas turbine power plants in Punta de Mata and El Furrial operational areas that will start up in 2015. Network operating conditions were determined, specifically the behavior of power flows and voltage profiles in normal condition of operation and under Contingencies N-1 in PDVSA Power System, as well as the short-circuit levels at all buses of the transmission network. Afterward, it was evaluated the impact on the network caused by the starting of the biggest motor in the system, considering island operation, verifying that it's necessary to maintain the interconnection with the National Electric System. For motor starting study, machine dynamic model was determined by mean of parameters estimation of its equivalent circuit, as well as the application of nonlinear regression methods in order to obtain load model using the information supplied by the manufacturer. [Spanish] El presente trabajo esta enfocado al analisis del comportamiento en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploracion y Produccion Oriente, considerando la incorporacion de nuevas Plantas de Generacion Termoelectricas de Ciclo Simple a Gas que entraran en operacion en las areas operacionales de Punta de Mata y El Furrial para el ano 2015. Se determinaron las condiciones de operacion de la red, especificamente el comportamiento de los flujos de potencia y perfiles de voltaje en Condicion Normal de operacion y bajo Contingencias N-1 dentro del Sistema de PDVSA, asi como el incremento en los niveles de cortocircuito en todas las barras de la red de transmision. Luego se evaluo el impacto en la red originado por el arranque del motor de mayor capacidad considerando la posible operacion en isla del sistema, determinandose que es necesario operar interconectado con el

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum, TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

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    R. Plana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm, longitud de las espigas (cm, masa de mil granos (g y rendimiento agrícola (t.ha-1. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva para cada una de las variables estudiadas, estimándose la media y desviación típica por especie. La variedad cubana de trigo harinero CC-204 fue utilizada como control. La matriz de datos obtenida (genotipo x variable fue procesada mediante la técnica multivariada de Componentes Principales. Los datos para todos los análisis estadísticos se ejecutaron por el paquete estadístico SPSS 11. 0 para Windows. La mayoría de los genotipos tuvieron un comportamiento medio general, aunque se separaron del resto algunos genotipos de trigo harinero y triticale. Los valores de la media y desviación estándar para las variables analizadas muestran que no fue posible distinguir diferencias por especie, aunque las plantas de trigo duro fueron las de menor altura, siendo los mejores genotipos: 12 y 54 de la especie T. aestivum (trigo harinero; 17, 18 y 25 de T. durum (trigo duro; 29 y 37 del X Triticum secale (tritic

  12. Determination of Carbon-14 in environmental samples by mixing 14CO{sub 2} with a liquid scintillator; Determinacion de carbono-14 en muestras ambientales por incorporacion de 14CO{sub 2} a un centelleador liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, V.; Heras, M. C.; Beltran, M. A.

    1990-07-01

    A method for the determination of Carbon-14 (14CO2) in environmental samples has been developed. The method use the direct absorption of the carbon dioxide into Carbosorb, followed with incorporation of the mixture (Carbosorb-CO2) to the liquid scintillator. The results obtained to apply this method and the benzene synthesis, usual in our laboratory, are discussed and compared. The method of collection of atmospheric samples is also described. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Incorporation of a wind generator model into a dynamic power flow analysis; Incorporacion de un modelo de generador eolico al analisis de flujos dinamicos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles Camacho, C.; Banuelos Ruedas, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cangelesc@iingen.unam.mx; fbanuelosr@iingen.unam.mx

    2011-07-15

    dinamicos de potencia. El modelo de la turbina toma en cuenta las velocidades del viento y la potencia reactiva consumida por el generador de induccion. El analisis de los flujos dinamicos de potencia que se presenta aqui, se realiza en funcion de los datos reales de la velocidad del viento recolectados en una estacion de monitoreo del estado de Zacatecas en intervalos de 10 minutos. La generacion inyectada en una parte de la red proporciona potencia localmente, reduciendo las perdidas globales del sistema. Sin embargo, la variacion de la potencia entregada por la central eolica causa fluctuaciones de la magnitud de voltaje y de los flujos de potencia en las lineas de transmision.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a productive Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard: composition, host influence and species replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Grebenc, Tine; Bencivenga, Mattia; Falcinelli, Mario; Di Massimo, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) and other ectomycorrhizal species form species-rich assemblages in the wild as well as in cultivated ecosystems. We aimed to investigate the ectomycorrhizal communities of hazels and hornbeams that are growing in a 24-year-old Tuber aestivum orchard. We demonstrated that the ectomycorrhizal communities included numerous species and were phylogenetically diverse. Twenty-nine ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified. Tuber aestivum ectomycorrhizae were abundant (9.3%), only th...

  15. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

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    W H Gera Hol

    Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  16. por valores

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    Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

  17. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Yogesha Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

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    Roman Prażak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of grains per main spike, main spike fertility and 1000-grain weight than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. The BC1F1 hybrid line was characterized by wheat-like fertility and phenotype. The F5 hybrid lines were characterized by much higher variability of the analysed morphological traits than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. Grains of the hybrid lines had higher protein and micronutrient (iron and zinc content than wheat grains. The presence of DNA fragments specific to Ae. kotschyi Boiss. in the genotypes of the hybrid lines was confirmed by seven ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats molecular markers. Two ISSR markers – ISSR23690 and ISSR33650 – were the most effective for germplasm analysis of the hybrid lines. The analysed lines can become a source material for improvement of common wheat T. aestivum L. in crossing programs.

  19. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Prażak; Edyta Paczos-Grzęda

    2014-01-01

    A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of gra...

  20. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

  1. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

  2. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

  3. Metabolic Pathways of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum)Endosperm Amyloplast Revealed by Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, amyloplasts have a broader range of functions that are not widely recognized. A recent proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm suggested that they share many of the ...

  4. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

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    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  5. Efectos de la tecnología de siembra sobre el cultivo del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en condiciones tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramírez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar la influencia que sobre el rendimiento del cultivo del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y la asociación de malezas tiene la distancia entre surcos y la densidad de siembra, como vía posible para sustituir el uso de herbicidas. Este se desarrolló durante dos campañas (1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Estación Experimental "Vivian Alonso" del INCA, sobre un suelo Ferralítico rojo típico, empleándose la variedad Culiacán de origen mexicano en un diseño de bloques al azar con 12 tratamientos y tres réplicas. Los diferentes niveles de cada factor estudiado tuvieron una influencia significativa sobre el rendimiento del cultivo, alcanzándose los mayores valores en lamedida en que disminuyó la distancia entre surcos y aumentó la dosis de siembra, debido al incremento de los componentes del rendimiento, en especial el número de espigas por metro cuadrado. El efecto sobre la composición de especies demostróla posibilidad de desarrollar el cultivo sin uso de herbicidas al mantener los niveles de enmalezamiento por debajo de los 50 individuos/m2 (inferior al umbral de daños y ejercer un fuerte efecto depresivo sobre especies muy agresivas en condiciones del trópico húmedo, como fue el Cyperus rotundus yalgunas dicotiledóneas de importancia económica, contribuyendo así a la disminución de efectos agresivos sobre el medio.

  6. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (pstress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production. PMID:24580822

  7. SSR-based identification of genetic groups within European populations of Tuber aestivum Vittad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Peter, Martina; Gollotte, Armelle; De la Varga, Herminia; Meier, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Belfiori, Beatrice; Paolocci, Francesco; Wipf, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Tuber species are ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes establishing relationships with different host trees and forming hypogeous fruiting bodies known as truffles. Among Tuber species, Tuber aestivum Vittad. has a wide distributional range being found naturally all over Europe. Here, we performed large-scale population genetic analyses in T. aestivum to (i) investigate its genetic diversity at the European scale, (ii) characterize its genetic structure and test for the presence of ecotypes and (iii) shed light into its demographic history. To reach these goals, 230 ascocarps from different populations were genotyped using 15 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers. We identified 181 multilocus genotypes and four genetic groups which did not show a clear geographical separation; although, one of them was present exclusively in Southeast France, Italy and Spain. Fixation index values between pairs of genetic groups were generally high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.45. A significant deficit of heterozygosity indicated a population expansion instead of a recent population bottleneck, suggesting that T. aestivum is not endangered in Europe, not even in Mediterranean regions. Our study based on a large-scale population genetic analysis suggests that genetically distinct populations and likely ecotypes within T. aestivum are present. In turn, this study paves the way to future investigations aimed at addressing the biological and/or ecological factors that have concurred in shaping the population genetic structure of this species. Present results should also have implications for the truffle market since defining genetic markers are now possible at least for some specific T. aestivum genetic groups. PMID:26070448

  8. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  9. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Begonia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn

  10. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Begonia; Shumaker, Ketia L.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a labora...

  11. Contaminants in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pussemier, Luc; Harcz, Peter; De Temmerman, Ludwig; De Voghel, Simon; Waegeneers, Nadia; Wilmart, Olivier; Vromman, Valérie; Schmit, Jean-François; Moons, Emmanuelle; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah; Schneider, Yves Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers of cereal based products such as flour, bread, breakfast...

  12. Genetic and ecological aspects of gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Aegilops L. species

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenenberger, Nicola; Küpfer, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and ecological aspects of gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Aegilops L. species Hybridisation and introgression from crops to wild relatives is a key issue in risk assessment. In the present study, hybridisation and introgression dynamics from hexaploid wheat (2n=42) to tetraploid Aegilops species (2n=28) were investigated by experiments in natural conditions or in the greenhouse, and by genetic analyses. In order to study crop-weed hybridisation as a function of distance...

  13. Distribution of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the caryopsis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieczonka, K.; Rosopulo, A.

    1985-12-01

    Cadmium, copper, and zinc were quantitatively determined in the whole grain, the germ, the aleurone layer, the outer pericarp, and the endosperm from the caryopsis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the methods of direct solid microsampling and flame-AAS, respectively. Metal concentrations markedly differed among the tissues investigated. Both methods used in this study produced almost identical heavy metal concentrations. However, the techniques dramatically differed in the amounts of grain material required for analysis.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salerni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM above (EMFb and below (EMMt ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’ in Tuscany (central Italy was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aestivum productivity, different host trees, and statistical data on community ecology.Main results: The EM communities showed high species richness and differed slightly in relation to both the host tree and their location above or below ground, providing frequent findings of Tricholoma and Tomentella, respectively. Positive correlations were found between the number of truffles and host trees, and between the weight and number of truffles and EMFb.Research highlights: Mycorrhizal fungi and truffle production are not in competition.Key words: Fungal communities; fruiting bodies; morphotypes; Tuber aestivum; competition; Italy.

  15. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

  16. Ecological characteristics of a Hungarian summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. producing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorbai A. Gógán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has outstanding environment for natural truffle production in some regions including plain and hilly areas. The most famous of all the natural summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. habitats is the commonly called Jászság region. This area is situated in the middle of Hungary, between river Danube and Tisza. The flatland area is basically covered by river alluviums with main soils of chernozems, fluvisols, solonchaks and arenosols. Climate of the region is typically continental: warm and dry summers and cold winters vary. The area is traditionally of agricultural use, although strong afforestation was made in the late 1950’s. The English oak (Quercus robur L. populations planted at that time gave a basis for current excellent truffle production. Nowadays the region has proved to be the best natural summer truffle (T. aestivum producing area of Hungary with early season opening (June and high quality truffles as early as August. In the research the best truffle producing forest blocks were selected for ecological investigation. Results of the detailed site description showed uniform climate characteristics and dominance of English oak (Q. robur or mixed English oak-Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. forests. Soil types revealed differences from earlier findings: dominance of gleysols and water affected chernozems was declared. Soil chemical parameters are in accordance with literature data: pH, organic matter and active carbonate content of the examined soils fall within the range indicated as the requirement of T. aestivum.

  17. ESTUDIO DE ALGUNOS GÉNEROS MICROBIANOS ASOCIADOS A DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. EN SUELO FERRALÍTICO ROJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los géneros bacterianos predominantes en la rizosfera de cuatro variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. crecido en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo. También se evaluó la quimioatracción de algunas rizobacterias hacia los exudados radicales de este cultivo. Se utilizó el Modelo Espermosférico para el aislamiento y los tubos colectores y la cámara de quimiotaxis modificada para la evaluación del efecto quimiotáctico de los exudados radicales. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que en las variedades Gang y Caeté, Pseudomonas es la población dominante, siendo Pseudomonas (Burkholderia cepacia la especie más fuertemente atraída por los exudados radicales a los 14 días y 40 minutos de exposición. En las variedades Culiacam y Antisama, es el género Azospirillum el predominante en la rizosfera, siendo esta especie la más fuertemente atraída por los exudados radicales a los 14 días y 60 minutos de exposición. Esta investigación permite la aplicación de biofertilizantes a base de los géneros microbianos predominantes en la rizosfera del trigo, potenciando su actividad sin alterar la biología del suelo.

  18. Effect of 2,4-D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor ( Gramineae )%Effect of 2,4-D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor (Gramineae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Rashid Khan; Khawaja Muhammad Aslam

    2006-01-01

    Effects of 2,4-D on seedling growth and chromosomal abnormalities were studied in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor. Seeds were soaked at different concentrations of 2,4 -D (0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0% ) for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. 2,4-D suppressed the germination more severely in P. minor than in T. aestivum. Shoot and root length was retarded with the increase of concentration and time of treatment in both species. Generally radical was more negatively affected than coleoptile and emergence of radical was not observed at 1.0% concentration at 8, 12, and 16 hours of treatment in T. aestivum while in P. minor there was a total lack of radical emergence at 1.0% concentration for all durations of treatment. Stiff and curled roots and undifferentiated callus like scutellar tissues were observed in T. aestivum, while in P. minor the coleoptile obtained was lean, pale green in colour and was lying flat on filter paper. Mitotic index decreased, while chromosomal abnormalities, bridges and laggards were increased with the increase of concentration and soaking time however, laggards were not observed in T. aestivum. Clumping and chain formation of chromosomes at metaphase was also noticed in P. minor.

  19. Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements in Plants Ⅰ. Fractionation Patterns and Their Forming Mechanisms in Different Organs of Triticum Aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao; Ding Shiming; Zhang Chaosheng; Zhang Zili; Yan Juncai; Li Haitao

    2005-01-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the forming mechanisms in plants were studied using Triticum aestivum as plant material with application of exogenous REEs and hydroponic culture. REEs were significantly fractionated in different parts of Triticum aestivum. M-type tetrad effect could be observed in both root and shoot of Triticum aestivum, which might result from the different abilities of REEs to form phosphate precipitation. Middle REEs (MREEs), light REEs (LREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) were enriched in root, stem and leaf of Triticum aestivum, respectively. REE speciation calculations using VMINTEQ program show REEs in simulated xylem solution mainly exist as REE-EDTA- and RE3+, but only HREEs are enriched in REE-EDTA-, while LREEs are enriched in the other REE species. It is suggested that the fractionation between LREEs and HREEs might be caused by the uptake of REE-EDTA- in Triticum aestivum leaves, but might result from the uptake of the other REE species in their stems.

  20. Responses of alloplasmic (cytoplasm=Triticum timopheevii) and euplasmic wheats (Triticum aestivum) to photoperiod and vernalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R W; Heyne, E G; Paulsen, G M

    1983-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the male sterility-inducing cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. on response of several common winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) nuclear genotypes to photoperiod and vernalization. Comparative studies of cytoplasmic substitution lines provide information on the role of the cytoplasmic genetic mechanism in growth and development. In the case of cytoplasmic male sterility-based hybrid production systems, ubiquity of sterility-inducing cytoplasm in derived hybrids warrants thorough characterization of its influence on plant phenotype. Factorial combinations of cytoplasm (T. timopheevii and T. aestivum), nuclear genotype, and photoperiod or vernalization treatments were evaluated under hydroponic conditions in controlled environment chambers. Interaction of cytoplasm, photoperiod, and nuclear genotype was significant in one or more experiments for days to anthesis and potential spikelet number, and interaction of cytoplasm, vernalization, and nuclear genotype was significant for days to spike emergence. Long day length was associated with increased percentage seed set in one study, but interactions of photoperiod and cytoplasm were not detected for percentage seed set. Interactions involving cytoplasm and photoperiod or vernalization were interpreted as evidence of the existence of genetic factors in cytoplsam of T. timopheevii which alter photoperiod or vernalization responses of alloplasmic plants relative to responses exhibited by euplasmic plants. Since photoperiod and vernalization responses are critical to adaptation, T. timopheevii cytoplasm can alter adaptability of T. aestivum. The specific effect would be nuclear genotype dependent, and does not appear to be of a magnitude greater than that induced by nuclear genetic variability at loci conditioning photoperiod or vernalization responses or other adaptation-determining characteristics. Normal multilocation/year testing of alloplasmic hybrids should

  1. Molecular Characterization and Global Expression Analysis of Lectin Receptor Kinases in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lectin receptor kinases (LRKs) play a critical role in plants during development and stress conditions, but a comprehensive analysis at genome level is still not carried out in Triticum aestivum. Herein, we performed the genome wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of these genes in T. aestivum (TaLRK). In-total 263 TaLRK genes were identified, which were further classified into three groups based on the nature of lectin domain. We identified, two TaLRKs consisted of calcium-dependent lectin (C-LRK), while 84 legume-lectin (L-LRK) and 177 bulb-lectin (B-LRK) domains. The L-LRK and B-LRK genes were distributed throughout the genome of T. aestivum. Most of the TaLRKs were clustered as homologs, which were distributed either in proximity on same chromosome or on homoeologous chromosomes of A, B and D sub-genomes. A total of 9 and 58 duplication events were also predicted in L-LRK and B-LRK, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved evolutionary relationship of homologous and orthologous genes from multiple plant species. Gene ontology analysis indicated TaLRKs role in binding, signaling and receptor activities. Most of the TaLRKs consisted of a trans-membrane domain and predicted to be localized in the plasma-membrane. A diverse expression pattern of TaLRK genes was found in various developmental stages and stress conditions. Some TaLRKs were found to be highly affected during a particular stress, which indicated a specialized role of each LRK gene in a specific stress condition. These results described various characteristic feature and expression pattern of TaLRK genes, which will pave the way for functional characterization in wheat. PMID:27111449

  2. The effect of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of seeds of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar fungicides. i.e., Bayloton 25 WP, Dithane M-45, and Funaben K. on the mycoflora associated with the seeds of spring Triticum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. The fungicide which highly reduced the number of both fungal colonies and species was Funaben K. Of the fungi most frequently occurring. Only Funaben K applied on the seeds reduced the proportion of seeds with Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp.. and Septoria nodorum. In contrast. seeds from plants traeted with Funaben K harboured significantly more colonies of non-sporulating fungi.

  3. Effects of high temperature after anthesis on starch granules in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Guo, W; Jiang, Z.; Pu, H.; Feng, C.; Zhu, X.; Peng, Y.; KUANG, A.; LITTLE, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The effect of high temperatures (above 25°C) on starch concentration and the morphology of starch granules in the grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied. Wheat plants of cultivars Yangmai 9 (weak-gluten) and Yangmai 12 (medium-gluten) were treated with high temperatures for 3 days at different times after anthesis. The results showed that the starch concentration of grains given a heat-shock treatment above 30°C were lower than those developing at normal temperature in bo...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Salerni; Maria D'Aguanno; Pamela Leonardi; Claudia Perini

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM) above (EMFb) and below (EMMt) ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’) in Tuscany (central Italy) was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aest...

  5. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  6. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2008-01-01

    We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...

  7. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  8. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  9. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  10. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALPASLAN

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3, and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3, respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with increasing boron application. Controversially, application of nitrogen increased dry matter yield, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat, while decreases in boron contents. Those effects of boron and nitrogen were found to be statistically significant (P

  11. Intermediate fertile Triticum aestivum (+) Agropyron elongatum somatic hybrids are generated by low doses of UV irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Xia CHENG; Guang Min XIA; Da Ying ZHI; Hui Min CHEN

    2004-01-01

    We report the production and characterization of somatic hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (the synonym is Thinopyrum ponticum). Asymmetric protoplast fusion was performed between Agropyron elongatum protoplasts irradiated with a low UV dose and protoplasts of wheat taken from nonregenerable suspension cultures. More than 40 green plantlets were obtained from 15 regenerated clones and one of them produced seeds. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants and seeds were intermediate between wheat and Agropyron elongatum. All of the regenerated calli and plants were verified as intergeneric hybrids on the basis of morphological observation and analysis of isozyme,cytological,5SrDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed evidence of random segregation and recombination of mtDNA.

  12. [CdCl2-induced morphogenetic variation of Triticum aestivum cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunetova, Zh Zh; Omirbekova, N Zh; Shulembaeva, K K

    2008-11-01

    The effect cadmium chloride on released local cultivars of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been studied under laboratory and field conditions in order to widen the variation spectrum of this plant. It has been found that treatment of grains with a 0.01% aqueous solution of CdCl2 induces the appearance of tall, strong plants with productive bushiness in the M1 generation that are characterized by various morphological changes: elongated ears, scales, and grains; increased number of grains per ear and mass of 1000 grains; anthocyan pigmentation of the stem and leaf axil; etc. Study of meiosis showed chromosome aggregation, displacement of the mitotic spindle of the metaphase plate, and empty (sterile) cells in anaphases (AI and AII). The altered characters of M1 plants are preserved in the M2-M4 generations. PMID:19137733

  13. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  14. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  15. Comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the ICRP 30 and ICRP 60 models for a repeated incorporation by inhalation of I-125; Comparacion en el calculo de la dosis efectiva comprometida usando los modelos del ICRP 30 y del ICRP 60 para una incorporacion repetida por inhalacion de I-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno P, A.L.; Cortes C, A. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alonso V, G.; Serrano P, F. [IPN, Edificio de Fisica Avanzada Zacatenco, 07300 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Presently work, a comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the models of the ICRP 30 and those of the ICRP 60 for the analysis of internal dose due to repeated incorporation of I-125 is shown. The estimations of incorporated activity are obtained starting from the proportionate data for an exercise of inter comparison, with which it should be determined the internal dose later on. For to estimate the initial activity incorporated by repeated dose was assumed that this it was given through of multiple individual incorporations which happened in the middle points of the monitoring periods. The results using the models of the ICRP 30 and of the ICRP 60 are compared and the causes of the differences are analyzed. (Author)

  16. Europe, a continent with high potential for the cultivation of the Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Chevalier

    2013-01-01

    The Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum) grows, in Europe, in the most varied soils from a physical and chemical viewpoint. The only common point is the presence of a minimum level of exchangeable calcium in the soil. The truffle soils in Europe can be classified in two categories: the soils coming directly from the parent rock, and those formed from deposits covering the parent rock. The first group corresponds to most traditional truffle areas , France, Italy and Spain. It is also tr...

  17. Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae) in different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Nuran; Dane, Feruzan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother cells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte were compared with the results of this study.

  18. An Investigation of the Effects of Cationic, Anionic and Nonionic Surfactants on Germination Rates of Triticum Aestivum L

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Gülden

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of a cationic surfactant (CTAB) cetrymonium bromid, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 on germination rates of Triticum aestivum L. are observed. Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid, the interfacial tension between two liquids, or between a liquid and a solid. Detergents, wetti...

  19. Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum

    OpenAIRE

    Talboys, Peter J.; Owen, Darren W; Healey, John R; Withers, Paul JA; Jones, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivum seeds. It then examines the ...

  20. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

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    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  1. Osteomielitis por salmonella

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  2. Dermatitis canina por Malassezia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas López, Juan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La dermatitis por Malassezia en perros en generalmente una complicación a procesos alérgicos, seborreicos, presencia de pliegues, etc. aunque también se han descrito otras presentaciones, como la hipersensibilidad contra esta levadura. La demostración de la presencia de Malassesia pachydermatis se hace de manera sencilla mediante citología. El tratamiento de esta dermatitis puede ser tópico u oral.

  3. Dermatitis canina por Malassezia

    OpenAIRE

    Rejas López, Juan

    2008-01-01

    La dermatitis por Malassezia en perros en generalmente una complicación a procesos alérgicos, seborreicos, presencia de pliegues, etc. aunque también se han descrito otras presentaciones, como la hipersensibilidad contra esta levadura. La demostración de la presencia de Malassesia pachydermatis se hace de manera sencilla mediante citología. El tratamiento de esta dermatitis puede ser tópico u oral.

  4. causada por Fusarium moniliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mendoza Elos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la resistencia horizontal de 134 líneas S1 de maíz al hongo Fusarium moniliforme. La enfermedad fue inducida mediante inoculación en la etapa de floración masculina bajo condiciones de campo utilizando la técnica del palillo. Las líneas se evaluaron en México en 2002. La estimación de la enfermedad se hizo en dos ocasiones con una separación de 20 días. Las evaluaciones mostraron que las líneas Roque-801, 804, 1103 y 1405 fueron resistentes en la primera evaluación. Las tasas de incremento de la enfermedad variaron de 0,01 a 0,229 por unidad por día. Las líneas mostraron bajos niveles de enfermedad de 0 a 1 % en la primera evaluación. En la segunda evaluación, los niveles de enfermedad variaron de 49 a 100 %. En un programa de mejoramiento genético estas líneas pueden ser utilizadas para mejorar la resistencia horizontal del maíz a la pudrición del tallo causada por Fusarium moniliforme

  5. Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins and phosphoproteins upon seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eDong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/ transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination.

  6. Genotyping of somatic hybrids between Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunfei; Xiang, Fengning; Zhi, Daying; Liu, Heng; Xia, Guangmin

    2007-10-01

    In order to genotype hybrid genomes of distant asymmetric somatic hybrids, we synthesized hybrid calli and plants via PEG-mediated protoplast fusion between recipient tall fescue (Festuca. arundinacea Schreb.) and donor wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventeen and 25 putative hybrid clones were produced from the fusion combinations I and II, each with the donor wheat protoplast treated by UV light for 30 s and 1 min, respectively. Isozyme and RAPD profiles confirmed that ten hybrid clones were obtained from combination I and 19 from combination II. Out of the 29 hybrids, 12 regenerated hybrid plants with tall fescue phenotype. Composition and methylation-variation of the nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of some hybrids, either with or without regenerative ability, were compared by genomic in situ hybridization, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism. Our results indicated that these selected hybrids all contained introgressed nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA as well as obvious methylation variations compared to both parents. However, there were no differences either in nuclear/cytoplasmic DNA or methylation degree between the regenerable and non-regenerable hybrid clones. We conclude that both regeneration complementation and genetic material balance are crucial for hybrid plant regeneration. PMID:17594098

  7. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

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    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns Among Mitochondrion, Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes in Triticum aestivum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Juan Zhang; Jie Zhou; Zuo-Feng Li; Li Wang; Xun Gu; Yang Zhong

    2007-01-01

    In many organisms, the difference in codon usage patterns among genes reflects variation in local base compositional biases and the intensity of natural selection. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed to investigate the characteristics of codon bias and factors in shaping the codon usage patterns among mitochondrion,chloroplast and nuclear genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). GC contents in nuclear genes were higher than that in mitochondrion and chloroplast genes. The neutrality and correspondence analyses indicated that the codon usage in nuclear genes would be a result of relative strong mutational bias, while the codon usage patterns of rnitochondrion and chloroplast genes were more conserved in GC content and influenced by translation level.The Parity Rule 2 (PR2) plot analysis showed that pyrimidines were used more frequently than purines at the third codon position in the three genomes. In addition, using a new alterative strategy, 11, 12, and 24 triplets were defined as preferred codons in the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes, respectively. These findings suggested that the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes shared particularly different features of codon usage and evolutionary constraints.

  9. [Cytogenetic analysis of alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with unstable fertility and viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Pershina, L A; Bil'danova, L L

    2006-02-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis was performed with four alloplasmic recombinant (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum lines differing in morphological traits, number of seeds per spike, and seed plumpness. None of the lines displayed introgression of the barley genetic material: the karyotypes included only common wheat chromosomes. Two lines, 79(B) and 79(D), were cytogenetically stable. Plants of lines 79(A) and 79(C) displayed a high frequency of unbalanced chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and polycentric chromosomes, terminal deletions varying in size, acentric fragments, and multiple unidentifiable translocations. Previous studies of the mitochondrial genome showed that the two cytologically unstable lines, which were also unstable in fertility and viability, are characterized by heteroplasmy at the mitochondrial 18S-5S locus (simultaneous presence of barley and wheat fragments). Stable lines 79(B) and 79(D) with normal fertility contained only wheat mitochondrial markers. It was assumed that the substantial instability of the nuclear genome in lines 79(C) and 79(A) was a result of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility and was associated with heteroplasmy, while elimination or considerable reduction of barley material in the mitochondrial genome stabilized the nuclear genome of lines 79(B) and 79(D). In turn, the instability of the nuclear genome was responsible for a decrease in viability and fertility of plants. PMID:16583704

  10. Nitrogen and Photosynthesis in the Flag Leaf of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J R

    1983-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Yecora 70) plants were grown with various concentrations of nitrate nitrogen available to the roots. Sampling of flag leaves began after they had reached full expansion and continued throughout senescence. Rates of gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuP(2)) carboxylase activity, and the amounts of chlorophyll, soluble protein, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined for each flag leaf. Rate of CO(2) assimilation was uniquely related to total leaf nitrogen irrespective of nutrient treatment, season, and leaf age. Assimilation rate increased with leaf nitrogen, but the slope of the relationship declined markedly when leaf nitrogen exceeded 125 millimoles nitrogen per square meter. Chlorophyll content and RuP(2) carboxylase activity were approximately proportional to leaf nitrogen content. As leaves aged, RuP(2) carboxylase activity and calculated Hill activity declined in parallel. With normal ambient partial pressure of CO(2), the intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) was always such that rate of assimilation appeared colimited by RuP(2) carboxylation and RuP(2) regeneration capacity.The initial slope of rate of CO(2) assimilation against intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) varied nonlinearly with carboxylase activity. It is suggested that this was due to a finite conductance to CO(2) diffusion in the wall and liquid phase which causes a drop in CO(2) partial pressure between the intercellular spaces and the site of carboxylation. A double reciprocal plot was used to obtain an estimate of the transfer conductance.

  11. Combining ability for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subas Malla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum reduces wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell grain yield and end-use quality worldwide. Three each of FHB susceptible (‘Nekota’, ‘2137’, and ‘Harding’ and resistant (‘Ning 7840’, ‘ND2710’ and ‘BacUp’ parents were included in a partial diallel mating design (Griffing’s Method 4, Model 1. The F4:5 progeny was evaluated for healthy index, undamaged kernels, and deoxynivalenol (DON content following artificial inoculation and mist-irrigation in 2006 and 2007. General combining ability (GCA was highly significant (P < 0.01 for healthy index; whereas specific combining ability (SCA and GCA-by-year interaction were not significant. The combining ability ratio and narrow-sense heritability were 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. The Genotype, Genotype-by-Environment (GGE biplot analysis showed that the ND2710/BacUp combination had the best healthy index and undamaged kernels; whereas Ning 7840 contributed resistance to DON accumulation. The results indicated additive gene effects mainly control that healthy index. Thus, genetic gain in developing resistance in wheat can be achieved through selection.

  12. Performance of Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L. under Conservation Tillage Practices in Organic Agriculture

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    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and varieties on growth, yield and quality of wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.. The experiments conducted at two sites were laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, three main plots [conventional tillage (CT, no-tillage (NT and minimum tillage (MT] and four sub-plots (�Siette�, �Panifor�, �Myrto�, �Estero�. The soil porosity and total nitrogen were higher in soils subjected to conservation tillage systems (NT and MT than under conventional tillage. There were no differences in root growth neither between the tillage systems nor among the varieties. Yield was influenced by the tillage system and variety. The highest grain yield (421-459 kg ha-1 was found under the CT system with �Siette�, �Myrto� and �Estero� varieties. In contrast, the highest grain yield was observed under conservation tillage (NT and MT with �Panifor� variety. There were no significant differences between the tillage systems concerning the protein content and Zeleny value. In contrast, the highest Hagberg falling number was found with MT. Zeleny value was positively and significantly correlated with protein content. High flour quality, as demonstrated by high protein content and Zeleny value, and low Hagberg falling number, was produced in the �Estero� variety.

  13. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. AND TRITICUM DURUM L. VARIETIES

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    Ján Mareček

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the evaluation of technological and antioxidant characteristics of selected varieties of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum grown in Slovakia and Serbia. Research was conducted during the two years 2009 and 2010. Measured values of water activity were in the range 0.4 - 0.5. Optimal activity of alpha-amylase was measured in Serbian varieties Etida (210 seconds, Pobeda (218 seconds and Renesansa (272 seconds. The highest sedimentation capacity expressed as sedimentation index by Zeleny had variety Karpatia (60 cm3. The high content of insoluble protein (gluten was measured in a variety Rusija (36.6%. Nitrogen content was in the range 12.7 - 13.9% of dry matter, starch content in the range 56.6 - 61.6% of dry matter. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method ranged in wheat varieties from 44 to 49%. The highest content of polyphenols was measured in a variety Etida (0.464 mg of catechin/g of sample. Durum wheat varieties have a higher content of polyphenols in general. The production of semolina flour from durum wheat may have the positive antioxidant effect according to gained measurements.

  14. Toxicological effects of rare earth yttrium on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀娟; 朱国才; 李亚宁

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the stress of rare earth yttrium (Y) and showed that 25-100 mg/kg Y treatments evidently increased the biomass (root mass, shoot mass and leaf mass), accompanied by a significant (p<0.05) increase in the chlorophyll (CHL) content in wheat leaves. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were de-tected in wheat shoots (stem and leaf) and roots too, indicating the presence of poisoning active oxygen species (AOS). The MDA content in wheat roots increased with the augmentation of Y concentration. These results indicated that there was a dose-dependent effect of Y on the changes of MDA content in wheat roots. Although the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalases (CAT) in wheat shoots and roots irregularly fluctuated with the increase in Y concentration, 25-100 mg/kg Y significantly (p<0.01) increased the activities of SOD and POD. In general, the dose-dependent effects of Y on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes were insignificant. Our data also indicated that the increase in SOD and POD activities could be used as a good bio-marker for the stress induced by low concentrations of Y.

  15. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  16. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at 800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index. PMID:27337433

  17. Insights Into Triticum aestivum Seedling Root Rot Caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Vera Buxa, Stefanie; Furch, Alexandra; Friedt, Wolfgang; Gottwald, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most common and potent fungal pathogens of wheat (Triticum aestivum), known for causing devastating spike infections and grain yield damage. F. graminearum is a typical soil-borne pathogen that builds up during consecutive cereal cropping. Speculation on systemic colonization of cereals by F. graminearum root infection have long existed but have not been proven. We have assessed the Fusarium root rot disease macroscopically in a diverse set of 12 wheat genotypes and microscopically in a comparative study of two genotypes with diverging responses. Here, we show a 'new' aspect of the F. graminearum life cycle, i.e., the head blight fungus uses a unique root-infection strategy with an initial stage typical for root pathogens and a later stage typical for spike infection. Root colonization negatively affects seedling development and leads to systemic plant invasion by tissue-adapted fungal strategies. Another major outcome is the identification of partial resistance to root rot. Disease severity assessments and histological examinations both demonstrated three distinct disease phases that, however, proceeded differently in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Soil-borne inoculum and root infection are considered significant components of the F. graminearum life cycle with important implications for the development of new strategies of resistance breeding and disease control.

  18. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of the TaNF-YB3 Gene from Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun DONG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A full-length cDNA encoding a nuclear factor-YB (NF-YB/HAP3/CCAAT binding factor-A (CBF-A subunit of a CCAAT-box binding complex, designated as TaNF-YB3 was isolated from Triticum aestivum. Sequence analysis indicated that the full-length cDNA was 809�bp long, including an open reading frame (ORF of 597�bp, which encoded a deduced polypeptide of 199 amino acids and is located in chromosome 3D. The deduced protein contained conserved structural domains and showed high identity to other plant NF-YBs. TaNF-YB3 was expressed in various organs, especially in the leaves and stamens; it was also regulated by salt, mannitol, abscisic acid, wounding, and cold. Moreover, TaNF-YB3 was down-regulated by short days and vernalization, and sensitive to the transfer of day length. It was mainly induced by light and exhibited a similar diurnal rhythmic expression pattern with the CCT-domain family gene VRN2 (TaZCCT1 and TaZCCT2, but not with CO (WCO1 and TaHd1. Overall, the results suggested that TaNF-YB3, aside from having a role in regulating day length and vernalization responses, might integrate signals from other environmental stresses to perform its functions in winter wheat adaptability and development.

  19. A novel system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat( Triticum aestivum L.) cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYAO; BAOJIANLI; JINGFENJIA

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for transforming the cultured cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Ganmai 8)was developed vsing Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The features of the optimum procedure were:(a)both combined synthetic signal molecules and multiple natural extracts from susceptible plants were used to pretreat the primary vigorous Agrobacterium(PVA)cells for approximately 16h:(b)the gyratory magnetic field condition was used during cocultivation;(c)the cocultivating period and selecting condition were modified;(d)the recipient cells were at exuberant metabolism and active division while infected with Agrobacterium.Both neomycin phosphotransferase and nopaline synthase assays demonstrated the expression of NPT Ⅱ and NOS genes.located on the T-DNA segment of chimaeric plasmid pGV3850::1103neo.in transformed wheat cell colonies by adopting the techniques of dot blot ndPAGE or high voltage paper electrophoresis,Integration of the foreign genes into wheat genome was confirmed by Southerm blot hybridization.Moreover.a relatively rational method was described for the estimation of transformation frequencies from cultured cell levels.

  20. Anticancer Effect of Rutin Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum aestivum Straw in Mice

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    Savita Dixit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a anthracene (DMBA and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated control. Rutin produced significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results from the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

  1. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640

  2. Arsenate (As) uptake by and distribution in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chun-Nu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F A

    2006-01-01

    Two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Jing 411 and Lovrin 10) were used to investigate arsenate (As) uptake and distribution in plants grown in hydroponic culture and in the soil. Results showed that without As addition, Lovrin 10 had higher biomass than Jing 411 in the soil pot experiment; in the hydroponic experiment Lovrin 10 had similar root biomass to and lower shoot biomass than Jing 411. Increasing P supply from 32 to 161 microM resulted in lower tissue As concentrations, and increasing As supply from 0 to 2,000 microM resulted in lower tissue P concentrations. Increasing P supply tended to increase shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations, and increasing As supply tended to decrease shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Both cultivars invested more in root production under P deficient conditions than under P sufficient conditions. Lovrin 10 invested more biomass production to roots than Jing 411, which might be partly responsible for higher shoot P and As concentrations and higher shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Moreover, Lovrin 10 allocated less As to roots than Jing 411 and the difference disappeared with decreasing P supply. PMID:16081139

  3. Development and Identification of Triticum aestivum L.-Thinopyrum bessarabicum L(o)ve Chromosome Translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Li-fang; QI Zeng-jun; CHEN Pei-du; FENG Yi-gao; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    With ass7istance of chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH)combined with meiotic analysis,five germplasms with homozygous wheat-Th. Bessarabicum chromosome translocations were developed and identified among BC1F5 progenies of the cross between T. Aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Chinese Spring-Th. Bessarabicum amphiploid. These lines included Tj01 and Tj02(2n=44)containing a pair of wheat-Th. Bessarabicum translocation chromosomes besides a pair of added Th. Bessarabicum chromosomes,Tj03(2n=44)with a pair of added interspecific translocation chromosomes,Tj04(2n=44)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides an added pair of Th. Bessarabicum chromosome arms and Tj05(2n=46)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides two pairs of added intact alien chromosomes. The breakpoints of all the translocations were found to be not around centromere. Meanwhile,all the lines showed normal plant growth,development and fertility,while the translocation chromosomes transmitted regularly. The obtained translocations might be of use for transferring elite genes from Th. Bessarabicum into wheat.

  4. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Dark-Induced Senescence in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Li; Fanyun Lin; Gui Wang; Ruilian Jing; Qi Zheng; Bin Li; Zhensheng Li

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the genetics of dark-induced senescence in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),aquantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid population developed from across between the varieties Hanxuan 10 (HX) and Lumai 14 (LM).The senescence parameters chlorophyll content (Chl a+b,Chl a,and Chl b),original fluorescence (Fo),maximum fluorescence level (Fm),maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm),and ratio of variable fluorescence to original fluorescence (Fv/Fo) were evaluated in the second leaf of whole three-leaf seedlings subjected to 7 d of darkness.A total of 43 QTLs were identified that were associated with dark-induced senescence using composite interval mapping.These QTLs were mapped to 20 loci distributed on 11 chromosomes:1B,1D,2A,2B,3B,3D,5D,6A,6B,7A,and 7B.The phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 7.5% to 19.4%.Eleven loci coincided with two or more of the analyzed parameters.In addition,14 loci co-located or were linked with previously reported QTLs regulating flag leaf senescence,tolerance to high light stress,and grain protein content (Gpc),separately.

  6. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  7. Functional study of a salt-inducible TaSR gene in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Cui, Wei-Na; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Hou, Xiao-Na; Li, Dong-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Liang; Shen, Yin-Zhu; Huang, Zhan-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The gene expression chip of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant under salt stress was used to clone a salt-induced gene with unknown functions. This gene was designated as TaSR (Triticum aestivum salt-response gene) and submitted to GenBank under accession number EF580107. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that gene expression was induced by salt stress. Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing TaSR presented higher salt tolerance than the controls, whereas AtSR mutant and RNA interference rice plants were more sensitive to salt. Under salt stress, TaSR reduced Na(+) concentration and improved cellular K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations; this gene was also localized on the cell membrane. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative determination were conducted through fragmentation cloning of the TaSR promoter. Salt stress-responsive elements were detected at 588-1074 bp upstream of the start codon. GUS quantitative tests of the full-length promoter in different tissues indicated that promoter activity was highest in the leaf under salt stress. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid screening further showed the correlation of TaSR with TaPRK and TaKPP. In vitro phosphorylation of TaSR and TaPRK2697 showed that TaPRK2697 did not phosphorylate TaSR. This study revealed that the novel TaSR may be used to improve plant tolerance to salt stress. PMID:25855206

  8. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sammar Raza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

  9. Nitric oxide mediates alginate oligosaccharides-induced root development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Hang; Yin, Heng; Wang, Wenxia; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg L(-1)) were found to induce the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in the root system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which promoted the formation and elongation of wheat roots in a dose-dependent manner. NO inhibitors suggested that nitrate reductase (NR), rather than nitric oxide synthase (NOS), was essential for AOS-induced root development. Further studies confirmed that AOS-induced NO generation in wheat roots by up-regulating the gene expression and enzyme activity of NR at the post-transcriptional level. The anatomy and RT-PCR results showed that AOS accelerated the division and growth of stele cells, leading to an increase in the ratio of stele area to root transverse area. This could be inhibited by the NR inhibitor, sodium tungstate, which indicated that NO catalyzed by the NR was involved in AOS regulation of root development. Taken together, in the early stage of AOS-induced root development, NO generation was a novel mechanism by which AOS regulated plant growth. The results also showed that this marine resource could be widely used for crop development.

  10. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

  11. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  12. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  13. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados

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    Cavaliere Maria J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.

  14. Por mil devaluados pesos

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    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  15. Effect of Temperature on Triticum aestivum L. Seedlings Growth and Phytohormone Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kosakivska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of short-term heat and cold stresses on growth, accumulation and distribution of abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA in 7 and 14-day-old Triticum aestivum L. seedlings of the frost resistant cultivar Volodarka. A high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones in leaves and roots. Biometric analysis showed that at the early stage of vegetation (7 days seedlings were more resistant to temperature stresses, especially to cold, than at the later ones (14 and 21 days, that correlates with the frost resistance of cultivar. The results indicated that at the early stages of growth, after a short-term cold stress (2 h., +20C, the amount of free ABA substantially increased in roots, while at the later ones, it occurred after a short-term heat stress (2 h., +400C in leaves. After a heat stress the leaves of 7-day-old seedlings accumulated a conjugated form of IAA. Heat stress caused the accumulation of free IAA in roots of 14-day-old seedlings. Cross stress (cold+heat caused some increase in the pool of endogenous ABA both in roots and leaves while the amount of free IAA increased only in leaves. Сhanges in the accumulation of the free and conjugated forms of ABA and IAA depended both on the organs and the age of seedlings, and the type of stress and correlated with frost resistance of the cultivar Volodarka.

  16. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development.

  17. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Phytoene Synthase from Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerika; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitesh; Thakur, Neha; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%. The protein sequence analysis demonstrated that TaPSY1 and TaPSY3 retain most of conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of all TaPSY revealed an evolutionary relationship among PSY proteins of various monocot species. TaPSY derived from A and D subgenomes shared proximity to the PSY of Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. The differential expression of TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 in the various tissues, seed development stages, and stress treatments suggested their role in plant development, and stress condition. TaPSY3 showed higher expression in all tissues, followed by TaPSY1. The presence of multiple stress responsive cis-regulatory elements in promoter region of TaPSY3 correlated with the higher expression during drought and heat stresses has suggested their role in these conditions. The expression pattern of TaPSY3 was correlated with the accumulation of β-carotene in the seed developmental stages. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of each TaPSY protein. Hence, TaPSY can be explored in developing genetically improved wheat crop. PMID:27695116

  18. Exogenous application of putrescine at pre-anthesis enhances the thermotolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Sharma, Sushil K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Khushboo; Choudhury, Madhumanthi; Dhawan Gaurav; Singh, Gyaneshwar P; Goswami, Suneha; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Raj D

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, besides being involved in various developmental processes, are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the effect of treatment of 2.5 mM putrescine (Put), heat stress (HS -42 degrees C for 2 h) and their combination on the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes was studied at pre-anthesis in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars--HDR77 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible). We observed that 2.5 mM Put before HS significantly enhanced the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cytoplasmic and peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX, pAPX) in both the cultivars. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR), as well as accumulation of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and total thiol content) were higher in HDR77 than in HD2329 in response to the treatment 2.5 mM Put + HS. No significant change was observed in the proline accumulation in response to HS and combined treatment of 2.5 mM Put + HS. A decrease in the H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increase in cell membrane stability (CMS) were observed in response to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment, as compared to HS treatment alone in both the cultivars; HDR77 was, however, more responsive to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment. Put (2.5 mM) treatment at pre-anthesis thus modulated the defense mechanism responsible for the thermotolerance capacity of wheat under the heat stress. Elicitors like Put, therefore, need to be further studied for temporarily manipulating the thermotolerance capacity of wheat grown under the field conditions in view of the impending global climate change. PMID:25630110

  19. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH. - Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater may be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants

  20. Ojo por ojo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  1. Sepsis por shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabrera C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.

  2. Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Salas-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las uñas producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en uñas, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección.

  3. Motivado por cirujanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar-Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Comenzaba la década de los 60 y nuestro grupo nerviosamente iniciaba lecciones en los hospitales de San José. En aquellos años, el estudiante de medicina empezaba su contacto con pacientes, por lo menos 1 ó 2 años después de iniciada la carrera. El estudio del ser humano normal que ya habíamos concluido, continuaba con el del enfermo, y más adelante aprenderíamos el tratamiento. La enfermedad descrita en el libro, de pronto se convertía en un enfermo, y es a este quien hoy veíamos, cohibido pero inquisidor, en la cama de un hospital. Los profesores nos enseñaban a interrogar y a examinar a los pacientes, y cada gesto suyo, cada pregunta, cada maniobra, eran celosamente guardados en la memoria de los educandos. Con claridad percibíamos, aun a temprana edad, las diferencias entre los especialistas, y casi de manera involuntaria, cada quien iba tomando partido y escogía su futuro camino. Fue durante esos tempranos años, cuando mi vida se cruzó con la de 7 maravillosas personas y excelentes cirujanos, que marcaron para siempre mi destino y, sin quererlo ellos, me hicieron inclinarme por la cirugía. Dos eran serios y profundamente académicos: el Dr. Manuel Aguilar Bonilla y el Dr. Vesalio Guzmán Calleja; 3, decididos, incansables y muy hábiles: el Dr. Longino Soto Pacheco, el Dr. Claudio Orlich Carranza y el Dr. Carlos Prada Díaz, y 2, abordables, prácticos, joviales y amistosos: el Dr. Fernando Valverde Soley y el Dr. Randall Ferris Iglesias….

  4. Functional and structural insights into novel DREB1A transcription factors in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Anuj; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Upendra;

    2016-01-01

    -binding (DREB1A) factors, a class of transcription factors (TF) play an important role in combating drought stress. It is known that DREB1A specifically interacts with the dehydration responsive elements (DRE/CRT) inducing expression of genes involved in environmental stress tolerance in plants. Despite its......Triticum aestivum L. known as common wheat is one of the most important cereal crops feeding a large and growing population. Various environmental stress factors including drought, high salinity and heat etc. adversely affect wheat production in a significant manner. Dehydration-responsive element...

  5. Chromium uptake and toxicity effects on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. cv. UP 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P

    1996-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) at graded levels when added in sand culture of wheat (T. aestivum L. cv. UP2003) under glasshouse conditions resulted in reduction in biomass, chlorophyll and activities of catalase and peroxidase while enhanced acid phosphatase and ribonuclease activities. Elevated levels of Cr supply significantly reduced the concentration of inorganic phosphorus. With an increase in Cr supply the uptake of chromium also increased significantly in different plant parts especially in roots. Above metabolic lesions due to Cr in wheat provided evidence that the element in nutrient medium if present in excess may be inhibitory to plant growth and development.

  6. The Effects of Different Carbon Dioxide Doses on Yield and Nutritional Values of Hydroponic Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grass Juice

    OpenAIRE

    KARAŞAHİN, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    This research has been conducted in the conditioning chamber of  Karabük University Eskipazar Vocational School Department Crop and Animal Production between the dates of 5.01.2015 and 01.08.2015 in order to identify the effects of different carbon dioxide doses on yield and nutritional values of hydroponic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grass juice. In the research, three different carbon dioxide doses (Control; 0, D1; 750, D2; 1500, D3; 2000 ppm) have been applied to growth medium and their e...

  7. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)*

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Dong-Fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1’s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 population...

  8. Two quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits in a somatic hybrid line between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Deshun; Xia, Guangmin; Zhao, Shuangyi; Chen, Fanguo

    2004-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) from hybrid line II-12 between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nivski were characterized with SDS-PAGE. Out of these HMW-GSs, two subunits, h1Bx and h1By, had mobilities similar to the subunits 1Bx13 and 1By16 from common wheat 4072, which was used as control. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) of h1Bx and h1By were prepared, and Western blotting showed that the pAbs had strong affinities for h1Bx and h1By, separately. Th...

  9. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  10. Evaluación de la calidad funcional y sensorial en cultivares de Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare y ssp. spelta en cultivo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Kostiuk, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha estudiado la influencia del cultivar sobre el comportamiento reológico y panadero de cinco cultivares de trigo sembrados en el mismo año y en el mismo ambiente, en condiciones de cultivo ecológico. Tres de ellos eran de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), ‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ y ‘Sensas’ y los otros dos de trigo espelta (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), ‘Espelta Álava’ y ‘Espelta Navarra’. Actualmente, el alohexaploide trigo panadero (2n=6x=42 genomio A...

  11. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  12. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  13. Calidad física de grano de trigos harineros (Triticum aestivum L.mexicanos de temporal Physical quality from rainfall Mexican bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela de la O Olán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La pureza genética, sanidad y calidad física del grano son importantes para la comercialización de trigo harinero. Se sabe que el ambiente afecta algunos de los parámetros físicos de este cereal; por lo que el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia del ambiente en algunos parámetros de calidad física de tres poblaciones de trigo harinero desarrolladas por descendencia de una sola semilla de F2 a F6, el primer grupo estuvo constituido por 69 líneas de la cruza Rebeca F2000 x Salamanca S75, el segundo formado por 98 genotipos de la cruza Rebeca F2000 x Baviácora M92, y el tercero formado por 98 genotipos de la cruza Gálvez M87 x Rebeca F2000, más los progenitores. Los genotipos del primer grupo se sembraron en Roque, Guanajuato (otoño-invierno 2006-2007 con riego normal (cinco riegos y restringido (tres riegos. Los genotipos de la segunda y tercer cruza fueron sembradas en Santa Lucía de Prías y Chapingo, Estado de México (primavera-verano, 2006. Se evaluaron las variables peso hectolítrico (kg hL-¹, dureza del grano (% y contenido de proteína en grano (%. Se realizó análisis de varianza, histogramas de frecuencias y las medias se compararon con la diferencia mínima significativa. Los genotipos mostraron diferencias altamente significativas para todas las variables de calidad física evaluadas, y también se detectaron diferencias altamente significativas para peso hectolítrico y proteína en grano para los niveles de humedad y localidades. En los histogramas de frecuencia del peso hectolítrico los tres grupos de poblaciones muestran tendencia hacia una distribución normal lo que sugiere que dicha variable involucra un alto número de genes y es fuertemente influenciada por el ambiente. Se identificaron genotipos superiores a los progenitores en peso hectolítrico, por lo que se tienen materiales disponibles para realizar selección.Genetic purity, health and physical quality of grain are important

  14. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng Cui; Huitao Liu; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Guoyin Zhuo; Songnian Hu; Dongcheng Liu; Wenlong Yang; Kehui Zhan; Aimin Zhang; Jun Yu

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  15. The physiological significance of HKT1, a Na{sup +} - coupled high affinity K{sup +} transporter in `Triticum aestivum`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Box, S.; Schachtman, D.P. [University of Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Botany

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Several mechanisms for high affinity K{sup +} uptake by higher plants have been proposed:-an ATP-energised K:+ pump, a K{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport and a H{sup +}coupled carrier. Recently, a Na{sup +}--coupled high affinity K{sup +} transporter, HKT1, was isolated from wheat roots. Whilst Na{sup +}K{sup +} symports have been described in charophyte algae, the cloning of HKT1 from wheat is the first, evidence that this type d transport mechanism may function in higher plants. Is the activity of HKT1 an important mechanism involved in K{sup +} acquisition by wheat? The aim of this study was to assess the physiological significance of Na{sup +}- coupled high affinity K{sup +} uptake in T. aestivum. To determine whether HKT1 plays a significant role in wheat growth, we measured the dry weights and ion content of plants grown in a range of [K{sup +}], with and without Na{sup +}. To directly assess the activity of Na{sup +}- coupled K{sup +} transport, {sup 86}Rb{sup +} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} flux analyses were performed on the elongation zones and whole roots of intact seedlings, expressing a high affinity K{sup +} uptake system. The results of these growth and tracer flux studies will be discussed in relation to the expression of the gene encoding HKT1 in T. aestivum

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify nutrient allocation and composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to heat-stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Carmina Falcato; Ravnskov, Sabine; Tringovska, Ivanka;

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro- and mic......Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro......- and micronutrient concentrations in aboveground biomass; evaluation of AM fungal structures in roots and assessment of light-use efficiency of plants. Results AM increased grain number in wheat under heat-stress, and altered nutrient allocation and tiller nutrient composition. Heat increased number of arbuscules...... in wheat root, whereas number of vesicles and total colonization were unaffected. Heat increased photosystem II yield and the electron transfer rate, whereas non-photochemical quenching decreased during the first 2 days of heat-stress. Conclusions Nutrient allocation and –composition in wheat grown under...

  17. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  18. GENETIC DETERMINATION OF THE NITROGEN SUPPLY OF SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikov M.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum grain productivity can be achieved only taking into account plant biological needs. The need in mineral nutrients depends on the plant hereditary nature and environmental conditions. The greatest demand for nitrogen is characteristic in cereals for spring and winter wheat, the lowest one for barley and rye. The use of mineral nutrients in amounts exceeding plant needs does not result in yield increasing and can worsen the production quality. We were studying reaction of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to changes in nutrition soil conditions. In the experiment, ITMI mapping population consisting of 110 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for a number of morphological, biological and economically important traits under different levels of the nitrogen supply. To create different soil nutrition level and to prevent leaching of fertilizers during the plant vegetation season we prepared trenches with depth 0.4 m, width 1 m and length 20 m; the bottoms of which were covered with plastic films. The trenches were filled with soil from the lower soil horizons. In first variant of the experiment, nutrient mixture on the basis of the physiological rate for cereals (N – 0.15 g, P - 0.1 g, K - 0.1 g of active substances per 1 kg of dry soil was applied. In the second variant, nitrogen dose was reduced half with the same phosphorus and potassium doses. Variant without fertilizers applying was used as a control. Thirty nine characters were analyzed during the all growing season. The combination of field and vegetation experiment conditions allowed approximating maximally to real conditions of the experiment and at the same time to control strictly plant vegetation. QTLs identified in our study can be differentiated as dependent and independent on environmental conditions. For example, some QTLs controlling such traits as a wax bloom, phenological phases, etc. are stable under different conditions of soil nutrition. QTLs of

  19. Characterization of a PDR type ABC transporter gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Yi; XIAO Jin; MA LuLin; WANG HaiYan; QI ZengJun; CHEN PeiDu; LIU DaJun; WANG XiuE

    2009-01-01

    DON,as a virulence factor,plays an important role in the infection of Fusarium graminearum in wheat.The infection ability of F. graminearum depends on its capacity of producing DON. The production of DON by F. graminearum is significantly decreased in the wheat varieties with scab resistance. In this study,GeneChip analysis indicated that an EST encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was up-regulated by 45 times in a wheat landrace Wangshuibai,which is resistant to DON accumulation.A pair of EST-derived primers were designed based on the EST sequence,and a clone was then isolated from a wheat genomic DNA TAC library. The TAC clone was sequenced using chromosome walking and gene prediction was conducted using Softberry. A cDNA clone of this gene was subsequently isolated from Wangshuibai induced by DON using gene-specific primers designed according to the untranslated sequence of the gene. The genome size of the gene is 7377 bp,consisting of 19 exons with coding sequences of 4308 bp. It encodes a protein with 1435 amino acid residues and the calculated molecular weight is about 161 kD. BLAST analysis indicated that the gene may belong to pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) sub-family,and hence designated as TaPDR1 (Triticum aestivum pleiotropic drug resistance). TaPDR1 was located on chromosome 5A of wheat using nulliaomic-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring. TaPDR1 was up-regulated by induction of both DON and F. graminearum. Expression patterns of TaPDR1 were different in wild-type Wangshuibai and the fast-neutron induced Wangshuibai mutant lacking FHB1,a major QTL of FHB resistance and DON resistance in chromosome arm 3BS. These results suggested that TaPDR1 might be a candidate gene responsible for DON accumulation resistance. The expression profile showed that TaPDR1 expression was neither induced by hormones typically involved in biotic stress,such as JA and SA,nor by abiotic stresses,such as heat,cold,wounding and NaCI. However,TaPDR1 expression was

  20. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  1. Effect of dissolved organic matter on the toxicity of chlorotoluron to Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ning-hui; YANG Zhi-min; ZHOU Li-xian; WU Xin; YANG Hong

    2006-01-01

    Response of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum cv. YM 158 and NM 9) to the herbicide chlorotoluron and the effect of two forms of dissolved organic matter on the chlorotoluron toxicity to the plants were characterized. Treatment with chlorotoluron at 10-50 μg/ml inhibited the seed germination and a dose-response was observed. The inhibition of seed germination was correlated to the depression of α-amylase activities. To identify whether chlorotoluron induced oxidative damage to wheat plants, the malondlaldehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage were measured. Results showed that both MDA content and electrolyte leakage in the chlorotoluron-treated roots significantly increased. Activities of several key enzymes were measured that operate in citric acid cycle and carbohydrate metabolic pathway. Inhibited activities of citrate synthase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase were observed in the chlorotoluron-treated roots as compared to control plants. We also examined malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in wheat roots exposed to 30 μg/ml chlorotoluron. However, none of the enzymes showed significant changes in activities. Application of 160 μg/ml dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from non-treated sludge(NTS)and heat-expanded sludge (HES) in the medium with 30 μg/ml chlorotoluron induced an additive inhibition of seed germination and plant growth. The inhibition of growth due to the DOM treatment was associated with the depression of activities of α-amylase, citrate synthase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase, as well as the increase in malondlaldehyde content and electrolyte leakage. These results suggested that the presence of DOM might enhance the uptake and accumulation of chlorotoluron, and thus resulted in greater toxicity in wheat plants. The two forms of DOM exhibited differences in regulation of chlorotoluron toxicity to the wheat plants.Treatments with DOM-NTS induced greater toxicity to plants as compared to those with

  2. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  3. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves, th...

  4. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  5. The effect of genes on A and B chromosomes of a number of Triticinae on meiotic behaviour in Triticum aestivum and its hybrids with related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained and hypotheses that have been put forward to integrate them, are summarized in this section.1. Studies of chromosome association in F 1 hybrids Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale with and without chromosome 5B and in the presence or in the absence o

  6. Por que sou rondoniano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio Pereira Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Numa revisão contextualizada no tempo e projetada pelos seus resultados, a obra do sertanista marechal Cândido Rondon (1867-1958 é avaliada positivamente pela dedicação à causa dos povos indígenas do Brasil, pela formação de uma ética de respeito do brasileiro para com os índios e pela institucionalização do dever do Estado brasileiro de proteger, assistir e ajudar os povos indígenas a manterem-se coesos e autônomos e ao mesmo tempo se projetarem no mundo mais amplo. A vida de Rondon é acompanhada desde a sua formação como cadete da Escola Militar, como membro da Igreja do Apostolado Positivista, como comandante da Expedição Rondon (1907-1930, que levou o telégrafo de Cuiabá a Porto Velho, e especialmente como criador e dirigente-mor do Serviço de Proteção aos Índios (SPI, 1910-1967. Rondon é o criador da expressão "Morrer se preciso for, matar nunca", que pautou a ação de indigenistas brasileiros que fizeram os primeiros contatos com muitos povos indígenas desde 1910. E muitos morreram seguindo essa norma, numa clara demonstração do novo espírito humanista criado pela atitude rondoniana. O indigenismo brasileiro implantado por Rondon teve altos e baixos ao longo de quase cem anos, que hoje prossegue pela Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai. De fato, muitos povos indígenas perderam suas terras e muitos foram dizimados no século XX, mas os mais de 220 que sobreviveram vêm crescendo em número, obtendo suas terras (13% do território nacional e conquistando novos espaços político-culturais no Brasil.This paper reviews the life and work of Brazilian Indianist Marshall Cândido Rondon. Rondon's life is marked by a profound dedication to the Brazilian Indian cause and to instilling in Brazilians a respect for Indian peoples. He influenced the Brazilian government in shaping a policy of protecting, assisting, and helping Indian peoples retain cohesive, self-determined societies. He also encouraged Indians to

  7. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at Glu-1 Loci in Chinese Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; PANG Bin-shuang; YOU Guang-xia; WANG Lan-fen; JIA Ji-zeng; DONG Yu-chen

    2002-01-01

    Wheat processing quality is greatly influenced by the seed proteins especially the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) components, the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) components and gliadin components. Genes encoding the HMW-GS and LMW-GS components were located on the long arms and the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, respectively. HMW-GS components in 5 129 accessions of wheat germplasms were analyzed systematically, including 3 459 landraces and 1 670 modern varieties. These accessions were chosen as candidate core collections to represent the genetic diversity of Chinese common wheat (Triticum aestivum ) germplasms documented and conserved in the National Gene Bank. These candidate core collections covered the 10 wheat production regions in China. In the whole country, the dominating alleles at the three loci are Glu-A1b (null), Glu-B1b (7 + 8), and Glu- D1a (2 + 12), respectively. The obvious difference between the land race and the modern variety is the dramatic frequency increase of alleles Glu-A1a (1), Glu-B1c (7 + 9), Glu-B1h (14 + 15), Glu-D1d (5 + 10) and allele cording 5 + 12 subunits in the later ones. In the whole view, there is minor difference on the genetic(allelic)richness between the landrace and the modern variety at Glu-1, which is 28 and 30 respectively. However, the genetic dispersion index (Simpson index) based on allelic variation and frequencies at Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 suggested that the modern varieties had much higher genetic diversity than the landraces. This revealed that various isolating mechanisms (such as auto-gamous nature, low migration because of undeveloped transposition system) limited the gene flow and exchange between populations of the landraces, which led up to some genotypes localized in very small areas. Modern breeding has strongly promoted gene exchanges and introgression between populations and previous isolated populations. In the three loci, Glu-B1 has the highest

  8. The influence of nitric oxide and oxalic acid on Triticum aestivum L. infected by Septoria tritici Blotch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V. Zhuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The realization of productivity of Triticum aestivumL. modern cultivars is limited by yield losses caused by fungus diseases which intensively develop under high level of humidity and air temperatures. The usage of elicitors is the way to induce the plant immunity of cereals and minimize the pesticide pollution of the environment. It is established that the additive effect of elicitor (oxalic acid and NO signal molecule decrease the stress after the action of biotic factor (Septoria triticiBlotch in two spring wheat cultivars – ‘Nedra’and ‘Etud’in the field experiment conditions. The effect of oxalic acid was to decrease the yield losses by the way of decreasing the degree of corns’ infection by pathogen. NO donor manifests the qualities of signal molecule and growth regulator under biotic stress that promoted the realization of wheat potential productivity.

  9. [Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome analysis of somatic hybrid of Triticum aestivum L. and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Ling; Xia, Guang-Min; Chen, Hui-Min

    2004-08-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybrids were obtained by fusion between protoplasts of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan 177 and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. Protoplasts of L. chinensis were exposed to UV (300 microW/cm(2)) for 30 s, 45 s and 1 min before fusion. The results of morphological and chromosomal observation, isozyme pattern as well as RAPD analysis and the 5S rDNA space sequence analysis showed the hybrid nature of the regenerated colonies of fusion combination T (+) L (UV 30 s). Restriction Fragment Length Po1ymorphism (RFLP) analysis using mitochondrion-specific atp6 and chloroplast-specific rbcL probes showed that most of the organelle genomes of the hybrids originated from L. chinensis and some recombination happened between wheat and L. chinensis. The effects of elimination of the nuclear genome of receptor protoplast on hybrid regeneration and receptor organelle genome elimination are discussed. PMID:15627685

  10. Breeding of T. aestivum-Ag. intermedium translocation lines with T. timopheevii cytoplasm and characterization by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A male-sterile T. aestivum-Ag. intermedium partial amphiploid with cytoplasm of T. timopheevii as a female parent was crossed to common wheat. The hybrid was backcrossed to the male parent several times continually and self-crossed at last. Two stable lines with common wheat phenotype, H96269-2 and H96278, have been obtained. The chromosome numbers of the two lines are all 2n = 42 in somatic cells. By inoculation test, the two lines show a high level of resistance to yellow rust. Through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with Ag. intermedium total genomic DNA as a probe, it is demonstrated that the two stable lines are all small segmental translocation lines, and the translocated chromosome segments from Ag. intermedium are located on the short arm terminals of wheat chromosomes. Genetics analysis suggests that the yellow rust resistance gene(s) are probably located on the translocated chromosome segments of Ag. intermedium.

  11. EFEITO DE MICROONDAS NA SECAGEM DO TRIGO (T. aestivum, L.) E NA QUALIDADE REOLÓGICA DA FARINHA*

    OpenAIRE

    LEANDRO FERNANDES MONKS; CRISTINA SIMÃ?ES DA COSTA; GERMANO JORGE DORNELES SOARES

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho avalia o efeito das microondas na secagem do trigo (T. aestivum L.) e no comportamento reológico da farinha. Trigos colhidos nas umidades de 19-21% e 12%, condicionados a 16-18%, foram tratados com 1, 2 e 3 min de microondas (750-850W), seguidos ou não, de secagem estacionária (40±5ºC) até 13% de umidade. Os resultados demonstram que a secagem utilizando 3min de microondas diminui a temperatura de pasta (TP) em relação ao tratamento controle, anteci...

  12. The specifics of elicitor effect on Triticum aestivum macromorphogenesis under simultaneous lesion by Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zhuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi interrupt the macromorphogenesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum but biotic elicitors stimulate the nonspecific tolerance, growth and development of plant stems. It is shown that oxalic acid as a biotic elicitor and donor of nitric oxide signal molecule (sodium nitroprusside stimulate stem growth in height and last leaves length, as well as grain quantity and productivity both in cv. ‘Poliska 90’ and cv. ‘Stolychna’ under Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita infection in field trials. It is detected that the degree of infected leaf area decreased in both treated cultivars under Saari-Prescott scale. Cv. ‘Poliska 90’ is more sensitive to both fungal pathogens than cv. ‘Stolychna’, but elicitor influence on its architectonics was no less than on cv. ‘Stolychna’.

  13. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...... origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  14. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

  15. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

  16. Protective effects of nitricoxide on salt stress-inducedoxidative damage to wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, plasma membrane permeability confirmed that 0.1 and 1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, could markedly alleviate the oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves induced by 150 and 300 mmol/L NaCl treatments, respectively. Further results proved that NO significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), both of which separately contributed to the delay of and H2O2 accumulation in wheat leaves under salt stress. Meanwhile, the accumulation of proline was apparently accelerated. Therefore, these results suggested that NO could strongly protect wheat leaves from oxidative damage caused by salt stress.

  17. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  18. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on Cd and Zn accumulation dynamics in Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoheng; Li, Yu; Lu, Hong; Wang, Shigong

    2016-09-01

    A simulated climate warming experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on the bioaccumulation, translocation and subcellular distributions of Cd and Zn in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1.) at Dingxi, Gansu Province, China. The objective was to find evidence that global climate change is affecting the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in T. aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1. The results showed that compared to control A, elevated temperature and CO2 increased Cd bioaccumulation in the shoots by 1.4-2.5 times, and increased that in the roots by 1.2-1.5 times, but decreased Zn levels in wheat shoots by 1.4-2.0 times, while decreased that in the roots by 1.6-1.9 times. Moreover, temperature and CO2 concentration increase also led to increased Cd concentration, and decreased Zn concentration in subcellular compartments of wheat seedlings. The largest Cd concentration increase (174.4%) was observed in the cell wall and debris fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the highest CO2 and temperature treatment (TC3). The largest Zn concentration decrease (53.1%) was observed in the soluble (F3) fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the medium CO2 and temperature treatment (TC2). The temperature and CO2 increase had no significant effect on the proportional distribution of Cd and Zn in the subcellular fractions. The root-to-shoot translocation of Cd increased with the increasing temperature and CO2 concentration. However, the Zn distributions only fluctuated within a small range. PMID:27593278

  19. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundam Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.. Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.. Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05 improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.

  20. Se los por se lo

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-01-01

    El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966) en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre refle...

  1. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  2. Construction and Evaluation of cDNA Libraries for Large-Scale Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, D.; Choi, D. W.; Wanamaker, S; Fenton, R. D.; Chin, A; Malatrasi, M.; Turuspekov, Y.; Walia, H.; Akhunov, E. D.; Kianian, P.; Otto, C.; Simons, K; Deal, K. R.; Echenique, V.; Stamova, B

    2004-01-01

    A total of 37 original cDNA libraries and 9 derivative libraries enriched for rare sequences were produced from Chinese Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), five other hexaploid wheat genotypes (Cheyenne, Brevor, TAM W101, BH1146, Butte 86), tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L.), diploid wheat (T. monococcum L.), and two other diploid members of the grass tribe Triticeae (Aegilops speltoides Tausch and Secale cereale L.). The emphasis in the choice of plant materials for library constructio...

  3. Characterization of low-molecular-weight-glutenin subunit genes from the D-genome of Triticum aestivum, Aegilops crassa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. tauschii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, M.R.; Ahmadi, S.; Shanejat-Boushehri, A.A.; Komaei, G.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty low-molecular-weight-glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) gene sequences from the D-genome from Aegilops crassa (2n ¼ 4x ¼ 28), Ae. cylindrica (2n ¼ 4x ¼ 28), Ae. tauschii (2n ¼ 2x ¼ 14) and Triticum aestivum (2n ¼ 6x ¼ 42) were obtained using five sets of specific allele primer pairs. Only the sequence

  4. Inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenotype and biomass of Triticum aestivum var. Nana-F2007 at 50% of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jaime Hernández-Escareño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L consuming requires of nitrogen fertilizer (NF, as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, which one in excess causes lost soil productivity. An alternative to reduce and optimize NF to wheat is to inoculate with endophytic promoting growth bacteria (EPGB, as genus Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus able to improve radical uptake of NF, its suggesting by inducing synthesis of growth promoting vegetal substances (GPVS. The aim of this research was to evaluate the inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenology and biomass of T.aestivum at 50% dose of NF. A trial in greenhouse condition wasconducted inoculating seed T.aestivum´s with both EPGB by measuring its phenology: (PH plant height, (RL root length and biomass: total fresh weight (TFW and dry (TDW at seedling and flowering stages. Results showed a positive effect of B. cepacia in wheat on its TDW with 0.61g value statistically significant compared to 0.53g TDW of wheat used as relative control fed with NF 100% dose (RC. B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus inoculated to wheat had a positive increased on its TDW with 4.23 g value statistically significant compared to 1.13 g TDW of wheat used as RC. Conclusion suggested that B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus by synthetized GPVS had a positive effect on wheat growth at reduced dose of NF.

  5. Celulitis por citomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.Cutaneous lesions in CMV infection are rare, often a late manifestation of systemic infection, and usually herald a fatal course. A 70 year-old woman received a kidney transplantation one month before consulting and immunosuppressive therapy that included cyclosporine A and methylprednisone. She complained of fever, local pain in her right leg, and an erythematous and swelling plaque. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics without improvement. A skin biopsy was performed and the tissue obtained was sent for bacterial and fungal cultures as well as for histological examination. Cultures were negative. The biopsy showed CMV cytopathic changes. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for CMV and polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing revealed CMV DNA. She was treated with ganciclovir with resolution of the lesion. CMV cellulitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation

  6. Estudio de parámetros hídricos foliares en trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y su uso en selección de genotipos resistentes a sequía Leaf water parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their use in the selection of drought resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ORTIZ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros hídricos foliares ys (potencial de solutos, CRA (contenido relativo de agua y AO (ajuste osmótico permiten caracterizar la respuesta de las plantas frente al estrés hídrico e identificar aquellos genotipos mejor adaptados. Sin embargo, estos parámetros presentan una gran influencia del medioambiente lo que dificulta su análisis. En este trabajo se planteó la hipótesis de que es posible caracterizar y seleccionar genotipos resistentes a sequía en base a la evolución de los parámetros hídricos foliares en campo. Se cultivaron 31 genotipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en dos ensayos de campo, uno regado y otro no regado que recibió sólo 218,3 mm de lluvia invernal. El diseño fue de bloques al azar con dos repeticiones. Entre los 77 y 121 días después de la emergencia (DC 41 a DC 77 se realizaron cinco muestreos de CRA y psis en hojas bandera hidratadas (psish en cada repetición de cada ensayo (con un total de 10 observaciones por ensayo. Las repeticiones se muestrearon en días alternos, con un intervalo de 24 h entre las 12:00 y las 14:00 h. A la cosecha se midió biomasa, rendimiento y componentes de rendimiento. Las observaciones de CRA y ysh fueron altamente afectadas por factores ambientales (ca. 80 % de la suma de cuadrados y no estuvieron correlacionadas entre repeticiones de un mismo ensayo. Con fines de análisis se consideró cada observación como independiente (10 observaciones de cada parámetro hídrico foliar por genotipo y se realizaron regresiones lineales del valor de cada parámetro hídrico foliar de cada genotipo sobre el promedio de todos los genotipos en el momento de muestreo. Cada genotipo se caracterizó por el valor medio del parámetro hídrico foliar y la pendiente de la regresión. Además se estimó el ajuste osmótico (AO de cada genotipo utilizando tres métodos propuestos en la literatura. Se hicieron dos selecciones de genotipos, una consideró la pendiente y el promedio de ysh

  7. (phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo

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    D Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

  8. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown in Northern Europe 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Shu-Chin; Singh, Ravi P; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Merker, Arnulf; Liljeroth, Erland; Diaz, Oscar

    2006-12-01

    Diversity of resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina can be enhanced in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars through a better knowledge of resistance genes that are present in important cultivars and germplasm. Multi-pathotype tests on 84 wheat cultivars grown in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during 1992-2002 and 39 differential testers enabled the postulation of nine known genes for seedling resistance to leaf rust. Genes Lr1, Lr2a, Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr17, Lr23 and Lr26 were found singly or in combination in 47 of the cultivars (55.9%). The most frequently occurring genes in cultivars grown in Sweden were Lr13 (20.4%), Lr14a (14.8%) and Lr26 (14.8%). Lr14a was the most common gene in cultivars grown in Norway (18.7%), Lr13 in Denmark (35.5%) and Lr10 in Finland (20.0%). Although 28 cultivars (33.3%) exhibited a response pattern that could not be assigned to resistance genes or combinations present in the tester lines, several pathotypes carried virulence and hence these genes or combinations are of limited use. Nine cultivars (10.7%) lacked detectable seedling resistance. One cultivar was resistant to all pathotypes used in the study. PMID:17362328

  9. Near-isogenic lines of Triticum aestivum with distinct modes of resistance exhibit dissimilar transcriptional regulation during Diuraphis noxia feeding

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    Anna-Maria Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov feeding on susceptible Triticum aestivum L. leads to leaf rolling, chlorosis and plant death – symptoms not present in resistant lines. Although the effects of several D. noxia (Dn resistance genes are known, none have been isolated or characterized. Wheat varieties expressing different Dn genes exhibit distinct modes of D. noxia resistance, such as antibiosis (Dn1, tolerance (Dn2, and antixenosis (Dn5. However, the mechanism whereby feeding aphids are perceived, and how subsequent transcriptional responses are partitioned into resistance categories, remains unclear. Here we report on downstream events in near-isogenic wheat lines containing different Dn genes after D. noxia biotype SA1 feeding. Transcripts involved in stress, signal transduction, photosynthesis, metabolism and gene regulation were differentially regulated during D. noxia feeding. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR and RNA hybridization, as well as enzyme activity profiling, provide evidence that the timing and intensity of pathways induced are critical in the development of particular modes of resistance. Pathways involved include the generation of kinase signalling cascades that lead to a sustained oxidative burst, and a hypersensitive response that is active during antibiosis. Tolerance is a passive resistance mechanism that acts through repair or de novo synthesis of photosystem proteins. Results further suggest that ethylene-mediated pathways are possibly involved in generating volatile compounds and cell wall fortification during the antixenosic response.

  10. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  11. Effects of As on As uptake, speciation, and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanji; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Su, Jingjun; Liang, Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth, nutrition and As uptake, and speciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Winter wheat has high tolerance to As. Most As is accumulated in the roots, and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As. Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots. Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species, although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues. Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue. Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots, particularly the concentration of P. Concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively.

  12. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)

  13. Effects of Interaction Between Cadmium and Plumbum on Phytochelatins and Glutathione Production in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin SUN; Xiao-Rong WANG; Shi-Ming DING; Xin-Fang YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) may function as a potential biomarker for metal toxicity. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of metal interactions on the production of PCs and glutathione (GSH),the most prominent cellular thiol. In the present study, the effects of interactions between cadmium (Cd) and plumbum (Pb) on the production of PCs and GSH were monitored over a period of 14 d in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues. The results showed that combination of Cd and Pb led to synergistic growth inhibition in wheat. Exposure to Cd or Pb increased levels of PCs in a concentration-, tissue-, and time-dependent manner. Cadmium was more effective that Pb in increasing PCs production. Compared with the effects of Cd or Pb alone on the production of PCs, the combination of Cd and Pb acted synergistically, resulting in an enhanced production of PCs. Cadmium also stimulated GSH production in a concentration-, tissue-, and time-dependent manner. However, Pb had no obvious effects on GSH levels. The combination of Pb and Cd antagonized GSH production over the course of the growth period. The results of the present study suggest that metal interactions should be considered in the application of PCs and GSH as potential biomarkers for the evaluation of metal toxicity.

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass in Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae, which posses high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers. Wheat grass has been shown to posses anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, antioxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, and blood building activity in Thalassemia Major. It has been argued that wheat grass helps blood flow, digestion and general detoxification of the body. The major clinical utility of wheat grass in diseased conditions might be due to the presence of biologically active compounds and minerals in it and due to its antioxidant potential which is derived from its high content of bioflavonoids such as apigenin, quercitin, luteoline. Furthermore, indole compounds namely choline and laetrile present in it might be also responsible for its therapeutic potential. The presence of 70% chlorophyll, which is almost chemically identical to hemoglobin, in wheat grass makes it more useful in various clinical conditions involving hemoglobin deficiency and other chronic disorders. The present review article focuses onto various studies conducted on the use of wheatgrass in various disease conditions. Since very little clinical studies have been made on this very promising herbal drug, efforts are needed to conduct extensive studies on the wheat grass both in experimental models and human subjects to develop wheat grass therapy with no side effects in prevention, cure and management of chronic diseases for which our modern systems have lost their hopes.

  15. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  16. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong CHEN; Dong-fa SUN; De-fu RONG; Jun-hua PENG; Cheng-dao LI

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature.Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis.All F1's were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature.It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene,temporarily designated as wptms3.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population.The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM,respectively.The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.

  17. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat. PMID:27133557

  18. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Afzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The effect of cell phone Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR were determined by measuring membrane damage in terms of melondialdehyde [MDA] contents and changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes like Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, and Catalase (CAT. Our results showed that cell phone EMR caused significant reduction in growth, fresh weight, dry weight, and relative water contents. Where as MDA contents and antioxidant enzymes were increased in stressed seedlings as compared to unstressed seedlings. We concluded that radiations emitted by mobile phone can induce oxidative stress which results in reduced growth and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean and wheat seedlings.

  19. Protective Effect of Nitric Oxide on High Temperature Induced Oxidative Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum Callus Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature (HT stress is a major environmental factor that limits plant growth, metabolism and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plants’ responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plants’ adaptability. The protective effect of exogenous nitric oxide in alleviating high temperature induced damages of wheat (Triticum aestivum callus tissues was investigated. Heat treatment (35 and 40 °C alone or in combination with 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor was applied for 72 h to callus tissues cultured on MS medium. Heat stress significantly increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical levels, whereas ascorbate and total glutathione contents markedly decreased. In addition, heat stress increased the activities of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide distumase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. In contrast, the addition of SNP in the culture media prevented the callus from the heat-induced oxidative damage as indicated by the decrease of MDA, H2O2 and O2.− contents, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant constituents. These results provided support for the hypothesis that the exogenous applications of NO confer tolerance to high temperature stress by reducing the oxidative damage in plants.

  20. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data. PMID:24349528

  1. Effects of As on As uptake,speciation,and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quanji; HU Chengxiao; TAN Qiling; SUN Xuccheng; SU Jingjun; LIANG Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth,nutrition and As uptake,and spcciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Winter wheat has high tolerance to As.Most As is accumulated in the roots,and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As.Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots.Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species,although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues.Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue.Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K),nitrogen (N),and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots,particularly the concentration of P.Concentrations of iron,copper,and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates,with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93,0.94,and 0.97,respectively.

  2. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings secrete proteases from the roots and, after protein addition, grow well on medium without inorganic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, B; Godlewski, M; Zimny, J; Zimny, A

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on the role of proteases secreted by roots in nitrogen capture by plants. The study was conducted on aseptically cultivated wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv. Tacher) obtained from embryos isolated from grains. Seedlings were cultivated for 21 days on deionised water, Murashige Skoog medium (MS), MS without inorganic nitrogen (IN), and MS without IN, in which IN was replaced by casein (0.01%, 0.1% or 1%). Comparison of seedlings grown on these media showed that casein entirely compensated for the lack of inorganic nitrogen in the medium. Shoots and roots of seedlings cultivated on MS medium with this protein had higher fresh weight than those cultivated on MS medium without casein. The increase in fresh weight of seedlings was correlated with casein concentration and proteolytic activity in the medium. In conclusion, wheat that uses proteases secreted by the roots can directly utilise proteins in the medium as a source of nitrogen without prior digestion by microbial proteases and without protein mineralisation. These results suggest the important role of organic nitrogen fertilisers in increasing wheat yield. PMID:18950429

  3. Association analysis of grain traits with SSR markers between Aegilops tauschii and hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-lan; WANG Hong-wei; ZHANG Xiao-cun; DU Xu-ye; LI An-fei; KONG Ling-rang

    2015-01-01

    Seven important grain traits, including grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain perimeter (GP), grain area (GA), grain length/width ratio (GLW), roundness (GR), and thousand-grain weight (TGW), were analyzed using a set of 139 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in 130 hexaploid wheat varieties and 193Aegilops tauschiaccessions worldwide. In total, 1612 aleles inAe. tauschiand 1360 aleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) were detected throughout the D genome. 197 marker-trait associations inAe. tauschi were identiifed with 58 different SSR loci in 3 environments, and the average phenotypic variation value (R2) ranged from 0.68 to 15.12%. In contrast, 208 marker-trait associations were identiifed in wheat with 66 different SSR markers in 4 environments and the average phenotypicR2ranged from 0.90 to 19.92%. Further analysis indicated that there are 6 common SSR loci present in bothAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat, which are signiifcantly associated with the 5 investigated grain traits (i.e., GA, GP, GR, GL, and TGW) and in total, 16 aleles derived from the 6 aforementioned SSR loci were shared byAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. These preliminary data suggest the existence of common aleles may explain the evolutionary process and the selection betweenAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the genetic differentiation of grain shape and thousand-grain weight were observed in the evolutionary developmental process fromAe. tauschi to hexaploid wheat.

  4. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events.

  5. Se los por se lo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  6. por el Tribunal Constitucional chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Peña Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La modificación introducida por la reforma constitucional de agosto de 1989 al artículo 5º de la Constitución chilena sentó un criterio decisivo en la incorporación del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos al ordenamiento jurídico interno. El artículo examina la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional antes y después de esa reforma distinguiendo entre la aplicación del Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos por haberse invocado en la acción deducida y la aplicación de principios y criterios hermenéuticos extraídos del mismo.

  7. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo β-hemolνtico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reciιn nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal varνa desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.

  8. Investigation of the Yield and Quality Traits of the Auxiliary Triticum aestivum%伴生栽培小麦产量与品质性状的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽娜; 傅兆麟; 汪桐; 余薇; 宫晶; 何丽香

    2012-01-01

    为了解伴生栽培小麦产量和品质性状及合理开发利用伴生栽培小麦的优异性状,以6个伴生栽 培小麦基因型和6个普通栽培小麦基因型为试验材料,对伴生栽培小麦产量与品质性状进行了研究. 结果表明,伴生栽培小麦收获指数平均值为0.3823,普通栽培小麦比其高了28.0%,两者差异极显著;伴 生栽培小麦单株穗数比普通栽培小麦多6.0穗,多出幅度为50.5%,两者差异极显著,千粒重平均值为26.38 g,普通栽培小麦是伴生栽培小麦的1.68倍,差异极显著,穗粒数差异不显著;6个伴生栽培小麦的蛋白质含量平均值为14.53%、湿面筋含量平均值为37.00%、沉降值的平均值为30.72%,均高于普通栽培小麦,差异极显著,水分为12.82%,小于普通栽培小麦,与普通栽培小麦比较差异显著.%In order to study the yield and quality of auxiliary Triticum aestivum and rationally explore excellent traits auxiliary Triticum aestivum, 6 ordinary Triticum aestivum genotypes and 6 auxiliary Triticum aestivum genotypes were used to study the yield and quality of auxiliary Triticum aestivum. The results showed that: ordinary Triticum aestivum was 28% higher than auxiliary Triticum aestivum on harvest index of the latter was 0.3823, the difference was significant. About spike number of a single plant, test showed that, auxiliary Triticum aestivum was 6.0 more than ordinary Triticum aestivum, by more than 50.5%, the difference was significant. Significant difference indicated that, ordinary Triticum aestivum was 1.68 times of auxiliary one on 1000-grain weight, which was 26.38 g on average. But there was no difference on grains. The results showed the average on protein content, wet gluten content and zeleny of ordinary Triticum aestivum was much higher than the auxiliary Triticum aestivum genotype, the average percentage were 14.53%, 37.00% and 30.72%, respectively. The moisture content of auxiliary Triticum aestivum

  9. Estimating gain by use of a classic selection index under multicollinearity in wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pereira de Carvalho

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that the classic selection index, under multicollinearity, could not give simultaneous gains for wheat grain production and its primary components. This was due to the instability and, consequently, low precision of the coefficient index estimates. A modification of the prediction process of the index was proposed to avoid the adverse effects of multicollinearity, adopting a procedure based on ridge regression theory. The modified classic selection index, or ridge index, gave more statistically viable index coefficient estimates and gains for all of the characters evaluated. However, lower gains for number of grains per spike and grain yield were obtained, when compared to those obtained with selection for grain yield.Evidenciou-se a inviabilidade do uso do índice de seleção clássico, sob multicollinearidade, na obtenção de ganhos simultâneos para a produção de grãos de trigo e seus componentes primários. Esta inviabilidade foi devido à instabilidade e, consequentemente, pouca precisão das estimativas dos coeficientes do índice. A fim de contornar os efeitos adversos da multicollinearidade, propôs-se modificar o processo de predição do índice adotando-se um procedimento baseado na teoria de regressão em cristas. O índice de seleção clássico modificado proporcionou estimativas dos coeficientes do índice estatisticamente mais viáveis e ganhos em todos os caracteres avaliados. Contudo, com o uso deste índice, obtiveram-se ganhos inferiores para os caracteres número de grãos por espiga e rendimento de grãos, comparado aos obtidos pela seleção para rendimento.

  10. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

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    Castillo Caicedo Maribel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
    entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
    por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
    desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
    puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
    contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
    examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
    educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
    nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
    para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
    del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  11. Cultivo de embriões em retrocruzamentos entre Triticum aestivum Thell. e Agropyron elongatum host. & beauv. Embryo culture of backcrosses between hybrids of Triticum aestivum Thell. and Agropyron elongatum host. & beauv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilma Cristina Angra

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência a diversas moléstias fúngicas do trigo tem sido transferida de espécies perenes da tribo Triticeae, mas o híbrido produzido pelo cruzamento intergenérico apresenta embrião abortivo. Embora a técnica de resgate e cultivo in vitro destes embriões já seja amplamente utilizada, sua eficiência ainda é muito baixa. Este trabalho objetivou a obtenção de progênies de retrocruzamentos em híbrido F1 (2n=56, proveniente do cruzamento de trigo (Triticum aestivum (2n=42 com Agropyron elongatum (2n=70, utilizando-se a técnica de cultivo in vitro dos embriões imaturos. Partindo-se do material perene na geração F1, utilizou-se o trigo como parental recorrente nos retrocruzamentos. A eficiência da polinização foi de 6% no primeiro retrocruzamento (RC1 e de 12,4% no segundo (RC2. As plantas do RC1 foram viabilizadas pelo resgate e cultivo in vitro dos embriões imaturos utilizando- se o meio batata-regeneração, com adição de vitaminas. De 22 sementes, 18 embriões foram resgatados e cultivados in vitro, originando 12 plântulas. Desses embriões, 50% foram normais, 27,8% apresentaram tamanho reduzido, 16,7% foram deformados e 5,5% apresentaram desenvolvimento retardado. A eficiência do cultivo dos embriões na regeneração de plântulas foi de 66,6%. Tal resultado indica que a técnica de resgate e o meio de cultura utilizados foram eficientes para o cultivo e regeneração dos embriões híbridos, obtendo progênies viáveis de retrocruzamentos a partir de híbridos intergenéricos, nas condições realizadas.Resistance to fungal diseases of wheat has been transferred from perennial species of tribe Triticeae, but the hybrid so formed presents immature embryos. Although rescue and in vitro culture of these embryos has been widely utilized, its efficiency is still very low. This work aimed to obtain backcrossing progenies in hybrid F1 (2n=56, derived from crossing between wheat (Triticum aestivum (2n=42 and Agropyron

  12. Clonagem de canistel por estaquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcelo Chiamolera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel é nativo do sul do México e América Central e seus frutos apresentam elevado teor de carotenoides e vitamina A. Sua propagação é feita via sementes, resultando em considerável variabilidade genética entre os indivíduos, sendo a propagação vegetativa preferível, a fim de fixar características desejáveis. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a propagação vegetativa por estaquia de ramos semi-herbáceos de canistel, em função de quatro genótipos e quatro concentrações de AIB. Foram utilizadas estacas semiherbáceas apicais, mantidas com um par de folhas, sob nebulização intermitente, por 120 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4×4 (genótipos de canistel × concentrações de AIB, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sobrevivência, a retenção foliar, o enraizamento, o calejamento, o número e o comprimento médio de raízes por estaca. O genótipo PC-1 foi superior aos demais, em todas as variáveis avaliadas, com destaque para o enraizamento das estacas, superior a 60%. As concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 3.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 não influenciaram na sobrevivência, retenção foliar e enraizamento das estacas, mas aumentaram o número e o comprimento de raízes em relação ao tratamento-controle (sem AIB. Há diferença na capacidade de enraizamento das estacas entre os genótipos de canistel, sendo a melhor resposta obtida com PC-1. A concentração de 3.000 mg L-1 de AIB resulta em maior número e comprimento de raízes nas estacas de canistel.

  13. Once mil metros por segundo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esta exposición es una ventana hacia el mundo de la Ciencia Ficción. Los sueños de escritores extraordinarios, personajes, lugares, máquinas y robots que cada día están más cerca de nuestra cotidianidad gracias a los avances de la ciencia y la tecnología hacen parte de la muestra itinerante por las sedes de la Universidad Nacional. El visitante puede recorrer los diferentes géneros que constituyen este género literario, además de conocer sus principales representantes. Así mismo se explor...

  14. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera; Cinthya Ramírez-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respir...

  15. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  16. Polioencefalomalacia experimental em bovinos induzida por toxicose por enxofre

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    Paulo H.J. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os sinais clínicos, as concentrações do sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal e as alterações anatomopatológicas associadas à intoxicação experimental por enxofre em bovinos. Foram utilizados dez bezerros mestiços leiteiros, sendo que quatro bovinos ingeriram ração sem sulfato de sódio (G1 e seis consumiram ração com sulfato de sódio (G2. Exames clínicos (temperatura retal, frequência cardíaca e respiratória e motricidade ruminal e laboratoriais (hemograma, fibrinogênio, proteína plasmática, pH do fluido ruminal, concentração do sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal, líquido cerebrospinal e histopatológico foram realizados. A temperatura retal, frequência cardíaca, hemograma, fibrinogênio, proteína plasmática, pH do fluido ruminal e os valores do líquido cerebrospinal estavam dentro dos valores de referência para a espécie. Taquipnéia, hipomotricidade ruminal e elevados valores de sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal foram observados nos bezerros do grupo G2. Um bezerro do grupo G2 apresentou sinais neurológicos e lesões histopatológicas de PEM. Dois animais de cada grupo foram eutanasiados. Lesões microscópicas foram observadas nos bezerros do G2. Histologicamente as alterações observadas foram necrose neuronal cortical e lesões hemorrágicas nos núcleos basais, tálamo, mesencéfalo, ponte e bulbo. O protocolo experimental constituído por uma dieta rica em carboidrato de alta fermentação, baixa quantidade de fibra efetiva e altos níveis de enxofre (0,52% ocasionou alterações clinicas e histológicas e elevadas concentrações de sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal compatíveis com quadro de intoxicação por enxofre.

  17. Genomic Dissection and Expression Profiling Revealed Functional Divergence in Triticum aestivum Leucine Rich Repeat Receptor Like Kinases (TaLRRKs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumayla; Sharma, Shailesh; Kumar, Rohit; Mendu, Venugopal; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh K.

    2016-01-01

    The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK) constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK), which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains, and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought, and salt) stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat.

  18. Activation of latent nucleolus organizers induced by experimental polyploidization in cells of hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, E M; Khoudoleeva, O A; Chentsov YuS; Polyakov VYu

    2000-01-01

    The effect of prolonged colchicine-induced polyploidization on activation of latent nucleolus-organizing regions (NOR) of chromosomes was studied in diploid meristematic cells and polyploid root cells of Triticum aestivum L. It has been shown that control diploid and tetraploid cells have maximal number of nucleoli equal to four, which corresponds to the number of nucleolar chromosomes (NC) with active (visualized by staining with AgNO3) NOR (two pairs of homologous chromosomes 1B and 6B). Treatment of wheat seedlings with colchicine for 30 h results in following changes in polyploid cells: (1) impregnation of NOR with silver is observed on homologues of either chromosomes 1A or 5D in all tetraploid metaphase plates (4n, 2x, 4c), which is indicative of the NOR activation on this chromosome in pre-mitotic polyploid interphase; (2) In tetraploid metaphase, NOR in all four homologues of activated chromosomes or in only two of them may be stained; (3) maximal number of nucleoli in tetraploid nuclei is increased till 12, which confirms activation of transcription of additional rRNA gene clusters in polyploids; (4) activation of the rRNA gene expression is induced by the cell polyploidization rather than by colchicine, since in the colchicine-treated diploid cells both maximal number of nucleoli and the number of metaphase chromosomes with active NOR is not changed as compared with control. The obtained data allow us to suggest that structural "separation" of NC in polyploid nuclei stimulates activation of latent NOR. PMID:11093578

  19. EFEITO DE MICROONDAS NA SECAGEM DO TRIGO (T. aestivum, L. E NA QUALIDADE REOLÓGICA DA FARINHA*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO FERNANDES MONKS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho avalia o efeito das microondas na secagem do trigo (T. aestivum L. e no comportamento reológico da farinha. Trigos colhidos nas umidades de 19-21% e 12%, condicionados a 16-18%, foram tratados com 1, 2 e 3 min de microondas (750-850W, seguidos ou não, de secagem estacionária (40±5ºC até 13% de umidade. Os resultados demonstram que a secagem utilizando 3min de microondas diminui a temperatura de pasta (TP em relação ao tratamento controle, antecipando a gelatinização do amido. A redução de viscosidade (RV e a retrogradação (RG diminuem gradativamente com o aumento da temperatura nos tratamentos. A partir de 1 min de microondas aumenta a viscosidade mínima (Vm. Os parâmetros viscosidade final (VF e máxima inicial (VMI não diferem entre as secagens, mas há uma tendência de aumento dos mesmos. Na análise alveográfica, a relação P/L e a força de glúten (W aumentam (P<0,05 com o tempo de aplicação das microondas, enquanto que o volume de sedimentação SDS não diferiu entre os tratamentos. A ação das microondas na secagem dos grãos provoca a diminuição da extensibilidade da massa. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Trigo; microondas; secagem; reologia.

  20. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  1. Generation of novel high quality HMW-GS genes in two introgression lines of Triticum aestivum/Agropyron elongatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fanguo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS have been proved to be mostly correlated with the processing quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum. But wheat cultivars have limited number of high quality HMW-GS. However, novel HMW-GS were found to be present in many wheat asymmetric somatic hybrid introgression lines of common wheat/Agropyron elongatum. Results To exploit how these new subunits were generated, we isolated HMW-GS genes from two sib hybrid lines (II-12 and 11-4-6 and compared them with those from their parents. The result shows that two genes of hybrid (H11-3-3 and H11-4-3 are directly introgressed from the donor parent Agropyron elongatum; one hybrid gene (H1Dx5 comes from point mutation of a parental wheat gene (1Dx2.1; two other hybrid genes (H1By8 and H1By16 are likely resulting from unequal crossover or slippage of a parental wheat gene (1By9.1; and the sixth novel hybrid gene (H1Dy12 may come from recombination between two parental genes. Conclusion Therefore, we demonstrate that novel HMW-GS genes can be rapidly created through asymmetric somatic hybridization in a manner similar with the evolution mechanism of these genes supposed before. We also described gene shuffling as a new mechanism of novel HMW-GS gene formation in hybrids. The results suggest that asymmetric somatic hybridization is an important approach for widening HMW-GS genebank of wheat quality improvement.

  2. Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, c.v. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., c.v. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for

  3. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  4. Biochemical characterization and spatio-temporal expression of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Anshu Alok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol into d-glucuronic acid. The present study demonstrates isolation of MIOX cDNA (TaMIOX from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. with open reading frame of 912 bp encoding 303 amino acid polypeptides with a molecular mass of 35.2 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis of TaMIOX across kingdoms confirmed the close relationship with Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii. Secondary structure of TaMIOX consists of α-helixes (42.9%, β-turns (7.26% joined by extended strands (14.85%, and 37 random coils (34.94%. Three-dimensional structure of TaMIOX suggested its close functional and structural resemblance with known MIOX. Catalytic activity of the purified TaMIOX is 3.47 μkatal at pH 8.0 and 35 °C with Michaelis constant 5.6 mM. Differential expression pattern of TaMIOX was observed in leaves, root, stem, seed and seed developmental stages. Leaves showed a significantly higher transcript accumulation followed by root, stem and seed. Expression of TaMIOX during seed development stages showed higher expression at later stage and suggested that expression of TaMIOX was significantly higher in endosperm as compared with aleurone. The exogenous application of myo-inositol enhanced the expression of TaMIOX in leaves and roots suggested myo-inositol acts as an inducer for the TaMIOX expression. The present study reports molecular, structural and biochemical characterizations of MIOX in wheat which might play an important role in myo-inositol oxidation pathway.

  5. toxicidad neuroendocrina inducida por cadmio

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    A Romero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cadmio es un agente químico tóxico importante debido a su creciente nivel en el medio ambiente como resultado de prácticas industriales y agrícolas. Como perturbador endocrino, el cadmio modifica la secreción de hormonas hipofisarias. Los efectos indirectos del cadmio provocan la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno y reducen la actividad de las proteínas implicadas en las defensas antioxidantes. La melatonina es conocida como un potente antioxidante, scavenger de radicales libres y quelante de metales sintetizada en la glándula pineal. De esta manera, las acciones antioxidantes de esta indolamina protegen frente a la peroxidación lipídica y el daño oxidativo de los radicales y de sus productos tóxicos. Los trabajos recopilados en esta revisión ponen de manifiesto la capacidad antioxidante de la melatonina y, por lo tanto, su posible papel protector frente a la toxicidad del cadmio en lo que se refiere al estrés oxidativo y peroxidación lipídica inducidos por la exposición a este metal.

  6. Hipoglucemia inducida por carcinoma adrenal

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    Jimena Soutelo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma suprarrenal es una neoplasia maligna infrecuente y de mal pronóstico. La presentación clínica más común es originada por la producción hormonal excesiva, mientras que el desarrollo de hipoglucemia sintomática es excepcional. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años que ingresó al hospital por síntomas de hipoglucemias graves, hipertensión arterial, hipopotasemia y amenorrea secundaria. En el laboratorio se halló hipoglucemia con insulina inhibida y niveles de andrógenos en rango tumoral. La tomografía computarizada (TC de abdomen y pelvis mostró voluminosa formación heterogénea de aspecto sólido sin plano de clivaje con respecto al parénquima hepático e intenso realce con contraste. Luego de la extirpación de la masa retroperitoneal, evolucionó con valores de glucemia y potasemia normales, estabilizó la presión arterial y recuperó los ciclos menstruales.

  7. Generation of novel high quality HMW-GS genes in two introgression lines of Triticum aestivum/Agropyron elongatum

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Fanguo; Zhao Shuangyi; Liu Shuwei; Xia Guangmin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) have been proved to be mostly correlated with the processing quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). But wheat cultivars have limited number of high quality HMW-GS. However, novel HMW-GS were found to be present in many wheat asymmetric somatic hybrid introgression lines of common wheat/Agropyron elongatum. Results To exploit how these new subunits were generated, we isolated HMW-GS genes from two sib hybrid lines (II-1...

  8. ESTUDIO DE ALGUNOS GÉNEROS MICROBIANOS ASOCIADOS A DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L.) EN SUELO FERRALÍTICO ROJO

    OpenAIRE

    Annia Hernández; Plana, R.; Gloria M. Martín; J. L. Santander

    2002-01-01

    Se estudiaron los géneros bacterianos predominantes en la rizosfera de cuatro variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) crecido en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo. También se evaluó la quimioatracción de algunas rizobacterias hacia los exudados radicales de este cultivo. Se utilizó el Modelo Espermosférico para el aislamiento y los tubos colectores y la cámara de quimiotaxis modificada para la evaluación del efecto quimiotáctico de los exudados radicales. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que e...

  9. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

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    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  10. Diversity of low-molecular-weight-glutenin subunit genes associated with D-genome in Triticum aestivum, Aegilops crassa, A. cylindrica and A. tauschii

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    Fatemeh Vafadar Shamasbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40% of endosperm protein of common wheat is composed of Low Molecular Weight (LMW Glutenin Subunits. To examine variation in the D genome of wheat, 98 accessions from different areas of Iran were studied using the five Glu-D3-specific pair primers. The amplification percentages of all primer pair sets were 80.61%, 92.86%, 79.59%, 90.82% and 67.35%, respectively. In comparison of the four species, the most observed bands of the first primer pair were found in Ae. tauschii samples. For the second primer pair, the most frequency of the amplified product was found in the T. aestivum samples. For the third primer pair, the Ae. cylindrical samples had the most amplified band. For the fourth primer pair, the most amplified band was found in the T. aestivum samples. The Ae. cylindrica samples had the most frequency band for the fifth primer pair. Based on dendrogram analysis, the accessions were divided in to 18 categories; and also 42 accessions had a bond for any PCR reaction. It is hoped that the result will be effective in molecular analysis and breeding of native landrace plants.

  11. Cloning of a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene from a Triticum aestivum-Elytrigia elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Daoyi; WANG Honggang

    2005-01-01

    Shannong 551, a T. aestivum-E. elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew, was inoculated with pathogenic spores of powdery mildew. The leaf samples were prepared 48 h after inoculation for scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that germination of spores and growth of young mycelia on leaves of Shannong 551 were suppressed at the early stage of infection. At the same time, RNAs were prepared from the leaves for the cloning of WRP1 and RPW2 by cDNA RDA and RACE technology. BLAST analysis of the sequences indicated that both WRP1 and RPW2 were novel genes. WRP1 contains no complete ORF. RPW2 contains the conserved structure domain of aminotransferase, and its DNA sequence shares high homology with genes of phosphateserine aminotransferase in many organisms. Therefore, it is speculated as a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene. The results of Northern blot suggested that expression of RPW2 occurred at the early stage of infection by powdery mildew. Southern blot using the probe of RPW2, in which there was strong hybridizing signals in both genome of Shannong 551 and E. elongatum, but not in those of Jinan 13 and Lumai No.5, indicated that RPW2 derived from the genome of E. elongatum.

  12. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados Organophosphate myotoxicity

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    Maria J. Cavaliere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.Organophosphates comprise a group of chemical compounds extensively used in farming as insecticides, which cause accidental poisoning in animals and men and are also used in suicide attempts. The toxicity of these compounds is due especially to the cardiac and respiratory impairment in consequence of autonomic nervous system disorders. However, it is known that some of these products induce a myopathy in experimental animals and humans. This myopathy is characterized by muscle cell degeneration, involving above all the respiratory muscles. Based on the fact that this involvement certainly enhances the

  13. Development of T. aestivum L.-H. californicum alien chromosome lines and assignment of homoeologous groups of Hordeum californicum chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuhui; Yuan, Jingya; Wang, Zhangjun; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhixi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Qi, Zengjun; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Wang, Xiu-E

    2014-08-20

    Hordeum californicum (2n = 2x = 14, HH) is resistant to several wheat diseases and tolerant to lower nitrogen. In this study, a molecular karyotype of H. californicum chromosomes in the Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS)-H. californicum amphidiploid (2n = 6x = 56, AABBDDHH) was established. By genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive DNA clones (pTa71, pTa794 and pSc119.2) as probes, the H. californicum chromosomes could be differentiated from each other and from the wheat chromosomes unequivocally. Based on molecular karyotype and marker analyses, 12 wheat-alien chromosome lines, including four disomic addition lines (DAH1, DAH3, DAH5 and DAH6), five telosomic addition lines (MtH7L, MtH1S, MtH1L, DtH6S and DtH6L), one multiple addition line involving H. californicum chromosome H2, one disomic substitution line (DSH4) and one translocation line (TH7S/1BL), were identified from the progenies derived from the crosses of CS-H. californicum amphidiploid with common wheat varieties. A total of 482 EST (expressed sequence tag) or SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers specific for individual H. californicum chromosomes were identified, and 47, 50, 45, 49, 21, 51 and 40 markers were assigned to chromosomes H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7, respectively. According to the chromosome allocation of these markers, chromosomes H2, H3, H4, H5, and H7 of H. californicum have relationship with wheat homoeologous groups 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1, and hence could be designated as 5H(c), 2H(c), 6H(c), 3H(c) and 1H(c), respectively. The chromosomes H1 and H6 were designated as 7H(c) and 4H(c), respectively, by referring to SSR markers located on rye chromosomes.

  14. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  15. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Campbell Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM. Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and

  16. La inconstitucionalidad por omisión

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    Luz Bulnes Aldunate

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la facultad de los tribunales constitucionales para determinar la inconstitucionalidad por omisión, en virtud del silencio u omisión de la autoridad de normar un principio o regla constitucional dispuesto por la Constitución explícita o implícitamente.

  17. Verdad por definición

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    Garrido Garrido, Julián

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La verdad por definición es un tipo peculiar de verdad científica, distinguible de las verdades lógicas, matemáticas y empíricas. La definición, por su parte, designa diversos procedimientos de asignación de significado, cuyas diferencias exigen una adjetivación cuidadosa: definiciones ostensivas y operacionales, definiciones de diccionario y definiciones teóricas. Pero sólo las del último tipo son verdaderas por definición. En el presente artículo se precisa el concepto formal de definición teórica, se delimita la estructura de esos enunciados, se analiza la verdad por definición, y se comparan, por último, las definiciones teóricas con los otros tipos de definición.

  18. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas;

    2016-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to ...

  19. Photobiostimulation effects on germination and early growth of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L) produced by a semiconductor laser with λ=980nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seeds to a IR laser radiation with λ=980nm produced by a semiconductor laser on germination and early growth had been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were irradiated to one of two laser intensities 15 mWcm- ''2 or 30 mWcm-2 for different periods of time 30, 60 or 120 s. Seeds exposed to a light intensity of 15mWcm-2 and an exposition time of 30 s. showed an increase on the percentage of seeds germinated normally while the percentage of seeds germinated abnormally decreased. At the same time there is a stimulation effect on the growth of the stem and on the growth of the root of 10% on wheat seedlings over control seedlings. Significant differences (ρ < 0.001) were observed between the control and the above treatment. (Author)

  20. Changes in host-mycorrhiza relationships revealed by stable isotopes after naturally-induced thinning of the stand: case study on Tuber aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Lauteri, Marco; Ciolfi, Marco; Chiocchini, Francesca; Paris, Pierluigi; Pisanelli, Andrea; Portarena, Silvia; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial plants overcome nutrients and water limitations by forming mutualistic associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Fungi, in return, take advantage from the carbohydrates supplied by the host. Some mycorrhizal fruit bodies, like that of Tuber spp., have a peculiar gastronomic value with many efforts being undertaken to predict and enhance their productivity. However, many issues of truffle-producing mycorrhizal ecology are still poorly understood, in particular optimal conditions favoring fruit formation, potential host plants and host-mycorrhiza relationships. In this study, we tested the applicability of stable isotope measurements under natural abundance to identify the plants which likely host the mycorrhiza of Tuber aestivum and to characterize host-mycorrhizal nutrient, water and carbohydrate exchange under plant natural growing conditions and with the change of the forest cover after naturally occurred thinning. For these purposes, sampling of the fruit bodies of T. aestivum was performed during the growing season 2011 in a mixed broadleaved-coniferous forest in central Italy (initially the site was a manmade pine plantation). Nine truffle-producing parcels were identified with five being composed of the original Pinus pinaster -dominated vegetation and four in which pine was replaced by broadleaf species after both wind-induced thinning and natural dieback of pine trees. Seasonal variation of δ13C, δ15N and δ18O were analyzed in the fungal material, in the surrounding soil and in the plant material of the potential host species (xylem water in the trunk, branches and leaves, recently assimilated carbohydrates in phloem and leaves). The results showed a possibility of the identification of the mycorrhizal host species applying isotope analyses, with mycorrhiza receiving most part of the carbohydrates from the pine in pine-dominated parcels. Interestingly, in thinned parcels, the truffle bodies maintained isotope composition similar to bodies gathered

  1. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  2. Confocal Raman microscopic characterization of the molecular species responsible for the grain cohesion of Triticum aestivum wheat: effect of chemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, Olivier; Saadi, Abdelbasset; Autran, Jean-Claude; Manfait, Michel

    1999-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is a very well appropriate technique for the characterization of the molecules responsible of the wheat grain cohesion, since it is non-destructive and can be readily applied in-situ. The cohesion of the kernel or starchy endosperm depends on a protein content located at the interstices of starch granules. The separation between the kernel and the envelope depends on the composition of the aleurone cells layer, in phenolic acids and pentosans. Confocal Raman microscopy has been performed on kernel sections of various Triticum aestivum samples. Raman spectra recorded at different parts of such sections are very specific, such as spectra of the starchy endosperm protein. The technique has been also used to study the effect of chemical treatment on the binding of the constituents of the aleurone cells walls. In addition, certain marker bands of starch and proteins have been used to construct spectral images.

  3. Verdad por definición

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Garrido, Julián

    1997-01-01

    Not available.La verdad por definición es un tipo peculiar de verdad científica, distinguible de las verdades lógicas, matemáticas y empíricas. La definición, por su parte, designa diversos procedimientos de asignación de significado, cuyas diferencias exigen una adjetivación cuidadosa: definiciones ostensivas y operacionales, definiciones de diccionario y definiciones teóricas. Pero sólo las del último tipo son verdaderas por definición. En el presente artículo se precisa el concepto formal ...

  4. Intoxicación por Paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Viales López

    2014-01-01

    El paraquat es un herbicida bipiridílico que actúa por contacto, se presenta en forma líquida en concentraciones del 20% para uso agrícola. Su nombre químico es eI 1-1´-dimetil-4-4- bipiridilo, con el nombre comercial de Gramoxone. La intoxicación por paraquat tiene una tasa de mortalidad elevada. La intoxicación grave se caracteriza por la afectación de múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones, los riñones y el hígado. El pulmón es el órgano diana en la intoxicación por paraquat y la i...

  5. 14 Nobel, preocupados por el CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rivera, A

    2003-01-01

    "E l presidente del Consejo del CERN (Laboratorio Europeo de Fisica de Particulas, junto a Ginebra), Maurice Bourquin, ha recibido una carta firmada por un grupo de cientificos muy especiales: 14 premios Nobel de Fisica" (1 page).

  6. Intoxicación por Paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Viales López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El paraquat es un herbicida bipiridílico que actúa por contacto, se presenta en forma líquida en concentraciones del 20% para uso agrícola. Su nombre químico es eI 1-1´-dimetil-4-4- bipiridilo, con el nombre comercial de Gramoxone. La intoxicación por paraquat tiene una tasa de mortalidad elevada. La intoxicación grave se caracteriza por la afectación de múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones, los riñones y el hígado. El pulmón es el órgano diana en la intoxicación por paraquat y la insuficiencia respiratoria con fibrosis pulmonar aguda es la causa más común de muerte.

  7. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

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    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  8. Angiografia por tomografia computadorizada dos aneurismas intracranianos

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    Laureano Vinícius Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os achados da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada, comparativamente à angiografia por subtração digital, em relação aos aneurismas intracranianos, e a possibilidade da maior utilização da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada no Brasil. Foram analisados oito pacientes que apresentavam um total de sete aneurismas não tratados e um aneurisma tratado. Houve subseqüente correlação com outros trabalhos publicados na literatura médica. Os exames foram realizados em uma clínica e em dois hospitais privados, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Foi demonstrada boa correlação entre os métodos estudados, em relação ao diagnóstico dos aneurismas, no acompanhamento e avaliação pré-terapêutica dessas lesões. A angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi um exame menos invasivo, de menor custo e maior acessibilidade. Concluiu-se que a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada é um exame que deve ser utilizado com maior freqüência para avaliação nesta enfermidade.

  9. 小麦与野燕麦杂交后代品系光合特性的研究%Study on the Photosynthetic Performance of the New Lines Developed from the Cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咪咪; 何丽娜; 何觉民; 张红梅; 何仪; 周建伟

    2012-01-01

    The new lines developed from the progeny of cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua were used as materials to study the variation of photosynthetic parameters of flag leaf at blooming stage by LI 6400 photosynthetic system and calculate the water use efficiency (WUE), and to evaluate the photosynthetic characteristics with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that Pn of the hybrid offsprings developed from common wheat and Avena fatua were obviously higher than those of common wheat and Avenu fatua.The change trend of stomata conductance (Cd) was similar to that of transpiration rate (Tr). The correlations between Pn with Cond and Tr were significantly positive among different cultivars. A positive association was found between Pn of flag leaves and yield, but not significant. The capacity of photosynthesis of the hybrids was higher than that of parents and Triticum aestivum.%The new lines developed from the progeny of cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua were used as materials to study the variation of photosynthetic parameters of flag leaf at blooming stage by LI 6400 photosynthetic system and calculate the water use efficiency (WUE), and to evaluate the photosynthetic characteristics with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that Pn of the hybrid offsprings developed from common wheat and Avena fatua were obviously higher than those of common wheat and Avenu fatua.The change trend of stomata conductance (Cd) was similar to that of transpiration rate (Tr). The correlations between Pn with Cond and Tr were significantly positive among different cultivars. A positive association was found between Pn of flag leaves and yield, but not significant. The capacity of photosynthesis of the hybrids was higher than that of parents and Triticum aestivum.

  10. La conquista de Niebla por Alfonso X

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanjuán, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    La conquista de Niebla en 660 H/1262 d.n.e. por el rey Alfonso X (1252-1284) puso fin a los cinco siglos y medio de Historia andalusí de dicha ciudad, largo período iniciado desde su sumisión por `Abd al- c Aziz b. Milsá en 94/713, al comienzo de la irrupción islámica en la Península Ibérica. Se trata, por lo tanto, de un episodio de gran relevancia en el devenir histórico de esta localidad, que ya desde época visigoda fue el principal núcleo urbano del territorio onubens...

  11. Identification of Bipolaris bicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. in Brazil Identificação de Bipolaris bicolor e Bipolaris sorokiniana sobre sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra R. Morejon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused in wheat by Helminthosporium spp. have led to considerable yield and production losses. Different species in this genus are associated with wheat seeds. In Brazil, spot blotch in wheat is caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem that has been also isolated from wheat seeds. The current study was undertaken to identify the most frequent fungus species that normaly infects wheat seeds and compared them with B. sorokiniana. The fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolated from wheat seeds cultivar IAPAR, was identified by taxonomic methods and compared with the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoem., in relation to growth characteristics on the seeds, as well as to growth characteristics in PDA and morphology of the structures. Type of colony observed on the seeds is important for the differentiation between the fungus species. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented black colonies, which were well-adherent to the seeds, whereas B. bicolor presented grayish, aerial, cotton-like colonies. The size of the conidia also differed in length and width, and B. bicolor presented the smallest dimensions. In relation to septa, B. bicolor conidia presented deep ones, with dark color bases, but seldom presented dark apex. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented homogenous color.Doenças causadas por Helminthosporium spp. em trigo, causam consideráveis perdas na produção. Diferentes espécies do gênero do fungo podem ser encontradas em sementes. No caso do Brasil, a mancha foliar do trigo tem sido causada por Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, entretanto, outro fungo como Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem tem sido isolado de sementes do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar as espécies de fungo que normalmente infectam sementes de trigo e comparar com a mais comum B. sorokiniana. O fungo Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolado de sementes de trigo var. IAPAR, foi identificado por

  12. Neumopericardio debido a herida por arma blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Merino Barrera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hombre de 24 años de edad que ingresó en el hospital debido a una herida por arma blanca penetrante en el hemitórax derecho. La herida, de 3 cm a nivel de la piel, se localizaba a nivel del segundo espacio intercostal derecho y la radiografía de tórax demostró un neumotórax del mismo lado y una colección radiotransparente, por debajo del pericardio parietal, desde el origen de los grandes vasos hasta la porción apical del ventrículo izquierdo.

  13. Neumopericardio debido a herida por arma blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel I. Merino Barrera; Francisco L. Moreno-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Hombre de 24 años de edad que ingresó en el hospital debido a una herida por arma blanca penetrante en el hemitórax derecho. La herida, de 3 cm a nivel de la piel, se localizaba a nivel del segundo espacio intercostal derecho y la radiografía de tórax demostró un neumotórax del mismo lado y una colección radiotransparente, por debajo del pericardio parietal, desde el origen de los grandes vasos hasta la porción apical del ventrículo izquierdo.

  14. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  15. PANORAMA LATINOAMERICANO DEL PAGO POR SERVICIOS AMBIENTALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González T. Ángela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento busca proveer al lector de algunos elementos para el análisis y reflexión en torno al pago por servicios ambientales. Para ello, en primera instancia, aborda algunos conceptos básicos relacionados con economía ambiental, seguido de temas como la valoración económica de servicios ambientales y la implementación de mecanismos de pago por algunos de ellos. Lo anterior esta enriquecido con experiencias o estudios de caso a nivel latinoamericano y colombiano.

  16. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville; Juan I Padilla-Cuadra

    2007-01-01

    La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualiz...

  17. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus ditelosomic substitution line 7Lr#1S(7A) with resistance to wheat scab and its meiotic behavior analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LinSheng; CHEN PeiDu

    2008-01-01

    Leymus racemosus is highly resistant to wheat scab (Fusarum head bright). The transfer of scab re-sistant gene from L. racemosus to Triticum aestivum is of great significance for broadening the base of wheat resistance. In the present study, the pollen of T. aestivum-L, racemosus monosomic addition linewith scab resistance was treated by irradiation with 1200 R 60Co-γ-rays prior to pollinating to emasculated wheat cv. Mianyang 85-45. Nine plants with a telocentric chromosome 7Lr#1S were observed in M1,and one ditelosomic substitution line 7Lr#1S was selected from selfcrossing progenies and confirmed by chromosome C-banding and GISH. Furthermore, a co-dominant EST-SSR marker CINAU 31 was em-ployed to identify this substitution line. A pair of chromosome 7A of common wheat were found to be replaced by a pair of telocentric chromosome 7Lr#1S, and further investigation showed that chromo-some configuration of the substitution line at MI of PMCs after GISH was 17.50(Ⅱ) w + 2.19 (Ⅱ)w +0.42 (Ⅱ)7Lr#1S + 1.08 Ⅰ7Lr#1S + 0.69 Ⅰw. Two telocentric chromosomes paired as a bivalent in 59.7% of PMCs.Abnormal chromosome behaviors of telocentric chromosomes were observed in part of PMCs at ana-phase Ⅰ and telophase Ⅰ, including the moving of two telocentric chromosomes to the same pole, lag-ging and earlier separation of their sister chromatid. All these abnormal behaviors can be grouped into three distinct types of tetrads according to different numbers of 7Lr#1S in their daughter cells and various micronucieus in some tetrads. However, due to the high transmission frequency of the female and male gametes with a 7Lr#1S, 84% of the selfcrossing progeny plants had ditelosomic substitution. The substitution line showed high resistance to wheat scab in a successive two-year test both in the greenhouse and field; hence, the line will be particularly valuable for alien gene mapping, small frag-ment translocation induction and telosomic cytological behavior analysis.

  18. Pedro Teixeira y su viaje por Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuente del Pilar, José Javier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Teixeira es un integrante notable de la ilustre nómina de los viajeros portugueses que, a finales del s, XVI y principios del XVII, ensancharon para Occidente las fronteras del mundo. Su conocimiento en España se debe a la publicación en 1994 de su obra «Relaciones del Origen, Descendencia y Sucesión de los Reyes de Persia, y de Harmuz, y de un viaje hecho por el autor dende la India hasta Italia por tierra», en edición realizada por el profesor Eduardo Barajas Sala, lamentablemente fallecido en 1997. En este artículo se ofrece una reseña biográfica de Pedro Teixeira, y un análisis del viaje narrado por el autor en la última parte de sus «Relaciones »: el que desde Ormuz le conducirá, a través de Mesopotamia, hasta la costa del Mediterráneo.…

  19. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivumL. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST em plantas de milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae. A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. As maiores atividades de GST foram observadas na presença de acetochlor, principalmente às 48 horas após o tratamento. Esses aumentos foram 105, 148 e 118% em relação ao controle para milho, sorgo e trigo, respectivamente. É sugerido que a GST pode ter papel na degradação de acetochlor e pode ser uma das razões para a seletividade desse herbicida para essas culturas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen herbicides plant selectivity, in relation to glutathione S-transferase activity (GST in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L (Poaceae plants. GST activity was detected 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment applications. The experiment's treatments consisted of spraying plants with water (control, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1`, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 and oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. The highest GST activities were observed in presence of acetochlor, mainly at 48 hours after treatment. These increments were 105, 148 and 118% when compared to maize, sorghum and wheat control groups, respectively. It is suggested that the GST may have a role in acetochlor degradation and it may be a reason for this herbicide's selectivity in these crops.

  20. Dermatoses provocadas por plantas (fitodermatoses Dermatosis due to plants (phytodermatosis

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    Vitor Manoel Silva dos Reis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As dermatoses causadas por plantas são relativamente comuns no nosso meio e podem ocorrer por diversos mecanismos patogênicos. São descritas dermatoses por trauma físico, por ação farmacológica, mediadas por IgE, por irritação, por ação conjunta da luz e por sensibilização. Também são descritas na introdução desta revisão as pseudofitodermatoses causadas por elementos veiculados pelas plantas e, por isso, aparentemente causadas pelas plantas.Dermatosis caused by plants is relatively common and may occur by various pathogenic mechanisms. Dermatitis due to physical trauma, pharmacological action, irritation, sensitization, mediated by IgE and induced by light are described. Pseudophytodermatosis caused by plant-delivered elements is also described in the introduction to this work.

  1. Structure, variation and expression analysis of glutenin gene promoters from Triticum aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring shows the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 is key regulatory sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2013-09-25

    In this study, ten glutenin gene promoters were isolated from model wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) using a genomic PCR strategy with gene-specific primers. Six belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoters, and four to low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS). Sequence lengths varied from 1361 to 2,554 bp. We show that the glutenin gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse sequences in this study, with HMW-GS and LMW-GS gene promoters characterized by distinct conserved motif combinations. Our findings show that HMW-GS promoters contain more functional motifs in the distal region of the glutenin gene promoter (> -700 bp) compared with LMW-GS. The y-type HMW-GS gene promoters possess unique motifs including RY repeat and as-2 box compared to the x-type. We also identified important motifs in the distal region of HMW-GS gene promoters including the 5'-UTR Py-rich stretch motif and the as-2 box motif. We found that cis-acting elements in the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 enhanced the expression of HMW-GS gene 1Bx7. Taken together, these data support efforts in designing molecular breeding strategies aiming to improve wheat quality. Our results offer insight into the regulatory mechanisms of glutenin gene expression.

  2. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Pónya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation.

  3. Construction and evaluation of cDNA libraries for large-scale expressed sequence tag sequencing in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Choi, D W; Wanamaker, S; Fenton, R D; Chin, A; Malatrasi, M; Turuspekov, Y; Walia, H; Akhunov, E D; Kianian, P; Otto, C; Simons, K; Deal, K R; Echenique, V; Stamova, B; Ross, K; Butler, G E; Strader, L; Verhey, S D; Johnson, R; Altenbach, S; Kothari, K; Tanaka, C; Shah, M M; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Han, P; Miller, R E; Crossman, C C; Chao, S; Lazo, G R; Klueva, N; Gustafson, J P; Kianian, S F; Dubcovsky, J; Walker-Simmons, M K; Gill, K S; Dvorák, J; Anderson, O D; Sorrells, M E; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Nguyen, H T; Close, T J

    2004-10-01

    A total of 37 original cDNA libraries and 9 derivative libraries enriched for rare sequences were produced from Chinese Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), five other hexaploid wheat genotypes (Cheyenne, Brevor, TAM W101, BH1146, Butte 86), tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L.), diploid wheat (T. monococcum L.), and two other diploid members of the grass tribe Triticeae (Aegilops speltoides Tausch and Secale cereale L.). The emphasis in the choice of plant materials for library construction was reproductive development subjected to environmental factors that ultimately affect grain quality and yield, but roots and other tissues were also included. Partial cDNA expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were examined by various measures to assess the quality of these libraries. All ESTs were processed to remove cloning system sequences and contaminants and then assembled using CAP3. Following these processing steps, this assembly yielded 101,107 sequences derived from 89,043 clones, which defined 16,740 contigs and 33,213 singletons, a total of 49,953 "unigenes." Analysis of the distribution of these unigenes among the libraries led to the conclusion that the enrichment methods were effective in reducing the most abundant unigenes and to the observation that the most diverse libraries were from tissues exposed to environmental stresses including heat, drought, salinity, or low temperature. PMID:15514038

  4. Cloning of new members of heat shock protein HSP101 gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) Moench) inducible by heat, dehydration, and ABA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J L; Klueva, N Y; Zheng, H G; Nieto-Sotelo, J; Ho, T D; Nguyen, H T

    2001-01-26

    We have cloned two cDNAs, TaHSP101B and TaHSP101C, encoding two heat stress-inducible members of HSP101/ClpB family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) Moench.). Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are highly similar at the primary sequence level and diverged from the previously reported TaHSP101 (designated TaHSP101A) both in the consensus ATP/GTP-binding region II and in the carboxy terminal region. The HSP101 gene was determined to be a single copy gene or a member of a small gene family in hexaploid wheat. Messages encoding HSP101 proteins were inducible by heat stress treatments in both wheat leaves and roots. Accumulation of the TaHSP101C mRNA was less abundant than that of TaHSP101B mRNA. We are showing for the first time that in addition to heat stress, expression of HSP101 mRNAs in wheat leaves was induced by a 2-h dehydration and a treatment with 5x10(-5)M ABA, but not affected by chilling or wounding, indicating that HSP101 proteins may be involved in both heat and drought responses in wheat. PMID:11342108

  5. Effects of long-term 2,4-D and MCPA field applications on soil residues and their rates of breakdown. [Triticum aestivum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.E.; Abuin, A.J. (Agriculture Canada, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)); Biederbeck, V.O. (Agriculture Canada, Swift Current, Saskatchewan (Canada))

    A 3-yr rotation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wheat, and summerfallow in field plots on a clay soil at the Indian Head Experimental Farm, Saskatchewan, has been receiving annual applications of ester and amine formulations of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) since 1947, and MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) since 1953. In the fall of 1987, after 40 successive applications of 2,4-D and 34 annual treatments of MCPA, soil samples were taken from the 0- to 15-cm and 15- to 30-cm depths of replicate treatments. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that residual amounts of 2,4-D and MCPA were less than 0.02 mg kg{sup {minus}1}, indicating that there had been complete degradation of the herbicides. Under laboratory conditions, the breakdown of 2.0 mg kg{sup {minus}1} ({sup 14}C) 2,4-D and ({sup 14}C)MCPA was slightly faster in soils that had received continuous applications with the appropriate herbicide, than in soil from the untreated control plots, suggesting some soil microbial adaptation in response to long-term use of these herbicides.

  6. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

  7. Molecular characterization of LMW-GS genes from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum in relation to quick evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to exploit the evolution and find novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit(LMW-GS)for improvement of common wheat quality,thirteen variants from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum cv.Jinan 177(JN177)and Agropyron elongatum were characterized via genomic PCR.Four clones were pseudogenes because they contained an internal stop codon.The remaining nine variants contained intact open reading frames(ORFs).Sequence alignment indicates that the proteins deduced from the nine ORFs have similar primary structure with LMW-GS cloned from its parents previously.However,they have some unique modifications in the structures.For example,EU292737 contains not only an extra Cys residue in the C-terminal domain but also a long repetitive domain.Both EU159511 and EU292738 start their first Cys residue in the N-terminal repetitive domain,but not in the N-conserved domain traditionally.These structural alterations may have positive contributions to wheat flour quality.The results of phylogeny showed that most LMW-GS variances from Ⅱ-12 were homologous to those from parent JN 177 and other wheat lines.The reason for quick evolution of LMW-GS in Ⅱ-12 was discussed.

  8. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

    2010-06-01

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

  9. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-08-16

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat.

  10. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed. PMID:25251214

  11. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R.; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0–8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure. PMID:26402793

  12. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO Interferes with Lead (Pb-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    Full Text Available Nitric Oxide (NO is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside] in ameliorating lead (Pb-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0-8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure.

  13. Measurement of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate in plant leaves by isotope dilution. [Spinacea oleracea; Triticum aestivum; Arabidopsis thaliana; Maize; Phaseolus vulgaris; Petunia hybrida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.

  14. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanmugam, S.; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2013-01-01

    /night temperature of 15/10 °C. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates......This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day...... in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after 1 day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained higher PN and Fv/Fm in comparison with plants grown in ambient CO2. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll...

  15. QTL Mapping for Drought Tolerance at Stages of Germination and Seedling in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)Using a DH Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhuan-fang; CHANG Xiao-ping; GUO Xiao-jian; JING Rui-lian; LI Run-zhi; JIA Ji-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Drought is a major constraint in many wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) production regions. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conditioning drought tolerance at stages of germination and seedling in wheat were identified in a double haploid (DH) population derived from the cross, Hanxuan10×Lumai14, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Interval mapping analysis revealed that QTLs for drought tolerance at germination stage were located on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5A, 6B, 7A and 7B, respectively, and the most effective QTL was mapped on chromosome 2B, explaining 27.2% of phenotypic variance. The QTLs for drought tolerance at seedling stage were located on 1B, 3B and 7B, respectively, and the most effective QTL was mapped on chromosome 3B, explaining 21.6% of phenotypic variance. Their positions were different from those of QTLs conferring drought tolerance at germination stage, indicating that drought tolerance at germination stage and seedling stage was controlled by different loci. Most of the identified QTLs explained 18% or more of phenotypic variance for drought tolerance at germination and seedling stage, and would be useful in future for marker assisted selection programs and cultivar improvement.

  16. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0-8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure.

  17. Effects of zinc on cadmium uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.): long-time hydroponic study and short-time 109Cd tracing study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhong-qiu; ZHU Yong-guan; CAI Yun-long

    2005-01-01

    To investigate effects of Zn on Cd uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in solution culture, long-time hydroponic experiment (1 month) (Experiment 1) and short-time Cd isotope (109Cd) tracing experiment (24 h) (Experiment 2) were conducted. In Experiment 1, spring wheat (cv. Brookton) was grown in nutrient solution at uniform cadmium concentration of 20μ mol/L and 10 zinc concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, spring wheat seedlings,pre-cultivated in complete nutrient solution, were treated with 109Cd of uniform activity and the same series of Zn concentrations as those in Experiment 1 for 24 h. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots in Experiment 1 increased marginally but not consistently with Zn increasing at Zn rates of 1~200 μmol/L, and then decreased significantly at high rates (>200 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, the response of 109Cd activities in shoots and roots to increasing Zn was greatly similar to the response of Cd concentrations to Zn increasing in Experiment 1. The results of the two experiments indicated that the short-time and long-time exposure of spring wheat to Zn had similar effects on Cd accumulation.

  18. Molecular Mapping of Two Novel Stripe Rust Resistant Genes YrTp1 and YrTp2 in A-3 Derived from Triticum aestivum × Thinopyrum ponticum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue-gui; SHANG Xun-wu; PANG Bin-shuang; SONG Jian-rong; CAO Shi-qin; LI Jin-chang; ZHANG Xue-yong

    2006-01-01

    Loss of variety resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) is an important factor causing massive periodical epidemic of rust in wheat production. Creation and development of new races of rust pathogen have led to serious crisis of resistance loss in widely planted varieties. This has quickened the search for new resistance resources.Molecular marker could facilitate the identification of the location of novel genes. A line A-3 with high resistance(immune) to currently epidemic yellow rust races (CY29, 31, 32) was screened out in offspring of Triticum aestivum ×Thinopyrum ponticum. Segregation in F2 and BC1 populations indicated that the resistance was controlled by two independent genes: one dominant and one recessive. SSR markers were employed to map the two resistant genes in the F2 and BC1 populations. A marker WMC477-167bp located on 2BS was linked to the dominant gene with genetic distance of 0.4 cM. Another marker WMC364-208bp located on 7BS was linked to the recessive-resistant gene with genetic distance of 5.8 cM. The two genes identified in this paper might be two novel stripe rust resistant genes, which were temporarily designated as YrTpl and YrTp2, respectively. The tightly linking markers facilitate transfer of the two resistant genes into the new varieties to control epidemic of yellow rust.

  19. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed.

  20. The Effect of Different Gamma Radiation Doses Applied on Tokak 157/37 Barley (Hordeum vulgare and Karahan 99 Wheat (Triticum aestivum on M1 Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim KARA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research study, the dose of different gamma radiation on seed germination of Hordeum vulgare TOKAK 157/37 barley kind and KARAHAN 99 wheatTriticum aestivum, and the mechanisms of the dose required to maximize the rate and percentage of germination and increased growth of root, seedling, TAEK was conducted in Ankara. The moisture rate has been %11, the barley and wheat seeds whose germination per cent is 98 % has been irradiated with 9 different doses between 0-600Gy in the centre of 60Co which has 1.92 kGy/h powers. The objective of that work was to evaluate determine the efficient gamma radiation dose and to determine the physiological effects and the action of the processing for gamma radiation in plant kinds. At the laboratory experiment it has been seen that the percentage of germination of rising radiation doses has no effect on M1 generation, but after diminishing of root length and seedling height with rising radiation doses it has been determined that the growth of the first leaf has stopped on the 14th day and this event has been given importance statistically for TOKAK 157/37 barley kind, 50 % efficient dose has been determined as ED50 485 Gy, for KARAHAN 99 wheat kind, 50 % efficient dose has been determined as ED50 370 Gy.

  1. Control de la conducta inducida por programa por sus consecuencias ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Ardoy Cuadros, Juan

    2008-01-01

    La presente Tesis Doctoral se ha desarrollado dentro de una de las líneas de investigación desarrollada por el Departamento de Psicología Básica I de la UNED y cuyo objetivo prioritario es el estudio de las características de la conducta inducida por programa, así como el control ambiental y farmacológico de la misma. El objetivo de esta investigación, en concreto, es determinar los factores implicados en la aparición de la polidipsia inducida por programa en ratas, así como en su mantenimi...

  2. Responsabilidad penal del empleador por delitos cometidos en la empresa por sus subordinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jose Saavedra Troncoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre la responsabilidad penal del empresario por los actos al margen de la ley que cometen sus subordinados. Se busca aclarar si el empresario debe responder penalmente cuando el delito es cometido por un subordinado en ejercicio de sus funciones o cuando este actúa a nombre de la empresa ya sea valiéndose de la información que manejan, del grado de responsabilidad o de la confianza. Por esta razón concentraremos nuestra atención en analizar la responsabilidad penal por la omisión de controles del empresario hacia el subordinado, exponiendo la problemática que se deriva de la posición de garante del primero en las operaciones empresariales.

  3. DIATERMIA POR ONDAS CURTAS: ANÁLISE DA TEMPERATURA CORPORAL SUPERFICIAL POR TERMOGRAFIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Fernando Zavarize; Anderson Martelli; Samara Aparecida Machado; Estela Maria Correia Sant’Ana

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Poucos estudos relacionam os efeitos da diatermia por ondas curtas (DOC) e a área de aquecimento promovido por sua aplicação. Objetivo: O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento da temperatura superficial corporal antes e após a aplicação de DOC por meio da termografia cutânea. Materiais e métodos: A análise da temperatura corporal no local da aplicação foi realizada através da captura da imagem por meio de câmera termográfica após quinze minutos de repouso do...

  4. Responsabilidad por violación de la buena fe en la sociedad por acciones simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Polanía Tello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La sociedad por acciones simplificada –SAS–, como los demás esquemas societarios, se funda en y está informada por el principio de la buena fe. Pero a diferencia de los otros modelos, la SAS tiene concreciones particulares de la buena fe que permiten un amparo más efectivo y eficiente de los derechos de los socios y de los terceros, en la medida en que instituciones como el fraude a la ley, el perjuicio injusto a terceros, el abuso del derecho y el administrador de hecho, todos estructurados a partir de violaciones a la buena fe, permiten tramitar los eventos de responsabilidad por ilícitos atípicos y llegar incluso a desestimar por ello el atributo de la limitación de responsabilidad.

  5. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  6. Muestreo por conglomerados en encuestas poblacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de Jesús; Angela M Cubides-Munévar; María C. López; Pinzón-Gómez, Elisa M.; Filigrana-Villegas, Paola A.; Cassiani-Miranda, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Describir la técnica estadística del muestreo por conglomerados en encuestas de salud poblacionales. Métodos Se describen los aspectos más importantes de cada uno de los pasos metodológicos   haciendo énfasis en los fundamentos del Muestreo por Conglomerados. Éste se aplicó sobre una población  de aproximadamente 100 000 habitantes de la comuna 18 de Cali. La muestra abarcó 30 manzanas y se encuestaron 3 026 personas. La información se recolectó usando el Sistema de Información de ba...

  7. Tomate industrial con riego por cinta

    OpenAIRE

    Adán Fimbres-Fontes

    2004-01-01

    La región agrícola de Caborca cuenta con una superficie de 40 000 ha, las cuales se riegan con agua proveniente de aproximadamente 700 pozos. El abatimiento del manto acuífero es, en promedio, de 0.82 m año-1 y, en 25 años, ha sido de 20.50 m, medidos al nivel estático. El agua es uno de los factores más importantes en la producción de cualquier cultivo en la región. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue optimizar la cantidad de agua por aplicar al tomate industrial cultivado con riego por cin...

  8. Conservación por calor

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos García, Angel; Díaz Rubio, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Esta unidade didáctica denominada Conservación por calor forma parte da materia «Tecnoloxía do procesado de alimentos» que se impartirá no primeiro semestre do 2º curso do Grao en Nutrición Humana e Dietética. A materia estrutúrase en diferentes unidades didácticas, tratando cada unha delas as diferentes tecnoloxías de procesado dos alimentos, tanto de conservación coma de transformación. A presente unidade didáctica aborda a conservación dos alimentos por calor. Este método permite destruír ...

  9. Celulitis por cuerpo extraño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel B. Carrasco Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de la piel y el tejido celular subcutáneo surgen como un grupo importante de afecciones con una alta morbilidad en edades pediátricas, generalmente relacionada con traumatismo y cuerpos extraños. Se presenta el caso de una escolar femenina de 6 años de edad, con síntomas y signos clínicos que sugieren celulitis en el muslo derecho,  por su evolución tórpida se le realizó el estudio ultrasonográfico que confirmó el diagnóstico etiológico de una celulitis secundaria a un traumatismo, provocada por la introducción de un gran cuerpo extraño, que pasó inadvertido para a familia de la menor.

  10. Resposta de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. ao controle químico das principais doenças fúngicas da cultura Response of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. to the chemical control of fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito de Camargo Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doenças do trigo, como a ferrugem-da-folha, a helmintosporiose e o oídio, causadas por Puccinia recondita, Bipolaris sorokiniana e Blumeria graminis tritici, respectivamente, podem reduzir severamente o rendimento da cultura. Diversas medidas são preconizadas para o controle das mesmas, entre as quais o emprego de cultivares resistentes, na época adequada, e o controle químico, sem o qual, freqüentemente, a cultura torna-se inviável economicamente. No presente trabalho avaliou-se, em condições de campo, a resposta a aplicações de fungicidas de seis cultivares de trigo, IAC 24, IAC 289, IAC 350, IAC 362, IAC 364 e IAC 370, em quatro experimentos instalados nos anos de 2000 a 2003, em Capão Bonito, Estado de São Paulo. Os ensaios foram realizados em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições, e analisados, a cada ano, em esquema fatorial, 2 x 6, sendo fungicida o fator 1 (com e sem e cultivar o fator 2. As pulverizações, duas ou três, foram iniciadas quando a ferrugem-da-folha atingiu entre 10 e 15% de incidência, e repetidas após aproximadamente 15 dias. Avaliou-se a severidade das doenças por meio de uma escala de notas, que variou de 0 a 9 sendo 0 ausência de sintomas e 9 maior que 60 % de área de tecido foliar afetado pelas doenças, além do peso de mil sementes (PMS e do rendimento. O oídio foi encontrado apenas em 2000, a ferrugem-da-folha em todos os anos em elevados índices de severidade (30 a 60% de área foliar afetada e a helmintosporiose ocorreu nos três últimos anos, 2001 a 2003, apresentando os maiores índices de severidade em 2001 (até 60 % de área foliar afetada, o ano mais chuvoso. Em todos os anos os tratamentos químicos proporcionaram controle das doenças, aumentos no PMS e no rendimento. Nos anos mais favoráveis para a cultura, 2002 e 2003, o retorno em rendimento foi maior. As cultivares de ciclo mais longo, IAC 370, IAC 289 e IAC 350, foram as que mais responderam à aplicação do

  11. sobrevida de ratas intoxicadas por paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aular

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La vitamina C (VC y la trimetazidina (TMZ como antioxidantes y la posible acción intiinflamatoria de esta última podrían ser de utilidad en la intoxicación por paraquat. Por tal razón se decidió evaluar el efecto de esta asociación en los niveles de VC, peso y sobrevida de ratas intoxicadas por paraquat, para ello se diseñó un estudio con 56 ratas divididas en 8 grupos: A (control negativo; B (control positivo, recibieron 11 mg/Kg. de paraquat IP; C (pre tratadas con 28.5mg/Kg. VC oral; D (tratadas con 28.5mg/Kg. VC post intoxicación; E (pre tratadas con 5mg/Kg. TMZ oral; F (tratadas con 5mg/Kg. TMZ post intoxicación; G (pre tratadas con VC- TMZ; H (tratadas con VC- TMZ post intoxicación. Se determinaron niveles de VC, cambios de peso y sobrevida en los grupos experimentales durante 31 días. Los resultados mostraron el día 24 de experimentación: disminución de los niveles de VC en el grupo E (p<0.05 y aumento en el grupo G (p< 0.001, sobrevida de 62.5% (grupo G, 50% (grupos E y H y 25% (grupos C y D. Se concluye que la asociación VC- TMZ aumentó la sobrevida de ratas intoxicadas por paraquat

  12. Intoxicación por drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gainza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de drogas ilegales en nuestro país ha experimentado un notable cambio en los últimos años, relegando a la heroína e incorporando la cocaína, los derivados anfetamínicos como el "éxtasis" (MDMA, el "éxtasis líquido" (GHB y, en menor medida, la ketamina. Se lleva a cabo una revisión de la intoxicación aguda por opiáceos y de su tratamiento en los servicios de urgencias, teniendo en cuenta el descenso progresivo de los casos que se presentan con el advenimiento de nuevas formas de administración, así como la presencia de nuevas drogas adictivas que han dado lugar a un desplazamiento en los hábitos de consumo. Se expone la intoxicación por cocaína haciendo referencia a la clínica, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Se realiza una revisión sobre el cannabis y sus derivados, la historia de su consumo y preparaciones utilizadas, los efectos que producen en los distintos sistemas del organismo y sus principales mecanismos de acción. Por último se comentan los efectos del LSD y de las setas alucinógenas.

  13. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán-Nah Jaime Jesús

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes superscript three 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.

  14. Leibniz damnificado por el terremoto de Lisboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo ÁLVAREZ MUÑOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En las páginas que siguen se argumenta que al filósofo alemán Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz —fallecido en Hannover en 1716— o, al menos, a su obra Teodicea, cabría contarlos, echadas las cuentas de la manera que se verá, entre las víctimas del terremoto de Lisboa de 1755. Asimismo se subraya la persistencia del pensamiento de Leibniz en las respuestas dadas por los filósofos del siglo XVIII al trágico suceso. Se estudian las reacciones de Voltaire, de Rousseau y de Kant ante los estragos provocados por el seísmo y se concluye que las manifestaciones de los dos primeros ya habían sido previstas en Teodicea e, incluso, la vía científica pretendida por Kant había sido abierta en Protogaea.ABSTRACT: It is argued here that German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, passed away in 1716, and, specially, that his work Teodicea, could be considered amongst the victims of the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. The persistence of the Leibniz’s thought in the answers given by the philosophers of the 18th Century to the tragic event is also emphasized. Voltaire and Rousseau’s reactions to the damage caused by the earthquake had been anticipated in Teodicea and the scientific way followed by Kant had been initiated in Protogaea.

  15. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  17. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  18. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8′OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8′OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8′OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8′OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8′OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8′OH1-A and TaABA8′OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8′OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8′OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8′OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  19. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  20. Detection of protein and DNA damage induced by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone in Triticum aestivum L. using biomarker and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaliem, E; Al-Huqai, A A

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the genetic effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), alone or in combination, under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions on proteins and DNA of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and comet assays were used. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed distinctive polymorphisms (100%) based on the number of polypeptide bands (169) with molecular weights ranging from 300.0 to 24.00 kDa, band intensity, appearance, and loss of bands when compared with control samples. Six isozymes, malate dehydrogenase, amylase, leucine-aminopeptidase, esterase, peroxidase, and catalase, generated 100% polymorphism values based on zymogram number, relative front, and optical intensities. RAPD revealed 276 DNA bands with a distinctive polymorphism value of 92.31% based on the number of amplified DNA products, ranging from 45 to 1100 bp, and band intensity. In the comet assay, the highest extent of nuclear DNA damage was observed as tail length 8.70 μm, tailed DNA 8.01%, and tail moment unit 34.18 in non-irrigated O3-treated wheat nuclei. These results show that O3-treatment alone induced high levels of oxidative protein and DNA damage in wheat plant, especially in a non-irrigation system. Interestingly, CO2 in combination with O3 could ameliorate the negative impact of O3-oxidative stress. This study shows that protein and DNA biomarkers, and the comet assay, could be used for the reliable estimation of genotoxicity following the exposure of economic crop plants to air pollutants. PMID:27420988

  1. A genetic linkage map with 178 SSR and 1 901 SNP markers constructed using a RIL population in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hui-jie; FENG Zhi-yu; LIU Xin-ye; CHENG Xue-jiao; PENG Hui-ru; YAO Ying-yin; SUN Qi-xin; NI Zhong-fu

    2015-01-01

    The construction of high density genetic linkage map provides a powerful tool to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling agronomically important traits. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and Illumina 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genechip were employed to construct one genetic linkage map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross Yu 8679xJing 411. This map included 1 901 SNP loci and 178 SSR loci, covering 1 659.9 cM and 1 000 marker bins, with an average interval distance of 1.66 cM. A, B and D genomes covered 719.1,703.5 and 237.3 cM, with an average interval distance of 1.66, 1.45 and 2.9 cM, respectively. Notably, the genetic linkage map covered 20 chromosomes, with the exception of chromosome 5D. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 1 754 (92.27%) of 1 901 mapped SNP loci could be aligned to 1 215 distinct wheat unigenes, among which 1 184 (97.4%) were located on one single chromosome, and the rest 31 (2.6%) were located on 2 to 3 chromosomes. By performing in silico comparison, 214 chromosome deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 1 043 Brachypodium genes and 1 033 rice genes were further added onto the genetic linkage map. This map not only integrated genetic and physical maps, SSR and SNP loci, respectively, but also provided the information of Brachypodium and rice genes corresponding to 1 754 SNP loci. Therefore, it will be a useful tool for comparative genomics analysis, fine mapping of QTL/gene controlling agronomically important traits and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat.

  2. RÉGIMEN HÍDRICO Y AJUSTE OSMÓTICO EN VARIEDADES CUBANAS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum Y T. durum CULTIVADAS EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandris Argentel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los potenciales hídrico y osmótico y el ajuste osmótico en 12 variedades cubanas de trigo pertenecientes a las especies Triticum aestivum y Triticum durum cultivadas en condiciones de salinidad fueron evaluados, siguiendo las metodologías para tales fines. Las plantas se establecieron en un invernadero en condiciones de hidroponía a un nivel de salinidad de 8 dS.m -1 , como control se montó un tratamiento con una conductividad eléctrica de 0,36 dS.m -1 . Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 días posteriores a la germinación. Como resultado se obtuvo una significativa disminución de los valores del potencial hídrico en la mayoría de las variedades en todos los órganos medidos y se observó una significativa disminución de sus valores desde las raíces hasta las hojas para asegurar el gradiente hídrico. Las variedades que no disminuyeron significativamente su potencial hídrico mostraron comportamiento similar en los tres órganos evaluados aunque el gradiente de potenciales se mantuvo. El potencial osmótico disminuyó significativamente en todas las variedades y sus valores fueron inferiores a -0,6 MPa. Todas las variedades realizaron el ajuste osmótico, siendo el valor más significativo AO= 0,3 MPa en las variedades INIFAT RM-36, INIFAT RM-32, INIFAT RM-37. Se observó variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés salino entre variedades y especies para las tres variables evaluadas.

  3. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants. PMID:26661959

  4. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soil Amended with Roadside Pond Sediment and Uptake by Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW 343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Karak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of heavy metal accumulation and the dynamics related to roadside pond sediment application in comparison to control of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated in field experiments. Selective sequential extraction procedures revealed that application of pond sediment in soil increases the labile pools of the studied heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Risk assessment codes concluded that Cu and Pb were in the high-risk zone in both pond sediment and soil amended with pond sediment, whereas Zn and Cu were found in the medium-risk zone for control soil. Heavy metal accumulation by wheat straw and grain (39.38, 1.18, 23.73, 0.36, 0.18, and 16.8 mg kg-1 for Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, respectively, for wheat grain was significantly increased through application of pond sediment. However, metal accumulation did not thwart the enhancement of wheat yield when pond sediment was applied. Health risk indexes of analyzed heavy metals were found to be within the Indian permissible limit for foodstuffs. Pond sediments help to fortify wheat grain by increasing the concentration of Zn and Cu as a source of micronutrients in the diet. However, a significant increase of Pb in wheat grain through pond sediment could be a health concern for its long-term application. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for agriculture as an alternative organic supplement, but long-term use may require the cessation of the excavated sediment as agricultural landfill in order to restrict heavy metal contamination through it.

  5. A genetic linkage map with 178 SSR and 1 901 SNP markers constructed using a RIL population in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hui-jie; FENG Zhi-yu; LIU Xin-ye; CHENG Xue-jiao; PENG Hui-ru; YAO Ying-yin; SUN Qi-xin; NI Zhong-fu

    2015-01-01

    The construction of high density genetic linkage map provides a powerful tool to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) control ing agronomical y important traits. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and Il umina 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genechip were employed to construct one genetic linkage map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross Yu 8679×Jing 411. This map included 1 901 SNP loci and 178 SSR loci, covering 1 659.9 cM and 1 000 marker bins, with an average interval distance of 1.66 cM. A, B and D genomes covered 719.1, 703.5 and 237.3 cM, with an average interval distance of 1.66, 1.45 and 2.9 cM, respectively. Notably, the genetic linkage map covered 20 chromosomes, with the exception of chromosome 5D. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 1 754 (92.27%) of 1 901 mapped SNP loci could be aligned to 1 215 distinct wheat unigenes, among which 1 184 (97.4%) were located on one single chromosome, and the rest 31 (2.6%) were located on 2 to 3 chromosomes. By performing in silico comparison, 214 chromosome deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 1 043 Brachypodium genes and 1 033 rice genes were further added onto the genetic linkage map. This map not only integrated genetic and physical maps, SSR and SNP loci, respectively, but also provided the information of Brachypodium and rice genes corresponding to 1 754 SNP loci. Therefore, it wil be a useful tool for comparative genomics analysis, ifne mapping of QTL/gene control ing agronomical y important traits and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat.

  6. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a new fertility restorer gene Rf8 for Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tomar, S M S; Vinod; Singh, Vikas K; Balyan, H S

    2013-12-01

    A study on mode of inheritance and mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) gene(s) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted in a cross of male sterile line 2041A having Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm and a restorer line PWR4099 of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The F1 hybrid was completely fertile indicating that fertility restoration is a dominant trait. Based on the pollen fertility and seed set of bagged spikes in F2 generation, the individual plants were classified into fertile and sterile groups. Out of 120 F2 plants, 97 were fertile and 23 sterile (based on pollen fertility) while 98 plants set ≥ 5 seeds/spike and 22 produced ≤ 4 or no seed. The observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ratio of 3 fertile: 1 sterile with χ(2) value of 2.84 for pollen fertility and 2.17 for seed setting indicating that the fertility restoration is governed by a single dominant gene in PWR4099. The three linked SSR markers, Xwmc503, Xgwm296 and Xwmc112 located on the chromosome 2DS were placed at a distance of 3.3, 5.8 and 6.7 cM, respectively, from the Rf gene. Since, no known Rf gene is located on the chromosome arm 2DS, the Rf gene in PWR4099 is a new gene and proposed as Rf8. The closest SSR marker, Xwmc503, linked to the Rf8 was validated in a set of Rf, maintainer and cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The closely linked SSR marker Xwmc503 may be used in marker-assisted backcross breeding facilitating the transfer of fertility restoration gene Rf8 into elite backgrounds with ease.

  7. The Relationship Between Developmental Accumulation of Leaf Soluble Proteins and Vernalization Response of Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.em.Thell)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Majdi; G Karimzadeh; S Mahfoozi

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between vernalization requirement and quantitative and qualitative changes in total leaf soluble proteins were determined in one spring(cv.Kohdasht)and two winter(cvs.Sardari and Norstar)cultivars of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)exposed to 4℃.Plants were sampled on days 2,14,21 and 35 of exposure to 4℃.The final leaf number(FLN)was determined throughout the vernalization periods(0,7,14,24,and 35 d)at 4℃.The final leaf number decreased until days 24 and 35 in Sardari and Norstar cultivars,respectively,indicating the vernalization saturation at these times.No clear changes were detected in the final leaf number of Kohdash cultivar,verifying no vernalization requirement for this spring wheat cultivar.Comparing with control,clear cold-induced 2-fold increases in proteins quantity occurred after 48 h following the 4℃-treatment in the leaves of the both winter wheat cultivars but,such response was not detected in the spring cultivar.However,the electrophoretic protein patterns showed between-cultivar and between-temperature treatment differences.With increasing exposure time to 4℃,the winter cultivars tended to produce more HMW polypeptides than the spring cultivar.Similar proteins were induced in both Sardari and Norstar winter wheat cultivars,however,the long vernalization requirement in Norstar resulted in high level and longer duration of expression of cold-induced proteins compared to Sardari with a short vernalization requirement.These observations indicate that vernalization response regulates the expression of low temperature(LT)tolerance proteins and determines the duration of expression of LT-induced proteins.

  8. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate. PMID:24006800

  9. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  10. Microbial activity and water-soluble trace element species in the rhizosphere of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU-Perigee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, Marie-Claude; Courchesne, François; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    The influence of microbial activity on the concentration and speciation of trace elements (TEs) was assessed in a study on the bioavailability of TEs for edible plants. A growth chamber experiment with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU-Perigee) was conducted and the bulk (Bk) and the rhizosphere (Rz) soil components were collected at maturity. A characterization of the microbial activity and population was made by measuring the microbial biomass, enzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and urease) and 16S rDNA DGGE profiles. In soil water extracts, major solutes (H(+), Ca, Mg, Na, NH(4), K, Cl, NO(3), SO(4), total N, DON and DOC) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn) including monomeric Al species, free Cu(2+) and labile Zn were determined. The partition of the variation indicated that 12.1% of the distribution of TEs in the Bk soil was significantly and exclusively explained by chemical properties while this value was less than 0.1% for the Rz soil. To the contrary, microbial properties contributed significantly to 12.3% of the distribution of TEs in the Rz soil whereas it explained less than 0.1% for the Bk soil. Detailed redundancy analyses identified several potential mechanisms (e.g. weathering of primary mineral, solubilisation of sesquioxides, bacterial effect on the redox status) explaining the fate of TEs in the Bk and Rz soils. This study revealed that microbial activity is strongly associated to the speciation of trace elements in the Rz of edible plants and points to some microbial processes influencing TE speciation.

  11. Dynamics of the diazotroph Bacillus polymyxa in the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after inoculation and its effect on uptake of 15N-labelled fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment under glasshouse conditions with a sandy soil was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots with Bacillus polymyxa on N uptake by plants and to investigate the effect of N fertilization on the dynamics of this strain. Different treatments were considered: (i) amended (100 kg N ha−1) or not with 15N labelled ammonium nitrate; (ii) inoculated (2.5 107 spores per seed and 0.5 109 spores kg−1 soil) or not with B. polymyxa CF43. No promoting effect on wheat growth (dry yield) or N uptake was observed after inoculation under these experimental conditions; 62 per cent of the N fertilizer was assimilated by plants during the first 33 days. Inoculation had no effect on the quantity of soil adhering to the roots. Soluble organic C and inorganic N concentrations were higher in the soil adhering to the roots than in bulk soil. However, the nitrate concentration in soil adhering to the roots was influenced by inoculation at the beginning of plant growth, nitrate supply to the root system being delayed by its probable retention in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, total bacteria in roots, soil adhering to the roots and bulk soil was not affected by N fertilization. The number of B. polymyxa cells measured by an AB-ELISA method increased first in the bulk soil and later in the soil adhering to the roots after inoculation. Fertilization with N decreased the B. polymyxa population in adhering soil, competitive suppression of diazotrophs by non-fixing bacteria probably being induced by the presence of large amounts of nutrients in the rhizosphere when N was added. (author)

  12. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  13. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  14. Postulación de Genes de Resistencia a la Roya de la Hoja (Puccinia triticina Ericks.) en Plántula y Planta Adulta en Genotipos Élite de Trigo Harinero (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Huerta Espino; Singh, Ravi P.; Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir; Eduardo Espitia Rangel; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir

    2003-01-01

    El programa de mejoramiento genético de trigo (Triticum aestivum) del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias de México está trabajando para generar variedades que posean resistencia parcial o resistencia de planta adulta al hongo Puccinia triticina, para lo cual, es necesario conocer los genes que el germoplasma élite expresa a nivel de plántula y planta adulta. Se evaluaron 48 genotipos de trigo harinero inoculados con 18 razas fisiológicas de roya de la hoja...

  15. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  16. L’INFLUENCE DES NITRATES ET DES NITRITES SUR LES ACTIVITÉS DE LA CATALASE ET DE LA PEROXYDASE AU COURS DE LA GERMINATIONS DES GRAINS DE TRITICUM AESTIVUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Huma

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons procédé au traitement des grains de blé germinés (Triticum aestivum par des solutions de nitrates et nitrites de différentes concentrations et nous avons suivi l’activité de deux enzymes, la catalase (E.C. 1.11.1.6 et la peroxydase (E.C. 1.11.1.7, suite a ce traitement. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que les nitrates et les nitrites présentent une influence modificatrice sur l’activité enzymatique dans les grains en cours de germination.

  17. L’INFLUENCE DES NITRATES ET DES NITRITES SUR LES ACTIVITÉS DE LA CATALASE ET DE LA PEROXYDASE AU COURS DE LA GERMINATIONS DES GRAINS DE TRITICUM AESTIVUM

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Huma; Ovidiu Toma; Eugen Ungureanu; Lucian Negura

    2006-01-01

    Nous avons procédé au traitement des grains de blé germinés (Triticum aestivum) par des solutions de nitrates et nitrites de différentes concentrations et nous avons suivi l’activité de deux enzymes, la catalase (E.C. 1.11.1.6) et la peroxydase (E.C. 1.11.1.7), suite a ce traitement. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que les nitrates et les nitrites présentent une influence modificatrice sur l’activité enzymatique dans les grains en cours de germination.

  18. Cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Maria Fonseca MIRANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma variante da cefaleia crônica diária, a cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos é uma manifestação clínica de frequência ≥ 15 dias por mês, durante 3 meses. Possui um diagnóstico deficiente e um tratamento dividido em etapas, sendo a desintoxicação, a etapa de fundamental importância. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre o tema, contribuindo para o esclarecimento das principais manifestações clínicas, principais teorias envolvendo sua fisiopatologia e a terapêutica farmacológica empregada. A metodologia utilizada foi uma revisão de publicações europeias e americanas, no período de 2001 a 2013, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Todos os medicamentos utilizados no tratamento sintomático das cefaleias são capazes de cronificar uma cefaleia preexistente, desde que sejam utilizados excessivamente, de forma regular e continuada. A suspensão de tais agentes terapêuticos resultará em melhoria na maioria dos pacientes, porém pode ser necessária a introdução de uma terapia de suporte de transição e/ou terapia profilática. Os tratamentos nao farmacológicos, quando associados ao farmacológico, ampliam a possibilidade de resultados satisfatórios, evitando recaídas.

  19. Bacteremias por bacilos gram-negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrelírio J. R. Gonçalves

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 31 casos de bacteremia por gram-negativos, assunto que vem merecendo muita atenção dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos. Os organismos etiológicos mais importantes que apareceram em igualdade de freqüência foram Escherichia coli e Klebsiella-Aerobacter, sendo responsáveis por 58% do total das infecções, seguidos por Pseudomonas. A porta de entrada mais freqüente foi o trato urinário em 61,3% dos casos. A infecção foi mais comum no sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 50 a 60 anos predominou. O uso prévio de antibióticos foi um fator predisponente muito importante, seguido pelo uso de esteróides e citostáticos. As principais doenças predisponentes foram diabetes mellitus e neoplasias malignas. Os principais fatores precipitantes foram a manipulação do aparelho urinário, com infecção prévia ou desencadeada, cirurgia do aparelho digestivo, uronatia obstrutiva e obstrução biliar. As principais manifestações clínicas foram a presença de febre, calafrios e hipotensão arterial. A complicação mais freqüente foi o choque bacteriano que incidiu em 58% dos casos, aproximadamente três vêzes aquela relatada na literatura. As outras foram a insuficiência renal aguda, superinfecção e infecção pulmonar metastática. Considerações terapêuticas gerais e esquemas de antibióticos são propostos para estes casos. A mortalidade da bacteremia simples foi de 30,7% e quando associada ao choque elevou-se para 72,2% . As infecções por Pseudomonas foram 100% fatais.

  20. Travesía por mares piratas

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Elixabete

    2015-01-01

    Se analiza el viaje del buque quimiquero Mar María por zonas de alto riesgo de piratería, basada en la experiencia de supervivientes a ataques piratas, y se hace un resumen de la regulación legal de la piratería. Se explicitan la valoración de riesgos, las medidas de protección y el plan de contingencia antipirata. La construcción de una ciudadela es otro de los temas que se tratan, así como la manera de identificar a piratas.

  1. Leibniz damnificado por el terremoto de Lisboa

    OpenAIRE

    Evaristo ÁLVAREZ MUÑOZ

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN: En las páginas que siguen se argumenta que al filósofo alemán Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz —fallecido en Hannover en 1716— o, al menos, a su obra Teodicea, cabría contarlos, echadas las cuentas de la manera que se verá, entre las víctimas del terremoto de Lisboa de 1755. Asimismo se subraya la persistencia del pensamiento de Leibniz en las respuestas dadas por los filósofos del siglo XVIII al trágico suceso. Se estudian las reacciones de Voltaire, de Rousseau y de Kant ante los estragos...

  2. Estrategias de crecimiento empresarial aplicadas por hipermercados

    OpenAIRE

    Miraidy Leal Morantes; Yilian Cefalá Chirinos

    2003-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias de crecimiento empresarial, representadas por alianzas y adquisiciones, que han sido aplicadas en el sector de distribución de bienes de consumo masivo, específicamente en los hipermercados ubicados en Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, como manera de responder al entorno competitivo y cambiante en el cual se desenvuelven. La investigación se desarrolló a través de un estudio de carácter descriptivo; para la recolección ...

  3. Neumonía por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Verny Huertas-Franco; María Isabel Lacayo-Pallais

    2014-01-01

    La Stenotrophomonas maltophilia es un bacilo gram negativo ambiental emergente que ha venido posicionándose entre el grupo de microorganismos multirresistentes como causa de infección en diversos órganos en ambiente hospitalario y en la comunidad. Se reporta este caso de insuficiencia respiratoria con neumonía severa por S. maltophilia adquirida en la comunidad en una paciente inmunocompetente que tuvo una rápida respuesta a tratamiento con trimetoprim sulfametoxazol cuando se logró identific...

  4. Los Cuentos Por Proyectos De Trabajo Global.

    OpenAIRE

    Reinaldos, María Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    La educación infantil es importante en los primeros años del niño, ya que un aprendizaje temprano es determinante para un buen desarrollo cognitivo, motor, psicológico, intelectual, emocional, social del individuo, y para la formación de las facultades intelectuales y el desarrollo de la personalidad. La L.O.E. (2006) aboga por una enseñanza globalizada, y que abarque todas las dimensiones del niño, para que de esta forma se consiga un aprendizaje significativo. Actualmente, se apuesta ...

  5. Gestión por competencias

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Rubiano, Benjamín

    2006-01-01

    El desarrollo de este trabajo tiene como objetivo principal comparar los modelos de gestión por competencias implementados en otras organizaciones para retroalimentarlo en la organización Schneider Electric de Colombia S.A Agencia Antioquia. Para el desarrollo del tema lo primero que se hizo fue hacer un análisis teórico, del cual se presentará una síntesis. Las competencias son la capacidad de hacer algo bien y en determinadas condiciones, su objetivo es el aprovechamiento de las cualidades ...

  6. Regulación por precios tope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Soto Carrillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe las principales características del mecanismo de regulación por precios tope, incluyendo su ubicación dentro de las posibilidades de acción regulatoria, las críticas que se han planteado al mismo, así como los mecanismos complementarios utilizados y los riesgos involucrados en su desarrollo.---This article describes the main characteristics of the price cap regime of price regulation, including its location among other regulatory possibilities, critics received, complementary mechanisms and risks involved in its development.

  7. Neumonía por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verny Huertas-Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La Stenotrophomonas maltophilia es un bacilo gram negativo ambiental emergente que ha venido posicionándose entre el grupo de microorganismos multirresistentes como causa de infección en diversos órganos en ambiente hospitalario y en la comunidad. Se reporta este caso de insuficiencia respiratoria con neumonía severa por S. maltophilia adquirida en la comunidad en una paciente inmunocompetente que tuvo una rápida respuesta a tratamiento con trimetoprim sulfametoxazol cuando se logró identificar la bacteria.

  8. Por qué necesitamos la competencia

    OpenAIRE

    Schnappauf, Werner

    2010-01-01

    "La gran aportación de la Economía Social de Mercado es que domestica al capitalismo y lo lleva por caminos ordenados de modo que pone la tendencia humana al beneficio al servicio del bien común, conciliando el beneficio individual y el del conjunto de lasociedad", afirmó Werner Schnappauf, Director General de la Confederación Federal de la Industria Alemana (BDI), con motivo del 43 Simposio de Innsbruck del Instituto de Investigación para la Constitución Económica y la Competencia (FIW), ...

  9. Sistema de climatización por suelo radiante coalimentado por energías renovables

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivieso Sarabia, Rafael Jesús; García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Ferrández Pastor, Francisco Javier; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta el sistema de climatización basado en suelo radiante coalimentado por fuentes de energía renovables, que es capaz de proporcionar calor o frío. Se ha modelado una instalación genérica, que ha sido particularizada e integrada en una vivienda-laboratorio de unos 54m2. El sistema está compuesto por placas termo-solares, calentador eléctrico, bomba de calor aire-agua, acumuladores, circuito de suelo radiante y fancoil. El sistema de control está basado en un autómata que integra senso...

  10. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L.), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.) e trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poaceae) Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli; José Claudionir Carvalho; Guilherme Fernando Gomes Déstro; Karina Luiz Chamma; Leonardo César Ferreira; Ana Catarina Cataneo

    2002-01-01

    Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST) em plantas de milho (Zea mays L.), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.) e trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poaceae). A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle), acetochlor (3 L.ha-1), atrazine (4 L.ha-1) e oxyf...

  11. Nodulose por Metotrexato Methotrexate Induced Nodulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guidolin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A nodulose por metotrexato (MTX é um dos efeitos colaterais pouco conhecidos do uso desse medicamento em doses baixas. Embora classicamente descrita em casos de artrite reumatóide, tem aparecido, também, em outras doenças reumáticas. Descreve-se aqui um caso de nodulose por MTX em uma paciente com artrite reumatóide soropositiva, que utilizava esse medicamento há um ano, com bom controle do processo articular. Segue-se uma breve revisão sobre o assunto.Methotrexate-induced nodulosis is a rare side effect of this drug when it is used in low doses. Although classically described in rheumatoid arthritis patients, it may also appear in other rheumatic disorders. We describe a seropositive rheumatoid arthritis patient who developed methotrexate-induced nodulosis after using this drug for a year, with good control of articular symptoms. This case presentation is followed by a brief revision on the subject.

  12. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.

  13. Luchas por el control territorial en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío I. Restrepo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La tesis central del artículo es que la concurrencia entre los impactos de la globalización, el proceso de descentralización y la crisis política debilitan gravemente el Estado-Nación, y particularmente tienden a romperse las bases mismas del centralismo polÌtico, administrativo y económico. Por otra parte, se exacerban las luchas locales por la apropiación de las riquezas materiales y el control de las instituciones. De esta manera, se acrecienta el poder de negociación política de las fuerzas locales frente al gobierno central, tanto respecto de las funciones descentralizadas como de aquellas que mantiene el Estado de manera centralizada. Neoliberales, reformadores políticos, clases políticas territoriales, nuevos movimientos sociales, narcotraficantes, guerrilleros y paramilitares se disputan abiertamente el poder local. Todos tienen una estrategia, o al menos un conjunto de intereses y prácticas respecto del proceso de descentralización, el cual en última instancia no puede ser entendido sino como el resultado de la complejidad de fuerzas que intervienen en él.

  14. Suicidio por arma de fuego Suicide by firearm

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soriano Maldonado; P. Martínez-García

    2005-01-01

    El mecanismo elegido para cometer el suicidio depende de numerosos factores personales y sociales. En este número presentamos una imagen del tipo de suicidio más mediático, aunque no por ello el más frecuente en nuestro medio. La variabilidad en la forma de los orificios de entrada y salida por arma de fuego depende de la distancia, tipo de arma y región anatómica por lo que puede presentar una morfología muy variada. Es por ello que, aunque ya se han publicado varias imágenes de suicidio por...

  15. 污泥施用对土壤及小麦生理特性的影响%Effects of Sewage Sludge Application on Soil and Physiological Property of Triticum Aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亮; 任珺; 陶玲; 李华

    2012-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge on agricultural soils is a promising disposal and utilizable method and this has been shown to improve soil properties and increase plant productivity. This paper took the sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plant of Anning District in Lanzhou as research subject and studied the effects of land utilization on pH value, the heavy metal content in soil, chlorophyll and proline content in Triticum aestivum leaves by using pot scale experiments. The results showed that pH value in the soil declined significantly with the increase of the sewage sludge application. The content of Pb, Cu, Zn in the soil was far below the national standard of environmental quality standards for soils for Grade II (GB 1518-1995). The amount of total chlorophyll in these three kinds of Triticum aestivum increased with the increase of sewage sludge application, rose to the maximum as the ratio of sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight becomes 15%, and decreased with a further increase of sewage sludge. Compared with the control, the a/b value in chlorophyll showed little change, whereas the content of proline in Triticum aestivum leaves showed significant increase after the application of sewage sludge. While the content of proline in Triticum aestivum increased with the increase of sewage sludge in low land application of sewage sludge(the ratio of sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight was 5%, 10% and 15%), there was no significant increase in the content in high land application of sewage sludge(the ratio of sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight was 25% and 35%). The physiological metabolism of Triticum aestivum showed abnormality as the stress of pollutants from sludge was beyond the tolerance of Triticum aestivum. The content of Pb, Cu, Zn in the soil had significantly positive correlation with the content of proline in the three kinds of Triticum aestivum leaves, whereas pH value in the soil was negatively correlated with the content of chlorophyll

  16. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. grown under two levels of chemical protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007-2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Science in Lublin. The studies comprised two cultivation lines of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.: STH 716 and STH 717, as well as the 'Tonacja' cultivar of common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L.. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation: minimal and complex protection. Infection of wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Tottman's scale, 1987. After three years of study, the mean disease indexes for the analyzed wheat genotypes in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 31.13, 30.43 and 38.83 for, respectively, the 'Tonacja' cultivar and the cultivation lines of T. durum STH 716 and STH 717. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after three years of study the disease indexes ranged from 25.26 (T. durum STH 716 to 30.83 (T. durum STH 717. The results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, F. avenaceum as well as Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani, caused root rot and necrosis of wheat stem bases. The analyzed chemical protection levels did not significantly influence grain yield of the investigated genotypes of T. aestivum and T. durum.

  17. Propriedades do Polestireno Modificado por Nanomateriais

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Pedro Xavier Valente de

    2011-01-01

    A incorporação de nanocargas metálicas em matrizes poliméricas, transformando-as em nanocompósitos, constitui um desafio para a investigação em engenharia, no sentido de se dispor de materiais com melhor desempenho físico/mecânico em serviço. No presente estudo foi efectuada a caracterização de nanocompósitos de matriz polimérica reforçada, primeiro por uma carga metálica nanocristalina e posteriormente com adição de nanotubos. A matriz era poliestireno e os reforços nanocristalinos de aç...

  18. Hiperparatiroidismo primario por adenoma paratiroideo mediastinal

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffry Solís-Torres; Esteban Mora-Segura

    2015-01-01

    El hiperparatiroidismo primario cursa con un aumento de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea, generalmente debido a un adenoma, e hipercalcemia. Su presentación clásica se diagnostica con la determinación de calcio sérico y de hormona paratiroidea, asociada con estudios de imágenes. Su tratamiento es quirúrgico y tiene altas tasas de éxito. Se analiza el caso de una paciente hipertensa, de 63 años, con historia de pérdida de apetito y debilidad de un año y medio de evolución, por lo que se le...

  19. La Violencia Latinoamericana vista por los Economistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Pierre

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Salama, Pierre. "La Violencia Lationoamericana vista por los Economistas", Cuadernos de Economía, V. XXII, n. 38, Bogotá, 2003 páginas 179-198.

    Este articulo sintetiza los estudios económicos publicados recientemente sobre la violencia en América Latina y analiza las causas suceptibles a acrecentarla: pobreza, desigualdad de los ingresos en nivel y variación, impunidad, diferencia entre la probabilidad de ser arrestado y la severidad de la pena impuesta, y narcotrafico. Sin embargo, la explicación de la violencia no se limitará a los factores económicos, puesto que el autor privilegia un enfoque inspirado en la antropología y la sociología.

  20. Síndrome cerebeloso por amiodarona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuda S. Garretto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available La amiodarona (AMD es una droga antiarritmica cuyos efectos adversos pueden comprometer el sistema nervioso central y periferico. La aparición de un síndrome cerebeloso es infrecuente. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 anos de edad que desarolla un síndrome pancerebeloso de 4 meses de evolución, que revierte luego de la suspension de la AMD. El cuadro reaparece meses mas tarde luego de un periodo de automedicacion con la droga. Los mecanismos tóxicos por los cuales la AMD afecta al cerebelo permanecen inciertos. Esta droga de amplia difusión en nuestro medio, como otros antiarritmicos, posee efectos sobre el sistema nervioso que deben ser tenidos en cuenta a fin de poder detectarlos precozmente.

  1. Vayamos por partes... dijo Jack el Destripador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Baños González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En la cada día más compleja actividad de comunicación comercial, la publicidad es solamente una herramienta más con diferentes grados de importancia en función del tipo de anunciante. La tendencia a dividir el proceso creativo hasta definir una estructura de fases sucesivas, y en muchos casos de obligado seguimiento, es una visión que se aleja notablemente de la práctica profesional y de la realidad de un mercado holista y global. Por eso, proponemos un cambio de enfoque, analizando la creatividad publicitaria desde una perspectiva que nos permita un conocimiento más profundo, tanto desde punto de vista académico como desde el profesional. 

  2. Toxicidad por óxido de etileno

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    Téllez M. Jairo A.

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El óxido de etileno, es un compuesto epóxido gaseoso, ampliamente utilizado en nuestro medio como agente esterilizante y de desinfección en instituciones hospitalarias. Los estudios realizados en varios países han demostrado efectos sobre la salud humana, caracterizados por  hipersensibilidad dérmica, irritación del tracto respiratorio, irritación ocular, excitación del S.N.C. y se asocia con presencia de abortos expontáneos, aberraciones cromosómicas e irritación crónica de laringe y tráquea en personal expuesto ocupacionalmente.

  3. fluidizado por proceso autotérmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULAMITA ZAPATA BENABITHE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se basa en el estudio de la producción de carbón activado a partir de carbón mineral subbituminoso en un reactor de lecho fluidizado por proceso autotérmico. El carbón utilizado provino de la región de Amagá (Antioquia - Colombia y fue activado en dos reactores de lecho fluidizado de diferente diámetro interno, 10 cm y 22 cm. Los valores del área superficial específica y el volumen de poro de las muestras activadas fueron determinados a partir de las isotermas de N2 y CO2. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que los valores de áreas superficiales BET y DR y del Índice de Yodo se encontraron alrededor de 460 m2/g (SBET, 490 m2/g (SDR y 460 mg I2/g carbón.

  4. Herida por arma de fuego Gunshot wounds

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sibón Olano; P. Martínez-García; E. Santiago Romero

    2003-01-01

    En el examen de las heridas por arma de fuego, hay que prestar especial interés al orifico de entrada. Un examen minucioso del mismo, nos permitirá conocer la distancia a la que se ha efectuado el disparo; así mismo, nos orientará sobe la trayectoria y etiología médico-legal. El tipo de arma puede modificar en alguna medida el orificio de entrada en los disparos a cañón tocante; como ocurre en las armas de dos cañones, en las que tiene situada su mira en la boca del cañón, o en las que están ...

  5. Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis

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    Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.Human ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma sp and Ehrlichia sp. The presentation can range from a flu-like syndrome with fever, malaise, myalgia and headache to a septic shock state with multiorganic dysfunction. Half the patients require in- hospital care and the mortality rate is 5% as a result of opportunistic infections or hemorrhage. The diagnosis can be made by the visualization of intracytoplasmatic morulae in the blood smear, serology, cultives or polymerase chain reaction. The treatment of choice is doxycicline and generally carries a good response. We report a case of human ehrlichiosis associated with septic shock and multiorganic dysfunction successfully treated at the Calderon Guardia Hospital.

  6. Hiperparatiroidismo primario por adenoma paratiroideo mediastinal

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    Jeffry Solís-Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo primario cursa con un aumento de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea, generalmente debido a un adenoma, e hipercalcemia. Su presentación clásica se diagnostica con la determinación de calcio sérico y de hormona paratiroidea, asociada con estudios de imágenes. Su tratamiento es quirúrgico y tiene altas tasas de éxito. Se analiza el caso de una paciente hipertensa, de 63 años, con historia de pérdida de apetito y debilidad de un año y medio de evolución, por lo que se le realizaron exámenes de laboratorio que revelaron hipercalcemia y elevación de la hormona paratiroidea. Se le indicó entonces una gamagrafía con Tecnecio 99, que evidenció un nódulo de 18mm de diámetro, ubicado 2 centímetros caudal al lóbulo tiroideo derecho. Se le efectuó una exploración cervical sin encontrarse la lesión, por lo que requirió una esternotomía media superior, que permitió encontrar un adenoma en el mediastino superior, detrás de la vena braquiocefálica derecha, de manera que se procedió a su extracción. Los controles de calcio y de hormona paratiroidea a las 24 horas estaban entre los límites normales, y se egresó.

  7. Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Idi, A; Maisonnier, S; Melcion, J P; Oury, F X; Gomez, J; Pluchard, P

    2002-07-01

    1. The aim of the experiment was to establish relationships between chemical or physical characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) and digestibilities of food components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Twenty-two wheat samples, each differing by their cultivar origin, were included at 550 g/kg in diets offered to male Ross broiler chicks. The other main ingredients were soya bean meal (340 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (68.5 g/kg). Diets were given as pellets. 2. In vitro viscosities of wheats measured as potential applied viscosity (PAV) or real applied viscosity (RAV) varied between 1.91 and 6.03, or between 0.95 and 3.81 ml/g (dry matter basis), respectively. Hardness of wheats varied between 17 (soft) and 95 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.6 (relative scale). 3. PAV and RAV values were not significantly correlated with hardness. PAV and RAV values were correlated with (80:20) ethanol:water insoluble, water soluble arabinoxylans (r = 0.961, 0.932, respectively), with the amount of water retained by cell walls (r = 0.656, 0.492, respectively), and with lipase activity (r = 0.600, 0.532, respectively. 4. Hardness was correlated with ash (r = -0.484), nitrogen (r = 0.534), mean particle size of wheat flours (r = 0.631), and specific energy of pelleting (r = -0.574). 5. Wheat diets were evaluated in two assays with 3-week-old chicks, with 11 diets per assay. In each assay, a balance experiment was carried out using the total collection method. Growth performance was also measured during the balance experiment. 6. In vitro viscosity parameters were negatively correlated with diet AMEn (P viscosity data were positively correlated with food:gain ratio (P 0.05) correlated with starch digestibility. 7. Wheat hardness-related parameters were correlated (P viscosity parameters. PMID:12195800

  8. Analysis of main effect QTL for thousand grain weight in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by genome-wide association mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Désirée Zanke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and at the same time markedly influenced by the environment. Genetic analysis of the thousand grain weight (TGW by genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties using phenotypic data of field tests in eight environments. Wide phenotypic variations were indicated for the TGW with BLUEs (best linear unbiased estimations values ranging from 35.9 g to 58.2 g with a mean value of 45.4 g and a heritability of H2=0.89. A total of 12 candidate genes for plant height, photoperiodism and grain weight were genotyped on all varieties. Only three candidates, the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, dwarfing gene Rht-B1and the TaGW-6A gene were significant explaining up to 14.4%, 2.3% and 3.4% of phenotypic variation, respectively. For a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of TGW-QTL genotyping data from 732 microsatellite markers and a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90k iSELECT array were analyzed. In total, 342 significant (-log10 (P-value > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected for SSR markers and 1195 MTAs (-log10P-value > 3.0 for SNP markers in all single environments plus the BLUEs. After Bonferroni correction, 28 MTAs remained significant for SSR markers (-log10 (P-value > 4.82 and 58 MTAs for SNP markers (-log10 (P value > 5.89. Apart from chromosomes 4B and 6B for SSR markers and chromosomes 4D and 5D for SNP markers, MTAs were detected on all chromosomes. The highest number of significant SNP markers was found on chromosomes 3B and 1B, while for the SSRs most markers were significant on chromosomes 6D and 3D. Overall, TGW was determined by many markers with small effects. Only three SNP-markers had R2 values above 6%.

  9. Genetic Analysis and Molecular Mapping of an All-Stage Stripe Rust Resistance Gene inTriticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Translocation Line V3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lu; MA Dong-fang; HU Mao-lin; HE Miao-miao; LU Yan; JING Jin-xue

    2013-01-01

    Triticum aestivum-Hayaldia villosa translocation line V3 has shown effective all-stage resistance to the seven dominant pathotypes ofPuccinia striiformsf. sp.tritici prevalent in China. To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, the segregating populations were developed from the cross between V3 and susceptible genotype Mingxian 169, seedlings of the parents and F2 progeny were tested with six prevalent pathotypes, including CYR29, CYR31, CYR32-6, CYR33, Sun11-4, and Sun11-11, F1plants and F3lines were also inoculated with Sun11-11 to conifrm the result further. The genetic studied results showed that the resistance of V3 against CYR29 was conferred by two dominant genes, independently, one dominant gene and one recessive gene conferring independently or a single dominant gene to confer resistance to CYR31, two complementary dominant genes conferring resistance to both CYR32-6 and Sun11-4, two independently dominant genes or three dominant genes (two of the genes show cumulative effect) conferring resistance to CYR33, a single dominant gene for resistance to Sun11-11. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple-sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to the single dominant gene (temporarily designated asYrV3) for resistance to Sun11-11. A linkage map of 2 RGAP and 7 SSR markers was constructed for the dominant gene using data from 221 F2 plants and their derived F2:3 lines tested with Sun11-11 in the greenhouse. Ampliifcation of the complete set of nulli-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring with a RGAP marker RG1 mapped the gene on the chromosome 1B, and then the linked 7 SSR markers located this gene on the long arm of chromosome 1B. The linkage map spanned a genetic distance of 25.0 cM, the SSR markersXgwm124 andXcfa2147closely linked toYrV3 with genetic distances of 3.0 and 3.8 cM, respectively. Based on the linkage map, it concluded that the resistance geneYrV3was located on chromosome arm 1BL. Given

  10. Regulation of invertase activity in different root zones of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in the course of osmotic adjustment under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königshofer, Helga; Löppert, Hans-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Osmotic adjustment of roots is an essential adaptive mechanism to sustain water uptake and root growth under water deficit. In this paper, the role of invertases (β-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) in osmotic adjustment was investigated in the root tips (cell division and elongation zone) and the root maturation zone of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Josef) in the course of osmotic stress imposed by 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The two root zones investigated differed distinctly in the response of invertases to water deprivation. In the root tips, the activity of the vacuolar and cell wall-bound invertases increased markedly under water stress resulting in the accumulation of hexoses (glucose and fructose) that contributed significantly to osmotic adjustment. A transient rise in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) preceded the enhancement of invertases upon exposure to osmotic stress. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished the stress induced H2O2 production and suppressed the stimulation of the vacuolar invertase activity, whereas the activity of the cell wall-bound invertase was not influenced by DPI. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect of DPI on the vacuolar invertase, hexose levels and osmotic adjustment were also markedly decreased in the root tips under water deficit in the presence of DPI. These data suggest that H2O2 probably generated by a NADPH oxidase is required as a signalling molecule for the up-regulation of the vacuolar invertase activity in the root tips under osmotic stress, thereby enhancing the capacity for osmotic adjustment. In the root maturation zone, an early H2O2 signal could not be detected in response to PEG application. Only an increase in the glucose level that was not paralleled by fructose and a slight stimulation of the activity of the vacuolar invertase occurred in the maturation zone after water deprivation. The stress induced accumulation of glucose in the maturation zone was not

  11. ¿Inconstitucionalidad por omisión?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quispe Correa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor realiza un análisis del sistema peruano de control de constitucionalidad desarrollado en control abstracto por el Tribunal Constitucional y en control concreto por los tribunales de justicia, para luego centrar su análisis sobre la inconstitucionalidad por omisión, considerando la doctrina desarrollada en la materia, planteando sus reservas en la materia, especialmente cuando el tribunal constitucional se convierte en legislador positivo.

  12. Estudio electrofisiologico en la neuropatia por Vincristina

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    Olga P. Sanz

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Diez pacientes afectados por diversas patologías que requerían tratamiento crónico con Vincristina, fueron sometidos a estudios electrofisiológicos en los que se valoró: el número de unidades motoras (UM funcionantes en los músculos de la eminencia tenar, los valores de los incrementos medios de UM, velocidad de conducción motora y su latencia residual en el nervio mediano, la velocidad de conducción sensitiva del mismo nervio y el estado de la transmisión neuromuscular. Los valores obtenidos fueron comparados con grupos controles. Los resultados mostraron disminución del número de UM; las UM remanentes presentaron amplitud reducida junto a otras cuyo tamaño no superaba el del grupo control, hecho que sugiere la incapacidad de lograr una reinervación adecuada. Las velocidades de conducción motora y sensitiva mostraron valores diminuídos, con mayor compromiso en los segmentos distales. Junto a estos datos se halló respuesta miasteniforme al estímulo repetitivo. Todos estos resultados permiten postular la existencia de un compromiso de la unidad motora, abarcando todos sus segmentos, en pacientes intoxicados con Vincristina.

  13. Por uma nova ética ambiental

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    Edna Parizzi de Viveiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo procura abordar a relação do homem com o ambiente. Entre outros pontos de discussão, argumenta que o cientificismo contribuiu para que se aprofundasse a visão de posse absoluta e exploração implacável sobre a natureza (terra, água, florestas, e que as fragilidades apresentadas pelo Planeta na atualidade são resultados do modo pelo qual se deu essa relação, ou seja, o modo como a partir do "domínio" sobre a natureza, o homem dilapidou e continua dilapidando os recursos naturais, com o intuito de produzir cada vez mais bens para o consumo, gerar e concentrar riquezas. Por fim, o artigo trata da emergência da educação ambiental e da prática interdisciplinar entre saberes, para que se possa construir uma nova ética ambiental, tão necessária à sobrevivência do Planeta.

  14. Libertad, igualdad, sostenibilidad. Por un ecofeminismo ilustrado

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    Puleo, Alicia H.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the proposal of an enlightened Ecofeminism and defines it as an ethic-political thinking about human relations to Nature. It aims at ecojustice and sustainability, which are characterized through the criticism of prejudice, through the principles of equality and autonomy, and through the nominalist conceptualization of gender, intercultural dialogue and the sensible acceptance of science and technique. The enlightened Ecofeminism universalizes virtues such as caring for the human and non-human Nature, and defends a compassionate moral towards the radical finitude of the world.

    En este artículo se presenta la propuesta de un ecofeminismo ilustrado entendido como reflexión ético-política sobre las relaciones de los humanos con la Naturaleza. Orientado a la ecojusticia y la sostenibilidad, el ecofeminismo ilustrado se caracterizaría por la crítica al prejuicio, la defensa de los principios de igualdad y autonomía, la conceptualización nominalista del género, el diálogo intercultural, la aceptación prudente de la ciencia y la técnica, la universalización de las virtudes del cuidado aplicadas a los humanos y al resto de la Naturaleza, y una moral de la compasión frente a la radical finitud del mundo.

  15. Identidad e interculturalidad: un horizonte por visitar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Pérez Bernal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo mantenemos que el concepto de identidad defendido por Amin Maalouf puede ser una interesante vía para conseguir una aproximación entre las distintas culturas capaz de conducirnos a un diálogo fructífero que nos permitan gestionar la multiculturalidad actual. Defendemos que las culturas sean vistas como escenas de debate y contestación en constante proceso de construcción y reconstrucción y en las que siempre primen unos valores que nos conciernen a todos y que han de ser irrenunciables.In this paper, it is stated that the concept of identity defended by Amin Maalouf could be an interesting way to achieve a rapprochement amongst different cultures. This could lead to a fruitful dialog allowing to manage today’s multiculturalism. It is also defended that cultures should be considered as instruments of debate and reply on a continuous process of construction and reconstruction. However, cultures should not prevail over a series of values that concern to all of us and that should be inalienable.

  16. Herida por arma de fuego Gunshot wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sibón Olano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el examen de las heridas por arma de fuego, hay que prestar especial interés al orifico de entrada. Un examen minucioso del mismo, nos permitirá conocer la distancia a la que se ha efectuado el disparo; así mismo, nos orientará sobe la trayectoria y etiología médico-legal. El tipo de arma puede modificar en alguna medida el orificio de entrada en los disparos a cañón tocante; como ocurre en las armas de dos cañones, en las que tiene situada su mira en la boca del cañón, o en las que están dotadas de bocacha apagafuegos.When examining firearm wounds, special attention must be paid to the entrance wound. Meticulous examination will establish the range at wich the shot was fired as well as the trajectory and the manner of death (forensic etiology. In a contact gunshot wound, the type of weapon can modify the entrance wound to some extent. This is what happens in double barrel muzzle or in those endowed with a fireguard.

  17. Estrategias de crecimiento empresarial aplicadas por hipermercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraidy Leal Morantes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias de crecimiento empresarial, representadas por alianzas y adquisiciones, que han sido aplicadas en el sector de distribución de bienes de consumo masivo, específicamente en los hipermercados ubicados en Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, como manera de responder al entorno competitivo y cambiante en el cual se desenvuelven. La investigación se desarrolló a través de un estudio de carácter descriptivo; para la recolección de datos se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado, bajo la modalidad de entrevista, a gerentes generales y financieros. Los resultados evidencian que las estrategias de crecimiento empresarial utilizadas son la apertura de nuevos establecimientos comerciales, adquisición de empresas y participación accionaria en grandes cadenas, las cuales propician la concentración del mercado de distribución comercial, afectando a algunas empresas venezolanas del sector cuya oferta no puede competir; asimismo, los proveedores se enfrentan a cadenas con gran poder de negociación.

  18. La responsabilidad del Estado por el hecho del legislador

    OpenAIRE

    María Consuelo Alonso; Eric Leiva Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina como por la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedentejurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, dándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 ...

  19. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in

  20. Epidemiología de la incapacidad temporal por contingencia común por neoplasias en España

    OpenAIRE

    Díez García, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Objetivos: Conocer la incidencia de neoplasias en una población trabajadora perteneciente a empresas cuyos episodios de Incapacidad Temporal (IT) por Contingencia Común estaban gestionados por una Mutua de Accidentes de Trabajo y Enfermedades Profesionales de ámbito estatal. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo. Se contabilizaron los casos de neoplasias registrados en la población trabajadora protegida por la Mutua durante el periodo comprendido entre e...

  1. Motivado por cirujanos Motivated by Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar-Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Comenzaba la década de los 60 y nuestro grupo nerviosamente iniciaba lecciones en los hospitales de San José. En aquellos años, el estudiante de medicina empezaba su contacto con pacientes, por lo menos 1 ó 2 años después de iniciada la carrera. El estudio del ser humano normal que ya habíamos concluido, continuaba con el del enfermo, y más adelante aprenderíamos el tratamiento. La enfermedad descrita en el libro, de pronto se convertía en un enfermo, y es a este quien hoy veíamos, cohibido pero inquisidor, en la cama de un hospital. Los profesores nos enseñaban a interrogar y a examinar a los pacientes, y cada gesto suyo, cada pregunta, cada maniobra, eran celosamente guardados en la memoria de los educandos. Con claridad percibíamos, aun a temprana edad, las diferencias entre los especialistas, y casi de manera involuntaria, cada quien iba tomando partido y escogía su futuro camino. Fue durante esos tempranos años, cuando mi vida se cruzó con la de 7 maravillosas personas y excelentes cirujanos, que marcaron para siempre mi destino y, sin quererlo ellos, me hicieron inclinarme por la cirugía. Dos eran serios y profundamente académicos: el Dr. Manuel Aguilar Bonilla y el Dr. Vesalio Guzmán Calleja; 3, decididos, incansables y muy hábiles: el Dr. Longino Soto Pacheco, el Dr. Claudio Orlich Carranza y el Dr. Carlos Prada Díaz, y 2, abordables, prácticos, joviales y amistosos: el Dr. Fernando Valverde Soley y el Dr. Randall Ferris Iglesias….During the early 60´s our class just started clinical lessons in different hospitals of San Jose. In those years the medical student became in contact with patients 1 or 2 years after initiating his or her career. The study of the normal human being continued with that of the diseased and later on we would learn how to treat our patients. The disease described in our textbooks, suddenly was a reality, a person lying in a hospital bed, shy but inquisitive. Our teachers taught us how to

  2. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  3. 普通小麦-簇毛麦易位系T6BS·6BL-2VS的选育%Identification of Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Translocation Line T6BS·6BL-2VS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全战; 张边江; 周峰; 吴梅; 李华春

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of experiment was to provide a new germplasm for wheat breeding by further using desirable genes in 2V chromosome of Haynaldia villosa.[Method] Through hybridization between common wheat(Triticum aestivum)-Haynaldia villosa disomic substitution line and common wheat Nonglin26-3C chromosome of Aegilops triuncialis disomic addition line, the analysis methods such as chromosome C-banding, genomic in situ hybridization and molecular marker technique were comprehensively applied and combined characters investigation.[Result] The wheat-Haynaldia villosa translocation line(T6BS·6BL-2VS) was selected from hybrid progenies to conduct characters investigation,which found some bristles on glume ridge of T6BS·6BL-2VS.[Conclusion] The translocation line induced by gametocidal chromosome was a small segment translocation line and the gene of bristle on glume ridge of Haynaldia villosa was located between the middle and the terminal of 2VS.

  4. Analyse fonctionnelle de TaGW2, une E3 ligase de type RING, dans le développement du grain de blé tendre (Triticum aestivum)

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Le blé tendre, Triticum aestivum, est une des céréales les plus cultivées au monde et est d'une importance considérable pour l'alimentation humaine, fournissant environ un cinquième des calories consommées par l'Homme. Le rendement en grain chez les céréales dépend majoritairement du nombre et de la taille des grains. Chez le riz (Oryza sativa), le gène GW2 a été isolé dans un locus à effet quantitatif majeur pour la taille et le poids du grain. Ce gène code pour une enzyme E3 ligase de type ...

  5. Effets de modifications du génome D et d'un choc osmotique sur les paramètres hydriques et sur le comportement stomatique de Triticum aestivum cv. " Chinese Spring "

    OpenAIRE

    Coudret, A; Cauderon, Y.

    1984-01-01

    L’analyse du comportement stomatique et hydrique d’ancuploïdes du blé tendre (Triticum aestivum) cv. « Chinese Spring » montre que l’absence de certains chromosomes ou bras de chromosomes entraîne une diminution de la potentialité d’ouverture des stomates, soit, pour le génome D, les bras de chromosomes 2DL, 2DS, 3DL, 3DS, 4DS, 6DS, 7DS et probablement aussi 1DL. Les chromosomes 7A et 7B sont capables de compenser l’effet du chromosome 7D ; les chromosomes 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B interviennent éga...

  6. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Babben

    Full Text Available Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS of candidate genes, (ii intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv; testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%, corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence.

  7. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

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    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  8. OPINIÓN: PARA TRABAJAR POR CARTAGENA POR DÓNDE COMENZAR?

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    Carmen Cabrales Vargas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciertamente son muchos los flancos desde los cuales acercarnos a esta ciudad que se encuentra en permanente y profunda movilidad con respecto a lo que era hace dos décadas. Cartagena ha estallado y seguirá estallando en muchos pedazos, convirtiéndose en una ciudad que por su compleja dinámica no alcanza a recomponerse en su organización social ni en sus espacios físicos; por ello se nos muestra como un lugar donde la confrontación con el orden instituido para su funcionamiento es permanente. En ese sentido, puede anotarse que son pocos los que acogen con rigor las normas de tránsito o respetan el espacio público, o practican el cuidado ambiental o respetan el derecho del otro al uso de los recursos institucionales que se ofrecen. Dicho de otra forma, en los imaginarios de estos habitantes parece no encontrarse el de la ciudad en cuanto organización espacial con reglas y normas que le dan sentido.

  9. Mujeres por la utilidad de la virtud

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    Nancy Rodríguez Pupo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La mujer cubana ostenta una vasta tradición combativa y es ejemplo de entereza, abnegación, sacrificio y compromiso social. Quien se acerque a la historia de nuestro proceso nacional-liberador a todo lo largo de su devenir, constatará su presencia como forjadoras de la nación. Integrante fundamental de la sociedad, la mujer hizo suyas las ansias libertadoras y desempeñó un rol importante en aras de crear una patria común. Se trata de entender que en lo más mínimo su papel fue de “retaguardia”, sino todo lo contrario, su trabajo fue necesario y en no pocas ocasiones empuñó las armas y con valentía gritó ¡viva Cuba libre!, incluso a cambio de su vida, como lo protagonizó la tunera Mercedes Varona. El ejemplo de la mujer cubana y particularmente tunera, es imperecedero en su doble función de ser social y generadora de nuevas vidas, con amplias posibilidades de realización personal y profesional luego de 1959. Su actuación se manifiesta en cada actividad del sector de la salud pública como médica, enfermera, técnica, profesora y estomatóloga, así como también en otros puestos de trabajo no menos necesarios. Ellas con altruismo, solidaridad, responsabilidad y humanismo, son continuadoras de las mejores tradiciones científicas, patrióticas y revolucionarias de nuestro pueblo. Esta edición se dedica al 8 de marzo, día internacional de la mujer, las homenajeamos y recordamos la obra de Laura Martínez Carvajal, primera médica cubana, quien desafió los prejuicios de su época o Isabel Rubio que puso sus conocimientos de medicina farmacéutica al servicio del Ejército Libertador, en el que alcanzó los grados de capitana de sanidad; por citar dos entre las grandes. Otras féminas de la localidad ejercieron en la manigua sus dotes de parteras o enfermeras, tal el caso de Anita Cruz, magnífica artillera, quien estuvo al frente de un hospital de campaña durante la guerra. Allí curó heridas, infecciones, disenter

  10. Epidemia de hepatite veiculada por gamaglobulina contaminada

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    Anastácio Ferreira Morgado

    1982-12-01

    gamaglobulina foram testadas, em laboratórios de referência da Organização Mundial de Saúde, encontrando-se o Ag HB em seis (54,5%J. Os autores concluem que houve alguma falha grave no processo de preparo da gamaglobulina em apreço. E por isto deve-se ter reservas quanto á noção difundida de que esse medicamento está isento do risco de transmitir o vírus hepatite.

  11. Mortalidad por tumores en Santander, 1998-2006

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    Laura Andrea Rodríguez Villamizar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la mortalidad por tumores en el departamento de Santander, Colombia, en el período comprendido entre 1998 y 2006. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal de recolección retrospectiva basado en registros oficiales nacionales. Se realizó análisis de mortalidad por sexo, edad, zona de residencia y tipo de tumor. Resultados:Se registró un total de 13,219 defunciones, con una tasa promedio anual de 76.2 casos por 100,000 habitantes; lastasas más altas se presentaron a partir del año 2002. Elriesgo de morir fue 5% superior en los hombres, exceptoentre los de 25 y 54 años, donde fue superior en las mujeres.El tumor maligno de estómago fue el más frecuente como causa de muerte (tasa mediana 11.8 por 100,000 habitantes. En las mujeres este tumor fue seguido por los tumores malignos de mama y cuello de útero, con tasas medianas de 8.1 y 7.7 por 100,000 habitantes, mientras que en los hombres por los tumores malignos de próstata y debronquios y pulmón, con tasas medianas de 10.7 y 8.3 casos por 100,000 habitantes. Conclusiones: La mortalidad por tumores en Santander constituye la segunda causa de muerte y lleva a fortalecer el diagnóstico temprano de esta enfermedad y de las estrategias poblacionales dirigidas al control de los factores de riesgo.

  12. Impacto do manejo da água na toxidez por ferro no arroz irrigado por alagamento

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    Fabiana Schmidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A toxidez por ferro é o distúrbio nutricional de maior ocorrência em arroz (Oryza sativa L. cultivado em sistemas alagados, derivada da quantidade excessiva de íons ferrosos (Fe2+ gerados pela redução de óxidos de ferro em solos alagados. Em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação, foram avaliados os efeitos de manejos da água de irrigação na dinâmica de redução de um Planossolo e na manifestação da toxidez por ferro em arroz. Os tratamentos dispostos em blocos completos ao acaso com quatro repetições constaram de cinco manejos da água: T1- início do alagamento no estádio V2-V3 do arroz; T2- início do alagamento no estádio V6-V7; T3- T1 e drenagem no estádio V10-V11; T4- T2 e drenagem no estádio V10-V11; e T5- T1 e drenagens nos estádios V7-V8 e V10-V11. O atraso do início do alagamento para o estádio V6-V7 do arroz manteve os valores do Eh da solução do solo mais elevados, promovendo menor disponibilidade de Fe2+ na solução do solo e deslocando a máxima liberação de Fe2+ na solução do solo para estádios fenológicos mais avançados do arroz. A realização de drenagens ao longo do ciclo vegetativo do arroz promoveu a reoxidação do solo, que ocasionou o aumento dos valores de Eh e redução da concentração de Fe2+ na solução do solo. O uso de drenagens durante o período vegetativo do arroz foi eficiente no controle da toxidez por excesso de ferro, em arroz cultivado em solo alagado.

  13. El tiempo libre y ocio reivindicado por los trabajadores

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Miranda Román

    2006-01-01

    Estas líneas están referidas a la realización de actividades del ocio en el tiempo libre que como derecho ha sido logrado por las luchas de aquellas sociedades cuyo desarrollo industrial y comercial es caracterizado por la designación de tiempos para la producción o distribución de las mercancías. Los trabajadores históricamente han luchado por el derecho a un tiempo libre necesario para el desarrollo de las aptitudes del hombre, asunto que tratamos de discurrir, o en el mejor de ...

  14. Topoplastia de Cvintal assistida por laser de femtossegundo

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    Alexandre Takayoshi Ishizaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um relato de astigmatismo tardio progressivo pós-transplante de córnea para ceratocone, associado à afinamento periférico na junção doador-receptor, o que presumidamente pode ser considerado como recorrência da ectasia. O caso foi tratado por meio de Topoplastia de Cvintal assistida por laser de femtossegundo para a confecção da incisão com geometria "top hat", seguido de sutura com ajuste per-operatório guiado por ceratoscopia.

  15. La responsabilidad del Estado por la actividad del legislador

    OpenAIRE

    María Consuelo Alonso García; Eric Leiva Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedente jurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, presentándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 ...

  16. Perforación intestinal por un palillo de dientes

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Yglesias-Rosales; Andrea Medina-Méndez; Andrea Rodríguez-González

    2006-01-01

    Existe una gran variedad de cuerpos extraños que son deglutidos por los seres humanos, entre los cuales son numerosos los que pueden producir una perforación del tracto gastrointestinal. Se enfocará esta discusión en los palillos de dientes, caso particular, por poseer 2 extremos puntiagudos, lo que hace se consideren como portadores de una gran morbimortalidad. El espectro de manifestaciones clínicas asociado con las lesiones por palillos de dientes ingeridos es muy amplio; el diagnóstico de...

  17. El aprendizaje por indagación I.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Martín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo explora cómo se puede usar el aprendizaje por indagación en la enseñanza de las matemáticas. En las matemáticas hace años que se emplea bajo múltiples formas: aprendizaje por resolución de problemas, el método Moore, aprendizaje por proyectos, aprendizaje orientado al proceso, entre otros. En la música, a la luz de nuestro más leal conocimiento, parece que apenas está implantado.

  18. Selección de Recursos Humanos por Competencias

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Domingo, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los objetivos de este trabajo son, por un lado conocer en qué consisten los procesos de valoración y selección de personas desde el enfoque de las competencias laborales. Para ello, ha sido preciso profundizar en el estudio del concepto de “competencia laboral”, y comprender qué es la Gestión de Recursos Humanos por Competencias, en cuyo seno se encuentra la propia Selección de Recursos Humanos. Por otra parte, un segundo objetivo del trabajo es conocer el grado de implantación de la Selecció...

  19. Aprendizaje por refuerzo en espacios de estados continuos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rebollo, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    El aprendizaje por refuerzo es un modelo de aprendizaje que permite implementar comportamientos inteligentes de forma automática. La mayor parte de la teoría del aprendizaje por refuerzo tiene su fundamento en la programación dinámica, y por tanto, en lo que se denominan funciones de valor. Sin embargo, la implementación tradicional de estas funciones en forma tabular no es práctica cuando el espacio de estados es muy grande, o incluso infinito. Cuando se produce esta situación, se deben apli...

  20. El tiempo libre y ocio reivindicado por los trabajadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Miranda Román

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estas líneas están referidas a la realización de actividades del ocio en el tiempo libre que como derecho ha sido logrado por las luchas de aquellas sociedades cuyo desarrollo industrial y comercial es caracterizado por la designación de tiempos para la producción o distribución de las mercancías. Los trabajadores históricamente han luchado por el derecho a un tiempo libre necesario para el desarrollo de las aptitudes del hombre, asunto que tratamos de discurrir, o en el mejor de los casos, reflexionar.

  1. Resistencia de cultivables de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) a herbicida imazamox: aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos y agronómicos

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Rosario, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    La identificación de genes de resistencia a herbicidas en plantas ha permitido el desarrollo de cultivos resistentes haciendo más eficiente el control de las malas hierbas. Esto ha representado un incremento en la productividad agrícola, principalmente en zonas infestadas por malezas emparentadas con el cultivo, como Aegilops cylindrica Host, en trigo y Oryza sativa L. (Arroz salvaje), en arroz. Sin embargo el uso de estas tecnologías pudiera impactar negativamente en la dinámi...

  2. Actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown sobre Tribolium castaneum Herbst. en granos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ringuelet, Jorge Abel; Ocampo, Rafael; Henning, Cynthia; Padín, Susana; Urrutia, María Inés; Dal Bello, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) es un insecto plaga de granos, muy destructivo en la etapa de almacenamiento y altamente resistente a los fitosanitarios sintéticos. Por esta razón su control químico se realiza con altas concentraciones de insecticidas que aumentan la contaminación ambiental y los peligros para la salud humana. Las tendências actuales en el manejo integrado de plagas se orientan hacia el uso de plaguicidas biológicos o biopesticidas como los extractos vegetales...

  3. ANÁLISIS FILOGENÉTICO DE LA DIVERSIDAD BACTERIANA ASOCIADA A LA RIZÓSFERA DE PLANTAS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Sepúlveda, Itzi

    2012-01-01

    El estudio del suelo se considera enorme ya que este alberga una gran diversidad genética microbiana. En particular, la porción de suelo que rodea a la raíz vegetal se le conoce como rizósfera y es aquí donde existen diferentes interacciones entre los microorganismos y la planta. La composición de la comunidad microbiana, y en particular las bacterias de la rizósfera puede verse influenciada por diversos factores bióticos y abióticos. Se sabe que las bacterias juegan diverso...

  4. Ansiedad percibida por los pacientes hospitalizados por quemaduras, en una Unidad de Quemados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcázar-Gabás

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo, pretende describir el estado de ansiedad que experimentan los pacientes ingresados en una Unidad de Quemados. Uno de los factores clave en los cuidados del paciente quemado es una buena atención psicológica. La realidad demuestra que es el profesional de enfermería quien observa los síntomas emocionales durante los primeros días de ingreso y trata de responder a esa demanda de cuidado. Pretendemos, a través de la medición del nivel de ansiedad que perciben los pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Quemados elegida para nuestro estudio durante el primer semestre del año 2009, identificar a aquellos que estén en riesgo de padecer mayores niveles de ansiedad durante su hospitalización, para así poder establecer un plan de cuidados adaptado a las necesidades emocionales de cada uno. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten concluir que los pacientes quemados ingresados en la Unidad de Quemados presentaron niveles elevados de ansiedad que son superiores entre la población femenina, así como en aquellos pacientes con lesiones de mayor extensión. Determinamos también que los pacientes ingresados por quemaduras en la Unidad de Quemados a estudio fueron mayoritariamente varones, de nacionalidad española, residentes en medio urbano con una media de edad de 50 años, siendo las quemaduras producidas por llama en accidentes domésticos la causa más frecuente.

  5. Occurrences of Yttrium in Soil and Its Potential Impacts on Paddy Rice Triticum aestivum%稀土钇对水稻的潜在生物效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀娟; 张素贞; 朱易春; 马彩云; 潘阳; 高咪

    2013-01-01

    [目的]通过研究土壤中硝酸钇对水稻生物量和生物酶活的影响,探索富钇稀土矿区植物疯长但不结果的原因。[方法]将不同浓度的硝酸钇溶液喷洒于土样之上,充分混合土样后置于培养皿,培养稻种以便后续检测。[结果]当土壤 Y含量在25~100 mg/kg范围内,生物量(总重量,根重,茎重、叶重)、生长绿素(CHL)含量与水稻的蛋白质含量显著增长;土壤 Y含量在200~800 mg/kg 范围内,芽和水稻根中的抗氧化系统如超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)受到抑制,均呈现下降趋势。丙二醛(MDA)的含量增加,当土壤 Y含量在25-100 mg/kg 、100~800 mg/kg范围内,芽和水稻根中的丙二醛(MDA)浓度下降。这表明,低浓度的Y可促进植物生长,相对较高的浓度抑制生长。[结论]从矿区采矿区、农田和脐橙园采集的土壤中 Y的含量分别为641±49,328±16和473±40 mg/kg,研究区的 Y含量均高于效益水平100 mg/kg,这可能是导致植物疯狂生长但不结果的原因。因此,矿区的谨慎管理是必要的。%[Objective] The effects of yttrium nitrate (YNO3) on biomass and antioxi-dant systems of paddy rice (Yttrium (Y); Oxidative stress; Dismutases (SOD); Per-oxidases (POD); Catalases (CAT); Paddy rice (Triticum aestivum)) together with the occurrences of Y in soils were investigated to assess its ecotoxicological effects on plant. [Method]Y solutions with various concentrations were sprinkled on soil sam-ples, which were wel mixed and then put into culture dishes to culture paddy rice seeds for further evaluation. [Result] The results indicated that 25-100 mg/kg Y treatments significantly increased the biomass (total weight, root weight, shoot weight and leaf weight), chlorophyl (CHL) content and protein content of paddy rice, whereas 200-800 mg/kg Y treatments had a converse effect. Similarly, biomarker for the

  6. LOGROS DEL FITOMEJORAMIENTO PARTICIPATIVO EVALUADO POR LOS PRODUCTORES INVOLUCRADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    un importante empoderamiento del campesino y un aumento significativo de la autoestima del campesino y su familia. Por último, se denotó un efecto de esta estrategia de mejoramiento en la innovación local.

  7. Limitado por lo políticamente correcto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ceballos Salgado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available He comenzado a sentirme limitado por tanta correctividad política que se nos ha impuesto tanto por el ala derecha como la izquierda. Ambas partes constantemente intentan infringir nuestra libertad diciéndonos que podemos o no podemos, decir o hacer. Me estoy hartando de esto. A continuación algunos ejemplos acerca de lo que están tratando de imponernos.

  8. Secagem por spray: uma revisão

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    Arlan Caldas Pereira Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi apresentar os princípios da secagem por spray e os mais recentes resultados de pesquisas na área de leite e derivados. Visando abranger este assunto, o artigo foi dividido em seis partes: introdução, princípios da secagem por spray, atomização, secagem em estágios, resultados de pesquisas e conclusão.

  9. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  10. The PorX response regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY two-component system does not directly regulate the Type IX secretion genes but binds the PorL subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence S Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Type IX secretion system (T9SS is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion of surface attachment of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of the porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we showed that PorX does not bind and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  11. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  12. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  13. Suicidio por arma de fuego Suicide by firearm

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    M. Soriano Maldonado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El mecanismo elegido para cometer el suicidio depende de numerosos factores personales y sociales. En este número presentamos una imagen del tipo de suicidio más mediático, aunque no por ello el más frecuente en nuestro medio. La variabilidad en la forma de los orificios de entrada y salida por arma de fuego depende de la distancia, tipo de arma y región anatómica por lo que puede presentar una morfología muy variada. Es por ello que, aunque ya se han publicado varias imágenes de suicidio por otro tipo de armas, aportamos un caso de suicidio típico por arma corta con especial descripción de las lesiones que se originan en cráneo.The mechanism chosen for suicide depends upon various personal and social factors. In this paper, we present an image of the more mediatic type suicide, although not the most frequent in our means. The variability in the entrance and exit orifices by firearm depends on the distance, type of weapon and anatomical region; for that reason they can present/display a wide morphology. Although several images of suicide by another type of arms have been published already, today we contributed with a case of typical suicide by handgun, paying special attention to the injuries affecting the skull.

  14. Pronóstico de la diarrea por rotavirus

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    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la gravedad de la diarrea por rotavirus (RV y por no rotavirus. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal en 520 lactantes con diarrea aguda, efectuado entre octubre de 1994 y marzo de 1995 en siete centros del primer nivel de atención en cinco estados de México. El diagnóstico de RV se realizó con ensayo inmunoenzimático o por electroforesis. El análisis se hizo a través de medidas de tendencia central. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana o variación. Resultados. Se aisló RV en 264 lactantes (50.7% con predominio en varones de 6 meses a un año. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron significativamente diferentes entre el grupo rotavirus positivo y el grupo rotavirus negativo en mediana de evacuaciones por 24 horas, frecuencia de vómitos, temperatura > 38° C, deshidratación y calificación de gravedad, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Estos resultados mostraron peor pronóstico por mayor gravedad de la diarrea por RV en lactantes, con relación a otra etiología. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  15. Neuropatia experimental por DDT: análise de nervo por microdissecção de fibras

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Matos Nóvak; Lineu Cesar Werneck

    1984-01-01

    Estudou-se o nervo gênito-femural do rato albino submetido a intoxicação crônica por DDT, administrado por 180 dias na dose de 5 mg/kg de peso via oral. Os resultados mostraram proporção anormal de fibras tipo C, sendo sugerido ocorrer degeneração tipo axonal determinada pelo DDT.

  16. Neuropatia experimental por DDT: análise de nervo por microdissecção de fibras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Matos Nóvak

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o nervo gênito-femural do rato albino submetido a intoxicação crônica por DDT, administrado por 180 dias na dose de 5 mg/kg de peso via oral. Os resultados mostraram proporção anormal de fibras tipo C, sendo sugerido ocorrer degeneração tipo axonal determinada pelo DDT.

  17. Enxertia em figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' por borbulhia e garfagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailene Elisa Kotz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de desenvolver um protocolo de enxertia em estacas não enraizadas de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' (Ficus carica L., foram realizados dois experimentos com aplicação de duas técnicas de propagação: borbulhia e garfagem. No primeiro experimento, estacas lenhosas de 20 cm de comprimento, coletadas da porção mediana dos ramos, de junho a setembro, foram enxertadas por borbulhia tipo placa e "T" normal. No segundo experimento, os propágulos foram coletados em julho e as estacas foram enxertadas pelo método da garfagem, imergindo-se metade das estacas em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB por 10 segundos e metade permaneceu como controle. Os enxertos foram protegidos com sacos plásticos transparentes (18 x 3 cm, mantidos por 0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias. Posteriormente, as estacas dos dois experimentos foram enterradas a 2/3 de seu comprimento em leito de areia, sob telado (sombrite com 50% de luminosidade. Aos 60 e 120 dias após a enxertia, mensuraram-se a porcentagem de borbulhas e garfos vivos, a porcentagem de borbulhas e garfos brotados, a porcentagem de borbulhas e garfos vivos em porta-enxertos enraizados e o comprimento médio da brotação do enxerto. Concluiu-se que a enxertia da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' pode ser efetuada por borbulhia, pelo método "T", e por garfagem, devendo-se efetuar a imersão das estacas em AIB e proteger os garfos por 60 dias.

  18. PROPIEDADES DE FILMS DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA Y GELATINA. INCORPORACION DE ACEITES ESENCIALES CON EFECTO ANTIFUNGICO.

    OpenAIRE

    ACOSTA DAVILA, SANDRA CECILIA

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de investigación, se estudiarán las propiedades físico-químicas de films a base de almidón de yuca y gelatina, así como el efecto de la adición de diferentes compuestos como lípidos o aceites esenciales en la mejora de su funcionalidad. Para ello se caracterizarán las películas secas aisladas, en sus principales propiedades como barrera al agua y oxígeno, propiedades mecánicas, ópticas, micro estructurales y antimicrobianas. Esta caracterización se realizará en condicio...

  19. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…

  20. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  1. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  2. La responsabilidad del Estado por la actividad del legislador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Alonso García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedente jurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, presentándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 introdujo en su artículo 90 el fundamento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado, sin que esto significase que la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado encontrase las bases de esta responsabilidad en diferentes disposiciones de la Constitución. Sin embargo, los primeros fallos relacionados con este título de imputación en Colombia fueron emitidos por el máximo tribunal de lo contencioso administrativo en 1998, y por la Corte Constitucional a través de la sentencia C-038 de 2006, providencia judicial que estableció algunas de las características que posee esta figura jurídica.

  3. Riesgos antrópicos generados por la actividad minera

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    Ana Violeta Argüello Mejía

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades productivas generan riesgos antrópicos [1] a mediano y largo plazo. La zona de estudio se ubica en las Parroquias de Pomasqui, San Antonio y Calacalí, donde se han producido riesgos debido a las actividades humanas, en este caso, por la explotación de las canteras para abastecer el mercado de la construcción del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito. La investigación propone determinar los riesgos antrópicos generados por la actividad minera. Los pobladores de la zona identifican que la minería artesanal en sus inicios constituyó una fuente de trabajo, donde sus familias también se involucraban. Actualmente, se observa que en la mayoría de las canteras se utiliza maquinaria especializada y no participan los trabajadores de la zona. Los taludes de las canteras son de 80o y 90o grados, generando amenazas para los trabajadores y moradores de las viviendas aledañas. Uno de los mayores impactos es la contaminación del aire, sin embargo, el suelo y los cursos de agua están siendo afectados por los desperdicios que produce la actividad minera. La población, que está expuesta permanentemente al polvo ocasionado por las canteras y al transporte de material, acusa enfermedades de tipo respiratorio. Así mismo, el ruido ocasionado por el transporte constituye una molestia constante para los pobladores.

  4. Micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, reporte de dos casos

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    José G. Somocurcio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta los dos primeros casos de micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, en el Perú, tratados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Se practicó resección pulmonar debido a micetoma pulmonar de donde se tomó muestras que fueron enviadas a microbiología y anatomía patológica para cultivo y estudio histopatológico. Se identificó el moho Scedosporium sp en dos pacientes con secuelas cavitarias por tuberculosis, quienes presentaron tos y hemoptisis de dos meses y tres años de evolución, respectivamente. Radiológicamente las cavidades estaban ocupadas por una "bola fúngica". La histopatología indicó presencia de abundantes hifas, indistinguibles de las de Aspergillus sp, mientras que la inmunodifusión para Aspergillus fue negativa.

  5. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mangarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. 1. Responsabilidad del “empleador” por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Noción. 2. La indemnización “tarifada”. Fundamento de su procedencia 3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales en la ley uruguaya (ley Nº 16.074. 4. La “ampliación” de la responsabilidad del empleador por el derecho común en el derecho uruguayo (artículo 7 ley Nº 16.074. 5. Requisitos para la ampliación de la responsabilidad patronal: culpa grave en el incumplimientode normas de seguridad y prevención. 6. La culpa grave. Concepto. 7. El modelo del hombre a tener en cuenta en la “culpa grave” no es el del buen padre de familia. 8. El grado de la culpa no puede ser medido por el resultado del accidente. 9. Se aplican las eximentes de la responsabilidad civil. 10. Distintos ámbitos de la responsabilidad patronal por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales: A ante la víctima o los derecho-habientes; B ante el Banco de Seguros del Estado; C ante el Ministerio de Trabajo ySeguridad Social. 11. Recupero del BSE en caso de culpa grave en el incumplimiento de normas de seguridad y prevención. Requisitos 12. Responsabilidad del empleador en caso de accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional sufrido por un adolescente. Conclusiones.

  6. La responsabilidad del Estado por el hecho del legislador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina como por la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedentejurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, dándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 introdujo en su artículo 90 el fundamento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado, sinque esto significase que la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado encontrase las bases de esta responsabilidad en diferentes disposiciones de la Constitución de 1886, tales como los artículos 2º, 16 y 30, que consagró el principio de legalidad del Estado para proteger la vida, honra y bienes de los ciudadanos, y garantizar la propiedad privada y los demás derechos adquiridos con el título de derecho. Sin embargo, los primeros fallos relacionados con este título de imputación en Colombia fueron emitidos por el máximo Tribunal de lo Contencioso Administrativo colombiano en el año de 1998 y por la Corte Constitucional a través de la Sentencia C-038 de 2006, providencia judicial que estableció algunas de las características que posee esta figura jurídica.

  7. Varmetransport i evakuerede porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    Indlægget omhandlede varmetransport i porøse materialer (ledning, konvektion og stråling) under atmosfæretryk og under vacuum. Specielt omhandlede præsentationen også silica aerogel som et eksempel på et højporøst isoleringsmateriale.......Indlægget omhandlede varmetransport i porøse materialer (ledning, konvektion og stråling) under atmosfæretryk og under vacuum. Specielt omhandlede præsentationen også silica aerogel som et eksempel på et højporøst isoleringsmateriale....

  8. Neumonitis por hipersensibilidad en la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-Rodríguez José G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la asociación entre la zona urbana de origen del paciente en la ciudad de México y la prevalencia de neumonitis por hipersensibilidad inducida por antígeno aviario. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de casos y controles realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, en la ciudad de México, en el año de 1999. Se estudiaron 109 casos con neumonitis por hipersensibilidad y 184 controles: de éstos, 39, con fibrosis pulmonar idiopática; 63, con tuberculosis pulmonar, y 82, con asma. La ciudad de México y las zonas conurbadas se dividieron en cinco zonas geográficas: centro, noreste, sureste, noroeste y el suroeste. Se calcularon las prevalencias de las diferentes enfermedades por zona urbana de los pacientes que participaron en el estudio; como medida de asociación, se estimó la razón de momios, con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Asimismo, se realizó regresión logística múltiple ajustando por edad, sexo y estrato socioeconómico. RESULTADOS: Ochenta casos de neumonitis por hipersensibilidad se concentraron en el sur del noreste de las zonas conurbadas y la parte norte del sureste de la ciudad de México, 48 y 32, respectivamente (RM= 3.86, IC 95% 2.17-6.96. Treinta y seis controles de asma se localizaron en el suroeste de la ciudad de México, zona donde se ubica el Intituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (p<0.05 y cuatro en la zona conurbada. Los controles de tuberculosis pulmonar y fibrosis pulmonar idiopática estuvieron dispersos en la ciudad de México y en las zonas conurbadas. CONCLUSIONES: La zona sur del noreste y el norte de la sureste están asociadas a la neumonitis por hipersensibilidad. Las causas de esta asociación no parece ser geográfica, pero existe el antecedente de que esa zona fue basurero de la ciudad, por lo que partículas orgánicas en el ambiente pudieran coadyuvar a la aparición de esta enfermedad.

  9. Efecto de la quercetina sobre la nefrotoxicidad producida por cadmio

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Morales Martín; Vicente Sánchez; C. Santiago Sandoval; J Mª Fernández Tagarro; J.M. López Novoa; F. Pérez Barriocanal

    2004-01-01

    El incremento en la producción anual de cadmio ha favorecido que la incidencia de la intoxicación crónica por este elemento haya aumentado en los últimos años. El estrés oxidativo es uno de los mecanismos implicados en la generación del efecto tóxico, manifestándose, entre otras patologías, por una disfunción y lesión renal. La quercetina, un flavonoide muy abundante en la dieta mediterránea, es un potente antioxidante y un buen quelante de metales. Nuestro objetivo fue estudia...

  10. As comunidades de Porífera do litoral Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tânia Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Os indivíduos do filo Porifera possuem um papel essencial nas comunidades bentónicas, não só por serem animais filtradores e detritívoros, como pelo facto de estabelecerem relações simbióticas com vários organismos, nomeadamente algas, e servirem de abrigo e alimento a muitos animais. A estrutura das comunidades Porifera é influenciada por vários factores ambientais, entre os quais os padrões de sedimentação, a velocidade da corrente, e o tamanho e inclinação do substrato. D...

  11. Mujeres procesadas por el Tribunal del Santo Oficio de Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Colosía Rodríguez, María Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Actualmente, la Historiografía se ha visto enriquecida gracias a los estudios realizados acerca de las mujeres. Muchos son los aspectos que pueden tratarse al respecto, dada la abundancia de fuentes. En la documentación inquisitorial encontramos un rico filón relativo al tema, que presenta dos aspectos bien diferenciados. Por un lado tenemos a las familiares del personal civil del Santo Oficio, que gozaban de una serie de privilegios. Por otro están aquellas que sufrieron las p...

  12. Infecciones por adenovirus en Cuba (2000-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    González Muñoz, Grehete

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones por adenovirus causan un variado espectro clínico en el hombre, con un rango que incluye desde la infección asintomática hasta la enfermedad diseminada con peligro para la vida. En el presente estudio, se analizó el comportamiento de las infecciones por adenovirus en síndromes de etiología viral como la infección respiratoria aguda, la miocarditis viral, la conjuntivitis hemorrágica y el síndrome neurológico infeccioso. Además, se estudió la participación de estos agentes en l...

  13. Guía por las lindes transilvanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guillermo Serrano

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Paul EluardRecorrer ahora el territorio dejado por Bram Stoker y su novela Drácula -a cien años de su primera edición- resulta sin duda caminar por las alucinantes fronteras del mundo delirante del vampiro como el hijo con- sentido de la nocturnidad y de las sombras. Aunque el terreno abonado es significativo, convocamos aquí un breve merodeo en relación con el tema en la literatura y su cuota de realidad; agregamos como postre un grupo de poemas y la conseja para prevenir la visita del vampiro.

  14. La educación por competencias en ciencias naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Aguirre, F.; Rodríguez-Pineda, D.

    2009-01-01

    Si bien existen programas de actualización docente, en el ámbito de las Ciencias Naturales dentro de la “Educación por Competencias”, la mayoría de las instituciones que ofrecen capacitación, lo hacen sólo desde el “saber” -conocimiento-, dejando de lado el “saber hacer” y el “saber ser”. El hecho de dejar fuera dos componentes fundamentales de las competencias produce una visión distorsionada en los docentes, la cual hace crisis cuando llegan al aula ha implementar la enseñanza por competenc...

  15. Identificação e utilização da dissimilaridade genética entre genótipos de trigo ("Triticum aestivum" L.. DOI: 10.7902/ecb.v3i1.10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Desordi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho buscou demonstrar a dissimilaridade genética entre cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum, L. em dois sistemas de cultivo, sequeiro e irrigado, propondo, a partir desta, as melhores hibridações. Quarenta cultivares de trigo foram testadas, 8 recomendadas para Minas Gerais e 32 para a região Sul do Brasil. Foram utilizados dados de quinze caracteres agronômicos obtidos em experimento conduzido em esquema de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Foram empregadas análises de agrupamento pelos métodos de Tocher e Ligação Média Entre Grupos utilizando a distância Euclidiana Média como medida de dissimilaridade. Os caracteres ACAM e RG apresentaram os maiores CV (% e o caractere DEF apresentou as maiores estratificações entre as médias dos genótipos para ambos os cultivos. Os genótipos Guamirim e Frontana apresentaram as maiores dissimilaridades para o cultivo sequeiro e irrigado respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos possibilitaram a escolha de genótipos para serem estrategicamente utilizados em hibridações. 

  16. The influence of silane coupling agent and poplar particles on the wet-tability, surface roughness, and hardness of UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)/poplar wood particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyedeh Masoumeh Hafezi; Kazem Doosthoseini

    2014-01-01

    We used silane coupling agents to improve the bonding ability between wheat straw particles and UF resin, and investigated surface properties (wettability and surface roughness) and hardness of parti-cleboard made from UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) combined with poplar wood as affected by silane coupling agent content and straw/poplar wood particle ratios. We manufactured one-layered particleboard panels at four different ratios of straw to poplar wood par-ticles (0%, 15%, 30% and 45% wheat straw) and silane coupling agent content at three levels of 0, 5% and 10%. Roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and root mean square roughness (Rq) were measured on unsanded samples by using a fine stylus tracing technique. We obtained contact angle measurements by using a goniometer connected to a digital camera and computer sys-tem. Boards containing greater amounts of poplar particles had superior hardness compared to control samples and had lower wettability. Panels made with higher amounts of silane had lower Rq values.

  17. Signos Vitales de los CDC-Muertes por intoxicación por alcohol (Alcohol Poisoning Deaths)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de enero del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En los Estados Unidos, mueren en promedio seis personas cada día debido a la intoxicación por alcohol. Infórmese sobre lo que puede hacer para prevenir los atracones de alcohol y las intoxicaciones por alcohol.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  18. Levantamiento del proceso de registros contables por causación de las cuentas por cobrar a clientes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayele-Rodríguez, Luz

    2013-01-01

    De igual forma el Proyecto de Mejora de Procesos a elaborar, desarrollar e implementar en el Área Administrativa y Financiera del Centro de Pinturas Automotriz “LMS”, es realizar el levantamiento del Proceso de Registros Contables por Causación de las cuentas por cobrar a clientes. Lo anterior se puede desarrollar a partir de un poder de negociación con proveedores que incluye entre otros los siguientes factores : El plazo alcanzado en la negociación de compras de insumos, materias primas, co...

  19. Exploración dirigida por el objetivo en Aprendizaje por Refuerzo Basado en Modelo para ambientes no estacionarios

    OpenAIRE

    Errecalde, Marcelo Luis; Muchut, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    El Aprendizaje por Refuerzo Basado en Modelo (ARBM) es una extensión al Aprendizaje por Refuerzo tradicional en la que el agente aprende una política (comportamiento), y en forma simultánea aprende un modelo de su ambiente. Distintos estudios han mostrado la superioridad de los métodos de ARBM sobre los métodos libres de Modelo en ambientes estacionarios. Sin embargo, existen serias dificultades para adaptar los métodos de ARBM a ambientes no estacionarios, existiendo actualmente un único mét...

  20. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  1. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  2. Validade por processo de resposta no teste de Cloze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide de Brito Cunha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo por base considerações sobre as evidências de validade por processo de resposta, foram analisados neste estudo os erros cometidos num teste de Cloze. Participaram 266 crianças, de ambos os sexos, entre 8 e 13 anos, de terceiras e quartas séries do Ensino Fundamental de escolas públicas e particulares de São Paulo. Foram formados dois grupos de protocolos: das crianças que tiveram as melhores e as piores pontuações, para a construção de uma escala dos tipos de erros cometidos, a saber: branco, fonológico, lexical, sintático e semântico. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças com médias mais altas cometeram mais erros lexicais e as com médias mais baixas, erros semânticos. Embora tenha sido encontrada a evidência de validade por processo de resposta, por meio da avaliação da homogeneidade na distribuição dos tipos de erros, é preciso ampliar o conhecimento sobre as características psicométricas do teste de Cloze.

  3. Enoftalmos unilateral por várice orbitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El enoftalmos es un motivo de consulta poco frecuente en la práctica médica. La mayor parte de los casos se debe a un aumento de la cavidad ósea orbitaria de origen traumático. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 63 años que consultó por enoftalmos progresivo de su ojo izquierdo, de doce años de evolución. El examen oftalmológico reveló la presencia de un marcado enoftalmos del lado izquierdo, que mejoraba notablemente con maniobras de Valsalva. Una tomografía computarizada y una resonancia magnética de la órbita permitieron diagnosticar una várice orbitaria no complicada. Las várices orbitarias son infrecuentes y por lo general se manifiestan por episodios de exoftalmos intermitente. Sin embargo, en raras ocasiones, la distensión y colapso repetidos pueden llevar a un enoftalmos progresivo por atrofia de la grasa orbitaria.

  4. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  5. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  6. Muerte cerebral causada por consumo de psicofármacos

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1987-01-01

    Tres imágenes de una biopsia de un cerebro en estado de muerte cerebral causada por consumo de psicofármacos. Three pictures of a biopsy of a brain that has died because of consumption of psychoactive drugs.

  7. Analisis cualitativo asistido por computadora Computer-assisted qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cisneros Puebla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este ensayo son: por un lado, presentar una aproximación a la experiencia hispanoamericana en el Análisis Cualitativo Asistido por Computadora (ACAC al agrupar mediante un ejercicio de sistematización los trabajos realizados por diversos colegas provenientes de disciplinas afines. Aunque hubiese querido ser exhaustivo y minucioso, como cualquier intento de sistematización de experiencias, en este ejercicio son notables las ausencias y las omisiones. Introducir algunas reflexiones teóricas en torno al papel del ACAC en el desarrollo de la investigación cualitativa a partir de esa sistematización y con particular énfasis en la producción del dato es, por otro lado, objetivo central de esta primera aproximación.The aims of this article are: on the one hand, to present an approximation to the Hispano-American experience on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS, grouping as a systematization exercise the works carried out by several colleagues from related disciplines. Although attempting to be exhaustive and thorough - as in any attempt at systematizing experiences - this exercise presents clear lacks and omissions. On the other hand, to introduce some theoretical reflections about the role played by CAQDAS in the development of qualitative investigation after that systematization, with a specific focus on data generation.

  8. El dilema del consenso por superposición rawlsiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergés Gifra, Joan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an objection against the idea of overlapping consensus, nuclear to John Rawls political liberalism. The objection can be put in a dilemmatic form: either an overlapping consensus plays no significant role when it comes to justify the two principles of the conception of justice as fairness, or such idea presupposes the acceptation of some traits or concepts particular to a comprehensive liberalism.

    En este trabajo presentamos una objeción al liberalismo político de John Rawls. La objeción puede formularse en forma de un dilema que afecta especialmente a la noción de consenso por superposición: o bien el consenso por superposición no ofrece ninguna razón categórica o justificativa a favor de los dos principios de justicia rawlsianos y, por tanto, es irrelevante, o bien tal noción presupone la aceptación de determinados caracteres o conceptos propios de un liberalismo comprehensivo y, por consiguiente, la concepción de la justicia como equidad no es tan política como Rawls sugiere.

  9. Trombocitopenia induzida por heparina Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Longhi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste relato é fazer uma revisão a fim de obter informações atualizadas sobre trombocitopenia induzida por heparina, suas manifestações clínicas, seu diagnóstico e seu manejo terapêutico. Após, concluímos que a trombocitopenia induzida por heparina é uma complicação comum em pacientes submetidos a tratamento com heparina, indiferentemente da doença de base. Complicações trombóticas potencialmente fatais têm sido descritas. Por essa razão, se houver suspeita de trombocitopenia induzida por heparina, uma abordagem adequada incluindo suspensão precoce da heparina é mandatória. Produtos que substituem a heparina incluem hirudina e danaparóide sódico. Heparina de baixo peso molecular é contra-indicada.The aim of this paper is to review current information about the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This was achieved by a bibliographic review using Public Medline and consulting Hematology textbooks. From this study we concluded that heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a common complication of patients exposed to heparin therapy regardless of underlying conditions. Potentially fatal thrombotic complications have been reported. Therefore, if heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is suspected, an adequate approach including early heparin discontinuation is mandatory. Alternative products for heparin include hirudin and danaparoid sodium. Low-molecular-weight heparin is contraindicated.

  10. Reacciones radicalarias de epoxicetonas insaturadas inducidas por titanoceno

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Burón, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    [ES]Tesis doctoral sobre Reacciones radicalarias de epoxicetonas insaturadas inducidas por titanoceno, perteneciente al departamento de química orgánica [EN]Doctoral Thesis on the radical reactions induced by unsaturated titanocene epoxicetonas, from the organic chemistry´s departament

  11. Mortalidad por envenenamiento en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Híjar Martha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer el panorama de las muertes por envenenamiento en niños de 0-14 años ocurridas en la República mexicana, entre 1979 y 1994. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron fuentes secundarias. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, año, causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos, de la IX Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades: E850-E858, E860-E869 y E905. Mediante un modelo de regresión Poisson se analizaron tendencias por causa específica y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según edad, sexo y entidad federativa. Resultados. Hubo un total de 11 272 defunciones en menores de 15 años; las principales causas fueron el envenenamiento y las reacciones tóxicas causadas por plantas y animales venenosos (E905, el envenenamiento accidental por gas de uso doméstico y por monóxido de carbono (E868 y el envenenamiento accidental por otras drogas (E858. El grupo de edad que presentó los mayores riesgos, para las causas mencionadas, fue el de menores de un año con un riesgo relativo (RR de 29.6, IC95% 29.2-33.4; RR 3.47, IC95% 2.86-4.22, y RR 31.86, IC95% 24.8-40.9. El riesgo fue similar en ambos sexos, salvo para la causa E905. El estado de Aguascalientes se situó sistemáticamente entre los de mayor riesgo para todas las causas analizadas, mientras que Nuevo León siempre se ubicó entre los de riesgo más bajo. Conclusiones. El envenenamiento constituye una importante causa de muerte en los niños; el riesgo se incrementa al disminuir la edad. Considerando que esas muertes son potencialmente evitables y que la mayor parte de los envenenamientos ocurren en el hogar, para prevenirlos, se recomienda a los familiares vigilar y mantener fuera de peligro al niño. Por otra parte, la multicausalidad del fenómeno requiere que su prevención se realice desde una perspectiva multidisciplinaria que genere una cultura y un ambiente de seguridad en la sociedad.

  12. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  13. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA. El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se da en un contexto de auge de la lucha de masas en Uruguay en el cual los trabajadores rurales se organizan en la UTAA levantando, entre otras, la bandera de la Reforma Agraria. El segundo período está marcado por la llegada al gobierno nacional del Frente Amplio, una coalición social-demócrata que reactiva la producción de caña de azúcar en Bella Unión. Este cambio supone una oportunidad para las luchas sociales que la UTAA aprovecha con ocupaciones de tierra favoreciendo un proceso de colonización para los trabajadores rurales. Sin embargo el acceso a la tierra genera nuevas contradicciones, y por tanto nuevos desafíos, por los cambios en la forma de subsunción del trabajo al capital.

  14. 兰州市城市污泥施用对小麦生长和重金属富集的影响%Effects of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Lanzhou Application on Growth of Triticum Aestivum and Accumulation of Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亮; 任琚; 陶玲; 未碧贵

    2012-01-01

    以兰州市安宁区污水处理厂污泥为研究对象,采用盆栽的方法研究污泥土地利用后对土壤中重金属含量以及对3种小麦生长和重金属富集的影响。结果表明,污泥施用后使污泥混合土壤中重金属Ph、Cu、Zn含量显著增加,但3种重金属含量均未超过我国土壤环境质量二级标准(GBl5618—1995)中的限制性标准值。污泥土地施用后,小麦获得了良好的生长响应。污泥低施入量(污泥在混配土壤中的干重比为5%、10%、15%)时不同程度的促进了小麦的生长发育,使3种小麦出苗率提高,植株更高,生物量增加。污泥高施人量(污泥在混配土壤中的干重比为25%、35%)时,小麦的出苗率和根长受抑制明显。污泥的施用使小麦籽实中的Pb、Cu、Zn的含量显著升高,呈现递增趋势,污泥在混配土壤中的干重比超过25%时,籽实中Cu和Ph含量相对国家无公害食品标准有超标现象。综合考虑污泥对小麦生长和重金属富集的影响及土壤中重金属含量的变化,对小麦的耕种土壤中一次性施用污泥时,污泥在混配土壤中的干重比应限量在25%以下。%Effects of land utilization of An-ning District of Lanzhou Wastewater Treatment Plant on the heavy metal content in soil, Triticum aestivum growth and accumulation of heavy metals were carried out by using pot scale experiments. The experimental results showed that the contents of Ph, Cu, Zn in the soil were increased significantly after sewage sludge application, Contents of Pb, Cu, Zn in the soil did not exceed stringent Chinese environmental quality standard for soil (GB-1518-1995). Triticum aestivum obtained good growth activities after sewage sludge application. Low land application of sewage sludge (sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight ratio is 5%, 10%, 15%) promoted growth and development of the three kinds of Triticum aestivum in varying degrees

  15. CARACTERÍSTICAS DA VIOLÊNCIA SEXUAL SOFRIDA POR CRIANÇAS ASSISTIDAS POR UM PROGRAMA DE APOIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY LINHARES VASCONCELOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En Brasil, las estadísticas de la violencia sexual contra niños están lejos de reflejar la verdadera realidad actual debido a la baja notificación de los casos. La finalidad de este estudio fue caracterizar el abuso sexual sufrido por niños asistidos por el Programa Sentinela y el perfil del agresor, en Sobral-Ceará, en el periodo que va del 2002 al 2006. La muestra no probabilística intencional fue compuesta por 50 víctimas de abuso sexual y de las mismas, el 66% es del sexo femenino, con predominio de rango de edad entre 8-12 años incompletos, (58%; en el 36% de los casos los padres están separados, siendo la madre la principal responsable por la familia (62%. La mayoría de los agresores es del sexo masculino (78%. En el ambiente fuera de la familia los agresores son conocidos o amigos de la familia (14%; dentro del seno familiar el padrastro es identificado como siendo el agresor más frecuente (18%. Los datos destacan características similares a las de otros estudios, definiendo una cierta igualdad en este tipo de violencia.

  16. Os desdobramentos internacionais do desenvolvimento e da demanda por petróleo na China, por Diego Pautasso

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO PAUTASSO

    2009-01-01

    Esteartigoaborda a crescente demanda da
    China por petróleo e seus desdobramentos internacionais.
    O argumento central équea política externa
    e a economia da China têm fornecidoumaresposta
    ativa à dependência de petróleo com consequênciasimportantes
    parao reordenamento mundial.

  17. Vivencias psicosociales reveladas por niños que reciben tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA CECILIA VANEGAS DE AHOGADO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con el propósito de descubrir las vivencias psicosociales de niños y niñas de 9 a 12 años que recibían tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer. La recolección de la información se hizo mediante encuentros lúdicos con el apoyo de algunas preguntas básicas que facilitaron las revelaciones narrativas. Tres aspectos se destacan en los hallazgos del estudio: vivencias desfavorables, vivencias relacionadas con la autoestima y vivencias favorables; las dos primeras, de diversa manera, afectan en estos niños su vida personal, familiar, escolar y, en general, todo su entorno. Es de resaltar que, como consecuencia de la caída del cabello, con frecuencia han sido objeto de burla y de rechazo por sus compañeros de estudio, lo que produce el más notorio efecto sobre su autoimagen; por otra parte, el ausentismo escolar conlleva dificultades académicas y sentimientos de tristeza en estos niños, situación que empeora cuando, por motivos de tratamiento, su lugar de residencia está alejado de la ciudad, viéndose sometidos a largos periodos de separación, no solo de su familia sino de sus pares. Se concluye que la mayor parte de las revelaciones son impactantes por su gran contenido de sufrimiento y dolor para estos niños, lo que demuestra la urgencia de retomar los hallazgos del estudio para orientar el cuidado de enfermería de manera más integral y apoyar para que se haga lo propio en el hogar y en las instituciones educativas.

  18. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  19. Calidad percibida por el espectador de fútbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mar\\u00EDa Rosa D\\u00EDaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Para lograr competitividad, las organizaciones se esfuerzan por comprender las necesidades de sus clientes, con el fin de satisfacerlas adecuadamente. En esta línea, en el ámbito de la gestión deportiva se ha iniciado un caminocuyo objetivo consiste en crear medidas específicas de la calidad del servicio y la satisfacción del cliente. Este es el contexto en el que se enmarca la presente investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental consisteen determinar las dimensiones de la calidad del servicio deportivo ofrecido por los clubes de fútbol. Para ello se ha aplicado un cuestionario a través del método de la encuesta personal. Los datos obtenidos han sido tratados mediante un análisis factorial exploratorio. Los resultados permiten identificar diez dimensiones básicas de la calidad del servicio deportivo analizado.

  20. Optimizacion del talento en las organizaciones gestion por expectativas

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla Sánchez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    La gestión del talento es en la actualidad un ámbito de estudio propio de la dirección de empresas y más concretamente, de las Direcciones de RR.HH, que ha despertado el interés de académicos del ámbito de la psicología de las organizaciones en las últimas décadas. La tesis que se presenta, “optimización del talento en las organizaciones: Gestión por expectativas”, nos ofrece un viaje por la realidad de una organización mediante un estudio etnográfico, llevado a cabo en una empresa de serv...

  1. Neuropatia Óptica Tóxica causada por Dissulfiram

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, José Alberto; Ribeiro, Isabel; Martins, João; Menezes, Carlos; Gonçalves, Rita; Coelho, Pedro; Maio, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: O dissulfiram é utilizado no tratamento do alcoolismo crónico há mais de 50 anos. Este fármaco interfere no metabolismo do etanol e encoraja a abstinência por causar sintomas desagradáveis com a ingestão concomitante de álcool. Efeitos adversos incluem casos raros de neuropatia óptica bilateral. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso clínico de neuropatia óptica tóxica causada por dissulfiram. Métodos: Descrição do caso clínico e breve revisão bibliográfica. Resultados: Report...

  2. Diagnóstico auxiliado por computador na radiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo-Marques Paulo Mazzoncini de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários desenvolvimentos tecnológicos estão convergindo de forma a aumentar a influência da área de imagens nas pesquisas biomédicas e na medicina clínica. Muitos pesquisadores têm trabalhado no desenvolvimento de sistemas computadorizados para detecção automatizada e quantificação de anormalidades em imagens radiológicas. Estes sistemas são dedicados ao diagnóstico auxiliado por computador. Este artigo discute os conceitos básicos relacionados ao diagnóstico auxiliado por computador e apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o assunto.

  3. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli; Matías Carámbula Pareja

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA). El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se d...

  4. Hugo Grocio: la guerra por medio del derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Peña Echeverría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La posición de Grocio respecto a la guerra es considerada en este artículo como un intento de mediación entre el realismo político y el moralismo pacifista. Aunque la guerra es una consecuencia inevitable del conflicto permanente en las relaciones humanas, puede ser ajustada a los principios y reglas del derecho natural común a los hombres y del derecho de gentes resultante del consenso entre los pueblos. En consecuencia, Grocio expone las condiciones de justificación de la guerra y propone reglas de conducta en la guerra. Sin embargo, persiste una tensión insuperable entre las pretensiones normativas de la moral y el derecho, por un lado, y la lógica de la fuerza propia de la guerra, por otro.

  5. 小麦-冰草异源衍生系淀粉物理特性的研究%Physical properties of starch from intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron cristatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Physical properties of Starch from 35 wheat-Agropyron cristatum alien derivatives and their parents (Fukuho:Triticum aestivum cv.Fukuho,2n=6x=42,AABBDD,as female parent;Z559:Agropyron cristatum L.Gaertn,2n=4x=28,PPPP,as male parent.) were investigated using RVA-3D (Newport Scientific Pey.Ltd.,Narrabeen,Australia),TA-XT2 (Stable Micro Systems,Godalming,Surrey,England),DSC20 (Mettler Naenikon-Uster,Switzerland) et al.The main physical properties of starch were significant difference between A.Cristatum (Z559) and wheat (Fukuho),but their trends of RVA pasting curves were quite similar.Among the 35 wheat A.cristatum alien derivatives,variation range was very big for the same starch character,some of variables were higher,and another variables were lower than wheat parent (Fukuho).The mean hot paste viscosity (HPV),cool paste viscosity (CPV),and breakdown of the 35 alien derivatives were significant difference to compare with parents,respectively.Moreover,the mean hardness of the 35 alien derivatives was only significant difference to wheat,but was not difference to A.Cristatum.In addition,there were significantly positive correlation or negative correlation among the most of traits studied.These results will play a major role in further evaluation and utilization intergeneric hybrids between wheat and A.Cristatum for wheat improvement and wheat breeding.%利用RVA-3D (Newport Scientific Pey.Ltd.,Narrabeen,Australia)、TA-XT2 (Stable Micro Systems,Godalming,Surrey,England)、DSC20 (Mettler Naenikon-Uster,Switzerland)等分析仪,对已被染色体组原位杂交(GISH)检测过的35份小麦-冰草异源衍生系及其亲本Fukuho(Triticum aestivum cv.Fukuho,2n = 6x = 42,AABBDD,母本)和Z559 (Agropyron cristatum L.Gaertn,2n=4x=28,PPPP,父本)进行了淀粉糊化特性、淀粉胶结构特性、淀粉糊化过程中的热量变化、淀粉膨胀体积及直链淀粉含量等主要物理特性的研究.结果发现:①冰草(Z559)和小麦(Fukuho)淀粉的主要物理

  6. El riego por chorro intermitente: un sistema prometedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Buriticá

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A través de la historia el hombre se ha ingeniado varios sistemas para suplir las deficiencias de agua que las condiciones naturales de clima han impuesto para el desarrollo de la agricultura: desvió ríos, construyó canales y reservorios y entregó el agua a los cultivos empleando variados sistemas de riego. En este caso haremos referencia al riego por chorro intermitente.

  7. Herstellung und Charakterisierung hoch poröser nanostrukturierter Filtermembranen

    OpenAIRE

    Mertler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden hoch poröse, nanostrukturierte Filtermembranen untersucht und ihre Eigenschaften charakterisiert. Diese Nanomembranen bieten einen erfolgversprechenden Ansatz zur Minimierung der Haftkräfte von stark adhäsiven Stäuben auf der Membranoberfläche. Dies wird einerseits durch die Verringerung der Korngrößen der Nanomembranen und andererseits durch die Bereitstellung von nur wenigen Kontaktstellen auf der Nanomembran angestrebt. Die Nanomembranen wurden als Beschichtung d...

  8. Glucogeno sintasa en helmintos parasitos: inhibicion por benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gomez-Banqueri; M. A. Garcia Ruiz; M. Monteoliva; Sanchez-Moreno, M.

    1987-01-01

    Se ha determinado el effecto inhibidor sobre la actividad Glucogeno sintetasa (E.C.2.41.11) por parte de cuatro antihelminticos: Albendazol, Mebendazol, Parbendazol y Tiabendazol. Observandose que en todos los casos, es el Parbendazol quien ha demostrado un mayor poder inhibidor sobre la glucógeno sintetasa de Ascaris suum, Fasciola hepatica y Moniezia expansa. El Tiabendazol es el anti-helmintico que menor efecto inhibidor ha presentado sobre la enzima en los tres parasitos objeto de nuestro...

  9. Estrategias de mercadeo verde utilizadas por empresas a nivel mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano, Susie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el medio ambiente se ha convertido en una temática que inquieta a toda la colectividad actual, desde los más pequeños hasta los más grandes, desde la pequeña empresa hasta la gran industria. Sumado a esto, el auge de normativas ambientales que establecen regulaciones al empresario, los obliga a tener una mayor conciencia de los daños que pueden causar sus acciones al medio ambiente. Es por esto, que paulatinamente ha comenzado, por parte de las empresas, la adopción de estrategias en el área de mercadeo verde que les permita comercializar sus productos y servicios de forma que los mismos sean ambientalmente compatibles. En el presente trabajo, se abordaron las diferentes estrategias que han venido asumiendo empresas de diferente índole para hacer frente a tan importante filosofía en el ámbito mundial. Para tal fin, se hizo la revisión y contrastación de artículos escritos en el marco del mercadeo verde por Rivera y Molero (2006, Chamorro (2001, Samper y Echeverri (2008 principalmente, encontrándose que cada vez son más las empresas que se suman a esta forma de mercadear sus procesos y productos y más los consumidores que anteponen criterios ecológicos ante variables de otra índole, modificando sus hábitos de consumo.

  10. RESPONSABILIDAD INTERNACIONAL DEL ESTADO COLOMBIANO POR ACCIONES DE GRUPOS PARAMILITARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Vargas Ossa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema Interamericano constituye un espacio que permite observar la situación de los Derechos Humanos en América Latina, los mecanismos de protección a que acuden las víctimas y la actitud de los Estados frente a la promoción, protección y defensa de los Derechos Humanos. Bajo esta premisa es que el proyecto “Alcance y Descripción de los Derechos Humanos en el Sistema Interamericano de Protección de los Derechos Humanos”, utilizando el método dogmático documental, pretendió recopilar aquellas providencias que permiten recoger el concepto y el alcance que La Corte Interamericana ha desarrollado entorno a algunos Derechos Humanos, es así como el presente escrito hace parte de los resultados de dicho proyecto, el cual recopila las sentencias proferidas por la Corte Interamericana en contra del Estado Colombiano, por acciones de grupos paramilitares.El estado Colombiano en reiteradas oportunidades ha sido declarado internacionalmente responsable por violaciones a Derechos Humanos, debido a la conformación y apoyo de grupos “paramilitares“. En el presente escrito se busca retomar aquellas providencias emanadas de la Corte Interamericana, en lo que tiene que ver con la descripción y alcance de derechos por los cuales el Estado Colombiano ha sido condenado. En es orden de ideas son cuatro providencias objeto análisis del presente escrito: El Caso de los 19 Comerciantes, el Caso de la Masacre de Mapiripán, el Caso de las Masacres de Pueblo Bello, y el Caso de las Masacres de Ituango.

  11. Hepatotoxicidad inducida por azatioprina en paciente con enfermedad de Crohn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ruiz-Clavijo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los inmunosupresores se encuentran entre los grupos farmacológicos con mayor potencial teórico de inducir reacciones adversas, entre ellas las hepáticas. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 35 años con enfermedad de Crohn en tratamiento con azatioprina por corticodependencia al que se le diagnosticó tras realización de una biopsia hepática de hiperplasia nodular regenerativa secundaria a este tratamiento.

  12. Enfoque por competencias, ¿una respuesta al fracaso escolar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Perrenooud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Son tiempos de reflexión sobre las competencias. Queda mucho por investigar acerca de sus posibilidades pero es cierto que, desde el punto de vista teórico, el enfoque por competencias se presenta como potente al complementar una pedagogía que, tradicionalmente, se ha centrado en las disciplinas y en los saberes. Pero también este enfoque aparece fuerte en el campo de la formación en la medida en que viene vinculado a las prácticas sociales y educativas, al trabajo pedagógico de los problemas educativos en las diferentes situaciones, a los proyectos que los educadores desean materializar en sus lugares de trabajo. Están por demostrar las expectativas puestas en el enfoque por competencias y este texto trata de pensar toda una serie de cuestiones relacionadas con su puesta en marcha en los contextos formativos.---------------------------------------------------------------------These are times for reflection on skills. There is much left to investigate on their possibilities but it is true that, from the theoretical point of view, the skill approach appears to be powerful by complementing a pedagogy which, tradicionally, has focused on the knowledge and disciplines. But this approach appears strongly in the training field as it is linked to the social and educational practices, to the pedagogic work on educative problems, to the different situations, to the project that teachers wish to materialize in the labor places. Still to be demonstrated are the expectations on the skills approach, and this text tries to think on a series of matters related with its set in motion in the learning contexts.

  13. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  14. Perforación intestinal por un palillo de dientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Yglesias-Rosales

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe una gran variedad de cuerpos extraños que son deglutidos por los seres humanos, entre los cuales son numerosos los que pueden producir una perforación del tracto gastrointestinal. Se enfocará esta discusión en los palillos de dientes, caso particular, por poseer 2 extremos puntiagudos, lo que hace se consideren como portadores de una gran morbimortalidad. El espectro de manifestaciones clínicas asociado con las lesiones por palillos de dientes ingeridos es muy amplio; el diagnóstico de perforación del tracto gastrointestinal por cuerpo extraño es difícil de realizar en el pre-operatorio, ya que la mayoría de los pacientes no recuerdan haber ingerido algún cuerpo extraño. El pronóstico del paciente depende del diagnóstico oportuno, así como del tipo de abordaje, de las comorbilidades del paciente y de las complicaciones que refiera. Se presenta aquí el caso de un hombre con perforación ileal secundaria a la ingesta de 1palillo de dientes y que fue manejado con éxito. El diagnóstico diferencial del abdomen agudo, o lo que es más, del dolor abdominal agudo, es difícil, ya que en un espacio reducido se encuentran numerosas vísceras, con un variado repertorio de enfermedades cada una y con un limitado espectro de síntomas. En cuanto a los cuerpos extraños, la situación se complica todavía más, pues pueden afectar diferentes órganos y presentar una clínica intrascendente, posibilidad diagnóstica que hay que tener en mente al valorar un dolor abdominal.

  15. Riesgos por Legionella, Prevención y Control

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Para un buen control de riesgos por Legionella pneumophila, es importante conocer con detalle esta bacteria, los efectos que causa en el hombre, las principales fuentes de contagio y los medios para evitarlo. Este es el objetivo del presente trabajo. La legionelosis a pesar de ser percibida como una enfermedad infecciosa potencialmente erradicable, se puede controlar con medidas higiénico- sanitarias en las instalaciones implicadas.

  16. HOSPITALIZACIONES EVITABLES POR INSUFICIENCIA CARDÍACA. VARIABLES RELACIONADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ruiz-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ingresos hospitalarios evitables por insuficiencia cardiaca (IC son un problema para los sistemas de salud, consumen recursos, generan morbilidades adicionales y alta mortalidad. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los factores de riesgo de las personas hospitalizadas por insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos: Se constituyó un grupo con médicos de atención primaria y hospitalaria. Se realizaron auditorías de las historias clínicas de 110 pacien - tes de la poblacion de la comarca del Aljarafe con mayores tasas de ingreso por insuficiencia cardiaca y estudio descriptivo y comparativo con T-Student y U-Mann Whitney para cuantitativas y λ 2 y Fisher para cualitativas. Resultados: Los pacientes que ingresaron por IC tenían 78,1 años (SD: 9,56 de media; 73 (66,4% fueron mujeres; un Índice Barthel de 45,0 de media; un 53,5% con grado III de la NYHA y 17 (15,5% institucionaliza - dos. El 70% presentaban 3-5 comorbilidades, hipertensión (87,3%, dislipe - mia (60,0% diabetes (57,3%, enfermedad renal crónica (56,4%, anemia (53,2% o fibrilación auricular (52,7%. Fallecieron al ingreso 23 (20,9% pacientes. Conclusiones: Los ingresos se dieron en personas mayores con múl - tiples enfermedades (hipertensión, diabetes, EPOC, enfermedad renal y escasa capacidad para actividades básicas de la vida diaria. El fallecimiento hospitalario se asoció a edad avanzada, ser mujer, menor uso de betabloqueantes y la no inclusión del paciente en el proceso asistencial.

  17. Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Analysis of Soluble Leaf Proteins of a Salt-sensitive (Triticum aestivum) and a Salt-tolerant (T. Durum) Cultivar in Response to NaCl Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this research, 3-day-old etiolated wheat seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ceyhan-99 (salt-sensitive) and T. durum Desf. cv. Firat-93 (salt-tolerant) were grown in control and salt (150 mmol/L NaCl) treatments at a 15/25℃ temperature regime in the light for 12 days. Soluble proteins extracted from the first leaf tissues of two cultivars were analyzed by twodimensional (2-D) electrophoresis in order to detect NaCl-induced changes. The soluble leaf protein profiles of cultivars were observed to be similar. However, quantitative differences in 74 proteins were detected in the salt treatment group,compared to the control. Among the 74 protein spots, 14 were common for two cultivars. As a result of NaCl treatment, two low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins (28.9 and 30.0 kDa) and one intermediate-molecular-weight (IMW) protein (44.3 kDa)in cv. Ceyhan-99 and six LMW proteins (18.6, 19.4, 25.7, 25.9, 26 and 27.6 kDa) in cv. Firat-93 were newly synthesized. The newly synthesized proteins were specific to each cultivar. In the Firat-93 cultivar, four proteins with LMW (24.8-27.9 kDa)were completely lost in NaCl treatment. Moreover, these four protein spots were not observed in both protein profiles of cv. Ceyhan-99. Most of these proteins were in acidic character (pi <6.0-6.9) and low molecular weight (<31.6 kDa). It is suggested that the newly synthesized or completely lost LMW proteins may be important for cultivars differing in sensitivity towards NaCl.

  18. Study of quantitative and qualitative yield, chlorophyll content and some growth indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in response to seed inoculation with PGPR at different levels of soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hagh Bahari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of quantitative and qualitative yield, chlorophyll content and some growth indices of wheart (Triticum aestivum L. in response to seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR at different levels of soil salinity, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, in 2011. Experimental factors were soil salinity at four levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 Mm as Nacl and seed inoculation with PGPR in four levels (no inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chrocoocum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Pseudomonas putida strain 186. Comparison of means showed that in soil salinity conditions, grain yield per plant, number of grain per spike, grain 100 weight, spike length and root weight increased due to seed inoculation with PGPR compared to without seed inoculation. Investigation of total dry matter accumulation indicated that in all treatment combinations, it increased rapidly until 85 days after sowing. From 85 days after sowing till harvest time, it decreased due to increasing of competition, shedding and aging of leaves. In all treatment combinations, the highest grain yield and total dry matter accumulation per unit area was obtained in treatment combination of seed inoculation with Azosperilium × no soil salinity and the lowest amount was in the highest level of soil salinity × no seed inoculation. Similar trend was obtained in crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Hence, the results of this study showed that in order to increase the quantitative and qualitative yield, chlorophyll content and some other growth indices such as total biomass, crop growth rate and relative growth rate of wheat in soil salinity conditions, it could be suggested that wheat seed inoculation with Azospirillum be applied

  19. The characteristics and functions of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element TaMITE81 in the 5' UTR of TaCHS7BL from Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xinyuan; Li, Na; Li, Shiming; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-10-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. In this article, a MITE, TaMITE81, was isolated from the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TaCHS7BL, chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzing the first committed step of anthocyanin biosynthesis, in the wheat cultivar 'Opata' with white grain. TaMITE81 was only 81 nucleotides, including a terminal inverted repeat with 39 nucleotides and was flanked by two nucleotides, "TA", target site duplications that were typical features of stowaway-like MITEs. Compared with the wheat cultivar 'Gy115' with purple grain, which is without the insertion, the expression of TaCHS7BL was lower in several organs of 'Opata'. The insertion of TaMITE81 into the 5' UTR of the GUS gene also reduced the transient expression of GUS on the coleoptiles of 'Opata', which means the insertion of TaMITE81 was the reason for the low expression of TaCHS7BL in 'Opata'. But the genotype of TaCHS7BL was not linked to phenotype of grain color in the RILs derived from a cross 'Gy115' and 'Opata'. The TaMITE81 density of the hexaploid variety of T. aestivum was more than 10 times that of diploid relatives, which implies that polyploidization caused the amplification of TaMITE81 homologous sequences. Further research should be conducted on decoding the relationship between TaCHS7BL and other traits relative to anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat, and discovering the mechanism of TaMITE81 transposon action. PMID:27481288

  20. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. grown under two levels of chemical protection and harmfulness of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe to seedlings of selected genotypes

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    Małgorzata Cegiełko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007–2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland. The studies comprised two breeding lines of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. – STH 3 and STH 715. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation with minimal and complex protection. Infection of winter spelt wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Zadok’s scale. After 3 years of the study, the mean values of disease indexes for the analyzed spelt wheat lines in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 28.53 and 40.30 respectively for STH 3 and STH 715. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after 3 years of the study the mean values of disease indexes ranged from 25.96 (STH 3 to 26.90 (STH 715. The mycological analysis showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat in the experimental combination with minimal and complex protection. Moreover, Fusarium avenaceum and Bipolaris sorokiniana caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat. Investigation carried out in a growth chamber on susceptibility of seedlings of three lines of spelt wheat (LO 2/09/n/2, LO 5/09/13/3, LO 5/09/5/4 to infection with Fusarium graminearum No. 8 and F. graminearum No. 45 showed that the genotypes did not differ in their susceptibility. All of them were susceptible, as indicated by high values of the disease indexes. No interaction was found between genotypes and strains of the fungus. This indicates the differential pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species.

  1. por Penicillium digitatum: ¿se equivocaba Janzen?

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    J.E. Peris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Janzen (1977 propuso que los vertebrados frugívoros prefieren los frutos sanos frente a los infectados por hongos y bacterias dado que los microbiosproducen compuestos tóxicos y antibióticos y, además, reducen el valor nutritivo de los frutos infectados. Valoramos dicha hipótesis mediante experimentosde campo en los que ofrecimos tres variedades comerciales de frutos del género Citrus sanos e infectados por Penicillium digitatum.Sorprendentemente, los frugívoros (principalmente conejos Oryctolagus cuniculus y roedores como la rata negra Rattus rattus y ratones, probablemente,Mus spretus y Apodemus sylvaticus prefirieron siempre los cítricos infectados a los frutos "control" sanos. En concreto, el consumo de frutosinfectados de las tres variedades estudiadas fue hasta 32 veces mayor en comparación con el consumo de frutos sanos. Proponemos tres hipótesisno excluyentes que podrían explicar la preferencia de los frutos infectados por mamíferos y otros vertebrados frugívoros.

  2. Uso de contraceptivos por puérperas adolescentes

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    Fernanda Schulz da Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Indagar el uso de métodos contraceptivos por las puérperas adolescentes a fin de relacionar su (desuso con el embarazo en la adolescencia. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado por medio de un instrumento estructurado con 181 puérperas adolescentes que tuvieron sus partos en el hospital participante de la investigación. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período de diciembre de 2008 a diciembre de 2009. Resultados: El 64,1% de las puérperas usaba algún método contraceptivo antes del embarazo; los métodos más utilizados fueron el anticoncepcional oral (51% y el preservativo masculino (29%. Para el 75% de las adolescentes el embarazo fue planeado y justificado por el deseo y la voluntad propia de experimentar la maternidad. Conclusión: Considerando que casi la mitad de las adolescentes entrevistadas deseaba el embarazo, se deduce que investigar y discutir apenas el uso o no de los métodos contraceptivos no es adecuado. Es necesario profundizar las investigaciones acerca de los significados de ser madre en la adolescencia.

  3. Diagnostico por PCR del complejo Sigatoka en Colombia.

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    Romero Magally

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Sigatokas negra y amarilla son enfermedades causadas por Mycosphaerella fijiensis y Mycosphaerella musicola respectivamente. Estas dos especies de hongos estrechamente relacionadas y morfológicamente similares, causan necrosis severa en las hojas de banano y plátano disminuyendo el área de tejido fotosintético y acelerando la maduración del fruto. Las enfermedades producidas por estos hongos afectan la mayoría de las áreas cultivadas de banano y plátano a nivel mundial, generando un gran problema económico y ambiental. Los síntomas que produce cada uno de estos patógenos en el cultivo son similares, por lo que su correcta identificación en campo se hace difícil. Con el fin de hacer una identificación precisa de cada uno de ellos decidimos estandarizar una prueba diagnóstica basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR utilizando dos oligonucleótidos de 21 bases (MF 137 y MM 137 específicos para cada una de las especies M. fijiensis y M. musicola respectivamente. MF 137 y MM 137 codifican regiones variables identificadas en las secuencias interespaciadoras (ITS del DNA ribosomal.

  4. Extracción de sustancias asistida por ultrasonido (EUA

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    Rocío Azuola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Compuestos presentes en los vegetales con propiedades funcionales o tecnológicas, han cobrado gran importancia en los mercados de alimentos, farmacéuticos y cosméticos. Se buscan métodos eficientes, económicos y favorables al ambiente para la extracción de estas sustancias. Se ha realizado un estudio bibliográfico de las publicaciones recientes sobre diferentes métodos de extracción y su comparación a las extracciones asistidas por ultrasonido (EAU con el fin de evaluar su eficacia y viabilidad industrial. Se ha encontrado que la EAU es más eficiente que los métodos de extracción tradicionales, y más económica y sencilla que los métodos de extracción no tradicionales como la extracción asistida por microondas, por lo cual se comprueba su viabilidad industrial.

  5. Confirmación por laboratorio de leptospirosis: laboratory confirmation

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    María De los Ángeles Valverde-Jiménez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un joven de quince años de edad que consulta a un hospital privado por enfermedad febril aguda de origen desconocido, asociada a elevación discreta de transaminasas y otras alteraciones inespecíficas de los exámenes de laboratorio. Fue referido para observación a un hospital de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, donde se le maneja como cuadro de dengue clásico. La atención en la clínica privada se restableció luego de su egreso, se confirmó el diagnóstico de leptospirosis por parte del laboratorio del Centro Nacional de Referencia de Leptospirosis del iNCIENSA y se manejó con antibióticos hasta su resolución. El artículo enfatiza la importancia del diagnóstico de la leptospirosis mediante un alto grado de sospecha, una historia clínica precisa, un buen examen fisico y la confirmación diagnóstica por laboratorio con el fin de tratarla apropiadamente.

  6. Por una antropología de las emociones

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    David Le Breton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este texto, se analiza el carácter social de las emociones y la importancia de los contextos cul‐ turales en las encarnaciones y formas de experimentar el sentir afectivamente. Primero se discute la perspectiva naturalista del estudio de las emociones. Como se sostiene, los sentimientos y las emociones no son sustancias transferibles ni de un individuo ni de un grupo a otro, y no son sólo procesos fisiológicos. Son relaciones, y por tanto son el producto de una construcción social y cul‐ tural, y se expresan en un conjunto de signos que el hombre siempre tiene la posibilidad de des‐ plegar, incluso si no las sienten. La emoción es a la vez interpretación, expresión, significación, re‐ lación, regulación de un intercambio; se modifica de acuerdo con el público, el contexto, se diferencia en su intensidad, e incluso en sus manifestaciones, de acuerdo a la singularidad de cada persona. Como se argumenta, el individuo añade su nota en un patrón colectivo susceptible de ser reconocido por los pares (de acuerdo con su historia personal, psicología, estatus social, sexo, edad, etc. La afectividad es el impacto de un valor personal que se enfrenta a un contexto tal y como es experimentado por el individuo.. 

  7. El principio general de reductio ad aequitatem por desequilibrio contractual

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    José Félix Chamie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Para atender las exigencias del mundo actual se requiere de la proposición de categorías dogmáticas que contribuyan en el desarrollo del sistema jurídico unificando conceptos, simplificando caminos interpretativos, y sobre la base de la propia tradición rediseñar instrumentos para mejorar el derecho poniéndolo a tono con las exigencias de su tiempo. De allí la intención del autor de aventurarse en una reconstrucción histórico-dogmática de figuras bien conocidas por la tradición del sistema jurídico romano-germánico, en aras de identificar un principio de moderación en los contratos. Un principio de equilibrio que desde los tiempos de la Escuela medieval se contiene en la expresión reductio ad aequitatem y se realiza mediante instrumentos que procuran corregir y adaptar el contrato según el caso. Así, el autor se fija en los momentos de la celebración y de la ejecución del contrato para observar la ratio de los institutos que en esos momentos del iter contractual sirven la causa de la equidad para ajustar la sinalagmaticidad de la relación, contrastar abusos y desequilibrios causados por las partes o por eventos extraños al riesgo del contrato.

  8. DE ACUMULACIÓN POR DESPOSESIÓN

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    Sebastián Gómez Lende

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omnipresente, la acumulación por desposesión es uno de los elementos centrales del orden global contemporáneo. Observados desde una perspectiva crítica, los usos extractivos del territorio constituyen una de las principales expresiones de ese proceso. A la luz de ese sistema de ideas, este artículo procura demostrar que el modelo sojero actualmente vigente en la Argentina es una de las formas más completas, exhaustivas, actuales y sofisticadas, de acumulación por desposesión en el país. En ese sentido, el artículo analiza el boom de la soja transgénica y sus vínculos con las formas tanto seculares (endeudamiento financiero, concentración de la propiedad rural, usurpación de la tierra y actuales de desposesión (degradación de la naturaleza, despojo del derecho a la salud, pillaje de recursos genéticos efectuadas por los grandes agricultores, el capital financiero, las agroindustrias y las corporaciones biotecnológicas, en detrimento de los pequeños productores, los campesinos, los pueblos aborígenes y la población en general.

  9. GRAVIDADE DE INTOXICAÇÕES POR SANEANTES CLANDESTINOS

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    Jessica Adrielle Teixeira Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las intoxicaciones por saneantes comercializados clandestinamente, reportadas en el Centro de Control de Intoxicaciones del Hospital Universitario Regional de Maringá. Es un estudio cuantitativo, con análisis retrospectivo de registros epidemiológicos de personas intoxicadas por estos agentes, en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2009. De los 118 casos reportados, la mayoría (74-62,7% se produjeron en varones, 105 (88,9% necesitaron de asistencia en unidades de atención de emergencia y hospitalización de alta complejidad, en 14 casos (11,8% requirieron de Cuidados Intensivos, y se reportaron cinco óbitos, todos por intoxicación intencional. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad y la letalidad de este tipo de intoxicación, sugieren la necesidad de medidas urgentes de fiscalización y control de la Vigilancia Sanitaria, así como de medidas para la educación de los consumidores, haciendo hincapié en el papel educativo de la Enfermería

  10. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides

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    Alessio Garro Donini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La ascariosis es una geohelmintosis, ya que el agente causal requiere de la tierra para que se forme la fase infectiva para el hombre, que en este caso la fase es el huevo larvado conteniendo la larva de segundo estadio. Es una infección producida por el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides, uno de los parásitos descritos desde la antigüedad (Becerril, 2008. Esta parasitosis tiene gran importancia epidemiológica, pues las zonas donde se presenta con mayor frecuencia son las de gran pobreza; aquellas donde la gente acostumbra a defecar a ras del suelo, pues no tiene el recurso económico necesario para construir baños, ni dispone de agua potable. Esta parasitosis afecta a 25 a 35% de la población mundial (Biagi, 2004 (Becerril, 2008. Generalmente los pacientes infectados por este nematodo cursan asintómaticos, pero en caso contrario la sintomatología dependerá de la fase del ciclo vital en la que el parásito se encuentre pudiendo existir síntomas pulmonares o gastrointestinales, incluso en ciertas poblaciones como la pediátrica podría incluso ocasionar la muerte por múltiples mecanismos dentro de los cuales se incluyen la migración errática y/o la obstrucción intestinal (MS., 1996

  11. Reliable Data Delivery in MANETs Using POR Protocol

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    B. Sunil Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This balance addresses the company of release matter packets for stage sprightly mercurial beating the drum hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner. Most suitable verifiable propaganda hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. Dominated by this topic, we clench an apt Position-based Exploitive Routing (POR rite which takes give a reason for of the stateless acquiring of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. At the drop of a hat a information collection is sent about, several of the neighbor nodes stray shot overheard the publish resoluteness satisfy as alteration lawn, and round play the part to prepay the package dispatch if it is whine relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air every other, message is maintained without being interrupted. The bells latency incurred by inbred tour improvement is broadly tuppence inexpensively and the replica relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. In the scrap of notice opening, a Look up Destination-based Delete Comport (VDVH desire is in the deep-freeze proposed to work together with POR. Both outline enquiry and affectedness benefits show mosey POR achieves superior achievement unruffled here brazen node mobility with acceptable overhead and the new void handling scheme also works well

  12. Por que rir da Filosofia Política?: Abertura

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    Lessa Renato

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As diferentes intervenções que compuseram este debate têm como referência comum uma reflexão sobre os lugares da Filosofia Política na tradição disciplinar que designamos como Ciência Política. Recusando a perspectiva que dissocia a Filosofia Política da dimensão empiricamente orientada da disciplina, os argumentos apresentados destacam o papel de fertilização de formas de vida cumprido pela primeira. A agenda dos pesquisadores devotados à boa faina da investigação empírica foi, e segue sendo, em grande medida definida e configurada por exercícios prévios de invenção social e política e por decisões de ordem ontológica, epistemológica e retórica. Neste sentido, a distinção entre ciência e filosofia é, além de obscurantista e marcada por enorme otimismo epistemológico, sintoma de um desconhecimento forte com relação à história do conhecimento político.

  13. Consumo de carnes por adolescentes do Sul do Brasil

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    Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a frequência de consumo de diferentes tipos de carnes conforme variáveis sociodemográficas e nutricionais, e analisar o consumo, em adolescentes do Sul do Brasil, de dieta rica em gordura conforme os tipos de carne consumidos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com adolescentes pertencentes à coorte de nascimentos de 1993, em Pelotas (RS. A frequência de consumo de carnes vermelhas, brancas, vísceras e embutidos foi avaliada por um Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar, adaptado para este estudo. A ingestão de dieta rica em gordura foi avaliada a partir do instrumento proposto por Block. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, cor da pele, nível socioeconômico, escolaridade materna e estado nutricional. Nas análises estatísticas, foram utilizados testes Qui-quadrado de heterogeneidade e de tendência linear. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 4.325 adolescentes com idade média de 14,7, DP=0,3 anos, dos quais 51,2% eram do sexo feminino. A frequência de consumo diário de carnes vermelhas foi maior do que a de carnes brancas (43,0% e 9,7%, respectivamente. O consumo de embutidos por mais do que quatro vezes por semana foi referido por 48,5% dos indivíduos, e 81,4% relataram consumir vísceras raramente ou nunca. Adolescentes de maior nível socioeconômico e filhos de mães com maior escolaridade apresentaram maior consumo de carnes vermelhas e embutidos, enquanto aqueles em situação oposta apresentaram maior consumo de carnes brancas. Adolescentes que consomem carnes com maior frequência também consomem dieta rica em gordura. CONCLUSÃO: As carnes consumidas com maior frequência pelos adolescentes foram as vermelhas e os embutidos. No entanto, adolescentes de maior nível socioeconômico consomem carnes vermelhas com maior frequência, enquanto adolescentes menos favorecidos economicamente consomem mais carnes brancas.

  14. Maculopatia tóxica por cloroquina Chloroquine toxic maculopathy

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    Nikias Alves da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O fosfato de cloroquina é uma droga largamente utilizada no tratamento de doenças crônicas de autoagressão, mais comumente no controle da artrite reumatóide, do lupus eritematoso discóide ou disseminado, da porfiria cutânea, da urticária solar e outras afecções dermatológicas. Embora a incidência de toxicidade retiniana por esta droga seja baixa, mesmo com o emprego da dose máxima recomendada, sua ocorrência tem grande relevância por acometer a região macular com importante e irreversível comprometimento visual. Trata-se no presente caso de uma paciente de 44 anos, portadora de artrite reumatóide há 19 anos, que fez uso de fosfato de cloroquina na dose de 250 mg/dia durante dois períodos de 4 e 3 anos, intercalados por um período de 8 anos em que usou methotrexate. Ao final do segundo período de uso da cloroquina, foi observada a maculopatia, a partir de quando a droga foi definitivamente substituída por methotrexate e prednisona. Por seu caráter típico e conspícuo, a maculopatia em questão se presta muito bem para ilustrar os achados dos principais métodos propedêuticos que devem ser empregados para caracterizá-la, inclusive a tomografia de coerência óptica.Chloroquine phosphate is widely used for the treatment of chronic autoimune diseases, most commonly rheumatoid arthritis, discoid or disseminated lupus erythematous, light sensitivity eruptions as well as other dermatologic affections. Although the incidence of retinal toxicity by this drug is low even with the maximally recomended dose, its occurrence is relevant because it damages the macula with an important and irreversible visual impairment. A 44-year-old white female patient who had suffered from rheumatoid arthritis for about 19 years had been under treatment with chloroquine phosphate in the daily dose of 250 mg during two periods of 4 and 3 years, intercalated by an 8-year period of methotrexate usage. At the end of the 3-year period, a maculopathy

  15. Intoxicação por monofluoroacetato em animais

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    Vivian Assunção Nogueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O monofluoroacetato (MF ou ácido monofluoroacético é utilizado na Austrália e Nova Zelândia no controle populacional de mamíferos nativos ou exóticos. O uso desse composto é proibido no Brasil, devido ao risco de intoxicação de seres humanos e de animais, uma vez que a substância permanece estável por décadas. No Brasil casos recentes de intoxicação criminosa ou acidental têm sido registrados. MF foi identificado em diversas plantas tóxicas, cuja ingestão determina "morte súbita"; de bovinos na África do Sul, Austrália e no Brasil. O modo de ação dessa substância baseia-se na formação do fluorocitrato, seu metabólito ativo, que bloqueia competitivamente a aconitase e o ciclo de Krebs, o que reduz produção de ATP. As espécies animais têm sido classificadas nas quatro Categorias em função do efeito provocado por MF: (I no coração, (II no sistema nervoso central (III sobre o coração e sistema nervoso central ou (IV com sintomatologia atípica. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se uma revisão crítica atualizada sobre essa substância. O diagnóstico da intoxicação por MF é realizado pelo histórico de ingestão do tóxico, pelos achados clínicos e confirmado por exame toxicológico. Uma forma peculiar de degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar das células epiteliais dos túbulos uriníferos contorcidos distais tem sido considerada como característica dessa intoxicação em algumas espécies. O tratamento da intoxicação por MF é um desafio, pois ainda não se conhece um agente capaz de reverte-la de maneira eficaz; o desfecho geralmente é fatal

  16. Predominant porB1A and porB1B genotypes and correlation of gene mutations with drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Eastern China

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    Tang Renxian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations of porB1A and porB1B genes and their serotypes exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from different geographical areas, and some site mutations in the porB1B gene correlate with drug resistance. Methods The β-lactamase production of N. gonorrhoeae isolates was determined by paper acidometric test and nitrocefin discs. The porB1A and porB1B genes of 315 non-penicillinase-producting N. gonorrhoeae (non-PPNG strains were amplified by PCR for sequencing to determine serotypes and site mutations. A duplex PCR was designed to simultaneously detect both porB1A and porB1B genes. Penicillin and tetracycline resistance was assessed by an in vitro drug sensitivity test. Results Of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 31.1% tested positive for porB1A and 68.9% for porB1B genes. All the 98 porB1A+ isolates belonging to IA6 serotype with either no mutation at the 120 and 121 sites (88.8% or a D120G (11.2% mutation and were no resistance to both penicillin and tetracycline. Among the 217 porB1B+ isolates, 26.7%, 22.6% and 11.5% belonged to IB3, IB3/6 and IB4 serotypes, respectively. Particularly, two novel chimeric serotypes, IB3/6-IB2 and IB2-IB4-IB2, were found in 77 and 8 porB1B+ isolates. Two hundred and twelve (97.7% of the porB1B+ isolates were presented G120 and/or A121 mutations with 163 (76.9% at both sites. Interestingly, within the 77 porB1B+ isolates belonging to IB3/6-IB2 serotype, 15 were discovered to possess novel deletions at both A121 and N122 sites. All the replacement mutations at these sites in PorB1B were correlated with resistance and the deletion mutation showed the highest resistance. Conclusion N. gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in Eastern China include a sole PorB1A serotype (IA6 and five PorB1B serotypes. Multiple mutations in porB1B genes, including novel A121 and N122 deletions, are correlated with high levels of penicillin and tetracycline resistance.

  17. Intoxicación por metales Metal poisoning

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    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los metales están entre los tóxicos más antiguos conocidos por el hombre. En el industrializado mundo actual las fuentes de exposición a metales son ubicuas tanto en el campo laboral como a partir de agua, los alimentos o el ambiente contaminados. Su toxicidad está caracterizada por el elemento metálico en cuestión pero se ve modificada por el tipo de compuesto, orgánico o inorgánico y sus características de hidro o liposolubilidad, que determina su toxicocinética y por tanto sus posibilidad de alcanzar sus dianas. Las biomoléculas más afectadas por los metales son las proteínas con actividad enzimática por lo que su patología es multisistema. Los principales sistemas afectados son el gastrointestinal, neurológico central y periférico, hemático y renal. Algunos de los compuestos metálicos son carcinógenos. Los metales se benefician de un tratamiento condicionado por su reactividad química. Pueden ser inactivados y eliminados mediante la administración de substancias quelantes que producen con ellos moléculas complejas, atóxicas y excretables. Los principales agentes quelantes son: BAL (British Anti-Lewisite o dimercaprol, DMPS (ácido 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanosulfonico y DMSA (ácido meso-2,3-dimercatosuccínico o Succimer, EDTA, Penicilamina (ß,ß-dimetilcisteína y Desferoxamina. Se exponen a continuación las características toxicocinéticas, mecanismo de acción, clínica y tratamiento de alguno de los metales y metaloides más relevantes: plomo, mercurio y arsénico.Metals are amongst the oldest toxic substances known to man. In today’s industrialized world the sources of exposure to metals are ubiquitous both in the field of work and from polluted water, foodstuffs and the environment. Their toxicity is characterized by the metallic element in question, but this is modified by the type of compound, whether organic or inorganic, and its characteristics of hydrosolubility and liposolubility, which determines its

  18. La desnaturalización de una proteina globular por surfactantes es monotorizada por espectroscopia Raman quiral

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto-Ortega, Belen; Hierrozuelo, José M.; Carnero Ruiz, Cristóbal; López Navarrete, Juan T.; Casado Cordón, Juan; Ramirez, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Desnaturalización de proteínas por surfactantes ha recibido una gran atencion los últimos años debido a sus implicaciones en productos farmacéuticos, cosméticos. A lo largo de esta comunicacion se demuestra la capacidad de la espectroscopia ROA para seguir este proceso Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  19. El daño tisular por sobrecarga de cobre esta mediado por estres oxidativo-nitrativo

    OpenAIRE

    Arnal, Nathalie; Hurtado de Catalfo, Graciela E.; García, M; Galletti, S.; Errecalde, Ana Lía; Tacconi de Alaniz, María J.; Marra, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo del trabajo: estudiar los efectos de una sobrecarga de cobre moderada y sub-crónica en un modelo de ratas Wistar con el fin de establecer si provoca daños tisulares evidenciables por medio de estudio histopatológico, y si esos daños se hallan asociados a la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno o del nitrógeno

  20. Ni por la razón, ni por la fuerza. El fallido intento del Estado nacional por incorporar a los pueblos mapuche y pehuenche. (1810-1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Peralta Cabello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En este artículo se analizan las relaciones establecidas, a principios del siglo XIX, entre el Estado chileno republicano recién fundado y las comunidades autóctonas que vivían al sur del río Biobío. Más específicamente, se distingue desde los albores del proceso independentista, sobre todo a partir de la década de 1820, un afán por incorporar al proyecto nacional los territorios ubicados al sur de esta frontera, así como también a sus habitantes. Dentro de las estrategias jurídicas y políticas esgrimidas por el poder dirigente para hacer efectiva esta intención, es posible identificar el ofrecimiento temprano de nacionalidad chilena, así como también de una condición particular de ciudadanía, entendida sólo en una lógica de deberes y no derechos políticos. Sin embargo, esta estrategia no pudo ser puesta en práctica, pues la mayor parte de las comunidades autóctonas a las que iba destinada opuso una tenaz resistencia al régimen instaurado, dado que no percibieron las supuestas ventajas del régimen republicano. Asimismo, se sostiene que esta resistencia, mantenida por los naturales durante décadas en el territorio sur de la naciente república, no sólo hizo fracasar dicha estrategia, sino que también fue minando el discurso más ilustrado e incluyente propio de los primeros decenios, el cual fue siendo reemplazado desde mediados de 1830 por uno relativamente excluyente, o mejor dicho, incluyente territorialmente –dado el creciente interés económico que comenzaron a despertar estas tierras en los chilenos–, pero excluyente en relación a sus habitantes. Palabras Claves: Ciudadanía Política, Relaciones Étnicas, Estado Chileno (Siglo XIX. Abstract. This article analyzes the relations between Chile’s recently established republican State and the indigenous communities then living south of the Bío Bío River. More specifically, it identifies, since the beginnings of the independence process, but

  1. Tallado de hélices por el método de copiado por proyección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Fierro Vasco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este dispositivo fue diseñado como parte de la investigación sobre Aerogeneradores que se está llevando a cabo en el Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, cuyo investigador principal es el Ing. Julio Mario Rodríguez Devis. Como parte inicial de la investigación se adecuó un túnel situado en el Laboratorio de Hidráulica para hacer las pruebas de modelos. En la construcción de dichos modelos se requiere una buena precisión en la hechura de las aspas del molino, en especial por el tamaño reducido de liste. Se debe garantizar que el perfil aerodinámico se conserve a lo largo del aspa, por lo que se requiere de un dispositivo capaz de tallar los álabes con la precisión y rapidez necesarias. Los resultados del trabajo fueron presentados al concurso del premio Worthington de la Ingeniería Colombiana 1982 (Categoría estudiantes, por los estudiantes que trabajaron en el proyecto, siendo acreedores al primer puesto.

  2. Efecto de la quercetina sobre la nefrotoxicidad producida por cadmio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Morales Martín

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El incremento en la producción anual de cadmio ha favorecido que la incidencia de la intoxicación crónica por este elemento haya aumentado en los últimos años. El estrés oxidativo es uno de los mecanismos implicados en la generación del efecto tóxico, manifestándose, entre otras patologías, por una disfunción y lesión renal. La quercetina, un flavonoide muy abundante en la dieta mediterránea, es un potente antioxidante y un buen quelante de metales. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar si la administración de quercetina pudiera prevenir la aparición de los procesos nefrotóxicos asociados a la exposición crónica al cadmio. Los experimentos se realizaron con ratas Wistar (200g, incluidas en tres grupos experimentales: 1 ratas a las que se administró cadmio (1,2 mg/kg/día, s.c. cinco veces por semana, durante nueve semanas, 2 ratas a las cuales se les administró quercetina (50 mg/kg/día, i.p. cinco veces por semana, empezando en la cuarta semana y 3 ratas a las que se administró cadmio y quercetina. La lesión renal se evaluó midiendo proteinuria, microalbuminuria y glucosuria, así como la excreción de enzimas urinarias N-acetil-beta-D-glucosaminidasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gamma-glutamil-transpeptidasa. Las muestras de plasma se utilizaron para la determinación de creatinina y nitrógeno ureico plasmático, así como dialdehido malónico, como índice de peroxidación lipídica y antioxidantes totales en plasma. En riñón se midió la actividad enzimática de la superóxido dismutasa y de la glutation reductasa. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la administración de cadmio durante 9 semanas produjo un incremento en los valores de flujo urinario, proteinuria, microalbuminuria y glucosuria. El tratamiento con cadmio incluso incrementó la creatinina sérica y el nitrógeno uréico plasmático y elevó drásticamente la actividad de enzimas urinarias. Finalmente el aclaramiento de creatinina disminuyó como consecuencia de la

  3. Movilización popular por la salud en Bolivia

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    Javier Torres Goitia T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la experiencia de una política de salud democrática y participativa que pudo aplicarse exitosamente en Bolivia simultáneamente con la recuperación de la democracia después de 18 años de gobiernos de facto y dictaduras militares. Esta experiencia estuvo inspirada en los conceptos emergentes de la medicina social y tuvo como base una forma de concebir la participación popular en salud muy diferente a la tradicional que busca que la población coopere con los servicios. Lo que la experiencia boliviana señala es que son los profesionales del área de salud los que deben cooperar con la población en la conquista de sus reivindicaciones y derechos, uno de los cuales es el Derecho a la Salud. Se analiza el importante papel que cumplieron los Comités Populares de Salud por un lado y médicos especialmente capacitados por otro, para acometer una serie de movilizaciones que lograron impactos importantes como la desaparición del bocio endémico que afectaba al 65.5% de la población escolar, la reducción de la mortalidad infantil de 200 por mil a 75 en un período de 10 años, la desaparición de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles como la poliomielitis y el sarampión y otros avances importantes.

  4. Consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos por peces ornamentales

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    Marco Polo Franco Archundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre alternativas de alimento para especies acuáticas con alto potencial económico, es uno de los principales temas de estudio en la acuicultura. En la presente investigación se evaluó el consumo de pre-adultos de mosquito por cuatro especies ícticas ornamentales: Carassius auratus, Pterophyllum scalare, Danio rerio y Xiphophorus helleri. El diseño experimental consistió en cuatro tratamientos, con tres réplicas. Cada ensayo se realizó de manera independiente entre especies. En cada acuario (1 l se colocaron dos peces juveniles, con peso húmedo y longitud total (promedio ± desviación estándar conocidos. Se suministraron en un tratamiento 100 larvas y en otro 100 pupas de mosquito. La tasa diaria de consumo de larvas y pupas se registró a un intervalo de tres horas durante un ciclo de 24 horas por especie. El peso húmedo de pre-adultos de mosquito difirió 5.20% y el seco 37.69%; en ambos casos, superior en las pupas (p < 0.001. Los peces fueron más activos durante la fase luminosa, 09:00-18:00 h, evidenciado por una mayor tasa de consumo de larvas y pupas de mosquito. Carassius auratus presentó el mayor consumo de larvas/pez/24 horas 131.33 ± 4.16 y de pupas/pez/24 horas 86.16 ± 3.20. Lo anterior difirió significativamente con respecto a P. scalare, D. rerio y X. helleri (p < 0.001. Finalmente, Carassius auratus presentó la mayor capacidad de consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos.

  5. La Criatura de Frankenstein y la lucha por el reconocimiento

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    Hardisson Rumeu, Ana

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This text of Mary Shelley permits the possibility of considering the character of the «Creature» from the Axel Honneth`s perspective of the Ethics of reconnaissance. From this point of view, the dramatic sense of this novel moves round identity´s problem. The essential condition to build identity is the recognition from each to other. That is why identity can not be obtain in the sense of solitarious consciousness, but requires of intersubjetivity. The Creature becomes deprived of recognition, even by Frankenstein who has created him. This Creature becomes perverse because this privation, when the most elemental right of human being so as being someone and having an identity, is denied to him. His wickedness is the secondary effect of exclusion and suffering.

    Este texto de Mary Shelley, permite la posibilidad de considerar el personaje de la «Criatura» desde la perspectiva de la Ética del reconocimiento, de Axel Honneth. Desde este punto de vista, la carga dramática de esta novela gira en torno al problema de la identidad. La condición imprescindible para construir la identidad es el reconocimiento por parte del otro. Por eso la identidad no se puede adquirir en el plano subjetivo de la conciencia solitaria sino que precisa de la intersubjetividad . La criatura se ve privada de reconocimiento, incluso por parte de Frankenstein, que lo ha engendrado. Esa privación, al negarle el derecho más elemental del ser humano, que es ser alguien y tener una identidad, lo vuelve perverso. Su maldad es el efecto secundario de la marginación y el sufrimiento.

  6. Darwin por Manoel Bomfim Darwin by Manoel Bomfim

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    Celso Noboru Uemori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A noção de "luta pela existência" de Charles Darwin foi apropriada por diversas tendências intelectuais e serviu a vários propósitos políticos. Ela deu suporte para aqueles que queriam legitimar o capitalismo, fazer apologia do individualismo, do mercado, do fim dos monopólios e da competição. Ensejou concepções conservadoras como a prática da eugenia, a justificação do elitismo, da conquista e da colonização dos europeus sobre as populações asiáticas e africanas e o racismo. A idéia de luta pela existência foi trabalhada, também, por intelectuais que defendiam a idéia de que lutar pela vida relacionava-se à solidariedade e à cooperação. Manoel Bomfim sofreu influência de Darwin e beneficiou-se de suas idéias para elaborar argumentos, graças aos quais foi visto por seus intérpretes como um autor "radical" e original.Charles Darwin's notion of a 'struggle for existence' has been appropriated by several intellectual currents of opinion, and used for various political purposes. It has served to support free market capitalism, as an apologia of individualism, the market, the end of monopolies, and competition. Conservative conceptions have been based on it: the practice of eugenics, the justification of elitism, of the conquest and colonization of Asian and African peoples by the European, and of racism. On the other hand, the idea of a struggle for existence has been worked on by intellectuals who argued that it was related to solidarity and cooperation. Manoel Bomfim was influenced by Darwin and used his ideas to form arguments which have led his interpreters to see him as a 'radical' and original author.

  7. Estudio del modelo de desgaste propuesto por Archard

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    FABIO ALEXANDER SUÁREZ BUSTAMANTE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento de componentes de máquinas y de materiales necesita ser optimizado para reducir los costos de operación en las plantas industriales. Este hecho ha impulsado la Tribología, un área relacionada con el estudio de la fricción, la lubricación y el desgaste. Uno de los principales objetivos de esta área del conocimiento es elaborar modelos matemáticos para expresar la variación del desgaste durante el contacto de superficies en movimiento, con el fin de predecir la vida útil de los elementos de máquinas. El modelo de Archard para desgaste por deslizamiento en seco, formulado en 1953, es un modelo clásico que plantea una variación del desgaste inversamente proporcional a la dureza del material y directamente proporcional a la carga aplicada. En el presente trabajo, se ha utilizado el método de modelamiento de problemas físicos, propuesto por Asbhy, para analizar los modelos propuestos por Archard (Modelo de contactos múltiples en superficies rugosas y modelo de desgaste mecánico. Con base en él se ha podido realizar un análisis profundo a dichos modelos, mostrando un panorama más amplio del modelo de Archard; se discuten aspectos no mostrados en los textos y artículos de tribología, donde el tratamiento dado a este modelo resulta ser superficial, desconociendo las limitaciones y la perspectiva que tuvo Archard sobre los aspectos que deberían considerarse en un modelo de desgaste.

  8. Avaliação da mortalidade por causas externas

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    Ricardo Alessandro Teixeira Gonsaga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os óbitos por causas externas em uma microrregião do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo exploratório transversal retrospectivo. Foi feito um levantamento e revisão de 511 prontuários das vítimas de causas externas fornecidos pelo Instituto Médico Legal de Catanduva - SP de 2008 a 2011. Os dados foram classificados por sexo, idade, intencionalidade e mecanismo de causa externa. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade foi predominante no sexo masculino, com 77,9% dos casos (p<0,001. As mortes classificadas como não intencionais representaram 66,9%, enquanto as intencionais, 33,1% (p<0,001. Os acidentes de transporte terrestre foram responsáveis por 45,6% dos casos, sendo a principal causa dos óbitos analisados. O segundo lugar foi atribuído aos suicídios, com 16%, seguido pelos homicídios (13,9%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados diferem dos perfis encontrados em outros estudos brasileiros, aproximando-se mais da realidade de países desenvolvidos, já que a não intencionalidade foi preponderante e as principais causas foram os acidentes de transporte terrestre, suicídios e homicídios, respectivamente. Foi constatada a necessidade de melhorias no preenchimento da declaração de óbito pelos legistas, visto que isto foi uma dificuldade encontrada pelos autores na realização do estudo.

  9. Tratamiento de desechos del cianuro por biorremediación

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    Alma Deloya Martínez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación en la que se desarrolló un consorcio autóctono de microorganismos degradadores del cianuro para aplicarlo en el tratamiento biológico de los desechos peligrosos del cianuro. Los microorganismos autóctonos obtenidos se liofilizaron en diferentes medios protectores, como la gelatina y caldo lactosado a diferentes temperaturas (-35,-45,-55 y -65. Para el tratamiento preliminar de los desechos del cianuro se aplicó un método de pretratamiento en lechada: para la lixiviación preliminar del desecho, con periodos de 3-5 días y un tratamiento posterior, por lagunas aireadas, aplicando el consorcio de microorganismos liofilizados.Se obtuvieron ocho diferentes liofilizados bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y con dos medios protectores de liofilización que presentaron excelentes recuperaciones a los seis meses de la liofilización.El consorcio de microorganismos liofilizados presentó, viabilidad del 70 al 80%, con porcentajes de remoción del cianuro mayores al 95% y puede conservarse activo por tiempos prolongados (por años.Los microorganismos liofilizados pueden aplicarse en la biodegradación de los desechos del cianuro procedentes de las minas de oro o cualquier otro desecho de cianuro como los baños de electrodeposición de metales, además de aquellos procedentes de la industria manufacturera de joyas.

  10. Por uma etnografia das práticas de consumo

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Brandini

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo sugere uma reflexão teórica acerca da etnografia como método para pesquisas de consumo e desenvolvimento de estratégias de produção de bens. O universo do consumo, e, em especial, do consumo de moda, representa hoje um sistema de produção de significações (como quer Jean Baudrillard) e comportamentos gerados pela racionalidade econômica (como vemos em Pierre Bourdieu) que são evidenciados por meio do mercado como processo ritual. Assim, a etnografia do consumo e a antropologia ...

  11. Detenga las infecciones por C. difficile (Stop C. difficile Infections)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de marzo del 2012 del informe Vital Signs de los CDC. La Clostridium difficile es una bacteria que causa diarrea y está asociada a 14,000 muertes anuales en los Estados Unidos. Este podcast ayuda a los profesionales de la salud a saber cómo prevenir las infecciones por C. difficile.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  12. Metabolitos secundarios producidos por hongos entomopatógenos

    OpenAIRE

    Dayamí Borges; Angela O. Díaz; Ana Nelis San Juan; Eulalia Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Se aborda la producción de metabolitos secundarios por los hongos entomopatógenos. Se describen las características estructurales y el modo de acción de las toxinas más conocidas que contribuyen a la patogenicidad, entre las que se encuentran compuestos de bajo peso molecular (ácido oxálico, ácido 2,6-piridindicarboxilico, ácido 4-hidroximetilazoxibenceno- 4-carboxílico) y otros de naturaleza peptídica: Beauvericina, Efrapeptinas, Destruxinas, Leucinostatinas, Kantomicina y Bassiacridina....

  13. El maltrato a personas mayores atendidas por los Servicios Sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla Mora, María del Rosario

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis trata sobre el maltrato a las personas mayores (MPM). El MPM es el último tipo de violencia familiar, junto con la violencia de género y el maltrato infantil, por la que los investigadores se han preocupado, siendo hoy día el que tiene menor relevancia, tanto para la sociedad en general como a nivel político. Fue en Gran Bretaña donde los primeros investigadores comenzaron a estudiar el tema, concretamente Baker y Burston, en el año 1975, centrándose en el maltrato fís...

  14. Zonas clasificadas ATEX por la presencia de polvo inflamable

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Torrent, Javier; Querol Aragon, Enrique; Medic Pejic, Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Las normas para la clasificación de zonas por el riesgo de atmósferas explosivas (ATEX) debidas al polvo han sufrido un proceso continuo de evolución. En todos los casos, provienen del sector eléctrico, que, tradicionalmente, antes de la Directiva 94/9/CE, establecía las reglas para definir distintos niveles de probabilidad de aparición y duración de las atmósferas explosivas. Sin embargo, a diferencia de las normas para la clasificación de zonas para gases, las de polvo siempre han sido dema...

  15. El uso del preservativo femenino por las profesionales del sexo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, FS.; da Costa, CFS.; Kerber, NP da C.; De Barros, AM.; Wachholz, VA.; de Lemos, DB.

    2012-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el uso del condón femenino (PF) de trabajadoras sexuales registradas en el Departamento Municipal de Salud de la municipalidad de Rio Grande / RS. Es un estudio descriptivo y cuantitativo, realizado en 2009 con 19 mujeres, a través de la aplicación de un cuestionario individual que contiene preguntas sobre los hábitos sexuales y el uso del PF. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética de la FURG en opinión N º 53/2009. Los resultados ind...

  16. Intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Granada; Diego Andrés Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    El fluoroacetato de sodio es conocido como compuesto 1080, fue descubierto por químicos alemanes durante la segunda guerra mundial. Es un compuesto inodoro e insaboro, soluble en agua, la dosis letal 50 en humanos es de 2 a 4 mg/kg. Debido a su letalidad, ha sido retirado del mercado en algunos países incluyendo Colombia. Este compuesto causa efectos bioquímicos y fisiológicos como acumulación de citrato, alteración de los trasportadores mitocondriales del citrato, acumulación de acido láctic...

  17. Posibilidad de cobro de derechos universitarios por actividades de posgrado

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    Alberto Pérez Pérez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Paso a emitir mi dictamen sobre la eventual incidencia de la Ley N° 18.437 en la posibilidad de cobro de derechos universitarios por actividades de posgrado1. Desde ya me adelanto a decir que la citada Ley no ha alterado el marco legislativo dentro del cual fue adoptada la Ordenanza de Carreras de Posgrado de 25-IX-2001 (cuyo art. 10 prevé la mencionada posibilidad y que el referido cobro de derechos universitarios no infringe ninguna norma constitucional ni de los instrumentos internacionales de derechos humanos vigentes para nuestro país.

  18. Brechas en bordos de arcilla formadas por desbordamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Rivas, Ricardo; Berezowsky, Moisés

    2000-01-01

    Se describe un método para calcular el mecanismo de formación de una brecha en un bordo o dique de tierra como consecuencia de su falla por desbordamiento. La brecha se va formando conforme el flujo erosiona el bordo; este proceso, sumamente complejo, se incluye en el modelo numérico que aquí se describe mediante una relación empírica entre el esfuerzo cortante actuante y la tasa de erosión en un suelo cohesivo. Con la metodología propuesta se obtiene simultáneamente el hidrograma que sale po...

  19. Estudio Comparativo de Puentes Construidos por Voladizos Sucesivos

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardino Perdomo, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Hoy en día la construcción de puentes de grandes luces ha llevado a la industria de la construcción a estar en un constante desarrollo en aras de mejorar los tiempos de ejecución, presupuesto y calidad de las estructuras. Desde que los puentes se han construido por el método de los voladizos sucesivos con hormigonado “In Situ”, la industria ha estado en busca de procesos óptimos e industrializados. Como consecuencia de esto surgió la idea y aplicación de las dovelas prefabricadas. Estos dos m...

  20. Tratamento da anemia ferropriva com ferro por via oral

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    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A anemia ferropriva permanece como uma das deficiências nutricionais mais frequentes e importantes no mundo. O tratamento com ferro deve ser iniciado preferencialmente por via oral e a investigação apropriada de sua causa é obrigatória. Os autores discutem os compostos com ferro atualmente disponíveis, o perfil de eficácia, segurança e tolerabilidade desses medicamentos, e o plano terapêutico mais adequado possível para o sucesso no tratamento dessa doença tão comum e importante.

  1. Confirmación por laboratorio de leptospirosis: laboratory confirmation

    OpenAIRE

    María De los Ángeles Valverde-Jiménez; Roberto Brenes-Esquivel; Jorge Sequeiro-Soto

    2008-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un joven de quince años de edad que consulta a un hospital privado por enfermedad febril aguda de origen desconocido, asociada a elevación discreta de transaminasas y otras alteraciones inespecíficas de los exámenes de laboratorio. Fue referido para observación a un hospital de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, donde se le maneja como cuadro de dengue clásico. La atención en la clínica privada se restableció luego de su egreso, se confirmó el diagnóstico de leptos...

  2. Redes Definidas por Software (SDN): OpenFlow

    OpenAIRE

    SERRANO CARRERA, DAVID ANDRÉS

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Para garantizar retardos, ancho de banda y pérdidas en las redes IP es necesario la configuración adecuada de los equipos de interconexión como switches o routers. La configuración adecuada de los mismos permitirá ofrecer servicios como VoIP o videoconferencias con suficiente calidad. En el trabajo se configurarán equipos y se realizarán pruebas de calidad de servicio. Serrano Carrera, DA. (2015). Redes Definidas por Software (SDN): OpenFlow. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62801. TFGM...

  3. Tabla de supervivencia de Pinus Halepensis afectado por incendios forestales

    OpenAIRE

    BORDON PEREZ, PABLO; Pérez-Laorga Arias, Eduardo María; Estruch Fuster, Vicente Domingo; Rodrigo Santamalia, Mª Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    En la Comunidad Valenciana se producen numerosos incendios forestales especialmente en los meses de verano, afectando principalmente a pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill), que es la especie más abundante. Se ha realizado el seguimiento de pinos parcialmente afectados por el fuego en dos incendios que se produjeron en agosto de 2007 y julio de 2009. En estos árboles se midieron: altura del árbol, altura del fuste, diámetro normal, diámetro basal, espesor de corteza, altura del fuste y altura...

  4. Compressões medicares provocadas por mielomas vertebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adherbal Tolosa

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam 4 casos de mieloma vertebral, com invasão do espaço epidural, provocando compressão medular ou radículo-medular. Em um caso havia lesões em vários ossos; noutro foi verificada apenas osteólise costal, além da lesão vertebral; nos demais tratava-se, provavelmente, de formas solitárias. A lesão se localizou entre C7 e T9, nos 4 casos. Em nenhum deles se verificou invasão do espaço subdural. Em 3 casos a sintomatologia era representada por paraplegia crural sensitivo-motora; em 1 caso prevaleciam sintomas radiculálgicos. Dos exames complementares destacam-se: presença de proteinuria de Bence-Jones e anormalidade do mielograma só verificadas no caso de mielo-matose generalizada; neste caso foi observada também redução da colesterolemia, hiperuricemia e positividade de algumas provas de função hepática; a eletroforese das proteínas plasmáticas, efetuada no caso 4, revelou diminuição da albumina e discreto aumento das taxas de globulina α1 e α2; o exame do liqüido cefalorraqueano, por punção lombar, revelou sempre a síndrome de compressão medular; o bloqueio do canal raqueano e seu nível foram comprovados por perimielografia, que confirmou os elementos clínicos de localização, sendo, entretanto, sugestiva de tumor intramedular em um caso. O tratamento consistiu em laminectomia, com extirpação do tecido tumoral peridural, seguida de radioterapia em altas doses. Os resultados obtidos foram altamente satisfatórios em 3 casos, porém o paciente com mielo-matose múltipla não se beneficiou, vindo a falecer um ano após a operação.

  5. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

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    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laboratorio, según esta revisión e la literatura reciente. Los principales hallazgos postmortem son rigidez cadavérica precoz e intensa y síndrome asfíctico. Los registros de la Sección de Patología Forense del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de Costa Rica presentan desde 1990, únicamente dos casos de muerte por intoxicación con estricnina. Se trata de mujeres, que presentaron la rigidez anotada, corroborándose por la escena de muerte y en el laboratorio. La baja frecuencia se debe a la dificultad para conseguir la estricnina.Strychinine is an alcaloid of plant origin and convulsive effect which has beenused in Costa Rica as a pesticide androdenticide, as well as adulterant in abused drugs. Its therapeutic use has been rejected. Poisoning with this substance is not common because n Costa Rica its use is currently restricted to the elimination of street dogs practiced by sanitary personnel. The symptons, basically neuroogic and cardiorespiratory, require clinical and laboratory analysis, according to the present review of recent literature. The main post-mortem findings are early rigor mortis and an asfictic syndrome. The records of the Forensic Pathology section of the Costa Rican Criminal Bureau only include, since 1990, two deaths caused by strychnine. The victims were women that presentd the mentioned rigor mortis, and the cause was corroborated by the scene of death and the laboratory. The diffculty of obtaining the substance explains the

  6. Salida de campo por Francia en mayo de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo por Francia, seguramente cerca de La Camarga, en Provenza, en mayo de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre ranas y sapos (sin identificar las especies), un Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), y las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Apus sp. (Vencejo), Ardea cinerea (Garza real), Ardea purpurea (Garza imperial), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván común), Buteo buteo (Busardo ratonero, también llamado Águila ratera), Certhia sp. (A...

  7. Ortorexia: la obsesión por los alimentos naturales

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    He tenido la suerte de poder hablar sin prisas con José Graziano da Silva, ministro encargado del programa Hambre Cero en el Brasil de Lula. Juntos hemos repasado los modestos éxitos iniciales de las distintas acciones emprendidas y las considerables dificultades y obstrucciones arteras con que se enfrentan. Estoy aún sobrecogido por la triste realidad del nordeste de aquel país cuando me topo con un delirante artículo de prensa que desarrolla una versión surrealista de la situación alimentar...

  8. Contaminación aguda por fluoruros en Aguascalientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Trejo Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para algunos autores y funcionarios públicos, la contaminación del agua potable por fluoruros en la ciudad de Aguascalientes es un mito o quizá una realidad de poca relevancia, en tanto que para otros es un grave problema de salud pública no resuelto. Las discrepancias entre los resultados publicados en la literatura respecto de las concentraciones de fluoruros en el agua de Aguascalientes, y la falta de estudios epidemiológicos que documenten el grado de afectación en la salud de la población expuesta por ingesta excesiva de fluoruros, han impedido a los involucrados tener una acotación correcta de la problemática en la ciudad. Con objeto de ubicar en un contexto real las concentraciones de fluoruros en el agua que beben las personas y el nivel asociado de riesgo a su salud, se realizó un estudio en la zona suroeste de la ciudad, en donde un estudio local señala que están presentes las más altas concentraciones de fluoruros en el agua, medidas en pozo. Para ello se llevaron a cabo muestreos de agua en tomas domiciliarias en el área elegida de acuerdo a la NOM-014-SSA1-1993 y posteriormente se determinaron las concentraciones de fluoruros usando el método SPADNS (NMX-AA-077- SCFI-2001. La cuantificación de fluoruros mostró que en esta zona de Aguascalientes las concentraciones de fluoruros exceden en más de 500% los límites permisibles por la normatividad vigente (NOM-127- SSA1-1994. Los riesgos a la salud fueron evaluados mediante estimaciones de LOAEL y NOAEL, conforme a la metodología epidemiológica convencional para contaminantes en el agua. Los resultados permiten concluir que en la ciudad de Aguascalientes sí existe un severo problema de salud pública por ingestión excesiva de fluoruros, al menos en la parte de la ciudad que fue estudiada.

  9. Vulnerabilidade física entre idosos: diferencias por sexo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Barbosa, Keylla Talitha; Melo Fernandes, Maria das Graças; Rodrigues Lopes de Oliveira, Fabiana Maria; Campos Brasileiro Tibúrcio, Anna Beatriz; Rocha Alves, Alany Bezerra; Barbosa Ramos, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objetiva-se identificar idosos fisicamente vulneráveis e delimitar os diferenciais por sexo no que concerne as variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas. Estudo descritivo, transversal, de abordagem quantitativa. A população do estudo compreendeu os idosos domiciliados na área adscrita de um distrito sanitário do município de João Pessoa – Paraíba, Brasil. A amostra foi composta de 138 idosos. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevista estruturada, realizada no período de janeiro a março de 20...

  10. Tratamiento de la gonalgia por gonartrosis con ozono intrarticular

    OpenAIRE

    D. Samper Bernal; G. Rovira Dupláa; M. M. Monerris Tabasco; M. González Palomares; V. Mazo Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia de la infiltración intrarticular de la rodilla con ozono médico en pacientes que presentan gonalgia por gonartrosis crónica. Método: Estudio observacional, prospectivo e intrasujeto; se incluyeron 203 pacientes con gonalgia secundaria a gonartrosis en su mayoría; se realizaron un total de 5 infiltraciones intrarticulares con ozono médico, a una concentración de 25 µg/ml y un volumen de 10 ml, a intervalos semanales. Se evalúo la calidad analgésica mediante la ...

  11. Infecci??n por VIH y manifestaciones dermatol??gicas

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Nievas, Mar??a

    2012-01-01

    Las manifestaciones dermatol??gicas en el paciente con infecci??n por VIH son muy frecuentes, y a menudo pueden ser el primer s??ntoma que nos lleve a sospechar y realizar el diagn??stico de seropositividad o SIDA establecido. Existen m??ltiples enfermedades de piel que podemos encontrar en el paciente VIH+ y que de forma did??ctica se pueden agrupar en: dermatosis infecciosas, inflamatorias y neopl??sicas. Tambi??n cabe destacar el s??ndrome inflamatorio de reconstituci??n inmune...

  12. Neumonitis por hipersensibilidad asociado al cuidado de aves

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María González-Zúñiga; Juana Alejandra Gutiérrez-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    La neumonitis por hipersensibilidad asociada al cuidado de las aves es uno de los tipos más frecuentes de esta que se presentan. Aunque no se tienen datos epidemiológicos claros sobre su prevalencia, en los hospitales llegan casos de este tipo. No es una patología muy común; sin embargo, una muestra representativa de la población se encuentra expuesta a las aves y, consecuentemente, a los antígenos que causan la enfermedad. Su diagnóstico temprano puede significar para el paciente evitar daño...

  13. Braveheart: una historia nacionalista escocesa interpretada por Hollywood

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    Fernando TODA IGLESIA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Braveheart, que se estrenó en 1995, a la vez que salía al mercado la novela del mismo nombre, escrita por Randall Wallace —también guionista de la película—, tuvo un gran éxito en Estados Unidos y en buena parte del mundo; en el Reino Unido, triunfó en los cines de Escocia, aunque no tanto en Inglaterra, como era de esperar, pues Braveheart está basada en la primera parte de la historia de las guerras de independencia de Escocia contra Inglaterra a finales del siglo XIII y principios del XIV.

  14. ESTRATEGIAS CUANTITATIVAS DE VALOR Y RETORNOS POR ACCION DE LARGO

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rubio

    2005-01-01

    Se intenta en esta investigación generar estrategias de inversión cuantitativas basadas principalmente en el análisis fundamental desarrollado por Graham y Dodd (1934). Mientras existe cierto consenso que dichas estrategias pueden generar retornos satisfactorios, existe dificultad en explicar la razón de dichos retornos. Se postula aquí, que dichos retornos están relacionados, al menos en parte, al flujo de resultados de las compañías. En lo global, se utiliza una muestra con información de l...

  15. Estabilidad sin consenso, por superposición

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés Gifra, Joan

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo me propongo hacer dos cosas: 1) En primer lugar, me gustaría hablar brevemente de la solución que ofrece el liberalismo político de Rawls al problema del pluralismo de doctrinas comprehensivas que caracteriza las democracias liberales occidentales (o una versión importante del pluralismo de concepciones del bien en el mundo occidental: lo que él llama ‘pluralismo razonable’). Como es bien sabido, esta propuesta recibe el nombre de consenso por superposición (overlapping conse...

  16. Premian record transmision de datos a 5,44 gigabits por segundo

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "El Laboratorio Europeo para la Fisica de Particulas (CERN) y el Instituto de Tecnologia de California (EEUU) seran galardonados con un premio por haber conseguido batir el record de velocidad de transmision por Internet a 5,44 gigabits por segundo, informaron hoy, miercoles, fuentes de ambos organismos" (1/2 page).

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DAS TÉCNICAS DE DETERMINAÇÃO DE NITROGÊNIO POR CROMATOGRAFIA IÔNICA (IC) E POR TEOR DE NITROGÊNIO TOTAL (TN) POR QUIMILUMINESCÊNCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lucélia Hoehne; Fernando Afonso Schneider; Simone Stülp; Julia Spellmeyer Tischer; Fábio dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    A determinação de nitrogênio pode ser feita por diferentes técnicas, tais como Kjedahl, Nitrogênio Total (NT) por quimioluminescência, cromatografia iônica (IC), entre outras. A determinação do nitrogênio total proposta por Kjeldahl em 1883, ainda é muito usada por ser uma técnica confiável, porém, tem a desvantagem de gerar resíduos e ter o tempo de análise elevado. Desse modo, outras técnicas recentes podem ser usadas para determinar o nitrogênio, reduzindo os resíduos e tempo de análise. A...

  18. Redes neuronales artificiales para la predicción de la calidad en soldadura por resistencia por puntos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, O.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is proposed as a tool for predicting from three parameters (weld time, current intensity and electrode sort if the quality of a resistance spot weld reaches a certain level or not. The quality is determined by cross tension testing. The fact of reaching this quality level or not is the desired output that goes with each input of the artificial neural network during its supervised learning. The available data set is made up of input/desired output pairs and is split randomly into a training subset (to update synaptic weight values and a validation subset (to avoid overfitting phenomenon by means of cross validation.

    Se propone una red neuronal artificial como herramienta para predecir, a partir de tres parámetros operativos (tiempo de soldadura, intensidad de corriente y tipo de electrodo, si la calidad de una unión soldada por resistencia por puntos alcanza o no un cierto nivel. El entrenamiento de la red neuronal conlleva que la calidad se determine previamente mediante ensayos de tracción en probetas en cruz. El hecho de alcanzar o no el citado nivel de calidad constituye la respuesta objetivo que acompaña a cada entrada de la red neuronal artificial durante su aprendizaje supervisado. El conjunto de datos disponible está formado por pares entrada/salida objetivo y se divide de forma aleatoria en un subconjunto de entrenamiento (para actualizar los valores de los pesos sinápticos y en un subconjunto de validación (para combatir el fenómeno de overfitting mediante validación cruzada.

  19. De compras por el supermercado genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer, Peter

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Should we say that selective abortion is a “powerful message that we seek to eliminate future persons”? When deaf parents want to have a deaf children, Are they crazy? Are they advocates of a culture –the Deaf culture? If genetic engineering can give us health, intelligent, and athletic childrens, why say not to this advantages? The aim of this article is not to deal with all objections that could be urged against these options; the purpose is developing a clear understanding of the central values at stake.

    ¿Estamos eliminando una cultura, la de los sordos, cuando tratamos de evitar que nazcan niños sordos? El aborto terapéutico, ¿significa que, por ejemplo, creemos que las vidas de los afectados por síndrome de Down son vidas de menor valor que las vidas “normales”? Si se permitiera la manipulación genética de los embriones ¿sería poco ético encargar hijos guapos y altos? Este artículo no aporta respuestas a estas preguntas, pero sí que plantea los términos para dar cuenta de ellas y eleva acta de lo difícil que es dar una respuesta concluyente.

  20. ENCUESTA EXPLORATORIA DE INFECCION POR Brucella canis EN PERROS DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pardo D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos a B. canis en perros domésticos y callejeros del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación rápida en placa con antígeno menos mucoide (M- en 201 muestras de suero. En dos animales seropositivos se realizó intento de aislamiento por hemocultivo en medio selectivo para Brucella (oxoid®. En un animal seropositivo, con crecimiento bacteriano con características morfológicas sugestivas a B. canis se realizó histopatología de testículo, bazo e hígado. Resultados. La seropositividad general fue de 1.49% y correspondió a tres caninos machos, dos de los cuales presentaron signos clínicos de epididimitis y orquitis (unilateral. El cultivo y la histopatología no fueron concluyentes para el diagnostico de B. canis. Conclusiones. La seropositividad fue baja y sugiere que la población estudiada no ha estado en contacto con la bacteria. La presencia de reactores puede estar asociado con falsos positivos. El no aislamiento de la bacteria no indica que la enfermedad no exista por lo que se requiere de nuevos estudios.

  1. DERRIDA E BARTHES: POR ENTRE SINGULARIDADES E PLURALIDADES

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    Raquel Campos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Através da homenagem feita por Derrida a Barthes em seu ensaio “As mortes de Roland Barthes”, o artigo pretende traçar os pontos de encontro entre os dois pensadores em meio à pluralidade de suas ideias e na singularidade das mesmas. “Essa singularidade penetrada me alcança de um golpe, me fere ou me assassina e, em princípio, parece olhar diretamente para mim. […] A mim se dirige a singularidade absoluta do outro” (2008, p.275, como afirma Derrida em seu ensaio. Os pontos intransponíveis entre um indivíduo e outro criam as singularidades, ao mesmo tempo em que contribuem, aporeticamente, à pluralidade de caminhos, possibilidades e ideias. O aparente paradoxo entre esses dois pontos e a coexistência de ambos em um mesmo espaço serão analisados, na tentativa de encontrar consonâncias entre dois tão importantes pensadores, distintos, mas que, por vezes, trabalharam em suas respectivas obras com questões similares.

  2. Intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Granada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El fluoroacetato de sodio es conocido como compuesto 1080, fue descubierto por químicos alemanes durante la segunda guerra mundial. Es un compuesto inodoro e insaboro, soluble en agua, la dosis letal 50 en humanos es de 2 a 4 mg/kg. Debido a su letalidad, ha sido retirado del mercado en algunos países incluyendo Colombia. Este compuesto causa efectos bioquímicos y fisiológicos como acumulación de citrato, alteración de los trasportadores mitocondriales del citrato, acumulación de acido láctico, alteración de la regulación de la glucosa y alteraciones hidrioelectroliticas (principalmente en los niveles de calcio. Las manifestaciones clínicas de intoxicación por esta sustancia son inespecíficas, lo que dificulta su identificación y tratamiento oportuno, aumentando su letalidad. El etanol aumenta el nivel de acetato, ofreciendo así un sustrato alterno al ciclo de Krebs y puede ofrecer beneficios en el tratamiento agudo de estos pacientes. Sin embargo, el manejo de soporte es el pilar fundamental del manejo de estos casos. Se presenta un caso de ingestión intencional en un adolescente con diagnóstico tardío y con desenlace satisfactorio.

  3. El apoyo social en la mujer maltratada por su pareja

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    María Pilar Matud Aznar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio descriptivo mediante encuestas analizamos el apoyo social en tres grupos de mujeres maltratadas: uno formado por 66 mujeres que estaban conviviendo con el agresor, otro de 95 mujeres que, aunque habían sido maltratadas por su pareja, ya no convivían con el agresor, y un grupo de 39 mujeres que se encontraban en casas de acogida. Encontramos que las áreas donde las mujeres maltratadas percibían menos apoyo social eran en la laboral, económica y la familiar, y las personas que citaban con más frecuencia como fuente de apoyo fueron las amistades, los hijos y la familia. Las mujeres que estaban conviviendo con el agresor tenían menos apoyo social estructural y percibido que las mujeres que ya no convivían con él y que un grupo control de mujeres no maltratadas. El apoyo social correlacionaba negativamente con disfunción social y positivamente con autoestima. En el grupo de mujeres no maltratadas y en el que ya no convivía con el agresor el apoyo social percibido correlacionaba negativamente con sintomatología depresiva, somática y de ansiedad e insomnio.

  4. La pregunta por el autor en Bajtín

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    Pampa Olga Arán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quisiera reflexionar sobre el problema del autor en Bajtín que es objeto de numerosos asedios a lo largo de su obra: como personaje, como ideólogo de la arquitectónica, como voz enmascarada, como oído polifónico, como interlocutor en diálogo cronotopizado. Propongo recorrer estas posiciones desde el vínculo entre la historia intelectual del autor- pensador Bajtín y su noción teórica de autor (autoría, que aunque va adquiriendo diferentes modulaciones es siempre la pregunta por el sujeto, su modo de existencia y de conciencia, la producción de diferentes formas de conocimiento de sí mismo y del mundo a través de relaciones intersubjetivas. Con Bajtín asistimos a un proceso de transformación del sujeto civilizatorio de la Modernidad y su reemplazo por un sujeto moral del discurso. Finalizo con una breve comparación con el texto de Barthes sobre la muerte del autor.

  5. Intoxicación aguda por heroína

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    Guillermo Porras-Morales

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por opiáceos se presenta casi siempre como consecuencia de una sobredosis accidental de un derivado de éstos, usualmente la heroína por inyección. Otras formas de intoxicación, a las que no somos ajenos en nuestro medio, son los llamados correos de drogas, "body packers" o mulas, utilizados en el tráfico internacional de transporte de drogas. En estos casos la droga es generalmente tragada, envuelta en condones, que pueden contener heroína o cocaína. Su ruptura puede conducir a toxicidad severa y letal. Los antecedente de un viaje reciente en avión en un paciente con cuadro clínico de intoxicación, pueden justificar la indicación de una radiografía de abdomen como método diagnóstico e incluso la cirugía para limpieza intestinal como parte de su abordaje terapéutico.

  6. ESTRÉS OXIDATIVO EN PECES INDUCIDO POR CONTAMINANTES AMBIENTALES

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    DM Ochoa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available el estrés oxidativo inducido por diversas clases de contaminantes como mecanismo de toxicidad ha sido un foco de interés en el campo de la toxicología acuática y ambiental durante la última década. numerosas evidencias indican que muchos de estos agentes con-taminantes al llegar a cuerpos de agua pueden desencadenar el proceso de estrés oxidativo en organismos que allí habitan, y son responsables de efectos en células y tejidos asociados a mutagénesis y carcinogénesis. el estrés oxidativo se genera cuando existe una sobrecar-ga en la formación de radicales libres o agentes prooxidantes, la cual no es debidamente compensada por los mecanismos de defensa antioxidante que posee el organismo. Los fac-tores que son importantes al momento de la presentación del proceso de estrés oxidativo en peces, así como los mecanismos de defensa contra el ataque de agentes prooxidantes y las consecuencias de dicho evento, se revisarán en el presente artículo.

  7. Por uma criminologia crítica feminista

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    Camila Damasceno de Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o escopo de trazer elementos para a construção de uma criminologia crítica de cunho feminista, motivado pela histórica exclusão das perspectivas de gênero nos mais afamados discursos criminológicos e pela discordância em relação ao pleito feminista por punição. Discorre, primeiramente, sobre a ausência das mulheres nas produções científicas e, em especial, na criminologia. Em seguida, analisa as reflexões provocadas pelo surgimento da criminologia feminista, que, ao mesmo tempo em que elabora profundas críticas ao sistema penal, também atua no sentido de legitimá-lo. Por fim, propõe a formulação de uma criminologia que acolha as experiências femininas sem, todavia, clamar pela expansão do controle penal.

  8. A demanda por energia elétrica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alkmin Junqueira Schmidt

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é estimar, por cointegração, as elasticidades, preço e renda, de longo prazo da demanda por energia elétrica nas três classes de consumo: residencial, comercial e industrial. Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com outros resultados empíricos de que a elasticidade-renda deve ser igual ou superior à unidade e que a elasticidade-preço deve ter uma magnitude inferior a um, em módulo. Além disso são realizadas previsões para o consumo de energia elétrica para o período de 2001 a 2005.The purpose of the present study is to estimate, by cointegration, the long-run elasticities, mainly the price and income, of the demand for electric energy in the three consumption categories: residential, commercial and industrial. The obtained results support the premise that the income elasticity should be near or beyond a unity, and that the magnitude of price-elasticity should be lower one, in terms of absolute value. Predictions for the electric energy consumption for the 2001-2005 period are also made

  9. EL MST Y LAS DISPUTAS POR LAS ALTERNATIVAS EN BRASIL

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    João Pedro Stédile

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La victoria del presidente Lulaen las últimas elecciones cambió la correlaciónde fuerzas de la lucha por la reforma agraria enBrasil. Por los compromisos históricos del PT,su liderazgo y como partido de izquierda,tenemos ahora un gobierno federal que apoyala reforma agraria, al contrario de lo que fue elgobierno de Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Porlo tanto, la disputa se sitúa en otro nivel. Sinembargo, hay otras fuerzas poderosas que seoponen a la reforma agraria como lo son ellatifundio, el modelo neoliberal del agro-negocio, la clase dominante como un todo, elEstado burgués brasileño y los medios decomunicación que actúan como un espacio delucha ideológica que disputa la hegemonía en lasociedad contra nosotros. En este nuevocontexto, el MST evalúa que ahora sí se puedeavanzar en la reforma agraria, pero que es unmomento de acumulación de fuerzas y no degrandes definiciones que consoliden la reformaagraria de nuevo tipo que nosotrosdefendemos. Es decir, estamos acumulandopara el futuro.

  10. ¿Por qué pensar la fe?

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    Juan Noemi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta a la que pregunta que se plantea se articula tomando como punto de partida la vocación teológica que le concierne a la Iglesia. En un segundo acápite se señala cómo de esta vocación depende cualquier propósito de evangelización. En un tercer momento se señala la emergencia con que esta vocación aflora cuando se trata de renovación pastoral ya sea la propiciada por teólogos como por el mismo magisterio.The author of this article articulates an answer to the question posed'by taking as its point of departure the theological vocation that is proper to the Church. In a second paragraph, the author shows how any proposition for evangelization depends upon this vocation. Thirdly, the author points out the appearance with which this vocation flourishes when treating of pastoral renewal, whether proposed by theologians or by the magisterium itself.

  11. INCENDIARIOS "Es preferible morir por el fuego, en combate, que morir en casa, por el hambre: Fidel Castro" Arson

    OpenAIRE

    Lisieux Elaine de BorbaTelles; Helena Dias de Castro Bins; Alcina Juliana Soares Barros; Franklin Escobar Córdoba

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes. El concepto de fuego siempre ha atraído la atención del hombre. En la literatura abundan referencias a este término, que tanto puede representar poder y pasión como terror y destrucción. El incendio es un delito de fácil ejecución, pero de difícil investigación. La prevalencia de este delito es de 1,13%. La incidencia de este crimen está creciendo alrededor del mundo, provocando un impacto social importante por las pérdidas financieras, muertes, lesiones físicas y secuelas emoci...

  12. Es preferible morir por el fuego, en combate, que morir en casa, por el hambre: Fidel castro

    OpenAIRE

    Borba Telles, Lisieux Elaine de; Bins, Helena Dias de Castro; Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Escobar Córdoba, Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes. El concepto de fuego siempre ha atraído la atención del hombre. En la literatura abundan referencias a este término, que tanto puede representar poder y pasión como terror y destrucción. El incendio es un delito de fácil ejecución, pero de difícil investigación. La prevalencia de este delito es de 1,13%. La incidencia de este crimen está creciendo alrededor del mundo, provocando un impacto social importante por las pérdidas financieras, muertes, lesiones físicas y secuelas emoci...

  13. Ejecución de puentes pretensados por voladizos sucesivos

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    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of construction whereby successive extensions of a cantilevered structure are carried out has made it possible to extend, to an extraordinary extent, the free spans of straight section prestressed concrete bridges. At present the Bendorf bridge is being constructed, whose central span in 258 ms long. This system was first used in Brazil, for the construction of an ordinary reinforced concrete bridge over the river Peixe. But the method fell into disuse, except for very few exceptions, until Firsterwalder against brought it up to date 20 years later, when building the Neckar bridge, made of prestressed concrete. With new technique all the advantages of the system could be exploited, as well as achieving a very rapid construction. This constructional procedure leads directly to the structural type known as compensated cantilevers. T shaped cells are attached together by means of prestressing cables to form advancing cantilevers. Thereby a total bridge structure is formed, whose span is twice that of each cantilevered half. This method can be applied to other bridge types, such as dintels with overhanging sections (this was the first new application, single span portal frames, T portal frames, continuous beams, etc. The typical constructional method is to move the formwork, which is anchored and cantilevered beyond the constructed part. A weekly progress of 3,50 ms is normal. It is also possible to employ prefabricated sections, which are successively joined to the ones already in place. (Owing to the length of this article, it will be published in several successive issues.El sistema de construcción por voladizos sucesivos ha permitido ampliar, de modo extraordinario, las luces de los puentes de tramo recto de hormigón pretensado. Actualmente se construye el puente de Bendorf con tramo central de 258 metros. Se utilizó por primera vez en Brasil para la construcción de un puente de hormigón armado normal sobre el río Peixe, pero

  14. Ejecución de puentes pretensados por voladizos sucesivos

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    Fernández Casado, Carlos

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available The system of construction whereby successive extensions of a cantilevered structure are carried out has made it possible to extend, to an extraordinary extent, the free spans of straight section prestressed concrete bridges. At present the Bendorf bridge is being constructed, whose central span is 358 m long. This system was first used in Brazil, for the construction of an ordinary reinforced concrete bridge over the river Peixe. But the method fell into disuse, except for very few exceptions, until Firsterwalder again brought it up to date 20 years later, when building the Neckar bridge, made of prestressed concrete. With this new technique all the advantages of the system could be exploited, as well as achieving a very rapid construction. This constructional procedure leads directly to the structural type known as compensate cantilevers. T shaped cells are attached together by means of prestressing cables to form advancing cantilevers. Thereby a total bridge structure is formed, whose span is twice that of each cantilevered half. This method can be applied to other bridge types, such as dintels with overhanging sections (this was the first new application, single span portal frames, T portal frames, continuous beams, etc. The typical constructional method is to move the formwork, which is anchored and cantilevered beyond the constructed part. A weekly progress of 3,50 m is normal. It is also possible to employ prefabricated sections, which are successively joined to the ones already in place. (Owing to the length of this article, it will be published in several successive issues.El sistema de construcción por voladizos sucesivos ha permitido ampliar, de modo extraordinario, las luces de los puentes de tramo recto de hormigón pretensado. Actualmente se construye el puente de Bendorf con tramo central de 258 metros. Se utilizó por primera vez en Brasil para la construcción de un puente de hormigón armado normal sobre el río Peixe, pero

  15. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

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    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides

  16. EFECTOS DE LA SALINIDAD EN LAS VARIABLES HÍDRICAS POTENCIALES HÍDRICO Y OSMÓTICO Y AJUSTE OSMÓTICO EN CULTIVARES CUBANOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. Y T. durum L.

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    Leandris Argentel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la salinidad en los potenciales hídrico y osmótico y el ajuste osmótico en 12 cultivares de trigo pertenecientes a las especies Triticum aestivum L. y Triticum durum L., en etapas iniciales del desarrollo, siguiendo las metodologías para su determinación. Las plantas se establecieron en un invernadero en condiciones de hidroponía aplicando, como primer tratamiento, una solución nutritiva salinizada a base de NaCl a una conductividad eléctrica de 8 dS.m-1. El tratamiento control consistió en la solución nutritiva sin salinidad significativa (0,36 dS.m-1. Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 días posteriores a la germinación. Los resultados mostraron una significativa disminución de los valores del potencial hídrico en la mayoría de los cultivares en todos los órganos medidos y se observó una significativa disminución de sus valores desde las raíces hasta las hojas para asegurar el gradiente hídrico. Los cultivares que no disminuyeron significativamente su potencial hídrico mostraron comportamiento similar en los tres órganos evaluados aunque el gradiente de potenciales se mantuvo. El potencial osmótico disminuyó significativamente en todos los cultivares y sus valores fueron inferiores a -0,6 MPa. Todos los cultivares realizaron el ajuste osmótico, siendo el valor más significativo AO= 0,3 MPa en los cultivares INIFAT RM-36, INIFAT RM-32, INIFAT RM-37. Se observó variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés salino entre los cultivares y especies para las tres variables evaluadas.

  17. 普通小麦与硬粒小麦远缘杂交F1代性状研究%Study on Characters of F1 Hybrids Derived from Distant Cross between Triticum aestivum and T. durum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤珍; 马晓岗

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The study aimed to research the artificial hybridization between the durum wheat ( Triticum aestivum) with the local cultivated wheat ( T. durum) in Qinghai Province so as to provided the reference basis for improving the cultivated wheat varieties in Qinghai Province by using the hard wheat. [ Method] With the cultivated wheat in Qinghai Province as female parent and the hard wheat as the male parent, they were made for distant artificial hybridization and their seed-setting rate of hybridization and the germination rate and seedling rate of F1 generation were studied. [ Result ] The seed-setting rate of hybridization between the durum wheat and the cultivated wheat was 48.56%,the germination rate of F1 generation was 31.68% and the seedling rate of F1 generation was 34.65%. [ Conclusion] There was some crossability between the durum wheat and the cultivated wheat and the seed-setting rate, germination rate and seedling rate of different cross eombinations showed a significant difference.%[目的]研究青海当地栽培小麦品种与硬粒小麦的人工杂交,为利用硬粒小麦来改良青海栽培小麦提供参考依据.[方法]以青海省栽培小麦为母本,硬粒小麦为父本进行远缘人工杂交,研究杂交结实率以及F1代的发芽率和成苗率.[结果]栽培小麦与硬粒小麦杂交结实率为48.56%,F1 代发芽率为31.68%,成苗率为34.65%.[结论]普通小麦与硬粒小麦具有一定的可杂交性,不同组合杂交结实率、发芽率和成苗率差异显著.

  18. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Related Gene in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)Albinism Line%小麦返白系相关基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯典云; 胥华伟; 杜光源; 郭蔼光; 徐虹

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanism of the " albino-after green" in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) albinism line, we have designed the PCR primer with the LSC of Chloroplasts genome sequence in Chinese spring wheat. We have amplified the related gene segment in chinese spring wheat, albinism line and Aibian 1 and get the specific gene fragment WFC01 in albinism line. The total RNA has been extracted from leaves in Chinese spring wheat, Aibian 1 and albinism line. WFC01 was the probe for northern blot. The results show that the expression of gene WFC01 has been inhibition along with the leaves albinism in albinism line compared with albinism line and Chinese spring wheat. The gene WFC01 expression was back to normal with the leaves get green.%为研究小麦返白系阶段性“白化-复绿”的分子机制,以中国春小麦叶绿体基因组序列的LSC区为参考序列,分段设计引物,PCR扩增中国春、矮变1号、返白系的相应基因片段,在返白系中获得特异基因片段WFC01.提取中国春、矮变1号幼嫩叶片和返白系白化及复绿叶片总RNA,毛细管法转膜,WFC01为探针进行Northern杂交.结果表明,与对照矮变1号和中国春相比,返白系随着叶片的白化,WFC01基因片段的表达受到明显抑制,几乎无表达,随着叶片的复绿,WFC01基因片段的表达恢复正常,与对照表达量一致,表明该基因的表达与返白系的阶段性白化、复绿有关.

  19. Resistencia a roya amarilla (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici en variedades de trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. Genetics of the resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in Bajío

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    Julio Huerta Espino

    Full Text Available Las variedades de trigo harinero Cortazar S94, Bárcenas S2002, Urbina S2007 y Maya S2007 fueron liberadas para siembras en condiciones de riego en "El Bajío". Estas variedades mantienen resistencia a diferentes razas de roya amarilla que se encuentran en el país; sin embargo, se desconocen las bases genéticas de su resistencia. Para determinar la genética de la resistencia, estas variedades se cruzaron con el progenitor susceptible 'Avocet- YrA' y la determinación de similitud de genes se realizó mediante pruebas de alelismo. Las cuatro variedades y las familias F3 de cada cruza se evaluaron durante verano de 2009 en el Campo Experimental 'Valle de México' (INFAP-CEVAMEX Chapingo, México, bajo una epifitia artificial creada con el aislamiento MEX96.11. Con los resultados de la evaluación de familias F3 se determinó que la resistencia de planta adulta a roya amarilla en Cortázar S94, Bárcenas S2002 y Maya S2007 está condicionada por dos ó tres genes de efectos aditivos, mientras que en Urbina S2007 la resistencia está condicionada por tres o cuatro genes de la misma naturaleza. La ausencia de familias completamente susceptibles en las cruzas entre las variedades resistentes indica la existencia de al menos un gen de resistencia en común.The varieties of bread wheat, Cortázar s94, Bárcenas S2002, Urbina S2007 y Maya S2007 were liberated for planting under irrigated conditions in "El Bajío". These varieties maintain a resistance to different races of yellow rust that were found in the country; however, the genetic bases of resistance are unknown. To determine the genetics of the resistance, these varieties were crossed with the susceptible parent 'Avocet- YrA', and the determination of similitude ofthe genes was conducted through allele testing. The four varieties and the families F3 of each cross was evaluated during the summer of 2009 in the Experimental Field 'Valle de Mexico', Chapingo, Mexico State, under an artificial

  20. Determinación de polisacáridos por filtración por gel de celulosa

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    E. L. Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se valora el uso de la filtración por geles de celulosa para la determinación de polisacáridos en la caña y sus productos. Los geles se preparan por entrecruzamiento de la celulosa para obtener el grado de porosidad necesario y lograr la exclusión de las fracciones polisacáridas mayores de 5 000 ua. Se logra separar de manera eficiente a los polisacáridos y especialmente a las dextranas desde las soluciones de alto contenido de sacarosa que son frecuentes en la industria azucarera. Se demuestra la capacidad de uno de los geles obtenidos, que se ha nombrado CELEF3, de aislar cuantitativamente a las dextranas nativas desde soluciones de sacarosa al 10 %. El estudio estadístico de los resultados de la determinación del contenido de dextranas en jugos de caña y azúcares crudo, usando simultáneamente CELEF3 o Sephadex G-50, demuestra que no se observan diferencias significativas. Se oferta a CELEF3 como un sustituto del Sephadex G-50 para el control de calidad de la caña y sus productos.