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Sample records for aespoe hard rock

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below.

  2. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation.

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework.

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The bedrock with available fractures and fracture zones, its properties and on-going physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the integrity of the engineered barriers and the transport of radionuclides are denoted the natural barriers of a deep repository. Experiments are performed at Aespoe HRL at conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth, with the aim to increase the knowledge of the long term function of the repository barriers. Another aim with the Aespoe HRL is testing of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, chemical and biological processes. The programme for the testing of models includes evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. Ongoing projects are Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments, Long Term Diffusion Experiment, Radionuclide Retention Experiment, Microbial Project, Colloid Project, and Matrix Water Chemistry Experiments. The activities at Aespoe HRL include the evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different calculation models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to the models. An important part of this work is performed in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, an international co-operation project. The work within the Tasks 4 and 5 were reported

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using {sup 57}Co, {sup 114}Cs,{sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 131}I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report. April - June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2005- 2010 are presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2004 /SKB 2004/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2007/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the second quarter 2007

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-15

    The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - besides mapping of rock surfaces and drill cores a feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques is performed, (2) Hydrogeology - completion of the modelling work for the detailed hydro-structural model for the -450 m level and monitoring/storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field work to determine the stress levels at which core disking occur followed by numerical modelling. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The experiments are related to the rock, its properties and in situ environmental conditions. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. An important goal is to demonstrate technology for and the function of important parts of the repository system. This implies translation of current scientific knowledge and state-of- the-art technology into engineering practice applicable in a real repository. It is important that development, testing and demonstration of methods and procedures are conducted under realistic conditions and at an appropriate scale. A number of large-scale field

  16. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    At Aespoe HRL, methods for characterising a suitable site for a deep repository are being developed and tested. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a future deep repository. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RDandD work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL. 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop and at repository depth test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the repository system. Test, investigate and demonstrate on full-scale different components of importance for the long-term safety of a deep repository and to show that high quality can be achieved in design, construction, and operation of repository components. Stage goals 1 and 2 have been concluded at Aespoe HRL and the tasks have been transferred to the Site Investigation Department of SKB which performs site investigations at two sites, Simpevarp/Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn and Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. In order to reach present goals the following important tasks are performed at the Aespoe HRL: Develop, test, evaluate and

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-15

    The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - besides mapping of rock surfaces and drill cores a feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques is performed, (2) Hydrogeology - completion of the modelling work for the detailed hydro-structural model for the -450 m level and monitoring/storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field work to determine the stress levels at which core disking occur followed by numerical modelling. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The experiments are related to the rock, its properties and in situ environmental conditions. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. An important goal is to demonstrate technology for and the function of important parts of the repository system. This implies translation of current scientific knowledge and state-of- the-art technology into engineering practice applicable in a real repository. It is important that development, testing and demonstration of methods and procedures are conducted under realistic conditions and at an appropriate scale. A number of large-scale field

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Aespoe HRL has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began 1986. Since then, bedrock conditions have been investigated by several deep boreholes. The Aespoe research village has been built and extensive underground construction work has been undertaken in parallel with comprehensive research. This has resulted in a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The objective of the ZEDEX project is to compare the mechanical disturbance to the rock for excavation by tunnel boring and blasting. The results indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The tracer retention understanding experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models. During 1996 a series of tracer experiments in radially converging and dipole flow configuration have been performed. A special borehole probe has been designed for different kinds of retention experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. The prototype repository test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function, and includes backfill and plug tests and demonstration of methods for deposition and retrieval of canisters in a new tunnel at the 420 m level. The long term tests of buffer material aim to validate models of buffer performance and at quantifying clay buffer alteration processes at adverse conditions. 80 refs, 53 figs, 16 tabs.

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report May - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RD and D-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2010/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period May to August 2010.

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report May - August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2009/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period May to August 2009.

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report. January - April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2009/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period January to April 2010

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report October - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2008/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the fourth quarter of 2008.

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report. September - December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2009/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period September to December 2009

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report. September - December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. In September 2010, the plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2011-2016 were presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2010 /SKB 2010a/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report and the information valid for 2010 is given in /SKB 2010b/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period September to December 2010

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report January - April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2009/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period January to April 2009.

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The Aespoe HRL was opened in 1994 as a research centre and underground laboratory. The experiments performed in Aespoe HRL are related to the rock, its properties, and in situ environmental conditions. Tests of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical/biological processes are some of the main purposes of the Aespoe HRL. The programme includes projects with the aim to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of different models and to develop and test methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. The retardation in rock is studied at different experiment scales in a programme called Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The Long Term Diffusion Experiment constitutes a complement to performed diffusion and sorption laboratory experiments, and is a natural extension of the experiments conducted as part of the TRUE experiments. Radionuclide retention experiments are carried out with the aim to confirm result from laboratory experiments in situ, where conditions representative for the properties of groundwater at repository depth prevail. In CHEMLAB 1 two kinds of experiments to study the influence of radiolysis on the mobility of technetium in bentonite were started in the end of 2002. Experiments to study migration of actinides in natural fractures in drill cores are being carried out in CHELMAB 2. The findings of potential transport of solutes by colloids and access to more sensitive instruments for colloid measurements motivated a Colloid Project at Aespoe HRL. There are presently four specific microbial process areas identified that are of importance for proper repository functions and that are studied in the Microbe Project. The process areas are; biomobilisation of radionuclides, bioimmobilisation of radionuclides, microbial effects on the chemical stability, and microbial corrosion of copper. The main objectives of the Matrix Fluid Chemistry experiment are to understand the

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The Aespoe HRL was opened in 1994 as a research centre and underground laboratory. The experiments performed in Aespoe HRL are related to the rock, its properties, and in situ environmental conditions. Tests of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical/biological processes are some of the main purposes of the Aespoe HRL. The programme includes projects with the aim to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of different models and to develop and test methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. The retardation in rock is studied at different experiment scales in a programme called Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The Long Term Diffusion Experiment constitutes a complement to performed diffusion and sorption laboratory experiments, and is a natural extension of the experiments conducted as part of the TRUE experiments. Radionuclide retention experiments are carried out with the aim to confirm result from laboratory experiments in situ, where conditions representative for the properties of groundwater at repository depth prevail. In CHEMLAB 1 two kinds of experiments to study the influence of radiolysis on the mobility of technetium in bentonite were started in the end of 2002. Experiments to study migration of actinides in natural fractures in drill cores are being carried out in CHELMAB 2. The findings of potential transport of solutes by colloids and access to more sensitive instruments for colloid measurements motivated a Colloid Project at Aespoe HRL. There are presently four specific microbial process areas identified that are of importance for proper repository functions and that are studied in the Microbe Project. The process areas are; biomobilisation of radionuclides, bioimmobilisation of radionuclides, microbial effects on the chemical stability, and microbial corrosion of copper. The main objectives of the Matrix Fluid Chemistry experiment are to understand the

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The construction of the laboratory was completed during 1995 and the operating phase has now begun. During the construction data has been collected from the tunnel and boreholes drilled from the tunnel. Results from these investigations have been reported and a comprehensive evaluation is in progress. The results will be used to design the site characterization program for the deep repository. Ten organizations from nine countries participate in the work at the laboratory. An important part of the cooperative work is performed within the framework of the task force on groundwater flow and transport of solutes. An evaluation has been made of the long term pumping test which was performed at Aespoe some years ago. It showed that the modelling tools that exist today have the ability to give a three-dimensional description of groundwater flow at a site like Aespoe. The task force will perform predictive modelling of the tracer experiments performed within the TRUE project. Characterization of the experimental site for TRUE and preparations for the tracer tests were completed during 1995. Tests of the engineering barriers have been started with the test of technology for backfilling of deposition tunnels. 55 refs, 36 figs, 7 tabs.

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Planning Report for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    This report presents the planned activities for the year 2011. The report is revised annually and details the programme carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory as described in SKB's Research, Development and Demonstration Programme 2010, and serves as a basis for the management of the laboratory. The role of the Planning Report is to present the plans and scope of work for each project. Background information on the projects is given in the Annual Report as well as findings and results.

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Planning Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the planned activities for the year 2010. The report is revised annually and details the programme carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory as described in SKB's Research, Development and Demonstration Programme 2007, and serves as a basis for the management of the laboratory. The role of the Planning Report is to present the plans and scope of work for each project. Thereby the Status Reports may concentrate on work in progress and refers to this Planning Report for scope of work over the year. Background information on the projects is given in the Annual Report as well as findings and results

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Planning Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-15

    This report presents the planned activities for the year 2009. The report is revised annually and details the programme carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory as described in SKB's Research, Development and Demonstration Programme 2007, and serves as a basis for the management of the laboratory. The role of the Planning Report is to present the plans and scope of work for each project. Thereby the Status Reports may concentrate on work in progress and refers to this Planning Report for scope of work over the year. Background information on the projects is given in the Annual Report as well as findings and results.

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The TASS-tunnel. Geological mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardenby, Carljohan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Sigurdsson, Oskar (HAskGeokonsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The project entitled 'Sealing of tunnel at great depth' (Fintaetning av tunnel paa stort djup) needed a new tunnel in an area as undisturbed as possible and with cross-cutting water-bearing structures. The new tunnel, which was given the name TASS, was excavated on the -450 m level of SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The length of the tunnel is approximately 80 m and the theoretical tunnel area 19 m2. As is the case with all the other tunnels of the Aespoe HRL, the new tunnel has been geologically mapped. In addition, laser scanning combined with digital photography has been carried out. The tunnel was also used to test various types of explosives, borehole layouts and drilling techniques. The geological mapping of tunnel floor, walls and roof took place on four major occasions when a halt was made in tunnel excavation to allow for various tests. Before the mapping started on these occasions, laser scanning took place. The tunnel faces were mapped after each round (drilling, blasting and unloading). The present report describes the geological features of the tunnel and briefly how the laser scanning was performed. Water-bearing structures have been compared to similar structures in the neighbouring tunnels. The rock type names used here follow the old established Aespoe HRL nomenclature. Narrow (<0.1 m wide) dykes are normally mapped as fracture fillings. The dominating rock type is Aespoe diorite, which constitutes some 90 % of the rock mass. It is mostly mapped as fresh rock. . Minor constituents of the rock mass are fine-grained granite, hybrid rock, pegmatite, quartz veins/lenses and undifferentiated mafic rock. The mapping of fractures and deformation zones considers a number of parameters such as number of fractures, open/healed, width, length, description of fracture surfaces (roughness, planarity, etc), fracture filling, alteration and water. The deformation zones are discriminated into two main categories (&apos

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  15. The colloid investigations conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry] (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    In 2000, SKB decided to initiate an international colloid project at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The objectives of the colloid project are to: (i) study the role of bentonite as a colloid source, (ii) verify the background colloid concentration at Aespoe HRL and, (iii) investigate the potential for colloid formation/transport in natural groundwater concentrations. The experimental concepts for the colloid project are: laboratory experiments with bentonite, background field measurements of natural colloids, borehole specific bentonite colloid stability experiments and a fracture specific transport experiment. The activities concerning the laboratory experiments and background field measurements are described in this work; the other activities are ongoing or planned. The following conclusions were made: The bentonite colloid stability is strongly dependent on the groundwater ionic strength. Natural colloids are organic degradation products such as humic and fulvic acids, inorganic colloids (clay, calcite, iron hydroxide) and microbes. Microbes form few but large particles and their concentration increase with increasing organic carbon concentrations. The small organic colloids are present in very low concentrations in deep granitic groundwater. The concentrations can be rather high in shallow waters. The colloid concentration decreases with depth and salinity, since colloids are less stable in saline waters. The colloid content at Aespoe is less than 300 ppb. The colloid content at repository level is less than 50 ppb. The groundwater variability obtained in the boreholes reflects well the natural groundwater variability along the whole HRL tunnel.

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Sensor Data Report No 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, Reza; Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Prototype Repository Test consists of two sections. The installation of the first Section of Prototype Repository was made during summer and autumn 2001 and Section 2 was installed in spring and summer 2003. This report presents data from measurements in the Prototype Repository during the period 20010917-20100601. The report is organized so that the actual measured results are shown in Appendix 1-10, where Appendix 8 deals with measurements of canister displacements (by AITEMIN), Appendix 9 deals with geo-electric measurements in the backfill (by GRS), Appendix 10 deals with stress and strain measurement in the rock (by AaF) and Appendix 11 deals with measurement of water pressure in the rock (by VBB/VIAK). The main report and Appendix 1-7 deal with the rest of the measurements. Section 1. The following measurements are made in the bentonite in each of the two instrumented deposition holes in Section 1 (1 and 3): Temperature is measured in 32 points, total pressure in 27 points, pore water pressure in 14 points and relative humidity in 37 points. Temperature is also measured by all relative humidity gauges. Every measuring point is related to a local coordinate system in the deposition hole. The following measurements are made in the backfill in Section 1. Temperature is measured in 20 points, total pressure in 18 points, pore water pressure in 23 points and relative humidity in 45 points. Temperature is also measured by all relative humidity gauges. Furthermore, water content is measured by an electric chain in one section. Every measuring point is related to a local coordinate system in the tunnel. The following measurements are made on the surface of the canisters in Section 1: Temperature is measured every meter along two fiber optic cables. Furthermore, displacements of the canister in hole 3 are measured with 6 gauges. The following measurements are made in the rock in Section 1: Temperature is measured in 37 points in boreholes in the floor. Water

  17. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory[Information for the general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    A dress rehearsal is being held in preparation for the construction of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at SKB's underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) on Aespoe, outside Oskarshamn. Here we can test different technical solutions on a full scale and in a realistic environment. The Aespoe HRL is also used for field research. We are conducting a number of experiments here in collaboration with Swedish and international experts. In the Zedex experiment we have compared how the rock is affected around a drill-and-blast tunnel versus a bored tunnel. In a new experiment we will investigate how much the rock can take. A narrow pillar between two boreholes will be loaded to the point that the rock's ultimate strength is exceeded (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment). In the Demo Test we are demonstrating emplacement of the copper canisters and the surrounding bentonite in the deposition holes. In the Prototype Repository we study what long-term changes occur in the barriers under the conditions prevailing in a deep repository. Horizontal deposition: Is it possible to deposit the canisters horizontally without compromising safety? Backfill and Plug Test: The tunnels in the future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel will be filled with clay and crushed rock and then plugged. Canister Retrieval Test: If the deep repository should not perform satisfactorily for some reason, we want to be able to retrieve the spent fuel. The Lot test is intended to show how the bentonite behaves in an environment similar to that in the future deep repository. The purpose of the TBT test is to determine how the bentonite clay in the buffer is affected by high temperatures. Two-phase flow means that liberated gas in the groundwater flows separately in the fractures in the rock. This reduces the capacity of the rock to conduct water. Lasgit: By pressurizing a canister with helium, we can measure how the gas moves through the surrounding buffer. Colloid Project: Can very small

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation of scaling records for TASA access tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittner, Henrik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the result of a project accomplished during the summer 2009. It introduces a method to estimate the magnitude, mass distribution and cause of scaled blocks by tunnel mapping and evaluation of scaling data records. These issues are important for understanding the impact of the excavation method on the surrounding rock mass during excavation of the planned underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. The project includes mapping of the 3120 m drill and blast excavated part of the TASA access tunnel in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). In addition it includes development of a method for evaluation of the collected material together with scaling data records from the Site Characterization Database (SICADA). An interview has also been held with Erik Gabrielsson, who has been in charge of tunnel maintenance at Aespoe for many years. The mapping focused on to identify size and cause of areas with significant overbreaks in the tunnel roof. By distributing documented scaled volume in a tunnel section on several mapped overbreak areas in the same section it is possible to reconstruct the size of scaled blocks. The observed overbreak areas have been categorized in five different area types, depending on the cause of scaling: two geologically induced, one blast induced, one induced from a combination of geology and blasting and one unable to place in any category. For the calculated mass distribution the number of observations is declining with increasing block mass. 11% of the total blocks exceeding 400 Kg and 75% of the scaled blocks weights under 200 Kg. Most of the blocks are however lighter with 34% weighting 50 Kg or less. There is a relation between the mapped area type and the size distribution among the mapped overbreak areas. For example the areas caused by the end of blasting rounds are more frequently appearing then the other types but most of them are small in relation to the others The impression achieved from the tunnel mapping is

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Final report of the first stage of the tracer retention understanding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, A. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Peter [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Grundteknik, Solna (Sweden); Byegaard, Johan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Cvetkovic, V. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering; Birgersson, Lars [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    The first stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) was performed as a SKB funded project. The overall objectives of TRUE are to develop the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention in fractured rock, to evaluate the realism in applied model concepts, and to assess whether the necessary input data to the models can be collected from site characterisation. Further, to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of different model approaches, and finally to provide in situ data on radionuclide migration and retention. The strive for address with multiple approaches is facilitated through a close collaboration with the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. The TRUE programme is a staged programme which addresses various scales from laboratory (< 0.5 m), detailed scale (< 10 m) and block scale (10-50 m). The First TRUE Stage was performed in the detailed scale with the specific objectives of providing data and conceptualising the investigated feature using conservative and sorbing tracers. Further, to improve methodologies for performing tracer tests, and to develop and test a methodology for obtaining pore volume/aperture data from epoxy resin injection, excavation and subsequent analyses. The experimental site is located at approximately 400 m depth in the northeastern part of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The identification of conductive fractures and the target feature has benefited from the use of BIPS borehole TV imaging combined with detailed flow logging. The assessment of the conductive geometry has been further sustained by cross-hole pressure interference data. The investigated target feature (Feature A) is a reactivated mylonite which has later undergone brittle deformation. The feature is oriented northwest, along the principal horizontal stress orientation, and is a typical conductor for Aespoe conditions. Hydraulic characterisation shows that the feature is relatively well isolated

  20. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Summary report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J. (British Geological Survey (United Kingdom))

    2010-02-15

    This report describes the set-up, operation and observations from the first 1,385 days (3.8 years) of the large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) experiment conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. During this time the bentonite buffer has been artificially hydrated and has given new insight into the evolution of the buffer. After 2 years (849 days) of artificial hydration a canister filter was identified to perform a series of hydraulic and gas tests, a period that lasted 268 days. The results from the gas test showed that the full-scale bentonite buffer behaved in a similar way to previous laboratory experiments. This confirms the up-scaling of laboratory observations with the addition of considerable information on the stress responses throughout the deposition hole. During the gas testing stage, the buffer was continued to artificially hydrate. Hydraulic results, from controlled and uncontrolled events, show that the buffer continues to mature and has yet to reach full maturation. Lasgit has yielded high quality data relating to the hydration of the bentonite and the evolution in hydrogeological properties adjacent to the deposition hole. The initial hydraulic and gas injection tests confirm the correct working of all control and data acquisition systems. Lasgit has been in successful operation for in excess of 1,385 days

  1. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO{sub 3} composition at shallow depth to a CaCl{sub 2}-rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E{sub H} values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E{sub H} values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m{sup 2} per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the

  2. Towards a new generation of flow and transport models for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Main results from the project Aespoe models 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (ed.) (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB (CFE AB), SE-602 10 Norrkoeping (Sweden)); Vidstrand, Patrik (Bergab AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Neretnieks, Ivars (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wallin, Bill (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    This report constitutes the outcome of a project called 'Aespoe models 2005'. The main objective of the project has been to provide a first step towards a new generation of numerical models of flow and transport, for the Aespoe HRL. In order to achieve this goal, work has been carried out along three parallel lines; discussion of basic concepts, compilation and analysis of data and model applications. A number of sub tasks are reported as appendices in the report. In fact, these appendices represent the main achievements of the project: an analysis of fracture properties, compilation of isotope and chemical data, dispersion and mixing in fractured rocks and model results. The conclusion of the project is that significant contributions to a new generation of Aespoe models have been obtained. It has further been demonstrated that working numerical simulations are up and running. Recommendations are provided for the continued work

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Characterisation methods and instruments. Experiences from the construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the different investigation methods used during the Aespoe HRL construction phase which commenced 1990 and ended 1995. The investigation methods are described with respect to performance, errors, uncertainty and usefulness in determined, analysed and/or calculated parameter values or other kind of geoscientific information. Moreover, other comments of the different methods, like those related to the practical performance of the measurements or tests are given. The practical performance is a major task as most of the investigations were conducted in parallel with the construction work. Much of the wide range of investigations carried out during the tunnelling work required special efforts of the personnel involved. Experiences and comments on these operations are presented in the report. The pre-investigation methods have been evaluated by comparing predictions based on pre-investigation models with data and results from the construction phase and updated geoscientific models. In 1997 a package of reports describe the general results of the pre-investigations. The investigation methods are in this report evaluated with respect to usefulness for underground characterisation of a rock volume, concerning geological, geohydrological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical properties. The report describes out opinion of the methods after the construction phase, i.e. the same platform of knowledge as for the package of reports of 1997. The evaluation of usefulness of the underground investigation methods are structured according to the key issues used for the preinvestigation modelling and predictions, i.e. Geological-structural model, Groundwater flow (hydrogeology), Groundwater chemistry (hydrochemistry), Transport of solutes and Mechanical stability models (or rock mechanics). The investigation methods selected for the different subjects for which the predictions were made are presented. Some of the subjects were slightly modified or adjusted during

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P. [Geotechnical Inst. Ltd., Bern (Switzerland); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Mazurek, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features.

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Studies of factors that affect and controls the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Martin; Baeckstroem, Ann; Quanhong Feng (AaF - Berg och Maetteknik, Stockholm (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Stockholm (Sweden)); Johansson, Malin; Mas Ivars, Diego (Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden)); Olsson, Mats (SweBefo, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    A tunnel was developed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in 2003 purposely for a large in-situ rock mechanics experiment, the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel had a large height/width ratio with a circular floor, primarily to control the stress situation around the tunnel and concentrate the stresses under the floor. An extensive set of data for understanding the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) was collected within section 47 of the tunnel. It consist of the blast design, blast sequences, convergence measurements during excavation, geological mapping of tunnel and cores, 3D-laser scanning of the tunnel geometry etc. Furthermore, in 2006, ultrasonic measurements along eight boreholes were carried out in order to estimate the extent of the EDZ in the tunnel. The collection of all these different information provides an opportunity to evaluate the mechanical damages caused by the excavation work. The overall aim with this project is to give feed-back to future planning of tunnelling on issues of importance for requirements with respect to minimising the EDZ in crystalline rock from the drill and blast method. A combination of the mapped geological features (tunnel and cores) and the geometry of the blasted tunnel obtained from the 3D-laser scanning were used to build a 3D model of the geology with emphasis on the geometry of the natural fractures. The rock mechanic response to the tunnelling was evaluated in a numerical model including the as-built geometry in combination with the 3D model of the geology. The modelling of the rock mechanical processes of importance for the EDZ could be calibrated against actual measurements. From observed changes in the ultrasonic wave velocity along the boreholes it was found that the locations of the velocity changes corresponded well with the location of the mapped fractures in the drill cores. This indicates that EDZ can be detected using the ultrasonic method with high accuracy. Furthermore, the

  6. SITE-94. Natural elemental mass movement in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Smith, G.M.; Towler, P.A.; Savage, D. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify natural elemental fluxes at a location exhibiting typical characteristics of a site for a spent fuel repository in Sweden. The relevant pathways are considered to be: Groundwater transport; Glacial erosion; Non-glacial weathering; River transport. Calculations are made of elemental mass fluxes from a volume of rock equivalent to that which would hold a KBS-3 style repository. In addition, the radioactive flux associated with the natural series radionuclide mass fluxes from the repository are also calculated. These can be compared directly to performance assessment predictions of the releases from a repository. 88 refs, 13 figs, 24 tabs.

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Canister Retrieval Test. Microorganisms in buffer from the Canister Retrieval Test - numbers and metabolic diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    'Canister Retrieval Test' (CRT) is an experiment that started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) 2000. CRT is a part of the investigations which evaluate a possible KBS-3 storage of nuclear waste. The primary aim was to see whether it is possible or not to retrieve a copper canister after storage under authentic KBS-3 conditions. However, CRT also provided a unique opportunity to investigate if bacteria survived in the bentonite buffer during storage. Therefore, in connection to the retrieval of the canister microbiological samples were extracted from the bentonite buffer and the bacterial composition was studied. In this report, microbiological analyses of a total of 66 samples at the C2, R10, R9 and R6 levels in the bentonite from CRT are presented and discussed. By culturing bacteria from the bentonite in specific media the following bacterial parameters were investigated: The total amount of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria that produce the organic compound acetate (acetogens). The biovolume in the bentonite was determined by detection of the ATP content. In addition, bacteria from the bentonite were cultured in different sulphate-reducing media. In these cultures, the presence of the biotic compounds sulphide and acetate was investigated, since these have potentially negative effect on the copper canister in a KBS-3 repository. The results were to some extent compared to density, water content, and temperature data provided by Clay Technology AB. The results showed that 100-102 viable sulphate-reducing and acetogenic bacteria and 102-104 heterotrophic aerobic bacteria g-1 bentonite were present after five years of storage in the rock. Bacteria with several morphologies could be found in the cultures with bentonite. The most bacteria were detected in the bentonite buffer close to the rock but in a few samples also in bentonite close to the copper canister. When the presence of bacteria in the

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The Prototype repository is an international project to build and study a full-scale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The Prototype repository differs from a real storage in that it is drained. For example, this makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype repository compared with a real storage. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and one of the specific aims is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype repository. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside and outside the Prototype in 2009. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed in the following sampling points in the Prototype repository: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10006, KBU10008, KFA01 and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e., the biovolume), cultivable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), autotrophic acetogens (AA) and in some cases iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). Cultivation methods were also compared with qPCR molecular techniques to evaluate these before next year's decommission of the Prototype repository. The collected pore water from the Prototype repository was subject to chemistry analysis (as many analyses were conducted as the amount of water allowed). In addition, groundwater from two borehole sections in the rock surrounding the Prototype was analysed regarding its gas composition, microbiology and redox. Chemistry data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype repository were compared with the pore water

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases, and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The prototype repository (hereafter, 'Prototype') is an international project to build and study a fullscale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. However, the Prototype differs from a real storage in that it is drained, which makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype than in a real storage facility. The heat from the radioactive decay is simulated by electrical heaters. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and a specific aim is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside the Prototype in 2010. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed at the following sampling points in the Prototype: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10008, and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e. the biovolume), culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). The pore water collected from the Prototype was subject to as many chemical analyses as the amount of water allowed. Chemical analyses were also performed on pore water from two additional sampling points, KBU10005 and KBU10006. Chemical data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype were compared with the pore water chemistry. The improved sampling and analysis protocols introduced in 2007 worked very well. The International Progress Report (IPR) 08-01 (Eriksson 2008) revealed that many of the hydrochemical sampling points differ greatly from each other. The 16 sampling points were

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - feasibility and usefulness of site investigation methods. Experiences from the pre-investigation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, K.E. [ed.] [KEA GEO-Konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [SKANSKA, (Sweden); Rhen, I. [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    One of the main goals set up by SKB for the Aespoe HRL project is to `test the quality and appropriateness of different methods for characterizing the bedrock with respect to conditions of importance for a final repository`. An extensive investigation programme was carried out during the projects pre-investigation phase that in part was based in experience from SKBs previous site investigations and in part entailed the testing of new or other unestablished methods. Previous technical reports have described the methods that have been used and the results, models and predictions that have been produced. All the methods used are discussed in the present report in terms of how they have contributed in different analysis stages to the total geoscientific characterization of the rock at Aespoe. The usefulness of each method for modelling and prediction in different scales is evaluated, and aspects of the practical execution of the methods under different conditions are discussed. The report sheds light on the importance of dividing large investigation programmes such as this one into suitable stages to get an opportunity to evaluate the results obtained and plan in detail the investigations in the next stage. Furthermore, the way in which the characterization/modelling work in different geometric scales has been done for the different investigation stages is discussed, along with whether this has been found to be a suitable approach. The importance of pursuing an interdisciplinary strategy throughout the pre-investigation process cannot be overemphasized. For the planning, execution, analysis and reporting of the results of the pre-investigations, this has been guaranteed by an organization in which an interdisciplinary group has been in charge of the investigations, together with the project manager. 52 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases, and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The prototype repository (hereafter, 'Prototype') is an international project to build and study a fullscale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. However, the Prototype differs from a real storage in that it is drained, which makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype than in a real storage facility. The heat from the radioactive decay is simulated by electrical heaters. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and a specific aim is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside the Prototype in 2010. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed at the following sampling points in the Prototype: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10008, and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e. the biovolume), culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). The pore water collected from the Prototype was subject to as many chemical analyses as the amount of water allowed. Chemical analyses were also performed on pore water from two additional sampling points, KBU10005 and KBU10006. Chemical data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype were compared with the pore water chemistry. The improved sampling and analysis protocols introduced in 2007 worked very well. The International Progress Report (IPR) 08-01 (Eriksson 2008) revealed that many of the hydrochemical sampling points differ greatly from each other. The 16 sampling points were

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature Buffer Test. Sensors data report (Period 030326-080701) Report No:12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, Reza; Aakesson, Mattias; Hoekmark, Harald (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test is carried out in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.75 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX 80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. Two buffer arrangements are being investigated: - The lower heater is surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, allowing the temperature of the bentonite to exceed 100 deg C locally. - The higher heater is surrounded by a ring of sand acting as thermal protection for the bentonite, the temperature of which is kept below 100 deg C. The canisters were heated with 1500 W power from day 15 to day 1171, when the power was raised to 1600 W. Around day 1700, the power was by steps raised in the lower heater to 2000 W and reduced in the upper heater to 1000 W. This report presents data from the measurements in the Temperature Buffer Test from 030326 to 080701 (26 March 2003 to 01 July 2008). The following measurements are made in the bentonite: Temperature is measured in 92 points, total pressure in 29 points, pore water pressure in 8 points and relative humidity in 35 points. Temperature is also measured by all gauges as an auxiliary measurement used for compensation. The following additional measurements are done: temperature is measured in 40 points in the rock, in 11 points on the surface of each canister and in 6 points inside each canister. The force on the confining plug is measured in 3 of the 9 rods and its vertical displacement is measured in three points. The water inflow and water pressure in the outer sand filter is also measured. Temperature and total pressure measurements

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature Buffer Test. Sensors data report (Period 030326-080701) Report No:12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, Reza; Aakesson, Mattias; Hoekmark, Harald (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test is carried out in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.75 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX 80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. Two buffer arrangements are being investigated: - The lower heater is surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, allowing the temperature of the bentonite to exceed 100 deg C locally. - The higher heater is surrounded by a ring of sand acting as thermal protection for the bentonite, the temperature of which is kept below 100 deg C. The canisters were heated with 1500 W power from day 15 to day 1171, when the power was raised to 1600 W. Around day 1700, the power was by steps raised in the lower heater to 2000 W and reduced in the upper heater to 1000 W. This report presents data from the measurements in the Temperature Buffer Test from 030326 to 080701 (26 March 2003 to 01 July 2008). The following measurements are made in the bentonite: Temperature is measured in 92 points, total pressure in 29 points, pore water pressure in 8 points and relative humidity in 35 points. Temperature is also measured by all gauges as an auxiliary measurement used for compensation. The following additional measurements are done: temperature is measured in 40 points in the rock, in 11 points on the surface of each canister and in 6 points inside each canister. The force on the confining plug is measured in 3 of the 9 rods and its vertical displacement is measured in three points. The water inflow and water pressure in the outer sand filter is also measured. Temperature and total pressure measurements

  14. Bacterial sulphate reduction and mixing processes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory indicated by groundwater delta34S isotope signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Bill (Geokema AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    This report includes data mostly obtained from delta34S isotope measurements of groundwater at the Aespoe Island and one sampling from the Laxemar site, southeastern Sweden, during tunnel construction. Early sampling at Aespoe (up to 1992), before tunnel excavation, indicates a groundwater system with multiple sulphur sources. The isotope changes over time in the dissolved sulphate were studied during a sampling campaign in the monitoring phase from 1993 to 1995. A total of 88 samples were collected by SKB between 1992 and 1995 from core-drilled surface boreholes and from boreholes drilled in the tunnel (34 of these samples were collected from the tunnel boreholes). The results of the analyses have been the focus of discussion of the isotope changes with time in the dissolved sulphate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The results indicate that the sulphur isotope signatures in the dissolved sulphate of the groundwater and those from fracture-filling sulphides at Aespoe originate from multiple sulphur sources in the groundwater at Aespoe and Laxemar. The data may be grouped as follows: a) typically homogeneous marine signatures of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} are observed, with delta34S values of approximately +21 per mille CDT at intermediate depths of approximately 100-250 m; b) dissolved sulphate in the groundwater at greater depths (below 600 m) with average values of approximately +10 per mille CDT; and c) a dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} originating from a mixture of these sulphur sources (100-600m), although there is a difference between a mixture and modification by reduction. Reduced sulphur with low delta34S values is also recorded in fracture-filling sulphides, with delta34S values of approximately 0 to -10 per mille CDT. This may contribute to small changes in the isotope signature of the dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, probably by sulphide oxidation in the past. The changes in the delta34S isotope data for dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} over the 1992-1996 period suggest a

  15. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, LOT project. Final report on the A2 test parcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Birgersson, Martin; Nilsson, Ulf; Hernan-Haakansson, Tania (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden); Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Nilsson, Sara; Eriksen, Trygve E. (School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear chemistry, Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosborg, Bo (Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, are expected to result in minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) are focused on identifying and quantifying such mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks with a diameter of 30 cm, and gauges for temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity. Electrical heaters placed inside the copper tube are used to simulate the power from the decaying spent fuel. Three parcels are exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and four parcels to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below approx140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (>5 years) and long term tests (>10 years). The present report concerns the A2 test parcel, which was a medium term test exposed to adverse conditions. Cu-coupons, 60Co tracers, bacteria and specific chemical substances were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses performed by nine different laboratories in five countries. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses may be summarized in the following items: - physical

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Aespoe Task Force on Engineered Barrier System. Modelling of THM-coupled processes for benchmark 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 with the code GeoSys/RockFlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Thomas; Kunz, Herbert (Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany))

    2009-03-15

    In 2004 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) initiated the project 'Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems'. This project has the objectives to verify the ability to model THM-coupled processes (task 1) and gas migration processes (task 2) in the clay-rich buffer materials. The tasks are performed on the basis of appropriate benchmarks. This report describes the final results for the modelling of the THM-benchmarks 2.1.1(Buffer/Container Experiment) and 2.1.2 (Isothermal Test) with the code GeoSys/RockFlow. Both in-situ experiments were conducted in the Canadian Whiteshell Underground Research Laboratory (URL). An interim report (NOWAK 2008) documented the results of two axially symmetric models. This report documents the calculations of a laboratory experiment on the buffer material that is used as calibration for the hydraulic properties of the buffer material, the setting-up of a 3-D model of the URL for both ITT and BCE and the modelling results in comparison to measured values.

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Aespoe Task Force on Engineered Barrier System. Modelling of THM-coupled processes for benchmark 2.2 with the code GeoSys/RockFlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Thomas; Kunz, Herbert (Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany))

    2010-02-15

    In 2004 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) initiated the project 'Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems'. This project has the objective to verify the feasibility of modelling THM-coupled processes (task 1) and gas migration processes (task 2) in clay-rich buffer materials. The tasks are performed on the basis of appropriate benchmarks. This report documents the modelling results of the THM-benchmark 2.2 - the Canister Retrieval Test - using the code GeoSys/RockFlow. The Temperature Buffer Test which was performed in the immediate vicinity of the Canister Retrieval Test is included in the model. Especially the heat transport requires the handling of the problem in 3-D. Due to limitations imposed by post-processing different spatial discretisations of the model had to be used during the processing of the benchmark. The calculated temperatures agree well with measured data. Concerning hydraulic parameters the values of permeability and tortuosity were varied in the calculations. The time necessary to saturate the buffer is very sensitive to both of these values. In comparison to thermal and hydraulic processes the model only has limited capacity to predict the measured evolution of total pressure

  18. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A (ed.) [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included.

  19. Hydrogeological pre-modelling exercises. Assessment of impact of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Sensitivities of palaeo-hydrogeology. Development of a local near-surface Hydro-DFN for KLX09B-F. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Shevelan, John; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golders Associates (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Numerical modelling has been used to investigate the potential impact of the Aespoe HRL on regional groundwater flow and hydro-geochemistry in the Laxemar study area. The numerical models have been adapted for this application from the ones use in the site-descriptive modelling (SDM) and SR-Can assessment modelling based on Laxemar version 1.2. In order to test the robustness of the simulation results, sensitivities were studied with respect to different flow boundary conditions and the hydraulic properties of the Quaternary deposits, particularly those beneath the sea around the Aespoe island. The simulations show that the Aespoe HRL has a local effect on the groundwater situation. Typically, in the simulations, the rock under the Aespoe island, the bays around it and the Aevroe area (mainly western part of the islands of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe) are influenced. In the sensitivity study, visualisations of the drawdown caused by the HRL tunnel system show small differences in the results for head versus flux top boundary conditions, little sensitivity to a change in the surface infiltration rate, but most sensitivity to the contact between the sea and the bedrock beneath the seabed sediments. For all simulation cases considered, results suggest that the Aespoe HRL has not been in operation sufficiently long to have affected the chemistry of samples collected at Laxemar and Simpevarp, though there is some possibility that Aevroe samples have been altered, at least for boreholes in the western part of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe. The distribution of flow and discharge areas around the bay at Aespoe is clearly affected by the HRL for all cases. Using the drawdown in percussion drilled boreholes around Aespoe as an interference test suggests that there is a partial reduction in the hydraulic contact between the sea and the groundwater system in the bedrock beneath. It is recommended that the conclusions about appropriate hydraulic properties for Quaternary sediments

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2007 and March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, D.; Haycox, J.; Pettitt, W.S. (Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The experiment has been designed to simulate a disposal tunnel in a real deep repository environment for storage of high-level radioactive waste. The test consists of a 90 m long, 5 m diameter subhorizontal tunnel excavated in dioritic granite. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing.

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between April 2008 and September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, D.; Haycox, J.; Pettitt, W.S. (Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom))

    2009-03-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation [Pettitt et al., 1999], and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation [Haycox et al., 2005a and 2005b; Haycox et al., 2006a and 2006b; Zolezzi et al., 2007 and Duckworth et al., 2008]. Further information on this monitoring can be found in Appendix I. This report covers the period between 1st April 2008 and 30th September 2008 and is the seventh instalment of the 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment.

  2. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  3. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  4. Rock stability considerations for siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. Based on experiences from Aespoe HRL, AECL's URL, tunnelling and mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.D. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Soederhaell, J. [VBB VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 25 years the international nuclear community has carried out extensive research into the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in hard rocks. In two cases this research has resulted in the construction of dedicated underground research facilities: SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden and AECL's Underground Research Laboratory, Canada. Both laboratories are located in hard rocks considered representative of the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields, respectively. This report is intended to synthesize the important rock mechanics findings from these research programs. In particular the application of these finding to assessing the stability of underground openings. As such the report draws heavily on the published results from the SKB's ZEDEX Experiment in Sweden and AECL's Mine- by Experiment in Canada. The objectives of this report are to: 1. Describe, using the current state of knowledge, the role rock engineering can play in siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. 2. Define the key rock mechanics parameters that should be determined in order to facilitate repository siting and construction. 3. Discuss possible construction issues, linked to rock stability, that may arise during the excavation of the underground openings of a KBS-3 repository. 4. Form a reference document for the rock stability analysis that has to be carried out as a part of the design works parallel to the site investigations. While there is no unique or single rock mechanics property or condition that would render the performance of a nuclear waste repository unacceptable, certain conditions can be treated as negative factors. Outlined below are major rock mechanics issues that should be addressed during the siting, construction and closure of a nuclear waste repository in Sweden in hard crystalline rock. During the site investigations phase, rock mechanics information will be predominately gathered from examination and testing of the rock core and

  5. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/5. Models based on site characterization 1986-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, I. [ed.; Gustafsson, Gunnar [VBB Viak AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The pre-investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory were started in 1986 and involved extensive field measurements, aimed at characterizing the rock formations with regard to geology, geohydrology, hydrochemistry and rock mechanics. Predictions for the excavation phase were made prior to excavation of the laboratory which was started in the autumn of 1990. The predictions concern five key issues: lithology and geological structures, groundwater flow, hydrochemistry, transport of solutes and mechanical stability. During 1996 the results from the pre-investigations and the excavation of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory were evaluated and were compiled in geological, mechanical stability, geohydrological, groundwater chemical and transport-of-solutes models. The model concepts and the models of 1996 are presented in this report. The model developments from the pre-investigation phase up to the models made 1996 are also presented briefly. 317 refs, figs, tabs.

  6. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  7. Ototraumatic effects of hard rock music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, R C; Lebo, C P

    1972-01-01

    Temporary and permanent shifts in auditory thresholds were found in 43 hard rock musicians and temporary shifts were also observed in some listeners. The threshold shifts involved all of the conventional puretone test frequencies. Custom-fitted polyvinyl chloride ear protectors were found to be effective in prevention of these noise-induced hearing losses.

  8. Interactions of trace elements with fracture filling minerals from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, O. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on the distribution of stable elements and natural radionuclides (e.g. REEs, Th, Ra, Sr and Cs) in natural fracture systems. They have been redistributed by natural processes in the past; mobilization, transport and deposition of which the latter is manifested as `enrichments` of the elements in fracture fillings. Fillings dominated by Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite and clay minerals show the highest concentrations. Precipitates from different fractures show large variations in concentration levels of trace elements, REE patterns, and activity and activity ratios of natural radionuclides, reflecting variations in physical, chemical and hydrological properties of the fractures. The incorporation of REEs, Sr, Th and U in calcite is significant. The precipitation rate influences the amount of Sr incorporated and probably other elements as well. Clay minerals have high sorption capacity and are important in the retention of Cs and Sr as well as of REEs, Th, U and Ra. The importance of clay minerals in radionuclide retention is emphasized by the results from this study, even small amounts of clay minerals in fractures and fracture zones can significantly influence the radionuclide migration. Accurate determination of quantities and types of clay minerals is therefore very important for radionuclide migration modelling. 58 refs, 14 figs, 12 tabs.

  9. Alteration and diffusion profiles in two drill cores from Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstrom, O.; Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    The effect of hydrothermal and subsequent low temperature alteration/diffusion, and glacial/post-glacial weathering and diffusion have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (BAS 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th.

  10. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  11. Cutting capacity of PDC cutters in very hard rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental programm of investigating the cutting capacity of PDC flat cutters in very hard rock has been performed.Experiments include both the cutting of PDC fixed at different angles on the granite core or bar and linear cutting with different static thrust on the block of granite.The effects of the rough degree of rock surface,cutting angles,and static thrust on the cutting capacity of PDC in very hard rock were investigated and analyzed.The results show that the single mode of rotary drilling using PDC cutters is not applied for very hard rocks.

  12. Prediction of rock brittleness using nondestructive methods for hard rock tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie B. Kaunda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The material and elastic properties of rocks are utilized for predicting and evaluating hard rock brittleness using artificial neural networks (ANN. Herein hard rock brittleness is defined using Yagiz' method. A predictive model is developed using a comprehensive database compiled from 30 years' worth of rock tests at the Earth Mechanics Institute (EMI, Colorado School of Mines. The model is sensitive to density, elastic properties, and P- and S-wave velocities. The results show that the model is a better predictor of rock brittleness than conventional destructive strength-test based models and multiple regression techniques. While the findings have direct implications on intact rock, the methodology can be extrapolated to rock mass problems in both tunneling and underground mining where rock brittleness is an important control.

  13. Prediction of rock brittleness using nondestructive methods for hard rock tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rennie B. Kaunda; Brian Asbury

    2016-01-01

    The material and elastic properties of rocks are utilized for predicting and evaluating hard rock brit-tleness using artificial neural networks (ANN). Herein hard rock brittleness is defined using Yagiz’ method. A predictive model is developed using a comprehensive database compiled from 30 years’ worth of rock tests at the Earth Mechanics Institute (EMI), Colorado School of Mines. The model is sensitive to density, elastic properties, and P-and S-wave velocities. The results show that the model is a better predictor of rock brittleness than conventional destructive strength-test based models and mul-tiple regression techniques. While the findings have direct implications on intact rock, the methodology can be extrapolated to rock mass problems in both tunneling and underground mining where rock brittleness is an important control.

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The use of focused ion beams for structural characterisation of bentonite. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegden, Marie; Kristiansson, Per (Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden)); Svensson, Daniel; Sjoeland, Anders (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    Bentonite clay is planned to be used in the KBS-3 concept for future nuclear high level waste (HLW) repository in Sweden. In the concept the spent nuclear fuel is placed in an iron insert, which is encapsulated in a copper canister. The copper canister is embedded in compacted bentonite and deposited at 500 m depth in granite bedrock. The compacted bentonite will act as a buffer material, giving mechanical support for the copper canister, reducing water movements and capturing potentially escaping radionuclides. Bentonite contains high amounts of smectite minerals (most common is montmorillonite), which are swelling clay minerals. The smectite minerals are layered and have the ability to store water in its structure. This is done by intercalating water between the layers and expanding the interlayer distance. The exceptional swelling capacity makes bentonite a suitable buffer material that works as a sealant and barrier. Heterogeneity in the material, compaction and in swelling may result in porosity, both on the nano- and micrometre scale. This may affect the permeability of the clay and may mediate the transport of radionuclides, cations and corrosion products. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using common ion beam techniques for structural characterisation of bentonite, including studying the mineral composition and the coarse porosity. The analytical techniques used were scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and elastic p-p scattering, performed at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. On-axis STIM analysis was performed in order to measure and map the areal mass density of the sample. Since it was impossible to differentiate an increase in thickness from an area of higher mass density, as well as discerning depth variations, the STIM analysis was also performed in tomographic mode, in an attempt to obtain 3D structural information. The tomographic reconstruction showed that the bentonite had an interesting internal structure, with micrometre-sized features indicating both accessory minerals and potential pores. PIXE analysis was performed subsequently for investigation and mapping of the element distribution in the samples. From these element maps, the different mineral phases and regions suitable for further analysis could be identified. Finally hydrogen analysis was performed with the elastic p-p scattering method, in order to measure the water content in the sample. This method can be useful in further examinations of bentonite, if the variation in porosity is to be studied as a function of the degree of water saturation. This work demonstrates that, in a combination, PIXE, hydrogen analysis and microtomography with the STIM technique, can provide unique information on the internal structure and element distribution in a microscopic bentonite sample. Removal of water from the clay sample will change the clay structure and porosity due to the dehydration of the interlayer space and is hence problematic, however in this feasibility study this problem is neglected.

  15. Performance Assessment of Hard Rock TBM and Rock Boreability Using Punch Penetration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ho-Young; Cho, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Seokwon; Rostami, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    Rock indentation tests are often called punch penetration tests and are known to be related to penetration rates of drilling equipment and hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs). Various indices determined from analysis of the force-penetration plot generated from indentation tests have been used to represent the drillability, boreability, and brittleness of rocks. However, no standard for the punch penetration test procedure or method for calculating the related indices has been suggested or adopted in the rock mechanics community. This paper introduces new indices based on the punch test to predict the performance of hard rock TBMs. A series of punch tests was performed on rock specimens representing six rock formations in Korea with different dimensions, i.e., the core specimens had different lengths and diameters. Of the indices obtained from the punch tests, the peak load index and mean load index showed good correlations with the cutting forces measured in full-scale linear cutting machine tests on the same rock types. The indices also showed good linear correlations with the ratio of uniaxial strength to Brazilian tensile strength, which indicates the brittleness of rock. The scale effect of using core specimens was investigated, and a preferred dimension for the punch test specimens is proposed. This paper also discusses the results of the punch test and full-scale rock cutting tests using LCM. The results of this study confirm that the proposed indices from the punch tests can be used to provide a reliable prediction of the cutting forces that act on a disc cutter. The estimated cutting forces can then be used for optimization of cutter-head design and performance prediction of hard rock TBMs.

  16. New solutions of mining tools for hard rock mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwica, K.; Dasgupta, S. [University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Mining, Dressing and Transportation Machines

    2002-12-01

    This article presents new solutions of mining tools for hard rock mining and the test results of research in the laboratory stand constructed at the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Crakow for cutting of artificial samples of rock with new mining tools. New solutions of rotary picks and non-symmetric disk cutters have been used. During the studies of the pick edge wear, force and mining effect were measured, using several selected mining parameters. Results obtained with new bell-type pick and disc cutters have proved very encouraging. 2 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-05-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than ``good quality`` granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  18. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than good quality'' granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  19. Piping system subjected to seismic hard rock high frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydell, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.rydell@byv.kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Vattenfall AB, SE-169 92 Stockholm (Sweden); Malm, Richard; Ansell, Anders [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A study of the influence of support gaps in the analysis of a piping system. • Piping system located within a nuclear power plant reactor containment building. • Piping system subjected to a seismic hard rock high-frequency load. • Comparison of low- and high-frequency seismic loads. • The influence on the stress response of piping and acceleration response of valves. - Abstract: This paper addresses the influence of support gaps in the analyses of a piping system when subjected to a seismic hard rock high-frequency load. The system is located within the reactor containment building of a nuclear power plant and is assessed to be susceptible to high-frequency loads. The stress response of the pipe and the acceleration response of the valves are evaluated for different support gap sizes. It is shown that the inclusion of the support gaps in the analyses reduces the stress response for almost all pipe elements. On the other hand, the acceleration response of the valves is not necessarily reduced by the consideration of the gaps.

  20. Numerical simulation for rheological characteristics of alternating distribution of soft and hard rock layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing; WANG Zhi-yin; DING Xiu-li; XU Ping

    2006-01-01

    The difficulty of selecting appropriate rheological model and parameters for the alternating distribution of soft and hard rock layers was often encountered due to the unhomogeneity, discontinuity and anisotropy of rock mass. The Burgers and generalized Kelvin models were applied to the soft and hard rock respectively and the rheological parameters were obtained based on the method of optimum separation. By using the simulated code FLAC3D, the stability of surrounding rocks of a certain underground plant was analyzed. The effect of surface load and weakening the parameters intensity of argillaceous and bioclastic interlayers between soft and hard rock on rheological behavior of layer composite rock mass was investigated. The results indicate that the rheological characteristics of soft and hard rock layer in composite rock mass can be described well with above two rheological models.

  1. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling. Preliminary particle mechanical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanne, Toivo; Johansson, Erik; Potyondy, David [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-02-01

    SKB is planning to perform a large-scale pillar stability experiment called APSE (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment) at Aespoe HRL. The study is focused on understanding and control of progressive rock failure in hard crystalline rock and damage caused by high stresses. The elastic thermo-mechanical modeling was carried out in three dimensions because of the complex test geometry and in-situ stress tensor by using a finite-difference modeling software FLAC3D. Cracking and damage formation were modeled in the area of interest (pillar between two large scale holes) in two dimensions by using the Particle Flow Code (PFC), which is based on particle mechanics. FLAC and PFC were coupled to minimize the computer resources and the computing time. According to the modeling the initial temperature rises from 15 deg C to about 65 deg C in the pillar area during the heating period of 120 days. The rising temperature due to thermal expansion induces stresses in the pillar area and after 120 days heating the stresses have increased about 33% from the excavation induced maximum stress of 150 MPa to 200 MPa in the end of the heating period. The results from FLAC3D model showed that only regions where the crack initiation stress has exceeded were identified and they extended to about two meters down the hole wall. These could be considered the areas where damage may occur during the in-situ test. When the other hole is pressurized with a 0.8 MPa confining pressure it yields that 5 MPa more stress is needed to damage the rock than without confining pressure. This makes the damaged area in some degree smaller. High compressive stresses in addition to some tensile stresses might induce some AE (acoustic emission) activity in the upper part of the hole from the very beginning of the test and are thus potential areas where AE activities may be detected. Monitoring like acoustic emissions will be measured during the test execution. The 2D coupled PFC-FLAC modeling indicated that

  2. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  3. Pillar Design in the Hard Rock Mines of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Malan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the difficulties associated with the design of hard rock pillars in South African mines. Recent examples of large scale pillar collapses in South Africa suggest that these were caused by weak partings which traversed the pillars. Currently two different methods are used to determine the strength of pillars, namely, empirical equations derived from back analyses of failed and stable cases and numerical modeling tools using appropriate failure criteria. It is illustrated in the paper that both techniques have their limitations and additional work is required to obtain a better understanding of pillar strength.Empirical methods based on observations of pillar behaviour in a given geotechnical setting are popular and easy to use, but care should be exercised that the results are not inappropriately extrapolated beyond the environment in which they are established. An example is the Hedley and Grant formula (derived for the Canadian uranium mines that has been used for many years in the South African platinum and chrome mines (albeit with some adaptation of the K-value. Very few collapses have been reported in South Africa for layouts designed using this formula, suggesting that in some cases it might yield estimates of pillar strength that are too conservative.As an alternative, some engineers strongly advocate the use of numerical techniques to determine pillar strength. A close examination unfortunately reveals that these techniques also rely on many assumptions. An area where numerical modeling is invaluable, however, is to determine pillar stresses accurately and to study specific pillar failure mechanisms, such as the influence of weak partings on pillar strength.

  4. Experimental study on large diameter drilling in hard rock annular coring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinzhu WU; Guochun YANG; Wenchen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Based on analyzing method of large diameter hard rock drilling at home and abroad, the authors proposed a set of drilling of large diameter hard rock annular coring in low energy consumption, low cost and high efficiency. The prototype of drilling tools was designed and was made. The experimental result of the prototype indicates that this plan and technology are feasible and reach the anticipated object of design. A set of drilling tools has been offered for the constructs of large diameter hard rock coring.

  5. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  6. Applications of NTNU/SINTEF Drillability Indices in Hard Rock Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, S.; Bruland, A.

    2013-01-01

    Drillability indices, i.e., the Drilling Rate Index™ (DRI), Bit Wear Index™ (BWI), Cutter Life Index™ (CLI), and Vickers Hardness Number Rock (VHNR), are indirect measures of rock drillability. These indices are recognized as providing practical characterization of rock properties used in the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) time and cost prediction models available for hard rock tunneling and surface excavation. The tests form the foundation of various hard rock equipment capacity and performance prediction methods. In this paper, application of the tests for tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drill and blast (D&B) tunneling is investigated and the impact of the indices on excavation time and costs is presented.

  7. Dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Ting Feng; Chuanqing Zhang; Shili Qiu; Hui Zhou; Quan Jiang; Shaojun Li

    2016-01-01

    Numerous deep underground projects have been designed and constructed in China, which are beyond the current specifications in terms of scale and construction difficulty. The severe failure problems induced by high in situ stress, such as rockburst, spalling, damage of deep surrounding rocks, and time-dependent damage, were observed during construction of these projects. To address these problems, the dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels is proposed based on the disintegration process of surrounding rocks using associated dynamic control theories and technologies. Seven steps are basically employed: (i) determination of design objective, (ii) characteristics of site, rock mass and project, and identification of constraint conditions, (iii) selection or development of global design strategy, (iv) determination of modeling method and software, (v) preliminary design, (vi) comprehensive integrated method and dynamic feedback analysis, and (vii) final design. This dynamic method was applied to the construction of the headrace tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station. The key technical issues encountered during the construction of deep hard rock tunnels, such as in situ stress distribution along the tunnels, mechanical properties and constitutive model of deep hard rocks, determination of me-chanical parameters of surrounding rocks, stability evaluation of surrounding rocks, and optimization design of rock support and lining, have been adequately addressed. The proposed method and its application can provide guidance for deep underground projects characterized with similar geological conditions.

  8. Numerical simulation study on hard-thick roof inducing rock burst in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何江; 窦林名; 牟宗龙; 曹安业; 巩思园

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal the dynamic process of hard-thick roof inducing rock burst, one of the most common and strongest dynamic disasters in coal mine, the numerical simulation is conducted to study the dynamic loading effect of roof vibration on roadway surrounding rocks as well as the impact on stability. The results show that, on one hand, hard-thick roof will result in high stress concentration on mining surrounding rocks; on the other hand, the breaking of hard-thick roof will lead to mining seismicity, causing dynamic loading effect on coal and rock mass. High stress concentration and dynamic loading combination reaches to the mechanical conditions for the occurrence of rock burst, which will induce rock burst. The mining induced seismic events occurring in the roof breaking act on the mining surrounding rocks in the form of stress wave. The stress wave then has a reflection on the free surface of roadway and the tensile stress will be generated around the free surface. Horizontal vibration of roadway surrounding particles will cause instant changes of horizontal stress of roadway surrounding rocks; the horizontal displacement is directly related to the horizontal stress but is not significantly correlated with the vertical stress; the increase of horizontal stress of roadway near surface surrounding rocks and the release of elastic deformation energy of deep surrounding coal and rock mass are immanent causes that lead to the impact instability of roadway surrounding rocks. The most significant measures for rock burst prevention are controlling of horizontal stress and vibration strength.

  9. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  10. An Estimation Method of Stress in Soft Rock Based on In-situ Measured Stress in Hard Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-ping; LI Xiao-qin; SUN Ru-hua

    2007-01-01

    The law of variation of deep rock stress in gravitational and tectonic stress fields is analyzed based on the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. In the gravitational stress field, the rocks in the shallow area are in an elastic state and the deep, relatively soft rock may be in a plastic state. However, in the tectonic stress field, the relatively soft rock in the shallow area is in a plastic state and the deep rock in an elastic state. A method is proposed to estimate stress values in coal and soft rock based on in-situ measurements of hard rock. Our estimation method relates to the type of stress field and stress state. The equations of rock stress in various stress states are presented for the elastic, plastic and critical states. The critical state is a special stress state, which indicates the conversion of the elastic to the plastic state in the gravitational stress field and the conversion of the plastic to the elastic state in the tectonic stress field. Two cases studies show that the estimation method is feasible.

  11. Protected Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits For Hard Rock Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Lee Cardenas

    2000-10-31

    Two bits were designed. One bit was fabricated and tested at Terra-Tek's Drilling Research Laboratory. Fabrication of the second bit was not completed due to complications in fabrication and meeting scheduled test dates at the test facility. A conical bit was tested in a Carthage Marble (compressive strength 14,500 psi) and Sierra White Granite (compressive strength 28,200 psi). During the testing, Hydraulic Horsepower, Bit Weight, Rotation Rate, were varied for the Conical Bit, a Varel Tricone Bit and Varel PDC bit. The Conical Bi did cut rock at a reasonable rate in both rocks. Beneficial effects from the near and through cutter water nozzles were not evident in the marble due to test conditions and were not conclusive in the granite due to test conditions. At atmospheric drilling, the Conical Bit's penetration rate was as good as the standard PDC bit and better than the Tricone Bit. Torque requirements for the Conical Bit were higher than that required for the Standard Bits. Spudding the conical bit into the rock required some care to avoid overloading the nose cutters. The nose design should be evaluated to improve the bit's spudding characteristics.

  12. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  13. A new technology for hard-rock tunneling based on drilling and hydraulic impact breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Risheng; Sun Shaoni; Lian Zisheng; Liao Yaoyao; Qin Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize the safety, high efficiency and rapidity of hard rock tunneling, we propose the drilling&hydraulic impact hard-rock tunneling (DHIHT) technology and method. Based on the LS-DYNA explicit module and APDL programming, the key parameters of DHIHT, including drilling spacing and drilling radius, were investigated. The simulation results show that: the drilling spacing should not exceed 0.20 m-larger distances weaken the actual breaking effect;the best drilling radius is about 0.035 m, lar-ger or smaller distances would both decrease the effect of drilling-hole free surfaces. The field impact breaking experiments were conducted in Baitaizi township granite quarry, Jinzhou, Liaoning province, China. The experiment results indicate that DHIHT is a feasible method for hard-rock tunneling, but its efficiency still needs to be further optimized and improved.

  14. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.) (Conterra AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  15. Rocks and Other Hard Places: Tracing Ethical Thinking in Korean and English Dialog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Kellogg, David

    2015-01-01

    Researchers into moral education, and ethics educators too, often find themselves between a rock and a hard place. On the one hand, we wish to know what the child will do beyond the narrow range of communicative functions carried out in a classroom, and to do this, we employ purely hypothetical problems, that is, problems that from the child's…

  16. Rheological properties of surrounding rock in deep hard rock tunnels and its reasonable support form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈卫忠; 王清标; 郑朋强

    2016-01-01

    Second lining stability, which is the last protection in tunnel engineering, is critically important. The rheological properties of the surrounding rock heavily affect second lining stability. In this work, we used laboratory triaxial compressive rheological limestone tests to study nonlinear creep damage characteristics of surrounding rock mass in construction projects. We established a nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for the rock mass, as well as a constitutive model numerical implementation made by programming. Second, we introduced a new foam concrete with higher compression performance and good ductility and studied its mechanical properties through uniaxial and triaxial tests. This concrete was used as the filling material for the reserved deformation layer between the primary support and second lining. Finally, we proposed a high efficiency and accuracy staged optimization method. The minimum reserved deformation layer thickness was established as the optimization goal, and the presence of plastic strain in the second lining after 100 years of surrounding rock creep was used as an evaluation index. Reserved deformation layer thickness optimization analysis reveals no plastic strain in the second lining when the reserved deformation minimum thickness layer is 28.50 cm. The results show that the new foam concrete used as a reserved deformation layer filling material can absorb creep deformation of surrounding rock mass, reduce second lining deformation that leads to plastic strain, and ensure long-term second lining stability.

  17. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon; Pettitt, Will; Young, R. Paul [Applied Seismology Consultants Ltd., Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The APSE is being undertaken to demonstrate the current capability to predict spalling in a fractured rock mass using numerical modelling techniques, and to demonstrate the effect of backfill and confining pressure on the propagation of micro-cracks in rock adjacent to deposition holes within a repository. An ultrasonic acquisition system has provided acoustic emission and ultrasonic survey monitoring throughout the various phases of the experiment. Results from the entire data set are provided with this document so that they can be effectively compared to several numerical modelling studies, and to mechanical and thermal measurements conducted around the pillar volume, in an 'integrated analysis' performed by SKB staff. This document provides an in-depth summary of the AE and ultrasonic survey results for future reference. The pillar has been produced by excavating two 1.8 m diameter deposition holes 1 m apart. These were bored in 0.8 m steps using a Tunnel Boring Machine specially adapted for vertical drilling. The first deposition hole was drilled in December 2003. Preceding this a period of background monitoring was performed so as to obtain a datum for the results. The hole was then confined to 0.7 MPa internal over pressure using a specially designed water-filled bladder. The second deposition hole was excavated in March 2004. Heating of the pillar was performed over a two month period between ending in July 2004, when the confined deposition hole was slowly depressurised. Immediately after depressurisation the pillar was allowed to cool with cessation of monitoring occurring a month later. A total of 36,676 AE triggers were recorded over the reporting period between 13th October 2003 and 14th July 2004. Of these 15,198 have produced AE locations. The AE data set

  18. Estimating aquifer properties and distributed groundwater recharge in a hard-rock catchment of Udaipur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Singh, P. K.; Yadav, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    The present study determined aquifer parameters in hard-rock aquifer system of Ahar River catchment, Udaipur, India by conducting 19 pumping tests in large-diameter wells. Spreadsheet programs were developed for analyzing pumping test data, and their accuracy was evaluated by root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R). Histograms and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated non-normality (p value 0.95). Distribution of the aquifer parameters and recharge indicated that the northern portion with high ground elevations (575-700 m MSL), and high S y (0.08-0.25) and T (>600 m2/day) values may act as recharge zone. The T and S y values revealed significant spatial variability, which suggests strong heterogeneity of the hard-rock aquifer system. Overall, the findings of this study are useful to formulate appropriate strategies for managing water resources in the area. Also, the developed spreadsheet programs may be used to analyze the pumping test data of large-diameter wells in other hard-rock regions of the world.

  19. The ICUTROC project - roadheaders for hard rock applications and influences on their cutting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, K.H.; Fuchs, M. [Voest Alpine Bergtechnik Zeltweg, Zeltweg (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The main fields of application for roadheaders have been roadway drivage in coal mines and for mineral production. Their main field of application in tunnelling is in softer and partly friable rock formation. However, in longer tunnel sections excavators with high ripping forces have replaced roadheaders in many situations. The main arguments against roadheaders are: a sharp increase in excavation cost with increasing rock strength and increasing abrasivity; and greater risks in conditions which have not been, or could not be, investigated to a sufficient extent. To address these limitations, factors which could make roadheaders attractive for such conditions and could overcome existing technological difficulties have been investigated. Extension of the economic field of application in hard rock was found to be the most important and the most effective step forward. 9 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. A Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Model of Jointed Hard Rock for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources such as wind and solar are intermittent, which causes instability when being connected to utility grid of electricity. Compressed air energy storage (CAES provides an economic and technical viable solution to this problem by utilizing subsurface rock cavern to store the electricity generated by renewable energy in the form of compressed air. Though CAES has been used for over three decades, it is only restricted to salt rock or aquifers for air tightness reason. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilizing hard rock for CAES is investigated by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM modelling of nonisothermal gas flow. Governing equations are derived from the rules of energy balance, mass balance, and static equilibrium. Cyclic volumetric mass source and heat source models are applied to simulate the gas injection and production. Evaluation is carried out for intact rock and rock with discrete crack, respectively. In both cases, the heat and pressure losses using air mass control and supplementary air injection are compared.

  1. Analysis of potential cave-in from fault zones in hard rock subsea tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B.

    1994-04-01

    As a part of a research program on the rock engineering aspects of hard rock subsea tunnelling, analyses of potential cave-in from fault zones have been carried out at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. This is a topic of great importance for the planning of future subsea tunnels, and particularly for the selection of the minimum rock cover of such projects. The paper is divided into three main parts: a) review of cases of instability in Norwegian subsea tunnels, b) evaluation of theoretical maximum sliding, and c) discussion of cases of cave-in in tunnels under land. In theory, a cave-in during subsea tunnelling may propagate far higher than the normal minimum rock cover. Taking into consideration the comprehensive geo-investigations that are always carried out for subsea tunnel projects today, it would, however, be unrealistic to base the dimensioning of rock cover for future projects on worst-case scenarios. Consequently, the main result of this study is to emphasize the importance of comprehensive geo-investigations, detailed tunnel mapping, a high degree of readiness during tunnelling and a thorough quality control.

  2. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  3. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-07-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  4. SITE-94. Mineralogy of the Aespoe site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

    1996-12-01

    The water composition has several impacts on the repository. It will influence the behaviour of the engineered materials (e.g. corrosion). It may also determine the possible solubility and speciation of released radionuclides. It also acts as a transport medium for the released elements. The groundwater composition and the potential development of the composition due to the presence of the repository as well as due to external variations is thus an important issue in a safety analysis. The development of the groundwater composition is strongly dependent on reactions with the minerals present in water bearing fractures. Here equilibrium chemistry may be of importance, but also reaction kinetics is important to the long-term behaviour. Within the SITE-94 project, a safety analysis is performed for the conditions at the Aespoe site. The mineralogy of the area has been evaluated from drill cores at various places at the site. In this report a recommendation for selection of mineralogy to be used in geochemical modelling of the repository is given. Calcite and iron containing minerals dominate the fracture filling mineralogy at the Aespoe site. Some typical fracture filling mineralogies may be identified in the fractures: epidote, chlorite, calcite, hematite, some illite/smectite + quartz, fluorite, pyrite and goethite. In addition to these a number of minor minerals are found in the fractures. Uncertainties in the fracture filling data may be due to problems when taking out the drill cores. Drilling water may remove important clay minerals and sealed fractures may be reopened mechanically and treated as water conducting fractures. The problem of determining the variability of the mineralogy along the flow paths also remains. This problem will never be solved when the investigation is performed by drilling investigation holes

  5. Ancient microbial activity recorded in fracture fillings from granitic rocks (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, C; Lausmaa, J; Sjövall, P; Toporski, J; Dieing, T; Simon, K; Hansen, B T; Kronz, A; Arp, G; Reitner, J; Thiel, V

    2012-07-01

    Fracture minerals within the 1.8-Ga-old Äspö Diorite (Sweden) were investigated for fossil traces of subterranean microbial activity. To track the potential organic and inorganic biosignatures, an approach combining complementary analytical techniques of high lateral resolution was applied to drill core material obtained at -450 m depth in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. This approach included polarization microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), confocal Raman microscopy, electron microprobe (EMP) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The fracture mineral succession, consisting of fluorite and low-temperature calcite, showed a thin (20-100 μm), dark amorphous layer lining the boundary between the two phases. Microscopic investigations of the amorphous layer revealed corrosion marks and, in places, branched tubular structures within the fluorite. Geochemical analysis showed significant accumulations of Si, Al, Mg, Fe and the light rare earth elements (REE) in the amorphous layer. In the same area, ToF-SIMS imaging revealed abundant, partly functionalized organic moieties, for example, C(x)H(y)⁺, C(x)H(y)N⁺, C(x)H(y)O⁺. The presence of such functionalized organic compounds was corroborated by Raman imaging showing bands characteristic of C-C, C-N and C-O bonds. According to its organic nature and the abundance of relatively unstable N- and O- heterocompounds, the organic-rich amorphous layer is interpreted to represent the remains of a microbial biofilm that established much later than the initial cooling of the Precambrian host rock. Indeed, δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O and ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr isotope data of the fracture minerals and the host rock point to an association with a fracture reactivation event in the most recent geological past.

  6. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Within the scope of work, to provide the necessary rock mechanics support for the site investigations, SKB has studied some available pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements in deep boreholes. A project with the objective to compare three different pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements under similar conditions has been carried out. The main objective for the project is to compare the three different pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements and find a strategy for SKB's Site Investigations to determine the state of stress in the rock mass. Two units of equipment use the overcoring method while the third uses the hydraulic fracturing method. The overcoring was performed by AECL, using Deep Door stopper Gauge System (DDGS), and SwedPower, using their triaxial strain measuring instrument (Borre Probe). MeSy Geo Systeme GmbH performed the hydraulic fracturing. The DDGS system is a new method to SKB while the experience of the SwedPower overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing methods are long. The tests were performed in the same orthogonal boreholes at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Oskarshamn, Sweden. The measured results have been verified against known conditions at the Aespoe HRL. The results from the three in situ stress measurement methods rose more questions than answers. Which illustrate the complexity to determine the in situ stresses in a rock mass. To understand the difference in results and answer the questions, it was necessary to do deeper investigations such as laboratory tests and theoretical calculations such as geological structure model, analysis of the influence of a nearby fracture, P-wave measurements, uniaxial tests on small cores from the HQ-3 core, theoretical and numerical analyses of the hole bottom (theoretical strains, stress concentrations and microcracking), auditing of DDGS measurements results and assumptions in the DDGS analyse and microscopy investigations on the cores. The following

  7. Different spatial discretization methods of fault systems on heat transport processes in hard rock aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Lisa; König, Christoph M.; Becker, Martin; Seidel, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Most hard rock aquifers, which are important for geothermal use, contain fractures of different type and scale. These fault systems are of major significance for heat flow in the groundwater. The hydrogeological characterization of fault systems must therefore be part of any site investigation in hard rock aquifers and hydraulically important fault systems need to be appropriately represented in associated numerical models. This contribution discusses different spatial discretization methods of fault systems in three-dimensional groundwater models and their impact on the simulated groundwater flow field as well as density and viscosity dependent heat transport. The analysis includes a comparison of the convergence behavior and numerical stability of the different discretization methods. To ensure defendable results, the utilized numerical model SPRING was first verified against data from the Hydrocoin Level 1 Case 2 project. After verification, the software was used to evaluate the impact of different discretization strategies on steady-state and transient groundwater flow and transport model results. The results show a significant influence of the spatial discretization strategy on predicted flow rates and subsequent mass fluxes as well as energy balances.

  8. Deciphering groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geospatial technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran A; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas A

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. This paper mainly deals with the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain. Digitized vector maps pertaining to chosen parameters, viz. geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, lineament, relief, and drainage, were converted to raster data using 23 m×23 m grid cell size. Moreover, curvature of the study area was also considered while manipulating the spatial data. The raster maps of these parameters were assigned to their respective theme weight and class weights. The individual theme weight was multiplied by its respective class weight and then all the raster thematic layers were aggregated in a linear combination equation in Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module. Moreover, the weighted layers were statistically modeled to get the areal extent of groundwater prospects with respect to each thematic layer. The final result depicts the favorable prospective zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources especially in hard rock terrains.

  9. High-frequency observations and source parameters of microearthquakes recorded at hard-rock sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranswick, Edward; Wetmiller, Robert; Boatwright, John

    1985-01-01

    We have estimated the source parameters of 53 microearthquakes recorded in July 1983 which were aftershocks of the Miramichi, New Brunswick, earthquake that occurred on 9 January 1982. These events were recorded by local three-component digital seismographs at 400 sps/component from 2-Hz velocity transducers sited directly on glacially scoured crystalline basement outcrop. Hypocentral distances are typically less than 5 km, and the hypocenters and the seven digital seismograph stations established all lie essentially within the boundaries of a granitic pluton that encompasses the faults that ruptured during the main shock and major aftershocks. The P-wave velocity is typically 5 km/sec at the surface and at least 6 km/sec at depths greater than about 1 km.The events have S-wave corner frequencies in the band 10 to 40 Hz, and the calculated Brune model seismic moments range from 1015 to 1018 dyne-cm. The corresponding stress drops are generally less than 1.0 bars, but there is considerable evidence that the seismic-source signals have been modified by propagation and/or site-effects. The data indicate: (a) there is a velocity discontinuity at 0.5 km depth; (b) the top layer has strong scattering/attenuating properties; (c) some source-receiver paths differentiate the propagated signal; (d) there is a hard-rock-site P-wave “fmax” between 50 and 100 Hz; and (e) some hard-rock sites are characterized by P-wave resonance frequencies in the range 50 to 100 Hz. Comparison of this dataset with the January 1982 New Brunswick digital seismograms which were recorded at sites underlain by several meters of low-velocity surface sediments suggests that some of the hard-rock-site phenomena listed above can be explained in terms of a layer-over-a-half-space model. For microearthquakes, this result implies that spectrally determined source dimension scales with site dimension (thickness of the layer). More generally, it emphasizes that it is very difficult to accurately observe

  10. A study on directions of significant efficiency increase of rock fracture by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, L. T.; Klishin, V. I.; Nikitenko, S. M.; Korneyev, V. A.; Korneyev, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the directions of a significant increase in effectiveness of mine rocks destruction by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite materials are reviewed and justified. Designs of mining drill bits with the cutting insert in the form of elliptical Cassinian oval and the asymmetric ring cleaves are suggested. Versions of laboratory stand constructions are developed in order to determine the power consumption of rock destruction.

  11. Monitoring and analysis of nonlinear dynamic damage of transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials in Linglong Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study concentrates mainly on the development of failure process in composite rock mass. By use of acoustic emission(AE), convergence inspection, pressure monitoring, level measurement techniques and the modem signal analysis technology, as wellas scan electron microscopy (SEM) experiment, various aspects of nonlinear dynamic damage of composite rock mass surroundingthe transport roadway in Linglong gold mine are discussed. According to the monitoring results, the stability of the rock mass can besynthetically evaluated, and the intrinsic relation between the damage and the characteristic parameters of acoustic emission can bedetermined. The location of the damage of rock mass can also be detected based on the acoustic emission couple monitoring signals.Finally, the key factors which influence the stability of the transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials are foundout.

  12. Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves in basin and hard-rock sites in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.

    2016-07-01

    We measure ellipticity of teleseismic Rayleigh waves at 95 seismic stations in Northern Italy, for wave period between 10 and 110 s, using an automatic technique and a large volume of high-quality seismic recordings from over 500 global earthquakes that occurred in 2008-2014. Northern Italy includes a wide range of crustal structures, from the wide and deep Po Plain sedimentary basin to outcropping sedimentary and crystalline rocks in the Northern Apennines and Alps. It thus provides an excellent case for studying the influence of shallow earth structure on polarization of surface waves. The ellipticity measurements show excellent spatial correlation with geological features in the region, such as high ellipticity associated with regions of low seismic velocity in the Po Plain and low ellipticity values in faster, hard rock regions in the Alps and Apennine mountains. Moreover, the observed ellipticity values also relate to the thickness of the basement, as highlighted by observed differences beneath the Alps and the Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region show substantial fit, particularly for T ˜ 38 s data. Discrepancy for shorter wave period suggests that slight modifications of the model are needed, and that the ellipticity measurements could help to better constrain the shallow crustal structure of the region. Predictions for the Po Plain are larger than the observations by a factor of four or more and transition from retrograde to prograde Rayleigh wave motion at the surface for periods of T ˜ 10-13 s is predicted for seismic stations in the plain. Analysis of corresponding real data indicates a possible detection of teleseismic prograde particle motion, but the weak teleseismic earthquake signals are mixed with ambient noise signals at the predicted, short, transition periods. Detection of the period of polarity inversion from the joint analysis of earthquake and ambient noise

  13. Hitherto unknown shear rupture mechanism as a source of instability in intact hard rocks at highly confined compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris G.

    2014-05-01

    Today, frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength for confined conditions corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism, the rock failure associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as ‘domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance, self-sustaining stress intensification, and self-unbalancing conditions. Due to this the failure process caused by the mechanism is very dynamic and violent. This makes it impossible to directly observe and study the mechanism and can explain why the mechanism has not been detected before. This paper provides physical motivation for the mechanism, based upon side effects accompanying the failure process. Physical and mathematical models of the mechanism presented in the paper explain unique and paradoxical features of the mechanism. The new shear rupture mechanism allows a novel point of view for understanding the nature of spontaneous failure processes in hard rocks including earthquakes.

  14. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  15. Hard Rock Café Colombia, ejemplo de una franquicia exitosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Besedicheck Prieto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La incursión y expansión de restaurantes y cadenas hoteleras en Colombia ha generado distintas oportunidades de negocio; por lo tanto, es importante analizar desde distintas ópticas este fenómeno, porque éste puede ser una solución empresarial para muchas compañías, inversionistas y personas. Con el auge del comercio internacional y la apertura económica en Colombia han ingresado un gran número de empresas al mercado nacional bajo distintas figuras, dentro de éstas se encuentra la franquicia, que ha permitido el ingreso de compañías de la industria de restaurantes como McDonald’s, Burger King, TGI Fridays, entre otras. En el siguiente artículo se observará una breve muestra del funcionamiento y desarrollo del restaurante Hard Rock Café Bogotá, desde su primer contacto con la casa matriz hasta su apertura y sus eventos durante los últimos 6 años.

  16. Hard Rock Café Colombia, ejemplo de una franquicia exitosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Besedicheck Prieto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La incursión y expansión de restaurantes y cadenas hoteleras en Colombia ha generado distintas oportunidades de negocio; por lo tanto, es importante analizar desde distintas ópticas este fenómeno, porque éste puede ser una solución empresarial para muchas compañías, inversionistas y personas. Con el auge del comercio internacional y la apertura económica en Colombia han ingresado un gran número de empresas al mercado nacional bajo distintas figuras, dentro de éstas se encuentra la franquicia, que ha permitido el ingreso de compañías de la industria de restaurantes como McDonald’s, Burger King, TGI Fridays, entre otras.En el siguiente artículo se observará una breve muestra del funcionamiento y desarrollo del restaurante Hard Rock Café Bogotá, desde su primer contacto con la casa matriz hasta su apertura y sus eventos durante los últimos 6 años.

  17. Selected elements of rock burst state assessment in case studies from the Silesian hard coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KABIESZ Józef; MAKóWKA Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Exploitation of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is conducted in complex and difficult conditions. These difficulties are connected with the occurrence of many natural mining hazards and limitations resulting from the existing in this area surface infrastructure. One of the most important problems of Polish mining is the rock burst hazard and reliable evaluation of its condition. During long-years' mining practice in Poland a comprehensive system of evaluation and control of this hazard was de-veloped. In the paper the main aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation will be presented, comprising: 1) rock mass inclination for rock bursts, I.e., rock strength properties investigation, comprehensive parametric evaluation of rock mass inclination for rock bursts, prognosis of seismic events induced by mining operations, methods of computer-aided modelling of stress and rock mass deformation parameters distribution, strategic rock mass classification under rock burst degrees; 2) immediate seismic and rock burst hazard state evaluation, I.e., low diameter test drilling method, seismologic and seismoacoustic method, comprehensive method of rock burst hazard state evaluation, non-standard methods of evaluation; 3) legal aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation. Selected elements of the hazard state evaluation system are illustrated with specific practical examples of their applica-tion.

  18. Discrete Element Modelling of the Influence of Reinforcement in Structurally Controlled Squeezing Mechanisms in a Hard Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampinos, Efstratios; Hadjigeorgiou, John; Turcotte, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Structurally defined squeezing mechanisms in hard rock mining often result in buckling failures and large deformations. In mining drives, the primary objective is to mitigate and manage, in a cost-effective way, as opposed to arrest the deformation. This paper is a contribution to an improved understanding of the impact of several reinforcement scenarios in structurally controlled deformations in hard rock mines. The influence of reinforcement in the 3D discrete element method is explored, extending previous numerical work that has captured the squeezing buckling mechanism driven by foliation and high stresses in the selected mine site. A comprehensive strategy for explicitly modelling rock reinforcement using the DEM was developed and implemented in a series of 3D numerical models. The models were calibrated based on field testing of reinforcement and observations at the LaRonde Mine. They were used to investigate the influence of different reinforcement strategies at different deformation stages. The numerical results were in agreement with the field observations and demonstrated the practical implications of using yielding reinforcement elements. This was supported by field data where the use of yielding bolts reduced the drift convergence and rehabilitation. The methodology is applicable to other mine sites facing structurally controlled large deformations.

  19. Couple analyzing the acoustic emission characters from hard composite rock fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingping Lai; Linhai Wang; Meifeng Cai

    2004-01-01

    Rock mass is fractured media. Its fracture is a nonlinear process. The accumulation of acoustic emission (AE) is closely related to the degree of damage. The dynamics problem is simply described based on the non-equilibrium statistical theory of crack evolvement, trying to use the hybrid analysis of the statistical theory and scan electron microscopy (SEM), the characters of AE sig nals from rock damage in a mined-out area is synthetically analyzed and evaluated. These provide an evidence to reverse deduce and accurately infer the position of rock fracture for dynamical hazard control.

  20. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology

  1. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology

  2. Stability of High Slope Interbedded Strata with Low Dip Angle Constituted by Soft and Hard Rock Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓荣贵; 周德培; 张倬元

    2002-01-01

    Slopes consisting of interbedded strata of soft and hard rock mass, such as purplish red mudstone and grey-brown arkosic sandstone of Jurassic age, are very common in Sichuan basin of China. The mudstone is soft while the sandstone is hard and contains many opening or closing joints with a high dip angle. Some are nearly parallel and the others are nearly decussated with the trend of the slopes. Many natural slopes are in deformation or sliding because of those reasons. The stability of cutting slopes and supporting method to be taken for their stability in civil engineering are important. In this paper, the stability and deformation of the slopes are studied. The methods of analysis and support design principle are analyzed also. Finally, the method put forward is applied to study Fengdian high cutting slope in Sichuan section of the express way from Chengdu to Shanghai. The results indicate that the method is effective.

  3. Simulations of pressure and salinity fields at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether the geochemical field data from Aespoe could be interpreted and understood by means of numerical simulations for flow and transport. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and salt transport was developed on the basis of the field investigations. Both steady-state and transient simulations of flow and transport were performed. In the transient simulations, land uplift and the effect of diffusion into/from the matrix blocks with stagnant water were taken into account. The computational results were evaluated on the basis of the experimental values for the pressure and salt concentration.

  4. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  5. Hydrogeological and geophysical study for deeper groundwater resource in quartzitic hard rock ridge region from 2D resistivity data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dewashish Kumar; V Ananda Rao; V S Sarma

    2014-04-01

    Electrical resistivity method is a versatile and economical technique for groundwater prospecting in different geological settings due to wide spectrum of resistivity compared to other geophysical parameters. Exploration and exploitation of groundwater, a vital and precious resource, is a challenging task in hard rock, which exhibits inherent heterogeneity. In the present study, two-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography (2D-ERT) technique using two different arrays, viz., pole–dipole and pole–pole, were deployed to look into high signal strength data in a tectonically disturbed hard rock ridge region for groundwater. Four selected sites were investigated. 2D subsurface resistivity tomography data were collected using Syscal Pro Switch-10 channel system and covered a 2 km long profile in a tough terrain. The hydrogeological interpretation based on resistivity models reveal the water horizons trap within the clayey sand and weathered/fractured quartzite formations. Aquifer resistivity lies between ∼3–35 and 100–200 m. The results of the resistivity models decipher potential aquifer lying between 40 and 88 m depth, nevertheless, it corroborates with the static water level measurements in the area of study. The advantage of using pole–pole in conjunction with the pole–dipole array is well appreciated and proved worth which gives clear insight of the aquifer extent, variability and their dimension from shallow to deeper strata from the hydrogeological perspective in the present geological context.

  6. Examination of the Excavation Damaged Zone in the TASS tunnel, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Mats (Swebrec, Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)); Markstroem, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders; Straeng, Malin (Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The question of an existing continuous Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) is very important for SKB. Is it possible to use drilling and blasting in the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel? Could fractures from blasting form a continuous EDZ? In order to increase the understanding of the EDZ and the possibility of an existing continuous EDZ along the deposition tunnel, SKB decided to examine the fracturing in a selected area of the TASS tunnel and to create a 3D model of the fractures in the investigated area. It was of special interest to study the transition zones between the blast rounds to examine if the EDZ from the bottom charges could form a continuous EDZ from one round to another. The TASS-tunnel is situated at the 450-m level in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The tunnel, with a cross-section area of 20 m2, was planned to be 90 m long. In a subproject called Excavation the purpose was to test different plans for drilling, charging and initiation in order to give recommendations on how the final repository of spent fuel should be excavated. The test methodology used in this investigation comprised the following steps: selecting test area, drilling and wire sawing of blocks, surveying the blocks, removal and transportation of the blocks to the surface, cutting the blocks into slabs, fracture identification with penetrants, positioning and photographing the slabs, digitizing and 3D modelling of the fractures. The test area for EDZ consisted of an 8 m long and 1.5 m high section in excavation sequence no 4. The selected section covered the end of round 9, the entire round 10 and the start of round 11. In the contour and the helpers small diameter charges for smooth blasting were used (decoupled charges). These charges also have a relatively low detonation velocity (VOD) and this, together with the decoupling, gives short fracture lengths i.e. a small EDZ. The contour holes and the helpers were initiated with electronic detonators to achieve a simultaneous

  7. Utilization of hard rock dust with red clay to produce roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Shanjida Sultana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of rock dust to produce roof tiles and its effects on properties of tiles, mixed with red clay collected from Naogaon district of Bangladesh were investigated. After proper characterization of the raw materials, tiles were prepared with different percentages of rock dust (10-50% mixed with clay sintered from 850-1100 °C temperature. Rock dust has been found good for using as fluxing material after XRF study. The samples were tested for different properties such as water absorption, porosity, mechanical strength, linear shrinkage, and bulk density. The strength values have exceeded the minimum standard requirement for roof tiles with low water absorption in most samples. The results obtained made it possible to conclude about the possibility of producing roof tiles incorporating up to 40% of rock dust having better properties (lower water absorption 6.5%, strength value 31.97 MPa fired at 900 °C. Therefore these dust acts as a fluxing agent and reducing the sinteringtemperature of the clay material.

  8. Effect of Thiobacillus, sulfur, and vermicompost on the water-soluble phosphorus of hard rock phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Marzieh Mohammady; Lakzian, Amir; Haghnia, Gholam Hosain; Berenji, Ali Reza; Besharati, Hosein; Fotovat, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur, organic matter, and inoculation with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are considered as amendments to increase the availability of phosphorus from rock phosphate. The present study was conducted to evaluate the best combination of sulfur, vermicompost, and Thiobacillus thiooxidans inoculation with rock phosphate from Yazd province for direct application to agricultural lands in Iran. For such study, an experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement: Elemental sulfur originated from Sarakhs mine at three rates, 0% (S1), 10% (S2), 20% (S3), vermicompost at two rates, 0% (V1), 15% (V2), and inoculation without (B1) and with (B2) T. thiooxidans, in three replications. The results showed that water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) content was significantly higher in inoculated treatments compared to non-inoculated treatments. Sulfur had a significant effect on WSP. The highest solubility rate of rock phosphate was obtained in 20% of sulfur (S3) treatments and it was 2.4 times more than S1 treatments. Vermicompost also had a significant and positive effect on WSP of rock phosphate dissolution. The results also revealed that the highest concentration of WSP, sulfate and the lowest pH were obtained in treatments with 20% sulfur, 15% vermicompost inoculated with T. thiooxidans (B2S3V2).

  9. Thiocyanate, calcium and sulfate as causes of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in a hard rock mining effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Gerdes, Robert; Grosell, Martin

    2010-10-01

    A series of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) to identify the cause(s) of observed toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia have been conducted on a hard rock mining effluent. Characteristic of hard rock mining discharges, the effluent has elevated (∼3000 mg l(-1)) total dissolved solids (TDS) composed primarily of Ca(2+) and SO(4)(2-). The effluent typically exhibits 6-12 toxic units (TUs) when tested with C. dubia. Phase I and II toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated Ca(2+) and SO(4)(2-) contributed only ∼4 TUs of toxicity, but this was likely an underestimate due to problems with simulating the supersaturated CaSO(4) concentrations in the effluent. Treatment of the effluent with BaCO(3) to precipitate Ca(2+) and SO(4)(2-) revealed that these ions contribute ∼6 TUs of the observed toxicity, but the remaining source(s) of toxicity (up to 6 TUs) remained unidentified. Subsequent investigations identified thiocyanate (SCN(-)) in the effluent at 100-150 μM. Toxicity tests reveal that C. dubia are sensitive to SCN(-) with an estimated IC25 of 8.3 μΜ for reproduction in moderately hard water suggesting between 12 and 18 TUs of toxicity in the effluent. Additional experiments demonstrated that SCN(-) toxicity is reduced in the high TDS matrix of the mining effluent. Testing of a mock effluent simulating the major ion and SCN(-) concentrations resulted in 10.4 TUs, suggesting that Ca(2+), SO(4)(2-) and SCN(-) are the three toxicants present in this effluent. This research suggests SCN(-) may be a more common cause of toxicity in mining effluents than is generally recognized.

  10. Adsorption and retarded diffusion of EuIII-EDTA- through hard clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descostes, Michael; Pointeau, Ingmar; Radwan, Jean; Poonoosamy, Jenna; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Menut, Denis; Vercouter, Thomas; Dagnelie, Romain V. H.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption and diffusion experiments of EuIII were performed in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock in the presence of EDTA. The predictive model based on binary system parameters (Eu/COx and EDTA/COx) was in good agreement with the results for the Eu/EDTA/COx ternary system. At low EDTA concentrations, the behaviour of EuIII was mainly driven by Eu3+adsorption and complexation by carbonates and EDTA. At higher EDTA concentrations, the behaviour of EuIII was driven by the adsorption of [EuIII-EDTA]- anions. Europium was then used as a probe to estimate the transport of EDTA. Three through-diffusion experiments of EDTA were compared with 14C, Eu and 152Eu tracers. EuIII-EDTA was not quantitatively dissociated by diffusion through the rock. The effective diffusion coefficients quantified De(EuIII-EDTA) = 1.5-1.7 · 1012 m2 s-1 were an order of magnitude lower than that of water, evidencing the anionic exclusion of [EuIII-EDTA]- within the clay rock. Break-through curves and diffusion profiles confirmed retardation due to significant adsorption on the clay rock (Rd(EuIII-EDTA) ∼ 6-14 L kg-1) in comparison with inorganic anions. However, the model based on batch adsorption measurements failed to predict the diffusion results. All experiments displayed an early break-through of EDTA complexes. This behaviour contrasted with results on iron oxides rich sediments, which usually led to higher retardation than expected from the batch studies.

  11. Seagrass on the rocks: Posidonia oceanica settled on shallow-water hard substrata withstands wave stress beyond predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Vacchi, Matteo; Carbone, Cristina; Cabella, Roberto; Schiaffino, Chiara Francesca; Elter, Franco Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Ferrari, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was applied to investigate the role of abiotic constraints in the settlement of Posidonia oceanica on shallow rocks in two coastal areas of the Ligurian Sea (Italy, NW Mediterranean). Meadows developed very shallow upper limits, at 1.5 m depth in both areas, and with a distinctive morphology of stripes growing on rocky outcrops orthogonal to the coastline. Application of a predictive model to indicate the reference condition zone for the meadow upper limit, already validated on meadows developing on soft-bottoms, was not adequate for these rocky substrata as the meadow upper limits were found shallower than model predictions (>5 m depth). Geological and geomorphological characteristics of the rocky shores were analysed through geomechanic and petrographic analyses (i.e. thin sections, SEM analyses, rock hardness tests) whilst the shape and the features of the meadows (i.e. shoot density and maximum leaf length) were assessed through scuba diving surveys. Among the different lithotypes occurring at the sites in the alternating and interbedded outcrops, P. oceanica was passively selected (i.e. due to the seedlings survival and settlement there) on the strongest (i.e. less erodible) lithotypes, whilst the comparatively weaker and more erodible rocks remained unvegetated and covered by a layer of soft-sediments. P. oceanica, settling on specific rocky substrata with favourable lithological and geomechanical characteristics, is able to establish outside the theoretical reference zone predicted by the model for soft sediments due to greater attachment strength and possible resistance to hydrodynamic forces. Combining biological, ecological, mineralogical, geological and geomorphological approaches was effective for explaining the primary role of substratum nature in the spatial variability of seagrass meadows, with geomechanical and lithological characteristics of the rocks being equally important abiotic factors than sedimentological

  12. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using Swedish blast design techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, R.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the third in a series describing research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. A special room, called the CSM/OCRD room, was excavated at the CSM experimental mine for the purpose of assessing blast damage in the rock around the room. Even though this mine is not proposed as a nuclear waste repository site, the instrumentation and methods of blast damage assessment developed in this project are applicable to proposed repository sites. This report describes the application of Swedish blasting technology for the excavation of the test room. The design of the blasting patterns including the selection of explosives, hole sizes and location, explosive loading densities, and delay intervals is based upon the theories of Langefors and Kihlstrom in combination with methods used at the Swedish Detonic Research Foundation for minimizing unwanted rock damage. The practical application of the design procedures to seven rounds and the achieved results is discussed.

  13. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4

  14. Examination of the Excavation Damaged Zone in the TASS tunnel, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Mats (Swebrec, Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)); Markstroem, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders; Straeng, Malin (Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The question of an existing continuous Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) is very important for SKB. Is it possible to use drilling and blasting in the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel? Could fractures from blasting form a continuous EDZ? In order to increase the understanding of the EDZ and the possibility of an existing continuous EDZ along the deposition tunnel, SKB decided to examine the fracturing in a selected area of the TASS tunnel and to create a 3D model of the fractures in the investigated area. It was of special interest to study the transition zones between the blast rounds to examine if the EDZ from the bottom charges could form a continuous EDZ from one round to another. The TASS-tunnel is situated at the 450-m level in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The tunnel, with a cross-section area of 20 m2, was planned to be 90 m long. In a subproject called Excavation the purpose was to test different plans for drilling, charging and initiation in order to give recommendations on how the final repository of spent fuel should be excavated. The test methodology used in this investigation comprised the following steps: selecting test area, drilling and wire sawing of blocks, surveying the blocks, removal and transportation of the blocks to the surface, cutting the blocks into slabs, fracture identification with penetrants, positioning and photographing the slabs, digitizing and 3D modelling of the fractures. The test area for EDZ consisted of an 8 m long and 1.5 m high section in excavation sequence no 4. The selected section covered the end of round 9, the entire round 10 and the start of round 11. In the contour and the helpers small diameter charges for smooth blasting were used (decoupled charges). These charges also have a relatively low detonation velocity (VOD) and this, together with the decoupling, gives short fracture lengths i.e. a small EDZ. The contour holes and the helpers were initiated with electronic detonators to achieve a simultaneous

  15. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  17. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe HRL, LOT project. Final report on the A0 test parcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.; Svaerdstroem, Kjell (KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosborg, Bo (Studsvik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Muurinen, Arto (VTT, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-02-15

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, could be expected to produce minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory are focused on identifying and quantifying any mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks to a total diameter of 30 cm as well as temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity sensors. In each test parcel, an electrical heater placed inside the copper tube is used to simulate the heat generation from the decaying spent fuel. Three test parcels (S1 to S3) have been exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and three parcels (A1 to A3) to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below approx140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (> 5 years) and long term tests (> 10 years). The present report concerns an additional short term test, thereby the designation A0, which was exposed to adverse conditions for approximately 1.5 years. Cu-coupons, 134Cs and 57Co tracers and specific chemical agents were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at the test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses

  18. Heat-energy storage through semi-opened circulation into low-permeability hard-rock aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, Marie; Bour, Olivier; Ausseur, Jean-Yves; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; de la Bernardie, Jérôme; Chatton, Eliot; Lesueur, Hervé; Bethencourt, Lorine; Mougin, Bruno; Aquilina, Luc; Koch, Florian; Dewandel, Benoit; Boisson, Alexandre; Mosser, Jean-François; Pauwels, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    In low-permeability environments, the solutions of heat storage are still limited to the capacities of geothermal borehole heat exchangers. The ANR Stock-en-Socle project explores the possibilities of periodic storage of sensitive heat1 in low-permeability environments that would offer much better performance than that of borehole heat exchangers, especially in terms of unit capacity. This project examines the storage possibilities of using semi-open water circulation in typically a Standing Column Well (SCW), using the strong heterogeneity of hard-rock aquifers in targeting the least favorable areas for water resources. To solve the main scientific issues, which include evaluating the minimum level of permeability required around a well as well as its evolution through time (increase and decrease) due to water-rock interaction processes, the study is based on an experimental program of fieldwork and modelling for studying the thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes involved. This includes tracer and water-circulation tests by injecting hot water in different wells located in distinct hard-rock settings (i.e. granite and schist) in Brittany, Ploemeur (H+ observatory network) and Naizin. A numerical modelling approach allows studying the effects of permeability structures on the storage and heat-recovery capacities, whereas the modelling of reactive transfers will provide an understanding of how permeability evolves under the influence of dissolution and precipitation. Based on the obtained results, technical solutions will be studied for constructing a well of the SCW type in a low-permeability environment. This work will be completed by a technical and economic feasibility study leading to an investment and operations model. This study aims to describe the suitability of SCW storage for shallow geothermal energy. In order to reach these objectives, Stock-en-Socle is constructed around a public/private partnership between two public research organizations, G

  19. The Maar-Diatreme System in a Mixed "Hard/Soft-Rock" Setting: an Example from the Pali Aike Volcanic Field, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpit, S.; Ross, P.

    2009-05-01

    The eruptive processes in diatremes remain poorly understood compared to those at other volcano types, because these processes occur at depth. Except for maar-diatreme volcanoes formed during kimberlitic eruptions, volcanologists agree that these systems are of phreatomagmatic origin. The origin of kimberlitic diatremes is more contentious, but studying non kimberlitic equivalents can be a good approach to better understand kimberlitic diatremes considering their numerous common characteristics. The geometry of maar-diatreme systems is strongly influenced by their setting in "hard-rock" or "soft-rock" environments (Lorenz, 2003, Geolines 15:72-83). Formation of maar-diatreme systems in "hard-rock" environments, like in the West Eifel Volcanic Field of Germany, is largely described in the literature but emplacement in "soft-rock" environments or mixed settings is not. In the case of "hard-rock" environments external water is provided by fracture aquifers. The eruption products are juvenile clasts and country rock fragments. The inner crater walls of the maar, and the diatreme walls, have steep slopes. In the case of "soft- rock" environments, water is contained in the sediment pores and the walls tend to be at lower angles. We recently conducted field work on maars, cinder cones and spatter rings of the Pali Aike Volcanic Field of southern Argentina as part of the Potrok Aike Maar Lake Sediment Archive Drilling Project (PASADO). These Quaternary monogenetic volcanoes were emplaced in a mixed "hard/soft-rock" environment containing young glacial sediments, basaltic lava flows, partly consolidated fluviatile sediments, and older indurated sedimentary rocks. The mixed environment of emplacement is reflected in a phreatomagmatic deposit on the inner slope of a tephra ring exposing some lapilli-tuff layers. The lapilli fraction comprises approximately 40% lithics on average (visual estimate): at least half of the fraction is composed of basaltic lava derived from a pre

  20. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  1. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  2. Influence of intermediate principal stress on failure mechanism of hard rock with a pre-existing circular opening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张社荣; 孙博; 王超; 严磊

    2014-01-01

    Based on particle flow theory, the influences of the magnitude and direction of the intermediate principal stress on failure mechanism of hard rock with a pre-existing circular opening were studied by carrying out true triaxial tests on siltstone specimen. It is shown that peak strength of siltstone specimen increases firstly and subsequently decreases with the increase of the intermediate principal stress. And its turning point is related to the minimum principal stress and the direction of the intermediate principal stress. Failure characteristic (brittleness or ductility) of siltstone is determined by the minimum principal stress and the difference between the intermediate and minimum principal stress. The intermediate principal stress has a significant effect on the types and distributions of microcracks. The failure modes of the specimen are determined by the magnitude and direction of the intermediate principal stress, and related to weakening effect of the opening and inhibition effect of confining pressure in essence:when weakening effect of the opening is greater than inhibition effect of confining pressure, the failure surface is parallel to the x axis (such as σ2=σ3=0 MPa);conversely, the failure surface is parallel to the z axis (such asσ2=20 MPa,σ3=0 MPa).

  3. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  4. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    deal with spatial variability and data uncertainties of the modelling results, and in order to minimise the number of numerical models to run, Monte Carlo simulations are used. The methodology was tested in Sweden on a limited set of data coming from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The mechanical properties of the rock mass were determined in two scales, (I) in a 550 m block in which 'ordinary rock units' and 'deformation zone units' are identified,and (II) in a box located at depth from -380 to -500 m,and divided in 30x30x30 m cubes.

  5. Surface-groundwater interactions in hard rocks in Sardon Catchment of western Spain: an integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.M. Tanvir; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Zhongbo, Su

    2014-01-01

    The structural and hydrological complexity of hard rock systems (HRSs) affects dynamics of surface–groundwater interactions. These complexities are not well described or understood by hydrogeologists because simplified analyses typically are used to study HRSs. A transient, integrated hydrologic model (IHM) GSFLOW (Groundwater and Surface water FLOW) was calibrated and post-audited using 18 years of daily groundwater head and stream discharge data to evaluate the surface–groundwater interactions in semi-arid, ∼80 km2 granitic Sardon hilly catchment in Spain characterized by shallow water table conditions, relatively low storage, dense drainage networks and frequent, high intensity rainfall. The following hydrological observations for the Sardon Catchment, and more generally for HRSs were made: (i) significant bi-directional vertical flows occur between surface water and groundwater throughout the HRSs; (ii) relatively large groundwater recharge represents 16% of precipitation (P, 562 mm.y−1) and large groundwater exfiltration (∼11% of P) results in short groundwater flow paths due to a dense network of streams, low permeability and hilly topographic relief; deep, long groundwater flow paths constitute a smaller component of the water budget (∼1% of P); quite high groundwater evapotranspiration (∼5% of P and ∼7% of total evapotranspiration); low permeability and shallow soils are the main reasons for relatively large components of Hortonian flow and interflow (15% and 11% of P, respectively); (iii) the majority of drainage from the catchment leaves as surface water; (iv) declining 18 years trend (4.44 mm.y−1) of groundwater storage; and (v) large spatio-temporal variability of water fluxes. This IHM study of HRSs provides greater understanding of these relatively unknown hydrologic systems that are widespread throughout the world and are important for water resources in many regions.

  6. Cutting system arrangement method of hard rock boring machine%硬岩掘进机破碎机构布置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛君; 谢春雪; 梁晗; 黄华

    2013-01-01

      Hard rock roadheader is the key equipment in laneway constructions. In view of the traditional point-attack picks sever loss while breaking rocks, this paper put forward a shock and rolling breaking method which utilizes impact mechanism and a rolling mechanism to break rocks. This study analyzed the duration, the reliability and the driving efficiency on the cutter of the hard rock tunnel boring machine, and optimized the relations between the hard rock crushers using multi-disciplinary optimization method. In addition, this paper researched on factors that influence the layout of crushers which include global coordinating optimization as main factor, coordinating the optimization of parameters, the impact parameter, cutting force, cutting parameters and rock properties matching. The results of study show that the arrangement of the hard rock crusher was feasible, and it is optimal in energy consumption, tool wearing, driving efficiency and overall performance.%  针对传统镐齿破碎岩石的损耗严重,提出一种冲击滚压破碎方式。其结构采用冲击机构和滚压机构配合破碎岩石,考虑影响硬岩掘进机刀具的寿命、可靠性、掘进效率因素,采用多学科优化方法构建硬岩掘进机破碎机构布置关系,并以全局协调优化为主导,总体协调优化参数,对破碎机构的布置进行冲击参数、刀具受力、切削参数、围岩属性的匹配研究。研究结果表明:该硬岩掘进机破碎机构布置方法可行,降低了硬岩掘进机能量消耗、刀具的磨损,提高了掘进效率,使整机性能达到最优。

  7. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  8. On the use of borehole radar measurements for 3D assessment of structures in rock volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Construction of a three-dimensional model of an area, for example a site for radioactive waste disposal, requires subsurface extrapolation of surface data and interpolation of subsurface and surface data. Such structural interpretation is based on local information in the perspective of the regional structural setting of the site. The SKB borehole radar, which can detect structures within a radius of 15 to 25 m around the borehole, is one of the most important sources of geometrical information from boreholes. Directional borehole radar measurements produce information on the angle ({alpha}) at which a feature intersects the borehole and the location (azimuth) relative to the borehole. Although the azimuthal information is important for the subsequent interpretation, the critical parameter that determines whether the feature is detected by the radar appears to be the {alpha}-angle. In this paper, the performance of the radar tool concerning {alpha}-angles is studied. The reason for undertaking the study was that predicted low angle intersections between boreholes and structures were not identified. This suggests that the relationship between the sampled population and the target population needs to be investigated. The analysed data sets comprise 307 reflectors from the Romuvaara site in Finland and 307 reflectors from the cored boreholes in the Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe. In the Aespoe bedrock, the shape of the frequency histogram displaying the {alpha}-angles is very consistent throughout the area. A brief comparison of amplitudes and reflectivity shows that the shape of the frequency histogram is tool-dependent rather than depending on the physical properties of the zones. The potential of the borehole radar to detect structures intersecting the borehole at very high angles is low due to the transmitter-receiver configuration of the tool. In the Aespoe radar data, the range of the borehole radar appears to be narrower than expected, with very few radar

  9. The fate of nitrogen and sulfur in hard-rock aquifers as shown by sulfate-isotope tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, Helene, E-mail: h.pauwels@brgm.fr [BRGM, Water Division, BP 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Ayraud-Vergnaud, Virginie [BRGM, Water Division, BP 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)] [CAREN-Geosciences, UMR 6118, Universite Rennes 1-CNRS, Rennes (France); Aquilina, Luc [CAREN-Geosciences, UMR 6118, Universite Rennes 1-CNRS, Rennes (France); Molenat, Jerome [CAREN-UMR INRA-Agrocampus Sol Agronomie Spatialisation, Rennes (France)] [IRD-Laboratoire d' etude des Interactions Sol-Agrosystemes-Hydrosystemes, UMR INRA-IRD-Supagro, Montpellier (France)

    2010-01-15

    Stable SO{sub 4} isotopes ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub -SO4} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub -SO4}), and more occasionally {delta}{sup 15}N{sub -NO3} were studied in groundwater from seven hard-rock aquifer catchments. The sites are located in Brittany (France) and all are characterized by intensive agricultural activity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential use of these isotopes for highlighting the fate of both SO{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} in the different aquifer compartments. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater occurs in the regolith; {delta}{sup 34}S fingerprints the origin of SO{sub 4}, such as atmospheric deposition and fertilizers, and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub -SO4} provides evidence of the cycling of S within soil. The correlation between the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub -SO4} of sulfates and the {delta}{sup 15}N{sub -NO3} of nitrates suggests that S and N were both cycled in soil before being leached to groundwater. Autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification was noted in fissured aquifers and in wetlands, respectively, the two processes being distinguished on the basis of stable SO{sub 4} isotopes. During autotrophic denitrification, both {delta}{sup 34}S{sub -SO4} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub -SO4} decrease due to the oxidation of pyrite and the incorporation of O from the NO{sub 3} molecule in the newly formed SO{sub 4}. Within wetlands, fractionation occurs of O isotopes on SO{sub 4} in favour of lighter isotopes, probably through reductive assimilation processes. Fractionation of S isotopes is negligible as the redox conditions are not sufficiently reductive for dissimilatory reduction. {delta}{sup 34}S{sub -SO4} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub -SO4} data fingerprint the presence of a NO{sub 3}-free brackish groundwater in the deepest parts of the aquifer. Through mixing with present-day denitrified groundwater, this brackish groundwater can contribute to significantly increase the salinity of pumped water from the fissured aquifer.

  10. Use of the {sup 14}C-PMMA and He-gas methods to characterise excavation disturbance in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siitari-Kauppi, M. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Timonen, J.; Laajalahti, M.; Aaltonen, T.; Maaranen, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1999-04-01

    Characterisation of the excavation disturbance caused by boring of experimental full-scale deposition holes in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto was carried out successfully by using two novel methods; the {sup 14}C-PMMA and He-gas methods, which were modified and applied for the first time in this type of study. The experience obtained implies that the techniques are feasible and can be used to study similar types of rock excavation disturbance such as that caused by boring with mini discs, a technique which will be used in the underground Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe during late 1998 and early 1999. Both of the measurement methods have been in continuous use and the work has included development of both the measuring and interpretation techniques. Use of the {sup 14}C-PMMA method is suggested for studies of rock structure and the spatial distribution of porosity. The {sup 14}C-PMMA method also provides quantitative information about nanometer-range porosity which is beyond the scope of most standard methods of microscopic investigation. The use of He-gas methods are proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient, permeability and complementary porosity of rock samples taken from the disturbed zone. (orig.) 23 refs.

  11. Soil formation on hard rock with and without cover of Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits in humid-temperate climate of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    Until the 1960s pedologists in Germany assumed that soils on hard rock in the mountainous regions of Germany developed directly from the underlying hard rock. Then, especially Schilling and Wiefel (1962) in eastern Germany and Semmel (1964, 1968) in western Germany developed, independently from each other, the concept of Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits (PPSD). However, it took several decades until this concept became largely accepted and was also introduced in textbooks and in the German soil and substrate taxonomy. This paper compares soil development on hard rock covered by PPSD in the eastern Rhenish Massif (Germany) to soil development that took place indeed directly on hard rock, in southern Norway, where glaciers removed all loose, weathered material from the rock during the last glacial period. Eight soil profiles developed in PPSD on quartzite and 12 soil profiles developed in PPSD on diabase are compared to four profiles in the Oslofjord region developed from hard rock. Soils were described in the field and analysed with regard to particle size analysis, pH in water, total element composition, Fed, Feo, CEC and base saturation. 1) Podzol developed from medium-grained granite This soil has an age of ca. 10,000 years. An 18 cm thick organic surface layer has accumulated on top of the mineral soil consisting of an E (14 cm) and BCs (14 cm) horizon. Vegetation at the site consists mainly of pine, birch, fir, and blueberry, heather and mosses. 2) Podzol developed from coarse-grained granite This soil has an age of above 11,000 years. The organic surface layer has a thickness of 7 cm; the mineral soil comprises an E (7 cm) and Bs (7 cm) horizon. Vegetation consists mainly of pine, fir, birch, and blueberry, heather, ferns and mosses. 3) Cambic Leptosol developed from Latite This soil has an age of ca. 10,000 years. The thickness of the organic surface layer is 5 cm; the mineral soil comprises an Ah (4 cm) and AB (20 cm) horizon. Vegetation consists

  12. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  13. Investigating the impact of global climatic and landuse changes on groundwater resources in hard rock areas of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrant, S.; Perrin, J.; Marechal, J.; Dewandel, B.; Aulong, S.; Ahmed, S.

    2010-12-01

    In most parts of India, and particularly in South India, groundwater levels are hazardously declining, while agricultural groundwater use is increasing. The current issue is to address the probable evolution of water table levels in relation with climate and agricultural changes. The aim of the SHIVA-ANR project (http://www.shiva-anr.org) is to provide some indicators of the water availability at the village scale to evaluate the vulnerability of farmers facing global changes. This study focuses on a particularly water stressed semi-arid area of South India characterized by hard rock geology with naturally low recharge capacity and limited surface water availability. The study catchment is located in the agricultural area of the Kudaliar river watershed (980km^2) located 50 km north of Hyderabad, India. It is composed of about 120 villages. Socio economic surveys have been carried out at the village scale to evaluate the present socio-economic situation of farmers. It also provides more details on various cultural and irrigation practices at this scale. The landuse has been evaluated by remote sensing with two satellite images, one after monsoon (October 2009), and the other during dry season (March 2010). Groundwater-irrigated rice paddies represent about 10% of the area, whereas rainfed crop (corn and cotton) represent about 45%. Numerous small tanks (reservoir) situated on the river network define a water harvesting system of 2% of the catchment area which captures surface runoff during monsoon. No discharges data are available at the outlet, as the river is dry most of the year. A hydro-geological survey has been carried out to provide a map of aquifer thickness and the general state of the groundwater level before and after monsoon. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model (SWAT) has been calibrated to assess the water budget of the agricultural catchment under present conditions. Soil parameters calibration is made first on seasonal groundwater recharge for

  14. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, that constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimeter-large low-porosity (<6 % metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary permafrost rock samples with a natural texture (>100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to –15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. P-wave velocity increases by 7–78 % when freezing parallel to cleavage/bedding and matrix velocity increases from 5–59 % coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's 2-phase equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the physical basis for refraction seismics in low-porosity bedrock.

  15. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Ove [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Eriksson, Gunda; Sandell, Yvonne [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    The effects of hydrothermal + subsequent low temperature alteration and glacial/post-glacial weathering have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water-conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (Bas 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm-thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th. The altered zone of the YA 1192 core extends to approx. 2.5 cm from the fracture surface. The alteration (mainly plagioclase {yields} albite + sericite + epidote) has resulted in a higher porosity and formation of sorbing secondary minerals (e.g. sericite), favouring matrix diffusion. Increased Br concentrations in the altered zone are indicative of saline water in pores and micro fractures i.e. the presence of a diffusion medium. 234U/238U activity ratios > 1 and increased Cs in the altered zone are then interpreted as diffusion of U and Cs from fracture groundwater and subsequent sorption. The U migration is geologically recent (< 1 Ma). The 2.5 cm altered zone (corresponding to the zone of active matrix diffusion) significantly exceeds the visible red staining zone (0.5 cm) caused by hematite/FeOOH micrograins, emphasizing the need of microscopy to identify zones of alteration. The conspicuous weathering at the BAS 1 site is confined to a narrow rim of the bedrock surface (approx. 0.2-0.5 cm thick). Mass balance calculations for this rim (based on immobility of K) indicate that mechanical erosion has dominated over chemical dissolution processes (is roughly 10 times greater). The chemical weathering has affected mainly plagioclase and chlorite resulting

  16. Choosing between a rock and a hard place: Camouflage in the round-tailed horned lizard Phrynosoma modestum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William E.COOPER; Wade C.SHERBROOKE

    2012-01-01

    The round-tailed horned lizard Phrynosoma modestum is cryptically colored and resembles a small stone when it draws legs close to its body and elevates its back.We investigated effectiveness of camouflage in P.modestum and its dependence on stones by placing a lizard in one of two microhabitats (uniform sand or sand with surface rocks approximately the same size as lizards).An observer who knew which microhabitat contained the lizard was asked to locate the lizard visually.Latency to detection was longer and probability of no detection within 60 s was higher for lizards on rock background than on bare sand.In arenas where lizards could choose to occupy rock or bare sand,much higher proportions selected rocky backgrounds throughout the day;at night all lizards slept among stones.A unique posture gives P.modestum a rounded appearance similar to many natural stones.Lizards occasionally adopted the posture,but none did so in response to a nearby experimenter.Stimuli that elicit the posture are unknown.That P.modestum is better camouflaged among rocks than on bare sand and prefers to occupy rocky areas suggests that special resemblance to rocks (masquerade) enhances camouflage attributable to coloration and immobility.

  17. Microbial O{sub 2} consumption in the Aespoe tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikova, S.; Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    1998-04-01

    The report presents data on microbial O{sub 2} reduction activities by microorganisms obtained with different techniques: Winkler method, gas chromatography, most probable numbering, enrichment technique, inhibitor analysis and radiotracer measurements. The samples were collected from boreholes and open funnel ponds at Aespoe in 1996-1998. The evaluation of the microbial activities in open ponds predicts the future microbial activities after the O{sub 2} intrusion around the future repository. The metabolic potential of the microbial population inhabiting groundwater was evaluated on the basis of electron donors available and microbial 16S rRNA gene diversity. The contribution of different microbial groups to the O{sub 2} reduction was elucidated using specific inhibitors selectively affecting different microbial groups. Our experiments show that microbial O{sub 2} reduction occurs in deep groundwater. Carbon dioxide was produced concurrently with O{sub 2} reduction confirming the biogenic nature of the reduction. The populations developed O{sub 2} reduction rates and capacity depending on the initial concentration of dissolved O{sub 2} reduction. Rates of O{sub 2} reduction ranged from 0.32 to 4.5 {mu}M/day. Depending on temperature and the type of groundwater the approximate time needed for consumption of 500 {mu}M of dissolved O{sub 2} ranged from 0.31 to 3.99 years. After approximately a 2 weeks period the microbial population in vitro was able to consume O{sub 2} both at 30 deg C and 60 deg C. At 16 deg C no delay in O{sub 2} consumption was observed. Our results demonstrated that methanotrophs survive in deep groundwater and that they were induced by O{sub 2}. Some bacteria use Hg or CH{sub 4} as electron donor instead of organic matter, which means that microbial O{sub 2} reduction will occur also in deep groundwaters where the availability of organic carbon is limited. Specific CH{sub 4} oxidation rates ranged between 3.00 and 220 nM CH{sub 4} per litre per

  18. Palaeohydrological implications in the Baltic area and its relation to the groundwater at Aespoe, south-eastern Sweden - A literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, B. [Geokema AB, Lidingoe (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    A literature study of different groundwaters in the circum Baltic region is presented in this work. The study is mainly focused on the isotopic signatures observed in different groundwaters in Sweden and Finland. Several saline groundwaters in the Baltic region at depth of 150 to 500m depth show stable ({delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 18}O) and radiogenic ({delta}{sup 87}Sr) isotope assembly which is suggestive of a marine origin. However, a discrepancy is sometimes observed between the stable as well as radiogenic isotopes of the intermediate groundwater, which suggest a mixture of fossil marine water and a post-glacial runoff of melt water. In order to explain this phenomenon, the initial setting in {delta}{sup 18}O may have been depleted due to large input of high latitude marine water or cold melt waters. A solution to the contradiction between the strontium ({delta}{sup 87}Sr) and stable isotope ({delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 18}O) signatures of the groundwater and of the calcite fracture fillings at Aespoe and other places is attained, if it is assumed that the strontium in Baltic Sea water has undergone a significant decrease in {delta}{sup 87}Sr since the last glaciation. A scenario can be constructed to suggest that the Baltic Sea during the initial stage of the Litorina sea (8000 to 5000 Y B.P.) contained strontium with much larger {delta}{sup 87}Sr values. Another explanation for the positive {delta}{sup 87}Sr values may be due to water/rock interaction between the groundwater and the abundant fracture clay minerals, which are observed at Aespoe. Typically most of the saline groundwaters occur both in Sweden and Finland below the highest marine shore line during the Holocene. Almost all inland groundwaters show a totally different pattern which is typically non marine, meteoric in origin. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, which constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These studies explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no significant velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimetre-large low-porosity (< 10% metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rock samples from permafrost sites with a natural texture (> 100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to −15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. When freezing, p-wave velocity increases by 11–166% perpendicular to cleavage/bedding and equivalent to a matrix velocity increase from 11–200% coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's two-phase-equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the general applicability of refraction seismics to differentiate frozen and unfrozen low-porosity bedrock.

  20. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  1. Integrating gamma log and conventional electrical logs to improve identification of fracture zones in hard rocks for hydrofracturing: a case study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amartey, E. O.; Akiti, T. T.; Armah, T.; Osae, S.; Agyekum, W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrofracturing of low-yielding boreholes in hard rocks is a widely used technique in Africa for improvement of yield, thus making them qualified for installation of a hand-pump for domestic water supply. However, the success rate of the hydrofracturing campaigns seems not to be that high as generally claimed by contractors. One reason amongst others might be that the selection of zones for hydrofracturing in the individual borehole is based on pre-hydrofracturing investigation using conventional electrical logs only. Thereby, the zones selected are the occurring resistivity minima interpreted as weak zones with some fracturing. However, resistivity minima can also be caused solely by lithological reasons, which then in most cases could have been seen on a gamma log as corresponding increased gamma radiation. The advantages of using gamma logging in combination with conventional electrical logging technique for prediction of fractured zones in basement rocks is illustrated by investigations of three low-yielding boreholes located in different geological environments in crystalline basement rocks in Ghana.

  2. Hydrogeologic Prospection With Vlf (very Low Frequency) In A Low Potential Hard Rock Aquifer Near Beja (south Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J.

    The use of geophysics prospection in hydrogeology is widely used as a way to find groundwater under difficult hydrogeologic potential rocks. The porphyric rocks lay- ered in the northern part of Beja city, are the most unproductive regional aquifer. Usu- ally this aquifer has an upper layer of 5 to 15 meters deep of weathered rock and a second layer build by fractures rock till 30 metres deep. Above this deep the probabil- ity to find groundwater is extremely low. For instance it is a very superficial aquifer that usually accomplish the topographic surface. The water use is essential for human purposes and here are used mainly for human and cattle supply. In order verify the goodness of a geophysic method and at the same time to supply a large farm called Herdade da Apariça, it was performed the geophysical method of Very Low Frequency (VLF-EM) with ABEM (WADI) equipment, in three areas previously defined by inter- pretation of aerial photography, as zones that have relative hydrogeological potential. It was performed a total of 5 profiles with 1970 m. The geophysic prospecting and hydrogeologic research allowed to drill 5 boreholes, being 4 extraction wells and 1 piezometric well. The productivity of the abstraction wells are between 2,000 L/h and 10,000 L/h, which is a very good yield when compared with the other yield values get from wells inside this aquifer. VLF proved in this conditions to be an essential tool to increment the tax success of drilling wells.

  3. Utilizing partial least square and support vector machine for TBM penetration rate prediction in hard rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高栗; 李夕兵

    2015-01-01

    Rate of penetration (ROP) of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) in a rock environment is generally a key parameter for the successful accomplishment of a tunneling project. The objectives of this work are to compare the accuracy of prediction models employing partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machine (SVM) regression technique for modeling the penetration rate of TBM. To develop the proposed models, the database that is composed of intact rock properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), and peak slope index (PSI), and also rock mass properties including distance between planes of weakness (DPW) and the alpha angle (α) are input as dependent variables and the measured ROP is chosen as an independent variable. Two hundred sets of data are collected from Queens Water Tunnel and Karaj−Tehran water transfer tunnel TBM project. The accuracy of the prediction models is measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean squares error (RMSE) between predicted and observed yield employing 10-fold cross-validation schemes. The R2 and RMSE of prediction are 0.8183 and 0.1807 for SVMR method, and 0.9999 and 0.0011 for PLS method, respectively. Comparison between the values of statistical parameters reveals the superiority of the PLSR model over SVMR one.

  4. Sealing of 300 mm boreholes KXTT3 and KXTT4 at Aespoe HRL. Report of Subproject 3 of Borehole sealing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of two moderately dipping 300 mm diameter holes that had been bored from a niche adjacent to the ramp in the Aespoe URL in conjunction with earlier geohydrological investigations (TRUE Project, Winberg et al. 2000) was successfully completed in early 2010. The work was preceded by a pilot test on the ground surface for investigating if a simple version of sealing by pressing down clay pellets into clay mud is feasible. The borehole was simulated by a steel tube that was filled with smectite mud in which a cage filled with clay pellets was moved down. The experience from this experiment was that the mud used was somewhat too stiff and that strong vibration significantly reduced its viscosity but not sufficiently much. The predicted average density at water saturation was 1,780 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,240 kg/m{sup 3}). The finally selected sealing method comprised casting of concrete plugs where the inflow of water was significant (up to 30 l/min), and to install precompacted blocks of smectite-rich clay where the rock was 'dry'. The finally matured clay plugs will have a density of around 2,000 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,580 kg/m{sup 3}) and a hydraulic conductivity of less than E-12 m/s, which is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the bulk conductivity of the surrounding rock mass (Pusch 2008). This provides excellent sealing of all parts of the holes deeper than about 1-2 m below the tunnel floor. Groundwater flow in the rock around the clay plugs can cause some minor erosion but this effect is deemed negligible considering the coagulating effect on released clay particles by the brackish Aespoe water. Inspection of the closed upper borehole ends showed accumulation of some very dilute mineral suspension after a few days. A careful analysis of the mineral content showed that it did not contain smectite particles, hence certifying that erosion of the clay plugs in the holes had not taken place. The particles were

  5. A CUSP CATASTROPHE, PRECURSORS PATTERN ANDEVOLUTION PROCESS OF ROCKBUST OF COAL PILLARUNDER A HARD ROCK SUBJECT TO ELASTIC SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曾和; 徐小荷

    1996-01-01

    The rockburst of the coal pillar under a thick hard roof stratum is modelled as the instability failure problem of coal pillars under strata subject to elastic support. The instability mechanism of rockburst is studied by applying cusp catastrophic theory. The effects of the stiffness ratio of the system and loads imposed on the system on the rockburst are explicated.The factors affecting rockbursts are discussed. Based on them, the "evolution process, the forewarning regularity and forewarning sings of rockbursts are studied. It is indicated that the subsidence velocity of roof stratum, which increases quickly and tends to infinity, is the forewarning measurable signs of the rockbursts of coal pillar.

  6. Assessment of groundwater potential based on aquifer properties of hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. Jeyavel Raja; Balasubramanian, A.; Kumar, R. S.; Dushiyanthan, C.; Thiruneelakandan, B.; Suresh, R.; Karthikeyan, K.; Davidraju, D.

    2016-06-01

    Aquifer performance was tested in 24 locations to assess the groundwater potential of the hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed of the Tambaraparani River basin. Geologically, the area consists of biotite gneiss, charnockite, and quartzite. The aquifer characteristics, such as transmissivity ( T), the storage coefficient, specific capacity, optimum yield, and the recovery rate were calculated. The drawdown transmissivity was determined using Jacob's straight-line method, while the recovery transmissivity was determined by the Theis method. The drawdown transmissivity was low in the western areas, particularly at Kadayanallur, and was higher in the other areas. The recovery transmissivity was high in the western area, and, with the exception of Gangaikondan, was low at other locations. The assessment indicates that there is groundwater potential in the western part of the study area because of favorable results for recovery drawdown, aquifer thickness, and specific capacity.

  7. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  8. Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: a case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimha, A.; Sudarshan, V.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation has been carried out in the granitic terrain of Siddipet area, Medak district, Telangana State, India with an aim to understand the distribution of fluoride in the groundwater and to understand the relationship of fluoride with other major ions, and also to identify the high fluoride-bearing groundwater zones. 104 groundwater samples were analyzed in the study area for fluoride and other major ions like calcium, magnesium, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and nitrate in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The studies revealed that the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is ranging from 0.2 to 2.2 mg L-1 with a mean of 1.1 mg L-1. Nearly 22 % of groundwater has more than the permissible limit of fluoride (1.5 mg L-1), which is responsible for the endemic dental fluorosis in the area concerned. Geochemical classification of groundwater shows that Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3-Na are the dominant hydrochemical facies. Gibbs diagram shows rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance, which are responsible for the change in the quality of water in the hard rock aquifer of the study area. The groundwater in villages and its environs are affected by fluoride contamination, and consequently majority of the population living in these villages suffer from dental fluorosis. Hence, they are advised to consume drinking water which has less than 1.5 mg L-1 fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  9. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Acharya; Rajesh Prasad; S Chakrabarti

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance () of fracture datasets of each domain. The is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  10. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Stephansson, Ove; Stenberg, Leif; Plenkers, Katrin; Specht, Sebastian; Milkereit, Claus; Schill, Eva; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Zimmermann, Günter; Dahm, Torsten; Weber, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multistage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, that is, seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocentres obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multistage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broad-band recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events are found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with

  11. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, A.; Stephansson, O.; Stenberg, L.; Plenkers, K.; Specht, S.; Milkereit, C.; Schill, E.; Kwiatek, G.; Dresen, G.; Zimmermann, G.; Dahm, T.; Weber, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, i.e. seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive, pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocenters obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broadband recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events is found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with frequent

  12. Establishment of earth tides effect on water level fluctuations in an unconfined hard rock aquifer using spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Ahmed, Shakeel; Lachassagne, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Short-interval water level measurements using automatic water level recorder in a deep well in an unconfined crystalline rock aquifer at the campus of NGRI, near Hyderabad shows a cyclic fluctuation in the water levels. The observed values clearly show the principal trend due to rainfall recharge. Spectral analysis was carried out to evaluate correlation of the cyclic fluctuation to the synthetic earth tides as well as groundwater withdrawal time series in the surrounding. It was found that these fluctuations have considerably high correlation with earth tides whereas groundwater pumping does not show any significant correlation with water table fluctuations. It is concluded that earth tides cause the fluctuation in the water table. These fluctuations were hitherto unobserved during manual observations made over larger time intervals. It indicates that the unconfined aquifer is characterised by a low porosity.

  13. Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ.

  14. A physical basis for Ms-yield scaling in hard rock and implications for late-time damage of the source medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Howard J.

    2016-07-01

    Surface wave magnitude Ms for a compilation of 72 nuclear tests detonated in hard rock media for which yields and burial depths have been reported in the literature is shown to scale with yield W as a + b × log[W], where a = 2.50 ± 0.08 and b = 0.80 ± 0.05. While the exponent b is consistent with an Ms scaling model for fully coupled, normal containment-depth explosions, the intercept a is offset 0.45 magnitude units lower than the model. The cause of offset is important to understand in terms of the explosion source. Hard rock explosions conducted in extensional and compressional stress regimes show similar offsets, an indication that the tectonic setting in which an explosion occurs plays no role causing the offset. The scaling model accounts for the effects of source medium material properties on the generation of 20-s period Rayleigh wave amplitudes. Aided by thorough characterizations of the explosion and tectonic release sources, an extensive analysis of the 1963 October 26 Shoal nuclear test detonated in granite 27 miles southeast of Fallon NV shows that the offset is consistent with the predictions of a material damage source model related to non-linear stress wave interactions with the free surface. This source emits Rayleigh waves with polarity opposite to waves emitted by the explosion. The Shoal results were extended to analyse surface waves from the 1962 February 15 Hardhat nuclear test, the 1988 September 14 Soviet Joint Verification Experiment, and the anomalous 1979 August 18 northeast Balapan explosion which exhibits opposite polarity, azimuth-independent source component U1 compared to an explosion. Modelling these tests shows that Rayleigh wave amplitudes generated by the damage source are nearly as large as or larger than amplitudes from the explosion. As such, destructive interference can be drastic, introducing metastable conditions due to the sensitivity of reduced amplitudes to Rayleigh wave initial phase angles of the explosion and

  15. UNDERSTANDING HARD ROCK HYDROGEOLOGY THROUGH AN EXPERIMENTAL HYDROGEOLOGICAL PARK IN SOUTH INDIA: Site development and investigations on the major role of the fractured zone in crystalline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Guiheneuf, N.; Boisson, A.; Marechal, J.; Chandra, S.; Dewandel, B.; Perrin, J.

    2012-12-01

    In water stressed south India most of the groundwater used for irrigation is pumped from crystalline rocks aquifers. In those structures groundwater flow dominantly occur in a shallow higher-permeability zone that overlies a deeper lower-permeability zone hosting little flow. The fractured zone of the weathering profile plays an important role for groundwater. In order to understand clearly this impact on water availability and quality changes the Experimental Hydrogeological Park at Choutuppal, Andhra Pradesh, India is developed in the framework of the SORE H+ network. Several hydraulic tests (injection, flowmeter profiles, single-packer tests…) and geophysical measurements (ERT, Borehole logging…) are carried out on the site in order to characterize the depth-dependence of hydrodynamic parameters in the Indian Archean granite. Specific investigation on a borewell through packer tests demonstrate that the most conductive part of the aquifer corresponds to the upper part of the fractured layer, located just below the saprolite bottom, between 15 meters and 20 meters depth. There is no highly conductive fracture beyond 20 meters depth and no indication for any conductive fracture beyond 25 meters depth. Packer tests show that the upper part of the fractured layer (15-20 m depth) is characterized by a good vertical connectivity. On the contrary, the tests carried out below 20 m depth show no vertical connectivity at all. The geometry of the fracture network and associated hydrodynamic parameters are in agreement with the conceptual model of hard-rock aquifers that derive its properties from weathering processes. The general existence of such a highly conductive structure at the top of the fractured zone has a great impact on water prospection and exploitation in such crystalline aquifers.

  16. A Novel Mogi Type True Triaxial Testing Apparatus and Its Use to Obtain Complete Stress-Strain Curves of Hard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Zhang, Xiwei; Kong, R.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    A true triaxial apparatus (TTA) was designed and fabricated at Northeastern University, Shenyang, China, by modifying the original Mogi type testing apparatus to emulate three-dimensional stress paths in deep mining and tunneling excavations. Such an apparatus can be used to investigate deformation and brittle failure behaviors of hard rocks as well as the cause of rockbursts. The novel TTA can capture the post-peak behavior of a 50 × 50 × 100 mm3 specimen. Technical improvements such as a considerable increase of the stiffness of the loading frames were implemented to deal with difficulties in TTA testing. The accuracy of the volume change measurement was improved and a combined pneumatic and hydraulic technique was applied to create a "floating" vertical loading frame. The end friction effect and the loading gap effect were evaluated using a series of tests. Repeatability tests, brittle failure tests in a loading stress path and an unloading stress path (unloading of σ 3) were carried out on granite specimens to verify the performance of the TTA. The test results show that the apparatus achieves its original design goal.

  17. Groundwater potentiality mapping of hard-rock terrain in arid regions using geospatial modelling: example from Wadi Feiran basin, South Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Mohamed O.

    2016-09-01

    Identifying a good site for groundwater exploitation in hard-rock terrains is a challenging task. In Sinai, Egypt, groundwater is the only source of water for local inhabitants. Interpretation of satellite data for delineation of lithological units and weathered zones, and for mapping of lineament density and their trends, provides a valuable aid for the location of groundwater promising areas. Complex deformational histories of the wide range of lithological formations add to the difficulty. Groundwater prospect mapping is a systematic approach that considers the major controlling factors which influence the aquifer and quality of groundwater. The presented study aims to delineate, identify, model and map groundwater potential zones in arid South Sinai using remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) to prepare various hydromorphogeological thematic maps such as maps of slope, drainage density, lithology, landforms, structural lineaments, rainfall intensity and plan curvature. The controlling-factor thematic maps are each allocated a fixed score and weight, computed by using a linear equation approach. Furthermore, each weighted thematic map is statistically computed to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories (very poor, poor, moderate, good and very good) and were validated using the relation between the zone and the spatial distribution of productive wells and of previous geophysical investigations from a literature review. The results show the groundwater potential zones in the study area, and create awareness for better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  18. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C

    2016-04-01

    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  19. Hard Roof Control of Extended Working Face with Shallow Depth and Rock Burst Hazard%浅埋冲击危险性加长工作面坚硬顶板控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书敬

    2016-01-01

    In order to control the hard roof of extend working face with rock burst hazard effectively, based on support pressure moni-toring, microseism monitoring, numerical simulation and composite index evaluation, filed test of rock pressure of extend working face with hard roof, numerical calculation of treatment scope in roof that overhead the pillar and evaluation of working face rock burst hazard were carried out, then practiced in filed. The research results showed that extend working face experienced the following characters, which included the middle rock burst hazard, hard roof moved violently, stress change and regional deformation of roadway and so on. In ’ single face square’ zone, strata energy of hard roof released concentration, roadway deformation largely, high stress concen-tration appeared in coal pillar, then the treatment scope of hard roof in different zone was confirmed, advanced presplit blasting in deep was practiced in filed, the problem of hard roof and rock burst hazard were controlled effectively.%为实现冲击危险性加长工作面坚硬顶板的有效控制,采用支架压力监测、微震监测、数值模拟和综合指数评价的方法,开展加长工作面坚硬顶板条件矿压显现规律现场实测、煤柱上方顶板处理范围的数值计算以及工作面冲击地压危险评价,并进行了现场实践。研究表明,加长工作面具有中等冲击危险,坚硬顶板活动剧烈程度、应力变化、巷道变形具有区域性,在“单面见方”等区域,坚硬顶板岩层能量集中释放,巷道变形量大,煤柱应力集中程度高,确定了不同区域坚硬顶板处理范围,开展了超前深孔预裂爆破的现场实践,使坚硬顶板问题与冲击地压危险得到有效地控制。

  20. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  2. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 4. Source data and detailed analysis procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.E. [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Specific procedures and source data are described for the construction and application of discrete-feature hydrological models for the vicinity of Aespoe. Documentation is given for all major phases of the work, including: Statistical analyses to develop and validate discrete-fracture network models, Preliminary evaluation, construction, and calibration of the site-scale model based on the SITE-94 structural model of Aespoe, Simulation of multiple realizations of the integrated model, and variations, to predict groundwater flow, and Evaluation of near-field and far-field parameters for performance assessment calculations. Procedures are documented in terms of the computer batch files and executable scripts that were used to perform the main steps in these analyses, to provide for traceability of results that are used in the SITE-94 performance assessment calculations. 43 refs.

  3. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  4. Importance of Joint Spacing and Rock Hardness on the Pattern and Efficiency of Glacial Erosion in Alpine Settings: an Example From Yosemite National Park, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.; Ward, D. J.; Stock, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    Two topics of interest in alpine glacial valleys can be explored by sampling glacial polish for cosmogenic 10Be dating. First, deglaciation histories can be reconstructed if the sample surfaces are fully reset by glacial erosion during the last glacial cycle. Second, samples that are not completely reset can be used to document the pattern and rates of glacial erosion. We systematically sampled glacially-polished bedrock surfaces in the Tuolumne River watershed in Yosemite National Park, a landscape renowned for its glacially polished granites and granodiorites, for cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating. The samples were collected along an 80 km transect from the Tuolumne River drainage divide at 4000 m down to an elevation of 730 m just below Hetch Hetchy reservoir. The lowest sample position corresponds to the glacier terminus in the Tuolumne valley during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Samples were taken from at least eight different granitic/granodioritic units, which show differences in their hardness and joint spacing. These included the massive, flawless Cathedral Peak granodiorite and El Capitan granite. When inverted for exposure age, 17 out of our total of 23 measured 10Be samples yield ages between 3 and 20 ka ignoring any correction for snow shielding. These ages young from 15 ka to 3 ka with distance upvalley from the LGM terminal position. These samples constrain the post-LGM deglaciation history of the valley when the snow shielding correction is included. This pattern of fully reset samples is, however, interrupted at six sample locations with anomalously high concentrations of 10Be that far exceed those expected from exposure since deglaciation between 20 and 15 ka. These samples with significant inheritance all come from the poorly jointed, massive Cathedral Peak granodiorite and El Capitan granite. We interpret our results as indicating that rock type plays an important role in glacial erosion, and that in particular joint spacing strongly controls

  5. High spatial variability of nitrate in the hard rock aquifer of an irrigated catchment: Implications for water resource assessment and vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, Muddu; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri S.; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Praveen, Yerabham; Hemanth, Moger; Durand, Patrick; Braun, Jean Jacques

    2016-04-01

    groundwater gradient was high, NO3 concentrations were low to moderate, suggesting that significant lateral flow prevented NO3 enrichment; iii) Finally, low NO3 concentrations were also found in situations where gradient was small but groundwater was shallow and hence reserve was large: these zones are potentially vulnerable to intensification of pumping and fertilizer application. Subsequent decline in groundwater level would then lead to rapid degradation of groundwater quality. We propose that the groundwater level and gradient mapping could be used in hard rock aquifers to delineate zones affected or vulnerable to intensification of irrigated agriculture. Wells located in low gradient zones are suitable for assessing the impacts of local agricultural systems. To the contrary, wells located in zones with high gradient (well mixed) are more representative of the average groundwater quality of the catchment, and hence should be used in priority for regional mapping of groundwater quality.

  6. 磨料射流联合机械齿提高硬岩钻进效率研究%Combined drilling of hard rock with abrasive water jet and mechanical bit to improve drilling efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    A dense “boss” in the hole bottom by the conventional drilling in the hard rock requires a more efficient drilling technique with slow bit wear, a new kind of hard rock combined drilling method with the abrasive water jet and mechanical bit is developed in this paper. In this method, it is proposed to introduce the abrasive water jet to erode the “boss” for a “pilot hole”, and then the drilling mechan-ism of conventional rotating bit is changed to improve the hard rock drilling efficiency. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the new drilling method to improve drilling efficiency in hard rock was revealed by using fracture mechanics theory and energy conservation principle. Moreover, by designing a hard rock breaking bit and a set of hard rock combined drilling equipment system, a series of comparative expe-riments between the new and conventional techniques were conducted. The results show that the drilling depth has increased by about 63%, the axial force and torque have reduced by about 15% and 20% re-spectively, and the bit wear is reduced significantly.%  针对煤矿中穿硬质岩层钻孔预抽瓦斯时钻进困难这一问题,在理论分析孔底“凸台”的形成是导致传统旋转钻头钻进困难主要原因基础上,提出了磨料射流联合机械齿钻进硬岩新方法,即利用磨料射流强大的冲蚀能力,预先消除“凸台”,形成先导孔,进而改变传统旋转钻头钻岩机理,达到提高硬岩钻进效率目的。利用断裂力学理论与能量守恒原理揭示了磨料射流联合机械齿提高硬岩钻进效率机理。设计发明了一种破碎硬岩钻头,总成了一套联合钻进硬岩实验系统,并完成了一系列新技术与现有技术的对比实验研究。结果表明,相同条件下,钻头钻进效率较现有技术条件提高63%,承受轴向力与扭矩分别下降约15%和20%,钻头磨损明显减轻。

  7. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Proyecto de inversión para la implementación de la franquicia hard rock café en la ciudad de Guayaquil.

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Mina, Yadira Elizabeth; Melissa Katiuska, Cruz Villacis; García Salguero, Geovanny Byron

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto surge como una solución a todas esas personas amantes del Rock, de la comida americana, a un buen ambiente decorado cuidadosamente sin perder su espiritú que es el Rock, ya que a la hora de divertirse no encuentran el lugar adecuado que cumpla con todas sus exigencias y terminan frecuentando los mismos lugares de siempre y en muchos casos deciden quedarse en casa. De modo que el espíritu empresarial juega un papel muy importante en la economía del país, es por esta razón, que no...

  9. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Hard rock drilling: from conventional technologies to the potential use of laser; Perfuracao em rochas duras: das tecnologias convencionais ate o potencial uso do laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Renato; Lomba, Rosana Fatima Teixieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Maria Angelica Acosta; Valente, Luiz Carlos Guedes; Braga, Arthur Martins Barbosa [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the drilling of the carbonate rocks of the Pre-salt is to overcome the low penetration rates that have been obtained in the drilling of the reservoir rock in the vertical and directional wells. To overcome this challenge, a great effort is being developed in several lines of research, both in developing new concepts in drill bits and in the selection of a drilling system that together with appropriate type of bit provide an expected improvement in performance. To achieve these results, procedures are being prioritized and drilling systems with lower vibration levels are being used, since this phenomenon of vibration reduces the performance of penetration rate also affecting the lifetime of the equipment and consequently causes a reduction in reliability of all system and raises the cost per meter of drilling. Thus, new drill bit technology and new drilling systems are under development and, among these technologies we can distinguish those that promote improvements in conventional technologies and innovative technologies frankly which uses new mechanisms to cut or weaken the rock. This paper presents an overview of the conventional technology of drilling systems and drill bits, and provides information about the researches that have been developed with the use of innovative technologies which is presented as highly promising, among these innovative technologies, laser drilling and the drilling itself assisted by laser. In this process the laser beam has the main function to weaken the rock improving the rate of penetration. This paper presents a summary of studies and analyzes which are underway to investigate the potential of laser technology, also presents some results of laboratory tests already carried out. The drilling fluid in which the laser will have to pass through in the future applications is analyzed on the approach of their physicochemical properties. Thus, a better understanding of the interaction with the drilling

  11. Holocene sediment accumulation in the Aespoe area. A study of a sediment core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risberg, Jan [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Research

    2002-12-01

    A sediment core was collected in 1993 in the archipelago above the tunnel between the Aespoe Island and Simpevarp nuclear power plant. The sediment sequence consists of four types of accumulations: brownish clay, bluish clay, sand mixed with gravel and gyttja. The sequence was studied according to its content of siliceous microfossils (mainly diatoms), mineral magnetic characteristics, clay mineralogy and it was dated by the AMS technique on bulk sediment samples. According to the diatom content, both types of clay were probably deposited during the brackish water Yoldia Sea stage. The clay is relatively uniform, except an abrupt increase in the mineral magnetic parameters HIRM and S-ratio at around 810 cm depth, which probably is the result from a change in the material source. The clay mineralogy, with enhanced chlorite values, indicates a relatively uniform material. A major change occurs at the transition from the bluish to brownish clay, where all magnetic concentrations drop dramatically as the result from a major shift in material source and/or sedimentation environment. The thin layer of sand and gravel is indicative of a major hiatus in the stratigraphy. Mineral magnetic concentrations increase slightly as the result from mixing with single domain ground surface generated particles. Based on a Yoldia Sea age for the underlying clay and deposition in the Litorina Sea 3000 years BP for the superimposed gyttja, it is suggested that the length of the hiatus is about 7000 years. It is not until the studied site became protected enough by rising land areas, that organic rich gyttja started to accumulate.It is likely that this scenario was established when sea level was situated at around 10 m above present day. Since then it seems, as determined from the mineral magnetic graphs, that the sedimentary conditions have been relatively uniform. More pronounced fluctuations in mineral magnetic concentrations (especially ARM/SIRM ratios)in the upper 2 m of the core

  12. Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Review of Tasks 6D, 6E, 6F and 6F2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkinson, David (Quintessa, Henley-on-Thames (GB))

    2007-09-15

    This report forms part of an independent review of the specifications, execution and results of Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, which is seeking to provide a bridge between site characterization and performance assessment approaches to modelling solute transport in fractured rock. The objectives of Task 6 are: To assess simplifications used in Performance Assessment (PA) models. To determine how, and to what extent, experimental tracer and flow experiments can constrain the range of parameters used in PA models. To support the design of Site Characterisation (SC) programmes to ensure that the results have optimal value for performance assessment calculations. To improve the understanding of site-specific flow and transport behaviour at different scales using site characterisation models. The present report is concerned with Tasks 6D, 6E, 6F and 6F2. It follows on from two previous reviews of Tasks 6A, 6B and 6B2, and Task 6C. In Task 6D the transport of tracers through a fracture network is modelled using the conditions of the C2 TRUE-Block Scale tracer test, based on the synthetic structural model developed in Task 6C. Task 6E extends the Task 6D transport calculations to a reference set of PA time scales and boundary conditions. Task 6F consists of a series of 'benchmark' studies on single features from the Task 6C hydrostructural model in order to improve the understanding of differences between the participating models. Task 6F2 utilises models set up for Tasks 6E and 6F to perform additional sensitivity studies with the aim of increasing the understanding of how models behave, the reason for differences in modelling results, and the sensitivity of models to various assumptions and parameter values. Eight modelling teams representing five organisations participated in this exercise using Discrete Fracture Network (DFN), continuum and channel network concepts implemented in a range of different

  13. Chemistry and origin of deep ground water in crystalline rocks; Kemi och genes av djupa grundvatten i kristallint berg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the interactions between water and crystalline rocks and its consequences for the chemical composition of the water. It also treats how flows of different types of water are modified by the rock, and the possible consequences for the ground water near a nuclear waste repository. The focus of the work is the changes in composition that ground water gets at deep levels in the rock. Data from Finnsjoen and Aespoe in Sweden show higher salinity in deep rock, which has been interpreted as a result of marine inflow of water during glaciation. Data from other, deeper boreholes in Finland, Canada, Russia, England and Sweden show that the increasing salinity is a rule and very high at great depths, higher than marine water can produce. Therefore, the deep waters from Finnsjoen and Aespoe are probably very old, and the high salinity a result from geological processes. Differing cation and isotopic composition than seawater also indicate geologic water. Differing theories on the origin of the ground water should be regarded in the safety analysis for a repository. 36 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  14. Recorded corrosion rates on copper electrodes in the Prototype Repository at the Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Real-time corrosion monitoring by means of electrochemical methods has been applied in an effort to measure corrosion rates of pure copper in the Prototype Repository at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. Copper electrodes were installed in bentonite blocks on top of the electrically heated copper canisters in two deposition holes (dh). Three nominally identical cylindrical copper electrodes were installed in dh 1 and another three in dh 5 a few days before the heat was turned on to the canisters in September 2001 and in May 2003 respectively. The temperature of the copper electrodes has been around 30 deg C in dh 1 and somewhat below 35 deg C in dh 5. Real-time corrosion monitoring for both electrode setups was first applied in January 2004, and then periodically in 2005, 2006, 2008, and most recently in the end of 2010 just before work to open the outer section of the Prototype Repository was started. The recorded corrosion rates fall below 1.3 {mu}m/year (using a default value of n=2 in the software to convert the corrosion current density to a penetration rate by means of Faraday's law, and with no correction applied for the used measuring frequency of 0.01 Hz; also disregarding highly scattered data obtained for the copper electrodes in dh 1 during 2010). While the recorded rates on the electrodes in dh 5 first increased from about 0.2 {mu}m/year in 2004 up to a maximum of 1.3 {mu}m/year a year later (the drainage of the inner and outer sections was temporary closed in the end of 2004), and then gradually decreased to 0.7 {mu}m/year in the end of 2010, the recorded rates on the electrodes in dh 1 show a quite different picture. The recorded rates fall in the range 0.4-0.7 {mu}m/year and do not reflect any obvious decrease. However, it is anticipated that a similar time dependence as observed for the electrodes in dh 5 could have been present early on in the exposure; the electrodes were installed in 2001 but the first measurements were performed in 2004. Also

  15. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeshoff, Kennert; Lanaro, Flavio [Berg Bygg Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lanru Jing [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the results of one part of a wide project for the determination of a methodology for the determination of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass for the so-called Aespoe Test Case. The Project consists of three major parts: the empirical part dealing with the characterisation of the rock mass by applying empirical methods, a part determining the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass through numerical modelling, and a third part carrying out numerical modelling for the determination of the stress state at Aespoe. All Project's parts were performed based on a limited amount of data about the geology and mechanical tests on samples selected from the Aespoe Database. This Report only considers the empirical approach. The purpose of the project is the development of a descriptive rock mechanics model for SKBs rock mass investigations for a final repository site. The empirical characterisation of the rock mass provides correlations with some of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass such as the deformation modulus, the friction angle and cohesion for a certain stress interval and the uniaxial compressive strength. For the characterisation of the rock mass, several empirical methods were analysed and reviewed. Among those methods, some were chosen because robust, applicable and widespread in modern rock mechanics. Major weight was given to the well-known Tunnel Quality Index (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) but also the Rock Mass Index (RMi), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Ramamurthy's Criterion were applied for comparison with the two classical methods. The process of: i) sorting the geometrical/geological/rock mechanics data, ii) identifying homogeneous rock volumes, iii) determining the input parameters for the empirical ratings for rock mass characterisation; iv) evaluating the mechanical properties by using empirical relations with the rock mass ratings; was considered. By comparing the methodologies involved

  16. Construction Technology of Earth Pressure Balance Shield in the Whole Section Hard Rock Layer%土压平衡盾构全断面硬岩施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫建诚

    2014-01-01

    盾构隧道开挖断面范围为硬岩地层时,存在盾构掘进速度慢、盾构姿态控制难度大、设备及刀具磨损严重且刀具更换频繁等问题。结合实际工程,介绍了盾构选型、掘进模式选择、盾构掘进参数和盾构姿态控制、刀具管理等关键措施,确保盾构安全顺利推进。%There are some difficulties when tunnel section locating in weathered hard rock stratum such as slow tunneling speed, difficulties in controlling shield posture, equipment and serious tool wearing and frequent tools replacing. Based on actual project, key measures are introduced to ensure the safety and successful shield construction including choosing the reasonable selection of shield and driving mode, strictly controlling of shield tunneling parameters and shield posture, and strengthening shield tools management.

  17. 脆性硬岩CWFS强度准则模型等效塑性参数优化研究%EQUIVALENT PLASTIC PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION RESEARCH ON CWFS FAILURE CRITERION MODEL OF BRITTLE HARD ROCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗胜军; 杨志军; 龙超; 谭文辉

    2013-01-01

      为探究适应脆性硬岩加载破坏的强度准则,以杏山铁矿混合花岗岩为对象,根据室内试验获得岩石物理力学参数及岩样切片扫描图,基于颗粒流理论和PFC程序建立混合花岗岩颗粒细观几何模型,采用Fish语言编制加载命令流并调整相应函数,对岩石单轴和三轴(s3=40 MPa)刚性加载试验进行模拟.通过岩石全应力–应变试验与模拟曲线、AE声发射与裂纹监测成果等综合比较研究,获得荷载作用下混合花岗岩细观力学特性及微宏观破裂演化规律.在此基础上,结合岩石单轴刚性加载试验曲线,裂纹数、摩擦力能量与轴向应变关系曲线,以及FLAC模拟,对脆性硬岩黏聚力弱化–摩擦力强化(CWFS)强度准则模型参数进行优化研究与验证.获得杏山铁矿混合花岗岩CWFS强度准则模型参数:初始黏聚力为23 MPa,残余黏聚力为4.3 MPa,初始摩擦角为0°,残余摩擦角为46.3°,临界塑性应变 pce, pfe分别为0.0015,0.0037.该研究成果对杏山铁矿露天转地下开采围岩体破坏机制和力学本构关系研究和工程稳定性分析等具有重要的意义.%It takes migmatitic granite of Xingshan iron mine as the object to study the failure criterion of brittle hard rock. According to the physical and mechanical parameters from laboratory experiments and grains section scanning,micro-geometric model of migmatitic granite grains were built based on particle flow theory and PFC programs,loading codes were developed and some functions were adjusted by Fish language to simulate uniaxial and triaxial( 3s = 40 MPa) compression experiments. Based on comprehensive comparison and analysis of the complete stress-strain curves,acoustic emission and“crack”monitoring results from laboratory and simulation, the micro-mechanical characteristics and the cracks revolution laws from microcosm to macrocosm of migmatitic granite were obtained. On this condition,cohesion weakening and

  18. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task B. Understanding and characterizing the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ). Final Report (EDZ Guidance Document) Characterising and Modelling the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) in Crystalline Rocks in the Context of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A. (Imperial College and Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom)); Baeckstroem, Ann; Lanru Jing (Royal lnstitute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rutqvist, Jonny (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)) (eds.) (and others)

    2008-06-15

    This report is intended as a Guidance Document explaining current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In Part 1 of the report, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. The manifold aspects of the EDZ are discussed under the three headings of the rock mass response to tunnelling, the influence of the excavation method, and EDZ characterisation methods. The evolution of the repository over thousands of years is qualitatively described via the subjects of time-dependent effects and stress redistribution, thermal effects, hydrogeological effects, and chemical effects. The first part of the document concludes with a discussion of uncertainties and limitations in measuring and characterising the EDZ. In Part 2 of the report, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Initially, the research involved the physical testing and computer modelling of the failure behaviour of a rock specimen in uniaxial compression. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Aevroe granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Conclusions are then made concerning the overall capabilities of these models. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. In both sets of computer modelling, the types of codes used were an Elasto-Plastic Cellular Automaton (EPCA), the FRACOD boundary element (BEM) code with discrete fracture propagation, the THAMES finite element (FEM) code, and PFC, a distinct element

  19. Between a Rock and a Hard Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård; Horst, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how individuals navigate in seemingly neutral contexts where discrimination occurs while it is simultaneously denied. We argue that structural discrimination (implicit and underlying forms of discrimination) is so deeply imbricated within day-to-day forms of communication, i...

  20. Groundwater flow dynamics of weathered hard-rock aquifers under climate-change conditions: an illustrative example of numerical modeling through the equivalent porous media approach in the north-western Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunat, J.; Dupuy, A.; Huneau, F.; Celle-Jeanton, H.; Le Coustumer, P.

    2016-09-01

    A numerical groundwater model of the weathered crystalline aquifer of Ursuya (a major water source for the north-western Pyrenees region, south-western France) has been computed based on monitoring of hydrological, hydrodynamic and meteorological parameters over 3 years. The equivalent porous media model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the different layers of the weathered profile: from surface to depth, the weathered layer (5 · 10-8 ≤ K ≤ 5 · 10-7 m s-1), the transition layer (7 · 10-8 ≤ K ≤ 1 · 10-5 m s-1, the highest values being along major discontinuities), two fissured layers (3.5 · 10-8 ≤ K ≤ 5 · 10-4 m s-1, depending on weathering profile conditions and on the existence of active fractures), and the hard-rock basement simulated with a negligible hydraulic conductivity ( K = 1 10 -9 ). Hydrodynamic properties of these five calculation layers demonstrate both the impact of the weathering degree and of the discontinuities on the groundwater flow. The great agreement between simulated and observed hydraulic conditions allowed for validation of the methodology and its proposed use for application on analogous aquifers. With the aim of long-term management of this strategic aquifer, the model was then used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource. The simulations performed according to the most pessimistic climatic scenario until 2050 show a low sensitivity of the aquifer. The decreasing trend of the natural discharge is estimated at about -360 m3 y-1 for recharge decreasing at about -5.6 mm y-1 (0.8 % of annual recharge).

  1. Study on smooth blasting parameter optimization of medium-length hole in hard rock inclined roadway drivage%硬岩斜巷掘进中深孔光爆参数优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小瑞

    2016-01-01

    为提高硬岩斜巷成型质量和施工效率,以桃园煤矿人行上山爆破施工为背景,分析了造成炮眼利用率较低、巷道超欠挖严重及施工效率较低的原因,结合理论计算和工程前期施工经验对各爆破参数进行优化.结果表明:优化后的爆破方案采用全断面一次起爆,掏槽选用三级楔形掏槽,周边眼炮眼密集系数取0.89,底板眼呈双排梅花型布置,可使炮眼利用率提高到90.5%,巷道成型质量显著提高,每爆破循环节约用时1 h.%To improve the forming quality and construction efficiency of hard rock inclined roadway,taking the blasting construction of walkway rise in Taoyuan Coal Mine as the back-ground,the reasons for low use ratio of blast hole,serious back break of roadway and low con-struction efficiency were analyzed,and the blasting parameters was optimized by combining with theoretical calculation and previous construction experience. The results showed that the opti-mized blasting scheme with full section one-time blasting method,three-level wedge cut,inten-sive coefficient of periphery hole adopting 0.89 and double-row quincunx type distributed floor hole could increase the use ratio of blast hole to 90.5%. The roadway forming quality improved significantly and the time of each blasting cycle decreased to 1 h.

  2. Application of Non-TNT Glutinous Granular ANFO in Hard Rock Mining%无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药在硬岩采矿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈际经

    2011-01-01

    无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药由多孔粒状硝铵、柴油、乳胶基体、改性铵油炸药混制而成.该新型炸药加工和使用安全可靠,接近零氧平衡,所产生的有毒有害气体少,炸药能量利用率高,适应风动机械装药的流散性好,返粉率低,防潮性能强、爆破效果好.无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药通过在柿竹园硬岩采矿中的应用表明,在采矿工艺和爆破参数不变的条件下,完全能够取代含梯炸药.%The non-TNT glutinous granular ANFO is mixed with four materials, porous granular ammonium nitrate, diesel, emulsion substance and modified ANFO. The new type explosive is reliable and safe to be processed and used. because of reaching near-zero oxygen balance,so the toxic and harmful gases is less and the utilization of explosive energy is high,and the rate of return powder is low,which can adapt wind-motive mechanical loading,and has fine flow performance and strong moisture resistant, as well as excellent blasting effect. The application of non-TNT glutinous granular ANFO in Shizhuyuan hard rock mining illustrate that the new type explosive can completely to replace with TNT contained explosives under the same conditions of mining technology and blasting parameters.

  3. Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Ahmadi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss the role hard and heavy music plays in coping with cancer. Here, hard and heavy music refers to genres such as heavy metal, hard rock, hard rap, punk rock and aggressive pop music.

  4. Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to discuss the role hard and heavy music plays in coping with cancer. Here, hard and heavy music refers to genres such as heavy metal, hard rock, hard rap, punk rock and aggressive pop music.

  5. FEASIBILITY TESTING AND INVESTIGATION ON A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR HARD ROCK TUNNELING WITH A COLLIMATED ABRASIVE WATER JET%采用准直管磨料射流掘进硬岩巷(隧) 道的可行性试验与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 王建生; 杨林; 卢义玉; 孙家骏

    2001-01-01

    为了提高坚硬岩石巷道的掘进速度和质量,研究了准直管磨料射流用于岩石巷道掘进的方案,分析了准直管磨料射流装备的结构特点和工作原理。试验研究了准直管结构参数、磨料参数、进给速度对射流切割效果的影响。初步研究表明这一设想基本可行,是一种值得探讨的新型掘进方法。%A new-type tunneling system, Collimated Abrasive Water Jet(CAWJ)cutter, is develped to increase the tunneling speed and improve the cutting quality in hard rock. And its characteristics of configuration and operating principle are discussed. The effects of cutting hard rock with various operating parameters on the cutting efficiency of CAWJ are analyzed. Research results show that it is primarily feasible for tunneling hard rock with CAWJ.

  6. Groundwater degassing in fractured rock: Modelling and data comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, J.; Destouni, G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Water Resources Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Dissolved gas may be released from deep groundwater in the vicinity of open boreholes and drifts, where the water pressures are relatively low. Degassing of groundwater may influence observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts, interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts, and buffer mass and backfill performance, particularly during emplacement and repository closure. Under certain conditions, considerable fracture inflow and transmissivity reductions have been observed during degassing experiments in the field and in the laboratory; such reductions affect the outcome and interpretation of both hydraulic and tracer tests. We develop models for the estimation of the resulting degree of fracture gas saturation and the associated transmissivity reduction due to groundwater degassing in fractured rock. Derived expressions for bubble trapping probability show that fracture aperture variability and correlation length influence the conditions for capillary bubble trapping and gas accumulation. The laboratory observations of bubble trapping in an Aespoe fracture replica are consistent with the prediction of a relatively high probability of bubble trapping in this fracture. The prediction was based on the measured aperture distribution of the Aespoe fracture and the applied hydraulic gradient. Results also show that the conceptualisation of gas and water occupancy in a fracture greatly influences model predictions of gas saturation and relative transmissivity. Images from laboratory degassing experiments indicate that tight apertures are completely filled with water, whereas both gas and water exist in wider apertures under degassing conditions; implementation of this relation in our model resulted in the best agreement between predictions and laboratory observations. Model predictions for conditions similar to those prevailing in field for single fractures at great depths indicate that degassing effects in boreholes should generally be small, unless the

  7. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  8. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  9. Research present situation and analysis on classification of rock drillability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-hong; MA Qin-yong

    2001-01-01

    Rock drillability reflects the drill bit fragments rock hardly or easily. At present, rock drillability classification indexes have rock single-axle compressive strength, point load intensity,fracture stress during chiseling, drill speed, chiseling specific work, acoustic parameter, cutting magnitude, and so on. Every index reflects rock drillability but isn't overall. It is feasible that using many indexes of fuzzy mathematics method etc. to evaluate rock drillability.

  10. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  11. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  12. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  13. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  14. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  15. THM-issues in repository rock. Thermal, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and hydro-mechanical evolution of the rock at the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Loennqvist, Margareta; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    even in the hottest ones. To account for uncertainties in the thermal calculations, the layout is established with a margin of about 5 deg C to the 100 deg C limit. It is demonstrated here that the spatial variability of rock heat transport properties means that there is considerable robustness in the design approach. An underestimate of the uncertainty margin by a few degrees appears to impact on very few canisters, even under the conservative assumption that all deposition holes are completely dry. Spalling after excavation of a deposition hole excavation is not likely unless the major horizontal stress is aligned off the orientation of the tunnel axis by the largest angle given within the uncertainty range of the Forsmark in situ stress model. In case it happens, the spalling will be limited to the top 1 m of the deposition hole for the most likely Forsmark major stress magnitude and to the top 3 m for the upper bound stress magnitude. Thermally-induced spalling is almost certain to occur after some time of heating, i.e. also for the most favourable conditions regarding stress orientation and magnitude. However, for the most favourable conditions the spalling will occur late and be limited to the top 5 m of the deposition hole. All spalling risk estimates are based on the assumption that the spalling strength varies between 52% and 62% of the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, as suggested by field experiments performed in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. It is also assumed that the deposition holes are completely dry, i.e. without any swelling pressure to support and stabilize the walls. These assumptions are all claimed to be conservative. The stress path for rock in the walls of KBS-3 deposition holes will be different from corresponding stress paths in the field experiments and a small support pressure, possibly sufficient to limit the extent of the spalling, will be found also in dry deposition holes. Transmissivity effects on rock fractures are

  16. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  17. THE APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED GEOPHYSICAL METHODS COMPOSED OF AMT AND MAGNETC SURVEY TO THE EXPLORATION OF HARD ROCK-HOSTED URANIUM DEPOSITS IN SOUTHERN CHINA%电、磁综合方法在南方硬岩型铀矿勘查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祜; 程纪星; 腰善丛; 徐贵来; 张濡亮; 赵丹

    2011-01-01

    介绍了几个音频大地电磁法和高精度磁测方法在华南白面石地区硬岩型铀矿上的勘查实例.应用结果表明,这两种方法优势互补,综合使用可较好地探测深部地质构造(如火山盆地基底埋深、断裂构造、火山机构等),为南方硬岩型铀矿供深找盲、外围扩大提供有效技术手段.%Integrated geophysical methods composed of AMT and high resolution magnetic survey were used to the exploration of hard rock-type uranium deposits in Baimianshi area of southern China. The results show that some deep geological structures such as buried depth of volcanic basin basement, fault structure and volcanic apparatus could be well detected by using the integrated methods and on the basis of sharing their complementary advantages. Effective technological measures are provided to the exploration of deep buried u-ranium ore bodies in the hard rock-type uranium deposit of southern China and the outskirt extension of the ore deposit.

  18. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  19. REINFORCING MECHANISM AND SIMULATING METHOD FOR REINFORCING EFFECTS OF SYSTEMICALLY GROUTED BOLTS IN DEEP-BURIED HARD ROCK TUNNELS%深埋硬岩隧洞系统砂浆锚杆的加固机制与加固效果模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文平; 冯夏庭; 张传庆; 邱士利; 李占海

    2012-01-01

    Systematically grouted bolts, as the main support structure of deep-buried hard rock tunnels, compose the bolt-rock composite structure with surrounding rocks. which reinforces the mechanical property of surrounding rocks. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb(M-C) criterion, the stress condition and the strength of the composite structure meeting the M-C criterion were derived under high-stress conditions. Combining with the rock mass deterioration model(RDM) of brittle rock, an approach to determine the mechanical parameters of the composite structure was presented. The difference of mechanical parameters between two different composite structures of bolt-elastic surrounding rock and bolt-yielding surrounding rock was taken into account. In this approach, the mechanical parameters of the bolt-yielding surrounding rock composite structure were associated with present equivalent plastic strain of surrounding rocks. A numerical method, which could model the reinforcing effect of normally grouted bolts laid out systematically during excavating and supporting stages, was proposed. It is identified that this method has an advantage over other methods in modeling the effect of supporting time on surrounding rock stability. Finally, the method was applied to evaluate the stability of surrounding rocks, and related references were provided for design and construction of the diversion tunnel #2 of Jinping Ⅱ hydropower station.%系统布置的砂浆锚杆是深埋硬岩隧洞主要支护结构,锚杆与围岩组成锚杆-围岩复合结构体,使围岩的力学特性得到改善.基于岩体的莫尔-库仑(M-C)屈服准则,推导锚杆-围岩复合结构体满足M-C准则的应力条件.结合岩体劣化本构模型,提出确定锚杆-围岩复合结构体力学参数的方法.锚杆与弹性围岩和屈服围岩组成的锚杆-围岩复合结构体的力学参数确定方法不同,锚杆与屈服围岩组成的锚杆-围岩复合结构体的力学参数与围岩当前状态的等

  20. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  1. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  2. Studies on the chemical conditions and microstructure in package 1 of alternative buffer materials project (ABM) in aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. (VTT Technical research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-02-15

    The chemical and microstructural properties of MX-80, Asha and Deponit bentonites and of Friedland Clay in package 1 of the ABM project in Aespoe HRL were studied after over two years of experiment. The concentration distribution of chloride and sulphate in different clays as a function of distance from the heater and in the reference bentonites, not used in the experiment, were determined. The concentration distributions of chloride were quite even. In Friedland clay and Asha the chloride concentrations in the clay decreased during the experiment while in MX-80 and Deponit the concentrations increased. Sulphate accumulated towards the hot end in the samples where the initial content of sulphate was high (Friedland Clay, MX-80, Deponit), while in Asha, where the initial sulphate concentration was low, such an accumulation did not occur. The cation exchange capacity in different clays was determined at different distances from the heater using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)]2+ as the index cation. The CEC of MX-80 and Deponit increased slightly close to the heater. In Asha there was some indication about the decrease of CEC close to the heater while in Friedland Clay there was small decreasing trend towards the heater and the CEC was generally slightly higher than in the reference sample. The pH measurements in the clays were performed with IrOx electrodes at a distance of 8 cm from the heater. The pH values were for Friedland Clay 6.5 - 6.6, for MX-80 6.6 - 6.8, for Asha 6.9 - 7.0 and for Deponit 6.6 - 6.9. The Eh measurements were performed with Pt and Au electrodes placed in the clays at 8 cm from the heater. The final values obtained after five months of measurement with Au and Pt electrodes were for Friedland Clay 17 mV and -231 mV, for MX-80 22 mV and -48 mV, for Asha 104 mV and 40 mV and for Deponit 76 mV and 75 mV, respectively. The water content and bulk density were measured at different distances from the heater; the dry

  3. Studies on the chemical conditions and microstructure in the reference bentonites of alternative buffer materials project (ABM) in Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    The chemical and microstructural properties of some bentonites used in the ABM project in Aespoe HRL were studied in laboratory experiments. The aim was to obtain information about the materials before they were used in the field experiment and to test the research methods that will be used when the packages of the field experiment are retrieved. The bentonites of interest were MX-80, Deponit CAN, Asha 505 and Friedland Clay. The pH values in the compacted samples prepared from the clay powders and deionized water were about 8 for MX-80, 7 for Deponit and Asha, and 6.5 for Friedland clay. The Eh values in the compacted MX-80, Asha and Deponit samples varied between 100 mV and -100 mV, and in the Friedland clay from 0 mV to 200 mV. The total porosity, chloride porosity and the microstructure were studied in compacted samples prepared from MX-80, Deponit, Asha and Friedland Clay and equilibrated through filter plates with 0.1 M NaCl solution for 12.5 months in aerobic conditions. The dry densities of the samples were approximately 0.7, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.55 g/cm3. XRD and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were used to study the microstructure of the MX-80 and Deponit bentonites. It was obvious that the chloride porosity was lower than the water porosity in all the clays, which indicates the exclusion of anions caused by the negatively charged surfaces. In the XRD measurements on MX-80, Asha and Deponit, the measured basal spaces represented by the diffraction peaks were smaller than the theoretical one assuming a homogenous microstructure. This indicates that there was a substantial amount of water also in the pores, which were not seen by XRD. The SAXS data modelling which considered single discs and stacks of discs proposed that a large fraction of the clay should be considered as single platelets. The fraction of the single discs decreased with the increasing density of the sample. The number of layers in the stacks varied from 4 to 8. By combining the information

  4. Redox zone II. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the Aespoe island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Changbing Yang; Guoxiang Zhang [Univ. Da Coruna (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behaviour and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by Banwart et al. Later, Banwart presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by Molinero who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulphate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of Molinero and extends the preliminary microbial model of Zhang by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfaphe concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility

  5. The rock resources of the Northern Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Styles, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Resources of the Northern Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has vast resources of limestone and hard rock in the northern Emirates. These are currently exploited by quarrying companies to produce construction aggregate and raw material for the manufacture of cement, with a small amount being used to produce rock wool, dimension stone and mineral filler. The demand by industry for higher value mineral products that could be produced from these resources is mostly met by impor...

  6. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  7. Research on Techniques for Construction of Half-wet Sprayed Concrete in ClassⅢ Hard Rock Tunnels%Ⅲ级硬质岩隧道半喷混凝土施工技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟坚; 郭军; 宋从军

    2015-01-01

    就特长隧道而言,Ⅲ级围岩比例较大,其已成为制约工期、实现快速施工的关键。以广东省博深高速公路石鼓隧道为依托,探讨3车道大断面特长公路隧道独头掘进条件下Ⅲ级围岩快速施工方法,对半喷混凝土施工技术条件下的围岩稳定性、支护强度与承载力进行系统分析,并采用三维计算进行论证。研究表明:Ⅲ级围岩采用半喷混凝土施工技术完全可行。%As for extralong tunnels,class III wall rock accounts for large proportion and has become the key to restrict construction period and achieve rapid construction. Dependent on Shigu Tunnel on Guangdong Boluo -Shenzhen Expressway,this paper probes into the methods for rapid construction of class III wall rock of 3-lane large-section extralong highway tunnels under the blind heading conditions, systematically analyzes stability,support strength and bearing capacity of wall rock under the technical condition of construction with half-wet sprayed concrete,and demonstrates with 3D calculation.The research shows that the half-wet sprayed concrete construction technique adopted for class III wall rock is fully feasible.

  8. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  9. Differentiation and analysis on rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭青; 张桂菊; 夏毅敏; 李建芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to study rock breaking characteristics of tunnel boring machine (TBM) disc cutter at different rock temperatures, thermodynamic rock breaking mathematical model of TBM disc cutter was established on the basis of rock temperature change by using particle flow code theory and the influence law of interaction mechanism between disc cutter and rock was also numerically simulated. Furthermore, by using the linear cutting experiment platform, rock breaking process of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures was well verified by the experiments. Finally, rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter were differentiated and analyzed from microscale perspective. The results indicate the follows. 1) When rock temperature increases, the mechanical properties of rock such as hardness, and strength, were greatly reduced, simultaneously the microcracks rapidly grow with the cracks number increasing, which leads to rock breaking load decreasing and improves rock breaking efficiency for TBM disc cutter. 2) The higher the rock temperature, the lower the rock internal stress. The stress distribution rules coincide with the Buzin Neske stress circle rules: the maximum stress value is below the cutting edge region and then gradually decreases radiant around; stress distribution is symmetrical and the total stress of rock becomes smaller. 3) The higher the rock temperature is, the more the numbers of micro, tensile and shear cracks produced are by rock as well as the easier the rock intrusion, along with shear failure mode mainly showing. 4) With rock temperature increasing, the resistance intrusive coefficients of rock and intrusion power decrease obviously, so the specific energy consumption that TBM disc cutter achieves leaping broken also decreases subsequently. 5) The acoustic emission frequency remarkably increases along with the temperature increasing, which improves the rock breaking efficiency.

  10. Earthquake resistant design of rock oil tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M.; Iwano, M.; Izumi, H.; Shiba, Y.; Sugihara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish a rational procedure of the earthquake resistant design of large rock caverns, such as oil storage tanks on nuclear power plants, experimental and numerical studies were conducted. Dynamic strains during earthquakes were observed on the lining of a railway tunnel constructed in a hard rock mountain, while the seismic motion in the surrounding rock was examined precisely. The observation clarified that the lining strain of the tunnel was linearly and statically related to the rock strain and the ratio of the lining strain to the rock strain was dominated by the relative stiffness of the lining and rock. Based on the results of the earthquake observation, numerical models were proposed for the estimation of the dynamic strains of rock caverns. A good agreement between the calculated strains and the observed ones assured the adequacy of the numerical models.

  11. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  12. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  13. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  14. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  15. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  16. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  17. Attachable rock bolters for roadheaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibezahn, K. [Wirth Maschinen- und Bohrgeraete-Fabrik GmbH, Erkelenz (Germany); West, M. [Deilmann-Haniel Mining Systems GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Roadheaders are used in mining and tunnelling in medium hard rock formations. The excavated space is made safe either by NATM-technology or a steel support system. The application of a rock bolting system up to now was restricted to formations that can cope with at least some support lag. A new system was developed in close cooperation between WIRTH Maschinen- und Bohrgeraetefabrik GmbH and deilmann-haniel mining systems gmbh that allows to carry out rock bolting with two drill rigs whicht are attached to the cutting boom of the roadheader even in front of the cutter head directly after cutting. Alternatively a robot may be attached to above named system that enables remotely controlled shot-creting close to the face.

  18. Effect of surfactant on surface hardness of dental stone and investment casts produced from polyvinyl siloxane duplicating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Johani, Attalah; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2008-06-01

    Polyvinylsiloxane duplicating materials are typically treated with a topical surfactant before pouring dental models, but the use of topical surfactants in the dental laboratory may affect the surface hardness of the resultant models. The effect of two different topical surfactants on surface hardness of two dental stones (FujiRock and Dentstone) and one phosphate bonded investment material (Croform WB) produced from polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) dental laboratory duplicating moulds was investigated. Topical surfactants affected the surface hardness of FujiRock, Dentstone and Croform WB investment material. Surface hardness of FujiRock increased with Wax-Mate surfactant. However, surface hardness of Croform WB investment material decreased with both topical surfactants.

  19. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-10-01

    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  20. 溶浸作用下难溶盐岩力学特性弱化及细观机制研究%MECHANICAL PROPERTY WEAKENING AND THE MESO-MECHANISM OF HARD DISSOLVED SALT ROCK SOAKED IN BRINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓琴; 梁卫国; 于艳梅; 张传达; 于伟东; 赵阳升

    2014-01-01

    The internal meso-structure development of rock material contributes a lot to its macroscopic mechanical properties. The mechanical properties weakening mechanism and internal meso-structure development of typical glauberite soaked in brine are studied;and the mechanism of mechanical properties weakening is revealed. It is found that under the actions of swelling and disintegration of hydrophilic mineral in the cement of the rock,the dissolution of sulfate,the ion exchange and the chloride ion erosion damage,etc.,the porosity of glauberite soaked in brine is changed nonlinearly with the solution concentration and soaking time. So,the mechanical properties weakens. The strength weakening coefficient decreases to 0.1-0.2 after the glauberite being soaked in brine for 20 d. Because of the water effect and hydration,the argillaceous content contained in the glauberite would swell or disintegrate. So the deformation of glauberite shows the characteristics of strain softening and ductile from the original brittle behavior. The meso-structure development results also show that the pores in glauberite soaked in brine develop more slowly than that in pure water. The pores development rate in fresh water is several to hundreds of times as that in brine. The porosity of glauberite soaked in water for 48h increases to 16.62%,which is 9 times of that of natural state. And the porosity of glauberite soaked in half saturated solution for 48 h is 3 times of its natural state. However,the porosity of glauberite soaked in saturated solution for the same time has an increase of only 2.8%. The change of porosity is mainly due to dissolution and hydration of sulfate in the glaubetire,the water effect and cement of hydrophilic minerals(mainly glimmerton and smectite contents) swelling. These are definite reasons for the mechanical property weakening of the glauberite. The research results are significant either for study of physico-mechanical properties of the glauberite or for in situ

  1. Interaction of clay and concrete plugs - Plugging of 5 m deep hole KA1621G01 at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of deep boreholes in repository rock is planned to be made by installing dense smectite clay plugs where the rock is low-permeable and casting concrete where the holes intersect water-bearing fracture zones. Such zones have to be stabilized before sealing starts because fragments of rock can otherwise fall off and make it difficult to bring equipment for concrete casting and clay plug units down. These parts of the holes are filled with concrete and clay plugs are then inserted up to the nearest fracture zone where concrete is filled to the required level etc. The role of the concrete in the hole and in the closest part of the surrounding fracture zone is to provide stable parts that are sufficiently fine-porous to prevent clay particles from contacting clay plugs to migrate into the fractures and be lost by erosion. While the larger parts of long clay plugs are believed to stay largely intact chemically for hundreds of thousands of years, the parts adjacent to concrete plugs may undergo changes and so can the concrete plugs themselves. The objective of the presently reported project was to identify the detailed processes and quantify associated changes in physical properties by investigating samples of clay and concrete from a 2.5 m long plug of clay over which an equally long concrete plug had been cast and left to rest for 3 years. The outcome of the investigations was that significant chemically induced changes in mineralogy and physical performance had occurred within a few centimetres distance from the clay/concrete contact but that virtually no changes had taken place at larger distance. A comprehensive laboratory study including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) on the sample material was performed including also dual beam (combined ion and electron) microscopy. It was found that the clay had infiltrated the contacting concrete plug after filling of the borehole since clay was detected both

  2. Determination of relationships between thermal conductivity and material properties of rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazim G(o)rgülü

    2004-01-01

    Energy transfer between the adjacent parts of rocks in underground mines is widely influenced by the thermal conductivity of rocks. The relationships between the thermal conductivity and some material properties of rocks such as the uniaxial compressive strength, unit mass, tensile strength, cohesion, Young's modulus, point load strength, Schmidt rebound hardness, Shore scleroscope hardness and toughness strength were investigated. The statistical analysis of the data obtained in laboratory tests shows that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing the uniaxial compressive strength, unit mass, tensile strength, cohesion, Young's modulus, point load strength, Schmidt rebound hardness and Shore scleroscope hardness, and decreases with increasing the toughness strength.

  3. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope properties in hard rock, providing the basis for spatially distributed deterministic sliding-susceptibility evaluations on a pixel base. Changing hydrostatic slope conditions and rock mechanical parameters can be implemented and used for simple predictive static stability calculations. Application is demonstrated for a study area in the Harz Mts., Germany.

  4. Effect of coatings on hardness of commercial marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedef, Veysel

    2016-04-01

    In this study, three type of marble and one granite were chosen to understand if the coating is effective on hardness of the commercial rocks. To understand the hardness of the rock, Schmidt hammer tests were undertaken. The used device allowed us uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) as well as Schmidt rebound (R). The coated samples have clearly high R and UCS values when compared to uncoated samples. The Elazig visne, the well-known marble of Turkey, have 35.6 R and 44.2 MPa UCS values of coated samples. On the other hand, uncoated surface of the same marble have 30.5 R and 35.4 MPa UCS.

  5. Analysis of TBM Tunneling Speed in Hard Rock and Influence of Tunneling Speed on Project Economics%TBM(隧道掘进机)的硬岩掘进速度分析及其对项目经济的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李准; 吴刘忠球

    2014-01-01

    The cost assessment of TBM equipment for hard rock should be combined with the whole process of the project construction.The whole project management should include project duration,daily expenses,labor,materials and ma-chinery costs.The duration of the project depends largely on the TBM advance rates,however the accurate speed value is difficult to estimate.The study shows that in the certain geological conditions,driving speed can be judged according to penetration rate and utilization rate of TBM.Based on practice,a driving speed probabilistic assessment method is put forward in this paper,moreover,an evaluation is made on influence of TBM tunneling speed on project economics and the rock strength grade and lithology are reflected by cash flow theory,which provides a new evaluation model for inno-vation of reasonable economic use of TBM and can be widely used in the analysis of tunneling rate range and quantifica-tion of economical efficiency data of TBM.%硬岩TBM施工成本的评估应当与项目建设全过程相结合,而项目全过程管理包括项目工期及日常开销、人工、材料和机械成本等。而项目工期与成本主要取决于TBM的掘进速度。研究发现,在既定地质条件下,掘进速度可以依据TBM穿透速度和利用率来判断。文章通过实例,提出掘进速度的概率评估法,同时利用现金流理论,评价TBM掘进速度对项目经济的影响,建立评价模型,反映了岩体强度等级和围岩岩性。这为革新TBM合理经济利用提供了新的评价模式,可广泛应用于分析掘进率范围并量化设备经济效率数据。

  6. Hardness Tester for Polyur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, D. L.; Buras, D. F.; Corbin, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Rubber-hardness tester modified for use on rigid polyurethane foam. Provides objective basis for evaluation of improvements in foam manufacturing and inspection. Typical acceptance criterion requires minimum hardness reading of 80 on modified tester. With adequate correlation tests, modified tester used to measure indirectly tensile and compressive strengths of foam.

  7. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  8. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  9. Structural Discrimination – Between a Rock and a Hard Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadegaard Thorsen, Mira

    This article examines challenges that arise when discrimination is expressed in communication across perceived differences (inter-cultural communication). More specifically, it looks at how visible minority Danes navigate in regard to structural discrimination (implicit and underlying forms...... of discrimination) imbricated in seemingly neutral everyday communication. It argues that structural discrimination is discursive and constitutive and is expressed in language as well as communicated in the form of naturalizations and embodiments of discrimination. It suggests that structural discrimination is so...

  10. Dynamic hardness of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuecheng

    Dynamic hardness (Pd) of 22 different pure metals and alloys having a wide range of elastic modulus, static hardness, and crystal structure were measured in a gas pulse system. The indentation contact diameter with an indenting sphere and the radius (r2) of curvature of the indentation were determined by the curve fitting of the indentation profile data. r 2 measured by the profilometer was compared with that calculated from Hertz equation in both dynamic and static conditions. The results indicated that the curvature change due to elastic recovery after unloading is approximately proportional to the parameters predicted by Hertz equation. However, r 2 is less than the radius of indenting sphere in many cases which is contradictory to Hertz analysis. This discrepancy is believed due to the difference between Hertzian and actual stress distributions underneath the indentation. Factors which influence indentation elastic recovery were also discussed. It was found that Tabor dynamic hardness formula always gives a lower value than that directly from dynamic hardness definition DeltaE/V because of errors mainly from Tabor's rebound equation and the assumption that dynamic hardness at the beginning of rebound process (Pr) is equal to kinetic energy change of an impact sphere over the formed crater volume (Pd) in the derivation process for Tabor's dynamic hardness formula. Experimental results also suggested that dynamic to static hardness ratio of a material is primarily determined by its crystal structure and static hardness. The effects of strain rate and temperature rise on this ratio were discussed. A vacuum rotating arm apparatus was built to measure Pd at 70, 127, and 381 mum sphere sizes, these results exhibited that Pd is highly depended on the sphere size due to the strain rate effects. P d was also used to substitute for static hardness to correlate with abrasion and erosion resistance of metals and alloys. The particle size effects observed in erosion were

  11. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Á Nagy

    2005-09-01

    The concept of the ensemble Kohn-Sham hardness is introduced. It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the limit → 0. It is proposed that the first excitation energy can be used as a reactivity index instead of the hardness.

  12. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  13. Hard and Soft

    OpenAIRE

    Claes H. de Vreese; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Support for European integration is a function no longer only of `hard' economic and utilitarian predictors but also of `soft' predictors such as feelings of identity and attitudes towards immigrants. Focusing on the issue of the potential membership of Turkey in the European Union (EU), this study demonstrates that the importance of `soft' predictors outweighs the role of `hard' predictors in understanding public opinion about Turkish membership. The study draws on survey...

  14. Hardness amplification in nondeterministic logspace

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sushmita

    2007-01-01

    A hard problem is one which cannot be easily computed by efficient algorithms. Hardness amplification is a procedure which takes as input a problem of mild hardness and returns a problem of higher hardness. This is closely related to the task of decoding certain error-correcting codes. We show amplification from mild average case hardness to higher average case hardness for nondeterministic logspace and worst-to-average amplification for nondeterministic linspace. Finally we explore possible ...

  15. Energy analysis for damage and catastrophic failure of rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development history and current state of studies on the characteristics and mechanisms of deformation and failure of rock materials were briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of energy.The main scope and the achievable objectives of the energy-based research system were expatiated.It was validated by experiments that the damage process of rocks can be well described by the rock damage evolution equation established based on energy dissipation.It was found from the uniaxial compression and biaxial compression tests that only a small proportion of the total input energy in hard rocks is dissipated before peak load and a large proportion in soft rocks is dissipated before peak load.For both hard and soft rocks,the energy dissipated after peak load accounts for a greater proportion.More energy would be required for rock failure under equal biaxial compression than under unequal biaxial compression.The total absorbed energy is different for rock failure under high-rate loading and low-rate loading.More fragmented failure pattern usually corresponds to higher energy absorption.The mesoscopic analysis on the damage and failure of bedded salt rocks showed that the energy dissipation is prominent and the total absorbed energy for rock failure is low when cracks propagate in the weak mud interlayer while it is contrary when cracks propagate in the salt rock.The energy accumulation,transfer,dissipation and release during the failure process of tunnel with impending failure under disturbance were analyzed theoretically based on the elastoplastic mechanics theory.Furthermore,the spatial distribution of energy dissipation and energy release of fractured rocks under unloading was simulated numerically.It was demonstrated that energy is likely to be released from the weakest surface under compression,which triggers the global failure of rocks.

  16. Rock preference of planulae of jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) for settlement in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Won Duk; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Han, Changhoon; Park, Won Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Planulae of Aurelia aurita were exposed to 11 types of rocks (basalt, gabbro, granite, rhyolite, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss, quartzite, marble and schist) to examine their attachment preference among rock material and position. Numbers of attached polyps was the highest on marble and the least on limestone. Their preference with regard to settling position was the same among the rocks, showing the highest density of polyps on the underside (88.5%) compared to upper (23.6%) and perpendicular sides (10.3%) of rock. The results showed that while position preference is more important than rock property, higher numbers of polyps were observed in rocks with a medium surface hardness.

  17. Hard and superhard nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Univ. of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.

    2000-03-01

    This article reviews the development of hard coatings from a titanium nitride film through superlattice coatings to nanocomposite coatings. Significant attention is devoted to hard and superhard single layer nanocomposite coatings. A strong correlation between the hardness and structure of nanocomposite coatings is discussed in detail. Trends in development of hard nanocomposite coatings are also outlined. (orig.)

  18. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  19. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wuhui Li; Fengzhang Ren; Juanhua Su; Zhanhong Ma; Ke Cao; Baohong Tian

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new formula for calculating the hardness of metallic crystals, resulted from the research on the critical grain size with stable dislocations. The formula is = 6 /[(1 – )], where is the hardness, the coefficient, the shear modulus, the Poisson’s ratio, a function of the radius of an atom () and the electron density at the atom interface (). The formula will not only be used to testify the critical grain size with stable dislocations, but also play an important role in the understanding of mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals.

  20. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  1. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  2. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  3. CSI: Hard Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  4. Running in Hard Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

  5. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  6. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  7. Rock fracture image acquisition with both visible and ultraviolet illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock since 1994. In the study, the first hard problem is to obtain rock fracture images of a good quality, since rock surface is very rough, and composed of complicated and multiple fractures, as a result, image acquisition is the first important. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyzing rock fracture network by visible and ultraviolet image technique, in the field. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV light illumination, and the rock surface information can be obtained by using visible optical illumination. We used different digital cameras and microscope to take images by two illuminations. From the same samples; we found that UV illumination image gives the clear information of fracture opening or closing, and the visible optical illumination gives the information of the rock surface (e.g. filling materials inside of fractures). By applying this technique, the minimum width of rock fracture 0.01 mm can be analyzed. This paper presents: (1) Rock fracture image acquiring techniques; (2) Rock fracture image acquisition by using UV light illumination and visible optical illumination; and (3) Conclusions. The studied method can be used both in the field and a laboratory.

  8. Theory of hard photoproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The present theoretical knowledge about photons and hard photoproduction processes, i.e. the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons in photon-photon and photon-hadron collisions, is reviewed. Virtual and polarized photons and prompt photon production in hadron collisions are also discussed. The most important leading and next-to-leading order QCD results are compiled in analytic form. A large variety of numerical predictions is compared to data from TRISTAN...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ROCK BREAKING EFFECT OF STEEL PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Meng; ZHAI Ying-hu; JI Guo-dong

    2011-01-01

    Particle impact drilling is an efficient drilling technology for deep-well hard formation, With this technology, the rock is cut mainly by high-speed spherical particle impact under hydraulic action. In this article, the influence of jet flow factors, hydraulic factors and abrasive factors on rock breaking is studied through indoor experiments of impact by steel particles. The results indicate that the particle water jet has an optimal standoff distance and particle concentration; the rock breaking effect declines with the increase of the confining pressure and the decrease of the pump pressure and particle diameter. This study will provide some food of thought for the development of particle impact drilling technology.

  10. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/3. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Geology and mechanical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [Skanska AB Stockholm (Sweden); Stille, H. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Prior to excavation of the laboratory in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase. The predictions concern five key issues: Geology, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry, transport of solutes, and mechanical stability. Comparisons between predictions and observations were made during excavation in order to verify the reliability of the pre-investigations. This report presents a comparison between the geological and mechanical stability predictions and observations and an evaluation of data and investigation methods used for the 700-2874 m section of the tunnel. The report is specially highlighting the following conclusions: It is possible to localize major fracture zones during the pre-investigation at shallow (<200 m) depths; A number of minor fracture zones striking NNW-NNE were predicted to be hydraulically important and penetrate the southern area. A number of narrow fracture zone indications - 0.1-1 m wide - striking WNW-NE were mapped in the tunnel and pre-grouted sections confirm hydraulic conductors; It has not been possible to confirm the gently dipping zone EW-5, which was predicted as `possible`, with data from the tunnel; Predictions of the amount of different rock types were generally reliable as regards the major rocks, but the prediction of the distribution in space were poor as regards the minor rock types; The prediction of rock stress orientation corresponds well to the outcome; The prediction of rock quality for the tunnel, while applying the RMR-system, shows good correspondence to the observations made in the tunnel. 59 refs, 51 figs, 21 tabs.

  11. Principles of rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  12. Experimental study of a new multifunctional device for rock fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fu-jun(赵伏军); LI Xi-bing(李夕兵); FENG Tao(冯涛)

    2004-01-01

    A new multifunctional testing device for rock fragmentation was introduced, which can conduct many experiments such as single cutting under static load, crushing under impact load, thrusting under static load and cutting-impact test under the dynamic and static load. The results of granite and concrete's experiments with polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) flat cutters and carbide alloy cutters under different loadings show that the device has good performance, and the characteristics of broken rock under the combined loads are similar to that under the single static pressure or impact crushing the rock, and the combined loads can increase the effect of rock fragmentation obviously. The experimental methods and effects have the important meaning for studying new drilling tool on hard rock fragmentation.

  13. Theory of hard photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2002-06-01

    The present theoretical knowledge about photons and hard photoproduction processes, i.e. the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons in photon-photon and photon-hadron collisions, is reviewed. Virtual and polarized photons and prompt photon production in hadron collisions are also discussed. The most important leading and next-to-leading order QCD results are compiled in analytic form. A large variety of numerical predictions is compared to data from TRISTAN, LEP, and HERA and extended to future electron and muon colliders. The sources of all relevant results are collected in a rich bibliography. (orig.)

  14. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  15. Main development trends and some technical decisions on mining tools equipped with super-hard composite materials inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, LT; Krestovozdvizhensky, PD; Nikitenko, SM; Korneyev, VA; Korneyev, PA

    2017-02-01

    Directions of a significant increase in effectiveness of rock destruction with tools equipped with super-hard composite material inserts are reviewed and justified. Drilling tool designs with the cutting insert in the form of elliptical Cassinian oval and the asymmetric ring cleaves are suggested. Versions of laboratory stand designs in order to determine the power consumption of rock destruction are developed.

  16. Hard photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    In view of possible photoproduction studies in ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, we briefly review the present theoretical understanding of photons and hard photoproduction processes at HERA, discussing the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons. We address in particular the extraction of the strong coupling constant from photon structure function and inclusive jet measurements, the infrared safety and computing time of jet definitions, the sensitivity of di-jet cross sections on the parton densities in the photon, factorization breaking in diffractive di-jet production, the treatment of the heavy-quark mass in charm production, the relevance of the color-octet mechanism for quarkonium production, and isolation criteria for prompt photons. (author)

  17. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...

  18. CRITERIA FOR ROCK ENGINEERING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo

    1995-01-01

    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  19. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  20. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  1. Why All the Hard Work?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype of the hard working Chinese has been around for a long time in the West. As early a 1894, Arthur Smith, a missionary who spent 54 years in China, wrote book introducing the hard-working Chinese people to Americans. In his book Chinese Characteristics, Smith wrote about the dili

  2. Phase behavior of hard particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijneveldt, J.S. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1995-01-01

    The phase behavior of hard particles and mixtures thereof is reviewed. Special attention is given to a lattice model consisting of hard hexagons and points on a triangular lattice. This model appears to have two disordered phases and an ordered phase.

  3. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find th

  4. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  5. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  6. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  7. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  8. Days of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN

    2004-01-01

    FROM last October 1 st to 3rd, at the foot of Fragrant Hill, a suburban Beijing resort famous for its flaming maple leaves in autumn, more than 20,000 rock fans indulged themselves in music for three days.

  9. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  10. Relationship between the rock mass deformation and places of occurrence of seismological events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAKOWKA Janusz; KABIESZ Jozef; DOU Lin-ming

    2009-01-01

    Static effort of rock mass very rarely causes of rock burst in polish coal mines. Rock bursts with source in the seismic tremor within the roof rock layers are prevailing. A seismic tremor is an effect of rupture or sliding in roof layers above the exploited panel in coal seam, sometime in a distance from actual exploitation. Sliding, as a rule occurs in fault zone and tremors in it are expected, but monolithic layer rupture is very hard to predict. In a past few years a practice of analyzing state of deformation in high energy seismic tremors zones has been employed. It let gathering experience thanks to witch determination of dangerous shape of reformatted roof is possible. In the paper some typical forms of roof rocks deformations leading to seismic tremor occurrence will be presented. In general these are various types of multidirectional rock layers bending. Real examples of seismic events and rock bursts will be shown.

  11. Mechanics analysis on the conditions of rock burst occurrence in the coal mass of roadway rib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-hua; DENG Xiao-lin; LI Zhong-hua

    2008-01-01

    According to the rock burst features occurred in the coal mass of roadway rib in one mine, the mechanics model of coal mass and roof structure system along the edge of goaf was founded to analyze the stress of roof rock layer, so the subside curve of roof rock layer was deduced. Furthermore, the stability of coal and rock system were analyzed, the critical load and critical resistance zone were used to judge the danger degree of rock burst occurrence. The influence of coal mass strength, brittleness degree, coal seam thickness, roof thickness, suspending length, equivalent shear module on the critical load,critical resistance zone was confirmed. So the rock burst occurrence conditions of coal mass in roadway rib mainly depend on mining depth, coal seam thickness and hard roof and floor, which are decided by the above studies, and successfully applied in prediction and prevention of rock burst in this mine.

  12. Rock avalanches on glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Shugar, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines relations between rock avalanches and the glaciers on which they are deposited. I have attempted to understand a geophysical phenomenon from two viewpoints: sedimentology and glaciology. The contributions are both methodological, and practical. I have used a GIS to quantify debris sheet geomorphology. A thorough characterization of rock avalanche debris is a necessary step in understanding the flow mechanics of large landslide. I have also developed a technique for solvin...

  13. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  14. DDA模拟TBM破岩机理%TBM Failure Rock Mechalism with DDA Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文俊; 袁宝远

    2012-01-01

    TBM is the main tool of the modern tunneling, tunneling excavation in the many tunnels have been successfully applied. In many domestic construction process, due to the extremely complex geological conditions, hard rock and lithologic changes, TBM rims appear to be turned, chipping, fracture, abrasion degree of knife ring shift too large and empty sharpening etc, and it has seriously affected the mining progress and mining efficiency. In order to solve these issues, the general mechanism of TBM rock is described, based on this, the DDA simple simulation of rock in a variety of combinations of structural plane loads of damage, more directly reflect the process of breaking rock.

  15. Experimental study and stress analysis of rock bolt anchorage performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to apply pull-and-shear loads to the bolt specimen in order to evaluate the anchorage performance of the rebar bolt and the D-Bolt. In the tests, five displacing angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°, and 90°, two joint gaps (0 mm and 30 mm, and three kinds of host rock materials (weak concrete, strong concrete, and concrete-granite were considered, and stress–strain measurements were conducted. Results show that the ultimate loads of both the D-Bolt and the rebar bolt remained constant with any displacing angles. The ultimate displacement of the D-Bolt changed from 140 mm at the 0° displacing angle (pure pull to approximately 70 mm at a displacing angle greater than 40°. The displacement capacity of the D-Bolt is approximately 3.5 times that of the rebar bolt under pure pull and 50% higher than that of the rebar bolt under pure shear. The compressive stress exists at 50 mm from the bolt head, and the maximum bending moment value rises with the increasing displacing angle. The rebar bolt mobilises greater applied load than the D-Bolt when subjected to the maximum bending. The yielding length (at 0° of the D-Bolt is longer than that of the rebar bolt. The displacement capacity of the bolts increased with the joint gap. The bolt subjected to joint gap effect yields more quickly with greater bending moment and smaller applied load. The displacement capacities of the D-Bolt and the rebar bolt are greater in the weak host rock than that in the hard host rock. In pure shear condition, the ultimate load of the bolts slightly decreases in the hard rock. The yielding speed in the hard rock is higher than that in the weak rock.

  16. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Unified approach to hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of S-Matrix and perturbative QCD properties in the small x_{Bj} regime, we propose a formulation of hard diffraction unifying the partonic (Ingelman-Schlein) Pomeron, Soft Colour Interaction and QCD dipole descriptions.

  18. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  19. No Reprieve for Tasmanian Rock Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Sims

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian State of Tasmania, at latitude 42 degrees south, became an island about 8,000 years ago when the sea rose to its present level, following the melting of polar and glacial ice that covered much of the land mass. After that time, the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art developed independently of mainland Australia, with its form being basically linear with some naturalistic figures and a predominance of cupules. The petroglyphs with one lithophone site occur on various rock substrates varying in hardness from granite to sandstone. Many sites exist along the western coastline that borders the Southern Ocean where the landscape in some places has changed little since the arrival of Europeans in 1803. The significance of this Tasmanian Aboriginal cultural heritage along what is now known as the Tarkine Coast, named after an Aboriginal band that once inhabited this area, was recognised by the Australian Government in February 2013 when a 21,000 ha strip, 2 km wide, was inscribed on its National Heritage Register, being one of 98 special places listed in the country. However, politics and racism hamper its management. This paper is based on the results of 40 years of field recording of the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art sites, many of which remain unpublished.

  20. Boring and Sealing Rock with Directed Energy Millimeter-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H. H.; Oglesby, K.

    2015-12-01

    Millimeter-wave directed energy is being investigated to penetrate into deep crystalline basement rock formations to lower well costs and to melt rocks, metals, and other additives to seal wells for applications that include nuclear waste storage and geothermal energy. Laboratory tests have established that intense millimeter-wave (MMW) beams > 1 kW/cm2 can melt and/ or vaporize hard crystalline rocks. In principle this will make it possible to create open boreholes and a method to seal them with a glass/ceramic liner and plug formed from the original rock or with other materials. A 10 kW, 28 GHz commercial (CPI) gyrotron system with a launched beam diameter of about 32 mm was used to heat basalt, granite, limestone, and sandstone specimens to temperatures over 2500 °C to create melts and holes. A calibrated 137 GHz radiometer view, collinear with the heating beam, monitored real time peak rock temperature. A water load surrounding the rock test specimen primarily monitored unabsorbed power at 28 GHz. Power balance analysis of the laboratory observations shows that the temperature rise is limited by radiative heat loss, which would be expected to be trapped in a borehole. The analysis also indicates that the emissivity (absorption efficiency) in the radiated infrared range is lower than the emissivity at 28 GHz, giving the MMW frequency range an important advantage for rock melting. Strength tests on one granite type indicated that heating the rock initially weakens it, but with exposure to higher temperatures the resolidified black glassy product regains strength. Basalt was the easiest to melt and penetrate, if a melt leak path was provided, because of its low viscosity. Full beam holes up to about 50 mm diameter (diffraction increased beam size) were achieved through 30 mm thick basalt and granite specimens. Laboratory experiments to form a seal in an existing hole have also been carried out by melting rock and a simulated steel casing.

  1. Estimating Hardness from the USDC Tool-Bit Temperature Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    A method of real-time quantification of the hardness of a rock or similar material involves measurement of the temperature, as a function of time, of the tool bit of an ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC) that is being used to drill into the material. The method is based on the idea that, other things being about equal, the rate of rise of temperature and the maximum temperature reached during drilling increase with the hardness of the drilled material. In this method, the temperature is measured by means of a thermocouple embedded in the USDC tool bit near the drilling tip. The hardness of the drilled material can then be determined through correlation of the temperature-rise-versus-time data with time-dependent temperature rises determined in finite-element simulations of, and/or experiments on, drilling at various known rates of advance or known power levels through materials of known hardness. The figure presents an example of empirical temperature-versus-time data for a particular 3.6-mm USDC bit, driven at an average power somewhat below 40 W, drilling through materials of various hardness levels. The temperature readings from within a USDC tool bit can also be used for purposes other than estimating the hardness of the drilled material. For example, they can be especially useful as feedback to control the driving power to prevent thermal damage to the drilled material, the drill bit, or both. In the case of drilling through ice, the temperature readings could be used as a guide to maintaining sufficient drive power to prevent jamming of the drill by preventing refreezing of melted ice in contact with the drill.

  2. Scale of seismic and rock burst hazard in the Silesian companies in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATY(N)SKA Renata; KABIESZ Józef

    2009-01-01

    Presently the seismic and rock burst hazard appears still to be important in most of hard coal mines in Poland. Recently, there was a significant increase of seismic activity of the Silesian rock massive, when compared with the previous years. In the period 1999-2008 the hard coal mines experienced 34 rock bursts. The causes of rockburst occurrence are presented based on the analysis of the rockbursts occurring in the Polish hard coal mines. The scale of the rockburst hazard has been characterized with respect to the mining and geological conditions of the existing exploitation. Of the factors influencing the state of rockburst hazard, the most essential one is considered the depth interval ranging from 600 m to 900 m. The basic factors that promote the rockburst occurrence are as follows: seismogenic strata, edges and remnants, goaf, faults, pillars and excessive paneling.

  3. Scale of seismic and rock burst hazard in the Silesian companies in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renata Patynska; Jozef Kabiesz [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    Presently the seismic and rock burst hazard appears still to be important in most of hard coal mines in Poland. Recently, there was a significant increase of seismic activity of the Silesian rock massive, when compared with the previous years. In the period 1999-2008 the hard coal mines experienced 34 rock bursts. The causes of rockburst occurrence are presented based on the analysis of the rockbursts occurring in the Polish hard coal mines. The scale of the rockburst hazard has been characterized with respect to the mining and geological conditions of the existing exploitation. Of the factors influencing the state of rockburst hazard, the most essential one is considered the depth interval ranging from 600 m to 900 m. The basic factors that promote the rockburst occurrence are as follows: seismogenic strata, edges and remnants, goaf, faults, pillars and excessive paneling. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Slippery Rock University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  5. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  6. Microcraters on lunar rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.; Moore, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions have been obtained for nine Apollo rocks and an exterior chip of an Apollo 12 rock. The frequency distributions indicate that five of the Apollo 14 rocks were tumbled more than once exposing different rock faces whereas four were not tumbled and represent a single exposure interval. The cumulative frequency of craters per square centimeter was extended below optical resolution limits using a SEM scan of an exterior chip of breccia 12073. No craters with central pit diameters less than 15 microns were seen in a total area of 0.44 sq cm. A detailed SEM scan of crystal faces and glassy crater liners revealed no microcraters equal to or larger than the resolution limit of 5 microns. An upper limit of 170 craters per sq cm with central pit diameters larger than 5 microns was set. The slope of the cumulative frequency curve for craters with central pit diameters less than about 75 microns is less than that obtained by other workers.

  7. A New Method for Determination of Joint Roughness Coefficient of Rock Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock joints has the characteristic of scale effect. JRC measured on small-size exposed rock joints should be evaluated by JRC scale effect in order to obtain the JRC of actual-scale rock joints, since field rock joints are hardly fully exposed or well saved. Based on the validity analysis of JRC scale effect, concepts of rate of JRC scale effect and effective length of JRC scale effect were proposed. Then, a graphic method for determination of the effective length of JRC scale effect was established. Study results show that the JRC of actual-scale rock joints can be obtained through a fractal model of JRC scale effect according to the statistically measured results of the JRC of small-size partial exposed rock joints and by the selection of fractal dimension of JRC scale effect and the determination of effective length of JRC scale effect.

  8. NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS WITH ENHANCED HARDNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Musil

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the present state of the art in the magnetron sputtering of hart and superhard nanocomposite coatings. It is shown that there are (1) two groups of hard and superhard nanocomposites: (i) nc-MN/hard phase and (ii) nc-MN/soft phase, (2) three possible origins of the enhanced hardness: (i) dislocation-dominated plastic deformation, (ii) cohesive forces between atoms and (iii) nanostructure of materials, and (3) huge differences in the microstructure of single- and two-phase films. A main attention is devoted to the formation of nanocrystalline and/or X-ray amorphous films. Such films are created in a vicinity of transitions between (i)crystalline and amorphous phases, (ii) two crystalline phases of different chemical composition or (iii) two different preferred orientations of grains of the sane material from which the coating is composed. The existence of the last transition makes it possible to explain the enhanced hardness in single-phase films. The thermal stability and oxidation resistance of hard nanocomposite films is also shortly discussed.

  9. Rock Sample Destruction Limits for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. K.; Budney, C. J.; Shiraishi, L.; Klein, K.; Gilbert, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sample return missions, including the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, propose to collect core samples from scientifically valuable sites on Mars. These core samples would undergo extreme forces during the drilling process, and during the reentry process if the Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) performs a hard landing on Earth. Because of the foreseen damage to the cores, it is important to evaluate each core for rock quality. However, because no planetary core sample return mission has yet been conducted, it remains unclear as to how to assess the cores for rock quality. In this report, we describe the development of a metric designed to quantitatively assess the quality of the rock cores returned from MSR. We report on the process by which we tested the metric on core samples of Mars analogue materials, and the effectiveness of the core assessment metric (CAM) in assessing rock core quality before and after the cores were subjected to shocking (g forces representative of an EEV landing). Mars-analogue Basalt rock core. Cores like this one are being used to develop a metric with which to assess rock quality before and after shock-testing. The sample canister that houses the cores during shock-testing. SolidWorks design by James Gilbert.

  10. Development of a multivariate empirical model for predicting weak rock mass modulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallu Raj R.; Keffeler Evan R.; Watters Robert J.; Agharazi Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Estimating weak rock mass modulus has historically proven difficult although this mechanical property is an important input to many types of geotechnical analyses. An empirical database of weak rock mass modulus with associated detailed geotechnical parameters was assembled from plate loading tests per-formed at underground mines in Nevada, the Bakhtiary Dam project, and Portugues Dam project. The database was used to assess the accuracy of published single-variate models and to develop a multivari-ate model for predicting in-situ weak rock mass modulus when limited geotechnical data are available. Only two of the published models were adequate for predicting modulus of weak rock masses over lim-ited ranges of alteration intensities, and none of the models provided good estimates of modulus over a range of geotechnical properties. In light of this shortcoming, a multivariate model was developed from the weak rock mass modulus dataset, and the new model is exponential in form and has the following independent variables:(1) average block size or joint spacing, (2) field estimated rock strength, (3) dis-continuity roughness, and (4) discontinuity infilling hardness. The multivariate model provided better estimates of modulus for both hard-blocky rock masses and intensely-altered rock masses.

  11. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.

    2000-06-23

    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications.

  12. Hard Diffraction at D{phi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilvan A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cosmologia e Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias

    2000-07-01

    Full text follows: We review recent Hard Diffraction results from the D{phi} experiment at Fermilab, for the following processes: hard color singlet exchange, hard single diffraction, and hard double pomeron exchange. Measurements of rates, {eta}, E{sub T} and {radical}S dependencies are presented and comparisons made with predictions of several models. (author)

  13. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Hard Diffraction in Pythia 8

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general--purpose event generator Pythia 8. We review the existing model for low-- and high--mass soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction in pp and ppbar collisions. Both models uses the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the single diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF. The model for hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions framework, thereby introducing a dynamical rapidity gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  15. Hard Diffraction in Pythia 8

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  16. Hard diffraction in Pythia 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard Rasmussen, Christine

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8 [1]. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  17. Mechanical property and cutting rate of microwave treated granite rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lek Sikong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave treatment, especially at low power level on compressive strength and cutting rate of granite rock by using multimodal cavity. The power level and cooling rate of treated samples were found to have an effect on the compressive strength, and the cutting rate. This effect is due to the induction of the plastic zones and micro cracks in the rock matrix, especially at the grain boundaries induced by the thermal stresses of rock forming minerals which have the difference in dielectric properties after microwave heating for a certain exposure time together with the thermal-shock treatment after the heating. It was found that the strength of treated granite is less than 60% of the original after 30 minutes of exposure.The dry heated samples with a water quenching seem to be the most affected samples. They exhibit a significant decrease in compressive strength up to 70% and cutting rate up to 38% after 30-minute treatment at the power of 850W, and after 10-minute treatment at the power of 600W respectively. Prolonged treatment causes the relaxation of induced thermal stresses in the rock mass, leading to a slight increase in compressive strength, and a slight decrease in cutting rate. For dry samples, the cutting rate can be enhanced because of a decrease in hardness of rock mass dropped from 61.5 to 55.4 HRC afterthe 10-minute heating at 600W with thermal shock treatment.The absorbed water in the pores of rock mass also has an effect on a decrease in compressive strength. Because micro cracks developed by the water vapor generated by heat which escapes through open pores. However, it seems to have less effect on the cutting rate because it causes a slight decrease in the hardness.

  18. Pitted Rock Named Ender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  19. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  20. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  1. Exploring the relation between personality and the appreciation of rock music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T O; Weaver, J B; Zillmann, D

    1996-02-01

    Scores on five personality characteristics, extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism as well as reactive and proactive rebelliousness, and the appreciation of soft/nonrebellious and hard/rebellious rock-music videotapes were explored. After completing the personality tests, female and male undergraduates were exposed to rock-music videotapes and asked to rate various aspects of their enjoyment of each. Analysis indicated that psychoticism and reactive rebelliousness were associated with enjoyment in a parallel fashion. Specifically, respondents scoring high on psychoticism or high on reactive rebelliousness enjoyed hard/rebellious rock-music videotapes more than did their peers scoring low on psychoticism or low on reactive rebelliousness. The reverse was evident for the enjoyment of soft/nonrebellious rock-music videotapes. In contrast, scores on extraversion, neuroticism, and proactive rebelliousness were not associated with enjoyment. Gender differences emerged, however; women (n = 78) enjoyed soft/nonrebellious rock music more than did men (n = 60); and conversely, men enjoyed hard/rebellious rock music more than did women.

  2. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion bombardment

  3. Inclusive Hard Diffraction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Proskuryakov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments on hard inclusive diffraction are discussed. Results of QCD analyses of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering processes are reported. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet measurements.

  4. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  5. Hard Trying and These Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Nancie

    2003-01-01

    Writers thrive when they are motivated to work hard, have regular opportunities to practice and reflect, and benefit from a knowledgeable teacher who knows writing. Student feedback to lessons during writing workshop helped guide Nancie Atwell in her quest to provide the richest and most efficient path to better writing.

  6. Unifying approach to hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H

    2001-01-01

    We find a formulation of hard diffraction unifying the partonic (Ingelman-Schlein) Pomeron, Soft Colour Interaction and QCD dipole descriptions. A theoretical interpretation in terms of S-Matrix and perturbative QCD properties in the small x_{Bj} regime is proposed.

  7. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-03-07

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  8. Hard sphere model of atom

    CERN Document Server

    Tsekov, R

    2014-01-01

    The finite size effect of electron and nucleus is accounted for in the model of atom. Due to their hard sphere repulsion the energy of the 1s orbital decreases and the corrections amount up to 8 % in Uranium. Several models for boundary conditions on the atomic nucleus surface are discussed as well.

  9. Kinetic theory of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic equations for the hard-sphere system are derived by diagrammatic techniques. A linear equation is obtained for the one-particle-one particle equilibrium time correlation function and a nonlinear equation for the one-particle distribution function in nonequilibrium. Both equations are nonloca

  10. Rock in Rio: eternamente jovem

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  11. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  12. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  13. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satz, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Universitat Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, X.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  14. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.

  15. Experimental study on the physical and chemical properties of the deep hard brittle shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the hard brittle shale formation, rock composition, physical and chemical properties, mechanics property before and after interacting with fluid have direct relation with borehole problems, such as borehole wall collapse, mud loss, hole shrinkage. To achieve hard brittle shale micro-structure, physical–chemical properties and mechanics property, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD, cation exchange capacity experiment and hardness test are conducted. The result of laboratory experiments indicates that, clay mineral and quartz is dominated in mineral composition. In clay mineral, illite and illite/semectite mixed layers are abundant and there is no sign of montmorillonite. Value of cation exchange capacity (CEC ranges from 102.5–330 mmol/kg and average value is 199.56 mmol/kg. High value of CEC and content of clay mineral means hard brittle shale has strong ability of hydration. The image of XRD shows well developed micro-cracks and pores, which make rock failure easily, especially when fluid invades rock inside. Shale sample soaked with anti-high temperature KCL drilling fluid on shorter immersing time has stronger strength, whereas shale sample soaked with plugging and film forming KCL drilling fluid on longer immersing time has stronger strength.

  16. Research on inspection of stability of subsiding area in composite rock-mass roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来兴平

    2002-01-01

    The research concentrates mainly on the development of failure process in composite rock-mass through acoustic emission, convergence inspection, stress measurement, subside area measurement, level measurement in the process of stability and safety monitoring as well as inspecting of subside area in composite hard rock. In terms of the modern signal analysis technology, various aspects are discussed. The monitoring result and the stability of rock mass can be synthetically evaluated and inferred, and the location of acoustic origin according to the acoustic emission regularity can be successfully detected. Finally the key factors of the deformation can be inferred from in subside area.

  17. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  18. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  19. Michael Learns to Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海涛

    2004-01-01

    夜幕降临.空气中传来北欧的声音,来自丹麦的四人流行乐队Michael Learns to Rock(迈克学摇滚)正把探情款款的歌声带到上海的咖啡厅和酒吧。北欧一直活跃着一批世界顶级的乐队.从丹麦的A-Ha到Aqua,从瑞典的ABBA到Roxette和Ace of Base,从挪威的Se

  20. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  1. Development of Radiation Hard Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah; Bilki, Burak; Winn, David; Onel, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments are in ever increasing need for radiation hard scintillators and detectors. In this regard, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), our prototype material Scintillator X (SX) and Eljen (EJ). Scintillation and transmission properties of these scintillators are studied using stimulated emission from a 334 nm wavelength UV laser with PMT before and after certain amount of radiation exposure. Recovery from radiation damage is studied over time. While the primary goal of this study is geared for LHC detector upgrades, these new technologies could easily be used for future experiments such as the FCC and ILC. Here we discuss the physics motivation, recent developments and laboratory measurements of these materials.

  2. Schwannoma of the hard palate

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated perineural tumors. The head and neck region is the most common site. Intraoral origin is seen in only 1% of cases, tongue being the most common site; its location in the palate is rare. We report a case of hard-palate schwannoma with bony erosion which was immunohistochemically confirmed. The tumor was excised completely intraorally. After two months of follow-up, the defect was found to be completely covered with palatal mucosa.

  3. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  4. Rock Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  5. Fossils, rocks, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  6. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  7. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  8. Managing Rock Squirrels in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Nicki

    2015-01-01

    Although they do not exist in large colonies like other ground squirrels, rock squirrels can still sometimes generate conflicts with homeowners and farmers alike. Most damage occurs when a few rock squirrels take residence in a homeowner’s back yard, and begin to forage on garden vegetables and fruit trees. There are several direct and indirect ways that private landowners can manage and reduce rock squirrels on their property. This fact sheet give management tips.

  9. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  10. True Triaxial Strength and Failure Modes of Cubic Rock Specimens with Unloading the Minor Principal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Du, Kun; Li, Diyuan

    2015-11-01

    True triaxial tests have been carried out on granite, sandstone and cement mortar using cubic specimens with the process of unloading the minor principal stress. The strengths and failure modes of the three rock materials are studied in the processes of unloading σ 3 and loading σ 1 by the newly developed true triaxial test system under different σ 2, aiming to study the mechanical responses of the rock in underground excavation at depth. It shows that the rock strength increases with the raising of the intermediate principal stress σ 2 when σ 3 is unloaded to zero. The true triaxial strength criterion by the power-law relationship can be used to fit the testing data. The "best-fitting" material parameters A and n ( A > 1.4 and n < 1.0) are almost located in the same range as expected by Al-Ajmi and Zimmerman (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 563 42(3):431-439, 2005). It indicates that the end effect caused by the height-to-width ratio of the cubic specimens will not significantly affect the testing results under true triaxial tests. Both the strength and failure modes of cubic rock specimens under true triaxial unloading condition are affected by the intermediate principal stress. When σ 2 increases to a critical value for the strong and hard rocks (R4, R5 and R6), the rock failure mode may change from shear to slabbing. However, for medium strong and weak rocks (R3 and R2), even with a relatively high intermediate principal stress, they tend to fail in shear after a large amount of plastic deformation. The maximum extension strain criterion Stacey (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 651 18(6):469-474, 1981) can be used to explain the change of failure mode from shear to slabbing for strong and hard rocks under true triaxial unloading test condition.

  11. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran (Conrox AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    calculations using the PHREEQC code showed that fracture precipitation is unlikely to clog the water-conducting fractures within a 10-year period, even when considering construction material such as cement and nitrogen compounds. For most of the modelling cases, the estimated decrease in hydraulic conductivity over a period of ten years is less than 2% due to mineral precipitation. It was further concluded that it is more likely for fractures to clog (self-heal) than become open as a result of fracture mineral dissolution. With respect to the microbial evolution it was concluded that the potential for microbial iron hydroxide production will be large in all groundwater with ferrous iron. The potential for microbial calcite formation production will be large in all groundwater with high concentrations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and methane, irrespective of oxygen, Eh (redox) or pH. The kinetics of the microbial evolution is not yet known, and microbes may then play a role in fracture clogging which could possibly be the factor that contributes to lower groundwater inflow to underground facilities with time, as shown for many facilities. The compilation of results from the relevant tests at underground laboratories in Canada, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland was focussed on the extent of the damage and its dependency on excavation methods and measurements of the hydraulic properties. The most important factor controlling the excavation damage is the choice of excavation method. Use of mechanical excavation may create irreversible damage less than 30 mm from the rock wall where increased micro-fracturing contributes to an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Several methods and sample scales have been used to characterise the damage zone. For a Tunnel Boring Machine < 5 mm of damage was recorded at Aespoe HRL and at Grimsel in Switzerland. The hydraulic conductivity was at e.g. Aespoe HRL determined to be in the range of 10-9 m/s over a distance of 1-2 mm from the tunnel

  12. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  13. -wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of some rock materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saffet Yagiz

    2011-07-01

    -wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and effective porosity, slake durability index, saturated and dry density of rock using -wave velocity (p). For this purpose geotechnical properties of nine different rock types were determined in the laboratory and their mineralogical composition examined using thin section analysis. Utilizing the generated data, sets of empirical equations were developed between p and relevant quantified rock parameters. The validity of the obtained empirical equations was confirmed using statistical analysis. It is evident that rock texture and mineralogical compositions affect the geotechnical properties of rock materials. Therefore, the best relationship obtained between both E and UCS with p in the correlation coefficient of 0.92 and 0.95 in that order. It is concluded that p could be practically used for estimating the measured rock properties except dry and saturated density of rocks ( = 0.58 and 0.46 respectively).

  14. Critical issues in soft rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ground are added, with emphasis on their types of problems and solutions.

  15. Cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiancai; SUN Yan; SHU Liangshu; GU Lianxing; GUO Jichun; ZHU Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Based on the knowledge of the shallow-level mylonitization of detrital rocks and intrusive rocks, the poorly-known cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks is discussed comprehensively in this paper. The cases taken from eastern China are analyzed in various aspects including ductile-brittle fault zone, rock texture and structure, clastomylonite layer, leucocratic stress minerals, and frictional dynamometamorphism. It is proposed that the cataclastic flow structure represented by clastomylonite texture is a cooling pattern of flow assemblage characterized by cooling metamorphism, cooling mylonite and cooling stress minerals. Such a pattern is formed generally in mildly reducing physicochemical environments, and is commonly related to regional tectonism and mesothermal and epithermal mineralization.

  16. Raman Model Predicting Hardness of Covalent Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Qian, Quang-Rui; Sun, Jian; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the fact that both hardness and vibrational Raman spectrum depend on the intrinsic property of chemical bonds, we propose a new theoretical model for predicting hardness of a covalent crystal. The quantitative relationship between hardness and vibrational Raman frequencies deduced from the typical zincblende covalent crystals is validated to be also applicable for the complex multicomponent crystals. This model enables us to nondestructively and indirectly characterize the hardness o...

  17. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  18. Intrusive rocks viewed from fitness landscape diagrams: Evolution and immiscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneresse, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    We introduce the hard-soft acid-base concepts to magma evolution. Those concepts and their derived chemical parameters provide a new insight into mantle- and continental-derived magmas. Hence magma evolution represents a free suite of chemical reactions, thus showing natural chemical trends. They should be controlled by the principles of maximum hardness and minimum electrophilicity that rule chemical reactions. When plotting into a fitness landscape diagram, rocks suites define two major tendencies. Mantle-derived rocks present all character of an closed chemical system. Conversely, rocks contaminated within the continental crust define two other trends, depending on whether they have affinities toward a silica pole or an alkaline one. They both show the character of an open chemical system. When plotting major igneous minerals onto that diagram shows the importance of olivine, silica and alkali-bearing oxides. It points to the development of immiscibility, depending on the path along which magmas evolve. It thus provides explanation to experimentally observed immiscibility.

  19. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  20. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  1. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  2. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  3. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  4. Rock and drugs: multiliteracies and an aesthetics of violence for teenagers in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Helena Gomes Wielewicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current study discusses an approach of hard rock, in English, for high school students, from a multimodal perspective. The songs are analyzed in terms of their musicality and literariness and hard rock is considered a historically constituted complex cultural movement. The aesthetics of violence, present in the rock’n’roll scenario, specifically focused on the themes of drugs and alcohol abuse, is analyzed from the perspective of multiliteracies, for the development of teenagers’ critical education. The paper is theoretically based on theory by Lévy (2010, Kress (2000 and Kalantzis and Cope (2000 for multiliteracy concepts and on Walser (1993 for the criticism on the musical language. Songs by the USA rock bands Metallica and Guns N’Roses are discussed.

  5. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the mission space environment. The subset of interests for NEPP and the REAG, are EEE parts. It is important to register that all of these undertakings are in a feedback loop and require constant iteration and updating throughout the mission life. More detail can be found in the reference materials on applicable test data for usage on parts.

  6. Sampling hard to reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugier, J; Sargeant, M

    1997-10-01

    Studies on 'hidden populations', such as homeless people, prostitutes and drug addicts, raise a number of specific methodological questions usually absent from research involving known populations and less sensitive subjects. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of nonrandom methods of data collection such as snowball sampling. It reviews the currently available literature on sampling hard to reach populations and highlights the dearth of material currently available on this subject. The paper also assesses the potential for using these methods in nursing research. The sampling methodology used by Faugier (1996) in her study of prostitutes, HIV and drugs is used as a current example within this context.

  7. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  8. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

    2010-08-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  9. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Subhadra; K Kishan Rao; D B Sirdeshmukh

    2000-04-01

    In view of discrepancies in the available information on the hardness of lithium niobate, a systematic study of the hardness has been carried out. Measurements have been made on two pure lithium niobate crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load variation of hardness is examined in detail. The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. The Fe-doped crystal has a larger hardness of 750 ± 50 kg/mm2.

  10. Physical vs. Mathematical Models in Rock Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, I. B.; Deng, W.

    2013-12-01

    empirical time-dependent bulk modulus can be formally constructed, and yet the physical significance of this modulus is limited. The asymptotic (initial and final) levels of this modulus represent the adiabatic and isothermal elastic moduli of the material, whereas the transition between these levels is arbitrary and depends on the type of deformations and thermal insulation of the specimen. For the dynamic loading experiment 4), the stress-strain phase lag is proportional to the difference between the adiabatic and isothermal moduli, but this lag also depends on external factors such as the thermal relaxation time and frequency of the loading force. Overall, although the correspondence principle formally applies to a thermoelastic cylinder, it is not entirely due to the material, cannot be assumed a priori, should not replace the full physical solution, and can hardly be used to extrapolate the behavior of the rock to geologic spatial and time scales. Similar conclusions likely apply to spatial averaging of anelastic microstructures.

  11. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  12. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-01-01

    Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  13. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.N. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  14. Origin of beach-stranded tars from source rocks indigeneous to Seychelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (South Africa)

    1996-03-01

    Tarballs have been found stranded as traction deposits on a beach on northwest Mahe Island, Seychelles, with every ebbing tide. Weekly collections from mid-1993 to mid-1994 gathered nearly 4750 samples of two types of tar: a dominant black malleable tar and a less common brownish-black hard tar. Both tars represent moderately degraded extracts of crude oils seemingly derived from mature source rocks dominated by a combination of oil-prone phytoplanktonic and algal organic matter over gas-prone land-plant organic matter. Source rock deposition occurred principally in paralic to open-marine environments. The presence of minor oleanane and bicadinane, and a general preponderance of diasteranes and tricyclic terpanes in the hard tar suggest derivation from a Late Cretaceous clastic source rock with possible carbonate interbeds. By contrast, no samples of the malleable tar contain oleanane or bicadinane, but all contain significant norhopane and tetracyclic terpanes, which, along with significant sulfur and low diasterane contents, indicate derivation from a carbonate source rock of perhaps pre-Late Cretaceous age. Additionally, maturity and limited geochemical data from proven and potential source rocks present in the offshore wells enable the malleable and hard tars to be equated with specific units in the Seychelles stratigraphy; the malleable tar is seemingly derived from a Middle Jurassic carbonate of Tethyan affinity and the hard tar possibly originated from either Campanian or Maastrichtian-Paleocene shales. These tars are thus concluded to be natural seepage products derived from source rocks indigenous to Seychelles, and their persistent beach stranding significantly reduces the risk of hydrocarbon exploration in this frontier province.

  15. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Hard Fault Analysis of Trivium

    CERN Document Server

    Yupu, Hu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Fault analysis is a powerful attack to stream ciphers. Up to now, the major idea of fault analysis is to simplify the cipher system by injecting some soft faults. We call it soft fault analysis. As a hardware-oriented stream cipher, Trivium is weak under soft fault analysis. In this paper we consider another type of fault analysis of stream cipher, which is to simplify the cipher system by injecting some hard faults. We call it hard fault analysis. We present the following results about such attack to Trivium. In Case 1 with the probability not smaller than 0.2396, the attacker can obtain 69 bits of 80-bits-key. In Case 2 with the probability not smaller than 0.2291, the attacker can obtain all of 80-bits-key. In Case 3 with the probability not smaller than 0.2291, the attacker can partially solve the key. In Case 4 with non-neglectable probability, the attacker can obtain a simplified cipher, with smaller number of state bits and slower non-linearization procedure. In Case 5 with non-neglectable probability,...

  17. Seismic properties of polyphase rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin

    2005-11-01

    Knowledge about the seismic properties of polyphase rocks is fundamental for interpreting seismic refraction and reflection data and for establishing lithospheric structure and composition models. This study aims to obtain more precise relationships between seismic properties of rocks and controlling factors (e.g., pressure, temperature, mineralogical and chemical compositions, microstructure of rocks), particularly for those rocks imprinted by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. These relationships will be very helpful to extrapolate calculated and measured seismic properties of rocks to depths of interest and to engender interpretations relevant to petrological composition and tectonic process. An Internet Database of Rock Seismic Properties (DRSP) was set up and a Handbook of Seismic Properties of Minerals, Rocks and Ores was published. They comprise almost all data available in the literature during the past 4 decades and can serve as a convenient, comprehensive and concise information source on physical properties of rocks to the earth sciences and geotechnical communities. Statistical results of the DRSP reveal the dependence of seismic properties on density, porosity, humidity, and mineralogical and chemical compositions. Using 16 different averaging methods, we calculated P-wave velocities of 696 dry samples according to the volume fraction and elastic constants of each constituent mineral. Although only 22 common minerals were taken into account in the computation, the calculated P-wave velocities agree well with laboratory values measured at about 300 MPa, where most microcracks are closed and the mean Vp of a polymineralic rock is exclusively controlled by its modal composition. However, none of these mixture rules can simultaneously fit measured P-wave velocities for all lithologies or at all pressures. Therefore, more prudence is required in selecting an appropriate mixture rule for calculation of seismic velocities of different rock types.

  18. Research on Mechanism of Rock Burst Generation and Development for High Stress Rock Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全臣; 赫建明; 王代华

    2001-01-01

    Through the investigation and analysis of high stress distribution in surrounding rock during the excavation of rock tunnels,the key factors to cause rock burst and the mechanism of rock burst generation and development are researched. The result shows that the scale and range of rock burst are related with elastic deformation energy storied in rock mass and the characteristics of unloading stress waves. The measures of preventing from rock burst for high stress rock tunnels are put forward.

  19. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  20. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  1. Rock Breaking by Conical Pick Assisted with High Pressure Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Songyong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of hard rock breaking, the conical pick bears great cutting force and wear, and the cutting efficiency is lower. Thus different combination ways of water jet and conical pick were proposed to solve this issue; for instance, water jet placed in the front of pick (JFP and water jet through the center of pick (JCP was researched by numerical simulation and experiments in this paper. First, the models of rock breaking were built based on SPH combined with finite element method. Then, the stress distribution of rock and the cut force of pick were analyzed when the rock broken by the conical pick assisted with the high pressure water jet. It indicates that the effect of the JCP on rock breaking is better than the JFP. At last, experiments about rock breaking with a conical pick and the JCP were conducted to verify the reliability of the simulation. It indicates that the rock breaking with the assistance of high pressure water jet cannot only reduce the pick force, but also increase the rock crushing volume.

  2. Characterizing and modelling 'ghost-rock' weathered limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Caroline; Goderniaux, Pascal; Deceuster, John; Poulain, Angélique; Kaufmann, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    'Ghost-rock' karst aquifer has recently been highlighted. In this particular type of aquifer, the karst is not expressed as open conduits but consists in zones where the limestone is weathered. The in-situ weathering of limestone leaves a soft porous material called 'alterite'. The hydro-mechanical properties of this material differs significantly from those of the host rock: the weathering enhances the storage capacity and the conductivity of the rock. This type of weathered karst aquifer has never been studied from a hydrogeological point of view. In this study, we present the hydraulic characterization of such weathered zones. We also present a modelling approach derived from the common Equivalent Porous Medium (EPM) approach, but including the spatial distribution of hydrogeological properties through the weathered features, from the hard rock to the alterite, according to a weathering index. Unlike the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) approaches, which enable to take into account a limited number of fractures, this new approach allows creating models including thousands of weathered features. As the properties of the alterite have to be considered at a centimeter scale, it is necessary to upscale these properties to carry out simulations over large areas. Therefore, an upscaling method was developed, taking into account the anisotropy of the weathered features. Synthetic models are built, upscaled and different hydrogeological simulations are run to validate the method. This methodology is finally tested on a real case study: the modelling of the dewatering drainage flow of an exploited quarry in a weathered karst aquifer in Belgium.

  3. System Would Acquire Core and Powder Samples of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Randolph, James; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Ritz, Chuck; Cook, Greg

    2006-01-01

    A system for automated sampling of rocks, ice, and similar hard materials at and immediately below the surface of the ground is undergoing development. The system, denoted a sample preparation, acquisition, handling, and delivery (SPAHD) device, would be mounted on a robotic exploratory vehicle that would traverse the terrain of interest on the Earth or on a remote planet. The SPAHD device would probe the ground to obtain data for optimization of sampling, prepare the surface, acquire samples in the form(s) of cores and/or powdered cuttings, and deliver the samples to a selected location for analysis and/or storage.

  4. Composition and method for cleaning hydrocarbon oil from hard surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blezard, M.; Mcallister, W.H.

    1983-09-28

    Hydrocarbon oils are cleaned from hard, inorganic surfaces by the application of an aqueous solution, such as seawater, containing a mixture of alkoxylated alcohol, carboxylic acid, alkyl phenol, or nonionic phosphate ester, with an alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide or an ethoxylated or polyethoxylated alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide. The method is of particular value for cleaning drilling oil from rock cuttings in offshore drilling operations, such as cold North Sea installations. Specific examples are a C10 primary alcohol, which is ethoxylated with 5 moles of ethylene oxide, mixed with a coconut diethanolamide. Typically, the mixture is supplied as a concentrate which is dissolved in, or diluted with, water to provide the cleansing solution at the site of the rig. 21 claims.

  5. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  6. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  7. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  8. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  9. Preparation and Properties of High Hardness and Oxidation Resisting Coating Using Electric Arc Spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhuo-xin; CUILi; WANGJiang-ping; TANGChun-tian

    2004-01-01

    A coating with high hardness, wear and oxidation resistance was prepared by electric arc spray. The hardness, bonding strength, abrasive wear and values of porosity and oxidation resistance of the coating were investigated. The microstructures and function of Cr3C2 of the coating were analyzed. The results showed surface Rockness Hardness HR30 reached 72.5 and average bond strength reached 49.1Mpa. Also porosity value was less than 2%. In addition, it was found from the comparison between the coating and 45CT coating that, oxidation resistance of the coating was less than that of 45CT, but the abrasive wear of the coating was obvious better than that of 45CT.

  10. Preparation and Properties of High Hardness and Oxidation Resisting Coating Using Electric Arc Spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuo-xin; CUI Li; WANG Jiang-ping; TANG Chun-tian

    2004-01-01

    A coating with high hardness, wear and oxidation resistance was prepared by electric arc spray. The hardness,bonding strength, abrasive wear and values of porosity and oxidation resistance of the coating were investigated. The microstructures and function of Cr3C2 of the coating were analyzed. The results showed surface Rockness Hardness HR30 reached 72.5 and average bond strength reached 49.1Mpa. Also porosity value was less than 2%. In addition, it was found from the comparison between the coating and 45CT coating that, oxidation resistance of the coating was less than that of 45CT, but the abrasive wear of the coating was obvious better than that of 45CT.

  11. Probing Strangeness in Hard Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Avakian, H; Cisbani, E; Contalbrigo, M; D'Alesio, U; De Leo, R; Devita, R; Di Nezza, P; Hasch, D; Mirazita, M; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L; Rossi, P

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of strangeness almost five decades ago, interest in this degree of freedom has grown up and now its investigation spans the scales from quarks to nuclei. Measurements with identified strange hadrons can provide important information on several hot topics in hadronic physics: the strange distribution and fragmentation functions, the nucleon tomography and quark orbital momentum, accessible through the study of the {\\it generalized} parton distribution and the {\\it transverse momentum dependent} parton distribution functions, the quark hadronization in the nuclear medium, the hadron spectroscopy and the search for exotic mesons. The CLAS12 large acceptance spectrometer in Hall B at the Jefferson Laboratory upgraded with a RICH detector together with the 12 GeV CEBAF high intensity, high polarized electron beam can open new possibilities to study strangeness in hard processes allowing breakthroughs in all those areas. This paper summarizes the physics case for a RICH detector for CLAS12. Many...

  12. A hard case for modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsh

    2002-10-01

    Some fighter pilots alive today owe their survival to tough, low-weight helmets whose qualities have been refined as a result of biomechanical modeling. Porter and his colleagues have modeled the human head as a mechanical arrangement of a heavy ball on a rod support, as a system of soft matter contained in a hard case, as an arrangement of meso-scale sub-systems, and as a combination of material systems built up from the nano-molecular and atomic scales. An extensive modeling hierarchy (Fig. 1 is held on nothing more esoteric than a networked workstation and server architecture. Nevertheless, thanks to a process of focused simplification at each hierarchical level, it is able to predict the mechanical behavior of the human head and its constituents in reacting to impacts with considerable accuracy.

  13. Schwannoma of the hard palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isildak, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ibrahimov, Metin; Aslan, Mehmet; Karaman, Emin; Enver, Ozgun

    2010-01-01

    About half of all neurogenic tumors are seen in the head and neck region. The types of neurogenic tumors must be distinguished. Schwannomas originate from Schwann cells of the neural sheath and are solitary, well-encapsulated, slow-growing adjacent to the parental nerve but extrinsic to the nerve fascicles.Approximately 25% to 45% of all schwannomas are seen in the head and neck region and are found rarely in the oral cavity. Most of the intraoral schwannomas are located in the tongue. Other less common locations are the buccal mucosa, palate, base of the mouth, gingiva, and lips.In this study, we report a rare case of schwannoma of the hard palate, which was excised intraorally.

  14. Geoelectrical Characterization of Sulphate Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Guinea Maysounave, Ander

    2012-01-01

    [eng] Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral –CaSO4•2H2O- in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum roc...

  15. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  16. Evaluation of rock mass classification schemes: a case study from the Bowen Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit

    2016-04-01

    The development of an accurate engineering geological model and adequate knowledge of spatial variation in rock mass conditions are important prerequisites for slope stability analyses, tunnel design, mine planning and risk management. Rock mass classification schemes such as Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR), Q-system and Roof Strength Index (RSI) have been used for a range of engineering geological applications, including transport tunnels, "hard rock" mining and underground and open-cut coal mines. Often, rock mass classification schemes have been evaluated on subaerial exposures, where weathering has affected joint characteristics and intact strength. In contrast, the focus of this evaluation of the above classification schemes is an underground coal mine in the Bowen Basin, central Queensland, Australia, 15 km east of the town of Moranbah. Rock mass classification was undertaken at 68 sites across the mine. Both the target coal seam and overlying rock show marked spatial variability in terms of RMR, CMRR and Q, but RSI showed limited sensitivity to changes in rock mass condition. Relationships were developed between different parameters with varying degrees of success. A mine-wide analysis of faulting was undertaken, and compared with in situ stress field and local-scale measurements of joint and cleat. While there are no unequivocal relationships between rock mass classification parameters and faulting, a central graben zone shows heterogeneous rock mass properties. The corollary is that if geological features can be accurately defined by remote sensing technologies, then this can assist in predicting rock mass conditions and risk management ahead of development and construction.

  17. Hardness measures and resolution lower bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Beyersdorff, Olaf; Kullmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Various "hardness" measures have been studied for resolution, providing theoretical insight into the proof complexity of resolution and its fragments, as well as explanations for the hardness of instances in SAT solving. In this report we aim at a unified view of a number of hardness measures, including different measures of width, space and size of resolution proofs. We also extend these measures to all clause-sets (possibly satisfiable).

  18. Unified characterisations of resolution hardness measures

    OpenAIRE

    Beyersdorff, O; Kullmann, O.

    2014-01-01

    Various "hardness" measures have been studied for resolution, providing theoretical insight into the proof complexity of resolution and its fragments, as well as explanations for the hardness of instances in SAT solving. In this paper we aim at a unified view of a number of hardness measures, including different measures of width, space and size of resolution proofs. Our main contribution is a unified game-theoretic characterisation of these measures. As consequences we obtain new relations b...

  19. Seepage properties of a single rock fracture subjected to triaxial stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Coupled properties of seepage and stress fields of rock fractures greatly influence the safety of geotechnical engineering work.Based on the closing defomation principle of a single rock fracture,equations describing relationships of aperture and triaxial stresses are developed,and coupled models of seepage and triaxial stresses are proposed.Seepage tests are conducted under triaxial stress conditions by adopting hard granite specimens with an artificial fracture.The results show that the normal stress,lateral stress and seepage pressure significantly affect the flow behavior of rock fractures,and that hydraulic conductivity decreases with increasing normal.stress,but increases with rising lateral stress or seepage pressure.In addition,an exponential function provides a good representation of the seepage characteristics of a single rock fracture subjected to triaxial stresses.

  20. Experimental and Statistical Evaluation of Cutting Methods in Relation to Specific Energy and Rock Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Irfan Celal; Bayram, Fatih; Yasitli, Nazmi Erhan

    2013-07-01

    In a processing plant, natural stone can be cut by methods such as circular sawing (CS), frame sawing (FS), water jet cutting (WJC) and abrasive water jet cutting (AWJC). The efficiency of cutting systems can be compared using various parameters. In this study, the specific energy values were determined and compared to evaluate the efficiency of rock-cutting methods. Rock-cutting experiments were performed on 12 different types of rock samples using a circular sawing machine and an AWJC machine. The experimental results showed that the specific energy values in AWJC were generally higher than in CS. In addition, the relationships between specific energy values and rock properties were explained in this study. The Shore hardness and abrasion resistance were found to be strongly related to the specific energy values, and according to these parameters prediction charts of specific energy values were created.

  1. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  2. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Koita; H Jourde; K J P Koffi; K S Da Silveira; A Biaou

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcano sedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  3. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  4. Anthropic Rock: a brief history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cathcart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stone tool-making is a reductive process. Synthetic rock manufacturing, preeminently an additive process, will not for-ever be confined to only the Earth-biosphere. This brief focuses on humanity's ancient past, hodiernal and possible future even more massive than present-day creation of artificial rocks within our exploitable Solar System. It is mostly Earth-centric account that expands the factual generalities underlying the unique non-copyrighted systemic technogenic rock classification first publicly presented (to the American Geological Society during 2001, by its sole intellectual innovator, James Ross Underwood, Jr. His pioneering, unique exposition of an organization of this ever-increasingly important aspect of the Anthropic Rock story, spatially expansive material lithification, here is given an amplified discussion for the broader geo and space science social group-purpose of encouragement of a completer 21st Century treatment of Underwood's explicative subject-chart (Fig. 2.

  5. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  6. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  7. Evaluation of parameter uncertainties obtained from in-situ tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Yoshino, Naoto [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ijiri, Yuji; Hata, Akihito [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hosono, Kenichi [Geoscience Research Laboratory, Yamato, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Radionuclide transport parameter uncertainty is an important consideration in the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the development of a method for the quantitative estimation of transport parameter uncertainties from in-situ tracer experiments. The method utilizes a probabilistic inversion based on the maximum likelihood method. Transport parameters and their uncertainties are derived from a series of conservative and reactive tracer tests conducted in a single fracture at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. These transport parameters and uncertainties are useful for evaluating the influence of parameter uncertainty on safety assessment. (author)

  8. Ombuds’ corner: stuck between a rock and a hard place? Try an open discussion!

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Greg* is a student at CERN doing his doctoral thesis. His thesis adviser, Wilbur*, resides in a remote university and does not come to CERN very often. As a result, he and Greg interact mostly by phone or e-mail. Greg only gets the chance to speak to Wilbur face-to-face when he flies home or when a general meeting for the project is held at CERN. At CERN, Greg is under the supervision of a Section Leader, Phil*, who is responsible for the overall part of the project for which Greg is working. After two years, Greg delivered his second written report outlining his past activities as well as future ones needed to finish his doctoral thesis. Soon after, he was called by his CERN ...

  9. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Shia Ismaili Muslim Girls Negotiate Islam in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Natasha Hakimali

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigates the experiences of Shia Ismaili Muslim girls as they encounter themselves as subjects of social studies curriculums on Islam. A postcolonial lens is used to examine differently empowered subjectivities and curricular epistimes within the high school world history context. In an effort to understand their experiences,…

  10. Oral drug therapy in elderly with dysphagia: between a rock and a hard place!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrippo, Serena; Ricci, Giovanna; Sestili, Matteo; Cespi, Marco; Ferrara, Letizia; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Ganzetti, Roberta; Bonacucina, Giulia; Blasi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Demographic indicators forecast that by 2050, the elderly will account for about one-third of the global population. Geriatric patients require a large number of medicines, and in most cases, these products are administered as solid oral solid dosage forms, as they are by far the most common formulations on the market. However, this population tends to suffer difficulties with swallowing. Caregivers in hospital geriatric units routinely compound in solid oral dosage forms for dysphagic patients by crushing the tablets or opening the capsules to facilitate administration. The manipulation of a tablet or a capsule, if not clearly indicated in the product labeling, is an off-label use of the medicine, and must be supported by documented scientific evidence and requires the patient's informed consent. Compounding of marketed products has been recognized as being responsible for an increased number of adverse events and medical errors. Since extemporaneous compounding is the rule and not the exception in geriatrics departments, the seriousness and scope of issues caused by this daily practice are probably underestimated. In this article, the potential problems associated with the manipulation of authorized solid oral dosage forms are discussed.

  11. Analysis of Delays in Hard Rock Mine Lateral Development: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Eshun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and isolate the major causes of delays in underground lateral development at AngloGold Ashanti (AGA, Obuasi Mine, Ghana. It uses fishbone analysis to identify and present 20 possible causes of delays in lateral development at the mine. By employing Pareto analysis, 7 major causes of delays have been isolated. They are: scoop problems, low compressed air, labour shortages, bad ground, flood, power outages and waste pass getting full. The study concludes that, should management concentrate in minimising the 7 major causes of delays, it will be solving about 80% of the problems associated with delays in underground lateral development at AGA, Obuasi mine. The study further gives specific recommendations to reduce delays in lateral development at the mine.

  12. Analysis of Delays in Hard Rock Mine Lateral Development: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Eshun; V.A. Temeng

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and isolate the major causes of delays in underground lateral development at AngloGold Ashanti (AGA), Obuasi Mine, Ghana. It uses fishbone analysis to identify and present 20 possible causes of delays in lateral development at the mine. By employing Pareto analysis, 7 major causes of delays have been isolated. They are: scoop problems, low compressed air, labour shortages, bad ground, flood, power outages and waste pass getting full. The study concludes th...

  13. Airway management in cervical spine ankylosing spondylitis: Between a rock and a hard place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Eipe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the perioperative course of a patient with long standing ankylosing spondylitis with severe dysphagia due to large anterior cervical syndesmophytes at the level of the epiglottis. He was scheduled to undergo anterior cervical decompression and the surgical approach possibly precluded an elective pre-operative tracheostomy. We performed a modified awake fibreoptic nasal intubation through a split nasopharyngeal airway while adequate oxygenation was ensured through a modified nasal trumpet inserted in the other nares. We discuss the role of nasal intubations and the use of both the modified nasopharyngeal airways we used to facilitate tracheal intubation. This modified nasal fibreoptic intubation technique could find the application in other patients with cervical spine abnormalities and in other anticipated difficult airways.

  14. Delineation of aquifers in basaltic hard rock terrain using vertical electrical soundings data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Rai; S Thiagarajan; Y Ratna Kumari; V Anand Rao; A Manglik

    2013-02-01

    The region under investigation for groundwater exploration is a part of the eastern fringe of Deccan traps in Kalmeshwar Taluk of Nagpur district. In this region, groundwater is the main source of water supply for drinking and irrigation purposes. Presently, the known source of groundwater is the upper weathered mantle in the depth range of 8–15 m. This source of groundwater has been overexploited because of increasing demand of water supply and is unable to meet the present requirement. The present work deals with the delineation of new sources of groundwater at deeper levels concealed within and below the traps by using vertical electrical sounding surveys in order to meet the increasing demand of water supply.

  15. The modeler's influence on calculated solubilities for performance assessments at the Aspo Hard-rock Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernren, A.T.; Arthur, R.; Glynn, P.D.; McMurry, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four researchers were asked to provide independent modeled estimates of the solubility of a radionuclide solid phase, specifically Pu(OH)4, under five specified sets of conditions. The objectives of the study were to assess the variability in the results obtained and to determine the primary causes for this variability.In the exercise, modelers were supplied with the composition, pH and redox properties of the water and with a description of the mineralogy of the surrounding fracture system A standard thermodynamic data base was provided to all modelers. Each modeler was encouraged to use other data bases in addition to the standard data base and to try different approaches to solving the problem.In all, about fifty approaches were used, some of which included a large number of solubility calculations. For each of the five test cases, the calculated solubilities from different approaches covered several orders of magnitude. The variability resulting from the use of different thermodynamic data bases was in most cases, far smaller than that resulting from the use of different approaches to solving the problem.

  16. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Radical Islam in Post-Suharto Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Heiduk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia provides a fruitful case study of differences between radicalization processes in liberal and authoritarian regimes. Political Science hereby tends to emphasize regime type as the determinant of Islamist political strategy (radical, militant or moderate and therefore as the main explanatory factor for radicalization processes. Although this is true of the role of Islamists in various Middle Eastern countries, where electoral participation has moderated political programs and strategies, it is of little relevance to Indonesia. The democratic opening in 1998 provided Islamists with new opportunities to participate in electoral politics, and even become co-opted by formally “secular” forces, but at the same time opened up spaces for militant, radical Islamist groups. Whereas radical Islam faced severe state repression under Suharto’s New Order, we now find a highly ambiguous relationship between the state and radical Islamists, expressed in operational terms as a parallelism of repression and cooptation. This article tries to make sense of the relationship between the post-authoritarian state and radical Islam in Indonesia by transcending the institution-centered understanding of the role of Islam through an examination of the configurations of social forces that have determined the shape, scope, and practices of radical Islam within Indonesia’s new experiment with democracy.

  17. Between a rock and a hard place: clinical and imaging features of vascular compression syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliahou, Ruth; Sosna, Jacob; Bloom, Allan I

    2012-01-01

    Vascular compression syndromes are caused by the entrapment of vessels between rigid or semirigid surfaces in a confined anatomic space. Chronic entrapment may lead to arterial ischemia and embolism, venous stasis and thrombosis, and hematuria. These syndromes are usually seen in otherwise healthy young patients, among whom underdiagnosis is common. Most occurrences of vascular compression are associated with an underlying anatomic abnormality. In a small percentage of cases, other contributing factors, including repetitive microtrauma, may cause pathologic changes leading to the onset of pain and other symptoms of vascular and neural compression. Hence, the diagnosis must be based on both clinical and radiologic findings. Because some cases of vascular entrapment become symptomatic only when specific physical maneuvers are performed, dynamic diagnostic imaging methods are especially useful. Digital subtraction angiography has been the mainstay of imaging-based diagnosis for most vascular compression syndromes, but other methods (eg, color Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography) are used with increasing frequency for initial diagnostic evaluation. Because vascular compression syndromes are caused by the external compression of vessels, endoluminal treatment alone is rarely adequate and surgical decompression is likely to be required for optimal and durable clinical benefit. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.321115011/-/DC1.

  18. Chronology, Narrative, and Founding Acts: Between a Transcendental Rock and a Decisionist Hard Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Reilly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In attempting to represent political transformations, we often encounter a moment that seems to resist narrativisation, a moment of obstinate inconsistency which various theoretical, historical and fictional accounts cannot properly absorb except by way of indicating the parameters of a rupture. Here, I present a position which views these unrepresentable moments as structurally necessary features of revolutionary events. It is not simply that, at such historical junctures, we are faced with an abundance of information and that the unrepresentability or narrative deficit is the consequence of this surplus; on the contrary, the founding act that accompanies any radical transformation necessarily involves a certain temporal contraction. To the extent that narrative relies on a linear chronology, it fails to capture this moment of contraction. Indeed, this is why works of political philosophy associated with a founding contract (for example Hobbes’s Leviathan and Rousseau’s Social Contract cannot fully suppress the moment of circularity in which the rhythm of chronological time skips a beat and, to paraphrase Rousseau, one requires an effect to perform the function associated with its own cause. If the moment of founding can be represented at all, it is only by way of paradox and metaphor.

  19. Performance of EVA-Based Membranes for SCL in Hard Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The bonded property of multi-layered sprayed concrete tunnel linings (SCL) waterproofed with sprayed membranes means that the constituent materials will be exposed to the groundwater without any draining or mechanically separating measures. Moisture properties of the sprayed concrete and membrane materials are therefore important in order to establish the system properties of such linings. Ethyl-vinyl-acetate based sprayed membranes exhibit high water absorption potential under direct exposure to water, but are found to be significantly less hygroscopic and exhibit lower sorptivity (water absorption rate) than sprayed concrete. This material behavior explains the relatively dry in situ condition of the membrane that was observed. Measured in situ moisture content levels of the membrane material in tunnel linings have been found to vary within the range of 30-40 % of the maximum water absorption potential, and show a decreasing trend over the first 4 years after construction has been completed. A model for the mechanical loading, moisture condition and thermal exposure of the membrane and the resulting realistic parameters to be tested is presented. Laboratory testing methods for the membrane materials are evaluated considering possible loads, moisture and freezing exposure. Material testing of membrane materials was conducted with preconditioning to realistic moisture contents and under different temperature conditions including relevant freezing temperatures for tunnel linings. The main effects of the in situ moisture condition of the tested membrane materials are favorable tensile strengths in the range of 1.1-1.5 MPa and low risk of freeze-thaw damage. The crack bridging capacity of the tested membranes is found to be sensitive to temperature. With membrane thicknesses in the range of 3-4 mm, crack bridging capacity up to 4-6 mm opening of the crack width at 23 °C and approximately 1 mm opening at -3 °C was measured for the tested membranes. No significant reduction of the tensile bond strength could be demonstrated after 35 freeze-thaw cycles with -3 °C minimum temperature at the membrane location in the lining. Further work is required to verify the performance of the SCL system under exposure to high hydrostatic pressures and the effects of long term mechanical exposure.

  20. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one of the sources for nitrate in groundwater. The recharge of rainwater through the indiscriminately dumped animal wastes also adds to nitrate in groundwater. As the population of denitrifying microbes (Agrobacterium sp.) in the topsoil increased, the nitrate concentration in groundwater decreased. The wells in the investigated region have been demarcated into safe and unsafe wells for consumption of water with respect to nitrate. The quality of groundwater in this region must be improved by denitrifying the groundwater before using it for consumption. Reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can also lower the influx of nitrates to a large extent. As the dumping of animal waste is also a reason behind high nitrate in groundwater, it would be better to use them as a biofertilizer. Due to the detrimental biological effects of nitrate, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching. Moreover, it is also important to educate the local population about keeping their surroundings clean, alternate use of the animal waste (as fuel) and to follow hygienic sanitation practices.

  1. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  2. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  3. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  4. Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

  5. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  6. Effect of intermediate principal stress on strength of soft rock under complex stress states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宗源; 廖红建; 党发宁

    2014-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of conventional and true triaxial tests for soft rock materials using the three-dimensional finite difference code FLAC3D were presented. A hexahedral element and a strain hardening/softening constitutive model based on the unified strength theory (UST) were used to simulate both the consolidated-undrained (CU) triaxial and the consolidated-drained (CD) true triaxial tests. Based on the results of the true triaxial tests simulation, the effect of the intermediate principal stress on the strength of soft rock was investigated. Finally, an example of an axial compression test for a hard rock pillar with a soft rock interlayer was analyzed using the two-dimensional finite difference code FLAC. The CD true triaxial test simulations for diatomaceous soft rock suggest the peak and residual strengths increase by 30%when the effect of the intermediate principal stress is taken into account. The axial compression for a rock pillar indicated the peak and residual strengths increase six-fold when the soft rock interlayer approached the vertical and the effect of the intermediate principal stress is taken into account.

  7. Relationship between the rock mass deformation and places of occurrence of seismological events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janusz Makowka; Jozef Kabiesz; Lin-ming Ddou [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    Static effort of rock mass very rarely causes of rock burst in Polish coal mines. Rock bursts with source in the seismic tremor within the roof rock layers are prevailing. A seismic tremor is an effect of rupture or sliding in roof layers above the exploited panel in coal seam, sometime in a distance from actual exploitation. Sliding, as a rule occurs in fault zone and tremors in it are expected, but monolithic layer rupture is very hard to predict. In a past few years a practice of analyzing state of deformation in high energy seismic tremors zones has been employed. It let gathering experience thanks to witch determination of dangerous shape of reformatted roof is possible. In the paper some typical forms of roof rocks deformations leading to seismic tremor occurrence will be presented. In general these are various types of multidirectional rock layers bending. Real examples of seismic events and rock bursts in the Czech Republic will be shown. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Hardness methods for testing maize kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2009-07-08

    Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to develop a suitable hardness method that could assist the maize industry in improving efficiency in processing as well as possibly providing a quality specification for maize growers, which could attract a premium. This paper focuses specifically on hardness and reviews a number of methodologies as well as important biochemical aspects of maize that contribute to maize hardness used internationally. Numerous foods are produced from maize, and hardness has been described as having an impact on food quality. However, the basis of hardness and measurement of hardness are very general and would apply to any use of maize from any country. From the published literature, it would appear that one of the simpler methods used to measure hardness is a grinding step followed by a sieving step, using multiple sieve sizes. This would allow the range in hardness within a sample as well as average particle size and/or coarse/fine ratio to be calculated. Any of these parameters could easily be used as reference values for the development of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations. The development of precise NIR calibrations will provide an excellent tool for breeders, handlers, and processors to deliver specific cultivars in the case of growers and bulk loads in the case of handlers, thereby ensuring the most efficient use of maize by domestic and international processors. This paper also considers previous research describing the biochemical aspects of maize that have been related to maize hardness. Both starch and protein affect hardness, with most research focusing on the storage proteins (zeins). Both the content and composition of the zein fractions affect

  9. Theoretical Hardness of Wurtzite-Structured Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-Ju; XU Bo; LIU Zhong-Yuan; YU Dong-Li; HE Ju-Long; GUO Li-Cong

    2008-01-01

    Vickers hardness calculations of eleven wurtzite-structured semiconductors are performed based on the microscopic hardness model All the parameters are obtained from first-principles calculations. There axe two types of chemical bonds in wurtzite-structured crystals. The overlap populations of the two types of chemical bonds in lonsdaleite are chosen as Pc for wurtzite structure. The calculated bond ionicity values of the wurtzite-structured semiconductors are in good agreement with the ionicities from the dielectric definition. When the hardness of wurtzite-structured crystal is higher than 20GPa, our calculated Vickers hardness is within 10% accuracy. Therefore, the hardness of novel wurtzite-structured crystal could be estimated from first-principles calculations.

  10. Determining the stress of rock massif

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Defining the stress rock massif is essential for design of underground facilities and methods of mining in the mines. Assessment the value of stress state of rock massif and rock strength in the various loads allows rational design. This is of particular importance when sizing columns, determining the extent of excavation, the cross-sections of underground rooms in problems with rock bursts and others. This paper briefly gives the basic methods of determining the rock massif stress as part of...

  11. Fitness landscapes in natural rocks system evolution: A conceptual DFT treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Duley; Jean-Louis Vigneresse; Pratim Kumar Chattaraj

    2012-01-01

    The chemical reactivity descriptors, such as electronegativity, hardness and electrophilicity of major oxides computed from density functional theory are reported in this paper. These parameters are plotted within a fitness landscape diagram, showing that the principles of minimum electrophilicity (MEP) and maximum hardness (MHP) act as guides towards the region of higher stability. The diagrams indicate the trends and the parameters that control the evolution of natural rocks. Application of the principle S-bearing copper compounds shows the possible and preferred combinations of elements, that give rise to compounds observed during ore formation.

  12. Ellipsoidal anisotropy in elasticity for rocks and rock masses

    CERN Document Server

    Pouya, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    One of the interesting features with the ellipsoidal models of anisotropy presented in this paper is their acceptance of analytical solutions for some of the basic elasticity problems. It was shown by Pouya (2000) and Pouya and Zaoui (2006) that many closed-form solutions for basic problems involving linear isotropic materials could be extended by linear transformation to cover a variety of "ellipsoidal" materials. This paper will describe two main varieties of ellipsoidal elastic models and show how well they fit the in situ data for sedimentary rocks; numerical homogenization results for several varieties of fractured rock masses will also be provided.

  13. Student-Chosen Criteria for Peer Assessment of Tertiary Rock Groups in Rehearsal and Performance: What's Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana; Encarnacao, John

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates criteria chosen by music students for peer and self assessment of both the rehearsal process and performance outcome of their rock groups. The student-chosen criteria and their explanations of these criteria were analysed in relation to Birkett's skills taxonomy of "soft" and "hard" skills. In the rehearsal process, students…

  14. Hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.; Murphy, H.; Nunz, G.; Potter, R.

    1981-08-01

    Man-made geothermal systems are discussed which make it possible to extract heat from hot rocks in areas where natural fluids are insufficient for the development of hydrothermal energy. The location and magnitude of high- and low-temperature geothermal resources in the USA for such hot dry rock (HDR) systems are examined. An HDR concept is described in which water is injected into one of two nearly parallel wells connected at depth by man-made fractures; the injected water circulates through the fracture system, where it is heated by conduction from the hot rock, and hot fluid, which can be used for heating or for electric power generation, rises through the second well. Some heat-extraction experiments using the described concept are reviewed which are being conducted in a complex volcanic field in New Mexico. The economics of HDR energy is evaluated.

  15. Creep in jointed rock masses. State of knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Hoekmark, Harald (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    To describe creep behaviour in hard rock masses in a physically realistic way, elaborate models including various combinations of dash pots, spring elements and sliders would be needed. According to our knowledge, there are at present no numerical tools available that can handle such a creep model. In addition, there are no records over sufficient long time periods of tunnel convergence in crystalline rock that could be used to determine or calibrate values for the model parameters. A possible method to perform bounding estimates of creep movements around openings in a repository may be to use distinct element codes with standard built-in elasto-plastic models. By locally reducing the fracture shear strength near the underground openings a relaxation of fracture shear loads is reached. The accumulated displacements may then represent the maximum possible effects of creep that can take place in a jointed rock mass without reference to the actual time it takes to reach the displacements. Estimates based on results from analyses where all shear stresses are allowed to disappear completely will, however, be over-conservative. To be able to set up and analyse reasonably realistic numerical models with the proposed method, further assumptions regarding the creep movements and the creep region around the opening have to be made. The purpose of this report is to present support for such assumptions as found in the literature.

  16. Modelling of excavation depth and fractures in rock caused by tool indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou Shaoquan; Tan Xiangchun; Lindqvist, P.A. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The hydraulic regime after excavation in the near-field rock around deposition holes and deposition tunnels in a spent nuclear fuel repository is of concern for prediction of the saturation process of bentonite buffer and tunnel backfill. The hydraulic condition of main interest in this context is a result of the fracture network that is caused by the excavation. Modelling of the excavation disturbed zone in hard rocks caused by mechanical excavation has been carried out in the Division of Mining Engineering since 1993. This report contains an overview of the work conducted. The mechanical excavation is reasonably simplified as an indentation process of the interaction between rigid indenters and rocks. A large number of experiments have been carried out in the laboratory, and the results used for identifying crushed zones and fracture systems in rock under indentation are presented based on these experiments. The indentation causes crushing and damage of the rock and results in a crushed zone and a cracked zone. The indenter penetrates the rock with a certain depth when the force is over a threshold value relevant to the rock and tool. Outside the cracked zone there are basically three systems of cracks: median cracks, radial cracks, and side cracks. Fully developed radial cracks on each side of the indented area can connect with each other and join with median crack. This forms the so-called radial/median crack system. The influence of the mechanical properties of the rock is discussed based on our conceptual model, and the main factors governing the indentation event are summarised. The cracked zone is dealt with by an analytical fracture model. The side crack is simulated by applying the boundary element method coupled with fracture mechanics. Functional relationships are established relating either the indentation depth or the length of radial/median cracks to the various quantities characterising the physical event, namely the shape and the size of the

  17. Pressure relief and structure stability mechanism of hard roof for gob-side entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩昌良; 张农; 李宝玉; 司光耀; 郑西贵

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the pressure relief and structure stability mechanism of lateral cantilever structure in the stope under the direct coverage of thick hard roof and its impact on the gob-side entry retaining, a lateral cantilever fractured structural mechanical model was established on the basis of clarification for the stress environment of gob-side entry retaining, and the equation of roof given deformation and the balance judgment for fracture block were obtained. The optimal cantilever length was proposed based on the comparison of roof structural characteristics and the stress, deformation law of surrounding rocks under six different cantilever lengths by numerical simulation method. Double stress peaks exist on the sides of gob-side entry retaining and the entry located in the low stress area. The pressure of gob-side entry retaining can be relieved by reducing the cantilever length. However, due to the impact of arch structure of rock beam, unduly short cantilever would result in insufficient pressure relief and unduly long cantilever would bring larger roof stress which results in intense deformation. Therefore, there is optimal cantilever length, which was 7-8 m in this project that enables to achieve the minimum deformation and the most stabilized rock structure of entry retaining. An engineering case of gob-side entry retaining with the direct coverage of 10 m thick hard limestone roof was put forward, and the measured data verified the reasonability of conclusion.

  18. Directional hydraulic fracturing to control hard-roof rockburst in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jun; Dou Linming; He Hu; Du Taotao; Zhang Shibin; Gui Bing; Sun Xinglin

    2012-01-01

    Hard roof is the main factor that induces rock-burst.In view of the present obvious weakness of control measures for hard roof rockburst in domestic collieries,the mechanism and field application of directional hydraulic fracturing technology for rock-burst prevention have been investigated in this paper using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.The results show that the weighting span of the main roof and the released kinetic energy as well as the total elastic energy decreased greatly after the directional fracturing of hard roof with the mining progression,thereby reducing the rockburst hazard degree to coal body.The directional hydraulic fracturing technology was carried out in 6305 working face of Jisan Coal Mine to prevent rockburst.Field practices have proved that this technology is much simpler and safer to operate with better prevention effect compared with blasting.By optimizing the operation procedures and developing a new technology of automated high-pressure delivery pipe,the maximum fracturing radius now reaches more than 9 m and the borehole depth exceeds 20 m.Additionally,drilling cutting method was applied to monitor the stress of the coal mass before and after the fracturing,and the drill cuttings dropped significantly which indicates that the burst prevention effect of directional hydraulic fracturing technology is very remarkable.The research results of this paper have laid a theoretical and practical foundation for the widespread application of the directional hydraulic fracturing technology in China.

  19. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran (Conrox AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    calculations using the PHREEQC code showed that fracture precipitation is unlikely to clog the water-conducting fractures within a 10-year period, even when considering construction material such as cement and nitrogen compounds. For most of the modelling cases, the estimated decrease in hydraulic conductivity over a period of ten years is less than 2% due to mineral precipitation. It was further concluded that it is more likely for fractures to clog (self-heal) than become open as a result of fracture mineral dissolution. With respect to the microbial evolution it was concluded that the potential for microbial iron hydroxide production will be large in all groundwater with ferrous iron. The potential for microbial calcite formation production will be large in all groundwater with high concentrations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and methane, irrespective of oxygen, Eh (redox) or pH. The kinetics of the microbial evolution is not yet known, and microbes may then play a role in fracture clogging which could possibly be the factor that contributes to lower groundwater inflow to underground facilities with time, as shown for many facilities. The compilation of results from the relevant tests at underground laboratories in Canada, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland was focussed on the extent of the damage and its dependency on excavation methods and measurements of the hydraulic properties. The most important factor controlling the excavation damage is the choice of excavation method. Use of mechanical excavation may create irreversible damage less than 30 mm from the rock wall where increased micro-fracturing contributes to an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Several methods and sample scales have been used to characterise the damage zone. For a Tunnel Boring Machine < 5 mm of damage was recorded at Aespoe HRL and at Grimsel in Switzerland. The hydraulic conductivity was at e.g. Aespoe HRL determined to be in the range of 10-9 m/s over a distance of 1-2 mm from the tunnel

  20. Event Driven Langevin simulations of Hard Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Scala, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The blossoming of interest in colloids and nano-particles has given renewed impulse to the study of hard-body systems. In particular, hard spheres have become a real test system for theories and experiments. It is therefore necessary to study the complex dynamics of such systems in presence of a solvent; disregarding hydrodynamic interactions, the simplest model is the Langevin equation. Unfortunately, standard algorithms for the numerical integration of the Langevin equation require that interactions are slowly varying during an integration timestep. This in not the case for hard-body systems, where there is no clearcut between the correlation time of the noise and the timescale of the interactions. Starting first from a splitting of the Fokker-Plank operator associated with the Langevin dynamics, and then from an approximation of the two-body Green's function, we introduce and test two new algorithms for the simulation of the Langevin dynamics of hard-spheres.

  1. Why Is It So Hard to Quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit? It’s hard to tackle the physical addiction to nicotine . Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive ... a support group can give you comfort and positive reinforcement. Cut back on caffeine . Caffeine is a ...

  2. Radiation Hard High Performance Optoelectronic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance, radiation-hard, widely-tunable integrated laser/modulator chip and large-area avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components of optical...

  3. Optical waveguides in hard crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, M.

    2005-01-01

    The recent results of our research group and collaborators in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in hard crystalline materials, specifically in sapphire and Ti:sapphire, are reviewed.

  4. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041935 Chen Bailin (China University of Geosciences, Beijing);Shu Bin X-Ray Analysis of Deformed Rocks from Beishan Area, Gansu Province, China (Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition ), ISSN 1671-5888 CN22-1343/P, 33(4), 2003, p. 424-429, 442, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 13 refs. )

  6. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  7. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814

  8. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050704 Cheng Lin (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China); Feng Songlin Analysis of Colored Elements in Ancient Colored Glaze by SRXRF (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11 -2131/TD, 23 (2), 2004, p. 113-116, 120, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 6 refs. )

  9. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142093Chen Daohua(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Guangzhou 510075,China);Diao Shaobo The Latest Progress of Geological Marine Testing Technology in China(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,32(6),2013,p.850-859,105refs.)Key words:chemical analysis,China

  10. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption

  11. Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.

  12. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160255 Wang Na(Tianjin Center of Geological Survey,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Teng Xinhua Determination of Low-Content Iron Carbonate in Stream Sediments by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Aluminum Chloride Extraction(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,34(2),2015,p.229

  13. A Novel Approach to Hardness Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier; West, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the application of a simple rebound time measuring device and relates the determination of relative hardness of a variety of common engineering metals. A relation between rebound time and hardness will be sought. The effect of geometry and surface condition will also be discussed in order to acquaint the student with the problems associated with this type of method.

  14. Point defects in hard-sphere crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2001-01-01

    We report numerical calculations of the concentration of interstitials in hard-sphere crystals. We find that, in a three-dimensional fcc hard-sphere crystal at the melting point, the concentration of interstitials is 2 * 10^-8. This is some three orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of vacancies. A simple, analytical estimate yields a value that is in fair agreement with the numerical results.

  15. The Chiral Dipolar Hard Sphere Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazars, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A simple molecular model of chiral molecules is presented in this paper : the chiral dipolar hard sphere model. The discriminatory interaction between enantiomers is represented by electrostatic (or magnetic) dipoles-dipoles interactions : short ranged steric repulsion are represented by hard sphere potential and, in each molecule, two point dipoles are located inside the sphere. The model is described in detail and some of its elementary properties are given ; in particul...

  16. Hardness and Methods to Solve CLIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Daming; LUAN Junfeng; MA Shaohan

    2001-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews NP-hard optimization problems and their inapproximability. The hardness of solving CLIQUE problem is specifically discussed. A dynamic-programming algorithm and its improved version for CLIQUE are reviewed and some additional analysis is presented. The analysis implies that the improved algorithm, HEWN (hierarchical edge-weighted network), only provides a heuristic or useful method, but cannot be called a polynomial algorithm.

  17. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  18. Rock and Core Repository Coming Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicher, Doris; Fleischer, Dirk; Czerniak, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In times of whole city centres being available by a mouse click in 3D to virtually walk through, reality sometimes becomes neglected. The reality of scientific sample collections not being digitised to the essence of molecules, isotopes and electrons becomes unbelievable to the upgrowing generation of scientists. Just like any other geological institute the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research GEOMAR accumulated thousands of specimen. The samples, collected mainly during marine expeditions, date back as far as 1964. Today GEOMAR houses a central geological sample collection of at least 17 000 m of sediment core and more than 4 500 boxes with hard rock samples and refined sample specimen. This repository, having been dormant, missed the onset of the interconnected digital age. Physical samples without barcodes, QR codes or RFID tags need to be migrated and reconnected, urgently. In our use case, GEOMAR opted for the International Geo Sample Number IGSN as the persistent identifier. Consequentially, the software CurationDIS by smartcube GmbH as the central component of this project was selected. The software is designed to handle acquisition and administration of sample material and sample archiving in storage places. In addition, the software allows direct embedding of IGSN. We plan to adopt IGSN as a future asset, while for the initial inventory taking of our sample material, simple but unique QR codes act as "bridging identifiers" during the process. Currently we compile an overview of the broad variety of sample types and their associated data. QR-coding of the boxes of rock samples and sediment cores is near completion, delineating their location in the repository and linking a particular sample to any information available about the object. Planning is in progress to streamline the flow from receiving new samples to their curation to sharing samples and information publically. Additionally, interface planning for linkage to GEOMAR databases Ocean

  19. Determination of ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst in consideration of damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; LI Xi-bing; ZHOU Zi-long

    2005-01-01

    The ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst, one of the important indexes representing the rock burst strength, is used most conveniently in the supporting design of tunnel with rock burst tendency and is often determined by means of observation devices. In order to calculate the average ejection velocity of rock fragments theoretically, the energy of rock burst was divided into damage consuming energy and kinetic energy gained by unit volume of rock firstly, and then the rock burst kinetic proportional coefficient η was brought up which could be determined according to the rock-burst damage energy index WD , at last the expression of the average ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst was obtained and one deep level underground tunnel was researched using the mentioned method. The results show that the calculation method is valid with or without considering the tectonic stress of tunnels, and that the method can be a reference for supporting design of deep mining.

  20. Hard and Soft Multilayered SiCN Nanocoatings with High Hardness and Toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternate hard and soft layers increase deformation accommodation as thin hard layers slide relative to each other due to shear deformation of low modulus layers. However, the processing of such multilayers is challenging. In the present paper the alternating soft and hard multilayered SiCN coating deposited by magnetron sputtering has been studied and presented. A hardness and modulus of 37 GPa and 317 GPa with elastic recovery of 62% are achieved by alternate hard and soft layer of Si–C–N by magnetron sputtering. The trilayer films sustained even 2000 gf under indentation without failure though substrate plastically deformed. The fracture toughness value KIC was measured to be 9.5–10 MPa m1/2, significantly higher than many reported hard coatings.

  1. Stability Analysis for Loosened Rock Slope of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, Jinzhong; TIAN, Xiaofu; GUAN, Xudong; YU, Yonggui; YANG, Xiusheng

    On the basis of the status quo of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, some factors such as topography, geological structures, climate, hydrology, and engineering geology that influence the stability of the Buddha slope are considered, and several working situations of the slope that possibly suffered are presented in this article. The Buddha slope stands upright and the rock masses are composed of thick Permian sandstone, which dips slightly inward to the slope. Affected by both the incision of regional joints and the load relief to the free surface, the rock mass of the Buddha slope has turned into loosened blocks. Numerical stability analysis by FLAC-2D on the basis of the strength reduction method reveals that the localized deformation of the rock masses near the vertical surface of the slope may trigger reversing of rock beddings making the back dip slope convert into a dip slope with the possibility of plane sliding failure. Furthermore, the pseudostatic method for the dynamic process and limit equilibrium method for the static process are applied to different working situations of the Buddha slope. The analytical results illustrate that plane sliding failure will not occur when the slope is affected only by seism. However, water filling in the cracks of the loosened rock mass may greatly contribute to the potential plane sliding failure. When horizontal seism-force and hydrostatic pressure are coupled, the Buddha slope can hardly keep stable. Additionally, the loosened rock masses are prone to block toppling failure when influenced by the seism force.

  2. Developing and Studying the Methods of Hard-Facing with Heat-Resisting High-Hardness Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malushin, N. N.; Kovalev, A. P.; Valuev, D. V.; Shats, E. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The authors develop the methods of hard-facing of mining-metallurgic equipment parts with heat-resisting high-hardness steels on the base of plasma-jet hard-facing in the shielding-alloying nitrogen atmosphere.

  3. Exercise Desert Rock Letter Orders. Army, Camp Desert Rock, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-08-01

    WILF.iED J MSGT A19032i3 HJ;,ŕWAY, ELLafGzJN 8FC Xf,37791267 INOZ W, P. 1. PVT2 US52401808 KELLEY, JESSIE J SFC R1� EVaS, LOUIS PFC .,53073109...Ord Co (HAM) Camo Desert Rock, Nevada You will preeeed to Reynolds Funeral Vome, Sigourney, Iowa 0/a 24 AU ist 1957 for apprx fourteen (14) days to

  4. An innovative 3-D numerical modelling procedure for simulating repository-scale excavations in rock - SAFETI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R. P.; Collins, D.; Hazzard, J.; Heath, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, Liverpool University, 4 Brownlow street, UK-0 L69 3GP Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pettitt, W.; Baker, C. [Applied Seismology Consultants LTD, 10 Belmont, Shropshire, UK-S41 ITE Shrewsbury (United Kingdom); Billaux, D.; Cundall, P.; Potyondy, D.; Dedecker, F. [Itasca Consultants S.A., Centre Scientifique A. Moiroux, 64, chemin des Mouilles, F69130 Ecully (France); Svemar, C. [Svensk Karnbranslemantering AB, SKB, Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory, PL 300, S-57295 Figeholm (Sweden); Lebon, P. [ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7, rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents current results from work performed within the European Commission project SAFETI. The main objective of SAFETI is to develop and test an innovative 3D numerical modelling procedure that will enable the 3-D simulation of nuclear waste repositories in rock. The modelling code is called AC/DC (Adaptive Continuum/ Dis-Continuum) and is partially based on Itasca Consulting Group's Particle Flow Code (PFC). Results are presented from the laboratory validation study where algorithms and procedures have been developed and tested to allow accurate 'Models for Rock' to be produced. Preliminary results are also presented on the use of AC/DC with parallel processors and adaptive logic. During the final year of the project a detailed model of the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory will be produced using up to 128 processors on the parallel super computing facility at Liverpool University. (authors)

  5. Field investigation into directional hydraulic fracturing for hard roof in Tashan Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Xiang HUANG; Bin YU; Feng FENG; Zhao LI; You-Zhuang WANG; Jin-Rong LIU

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of safe and effective control technology of hard roof is an inevitable trend at present.Directional hydraulic fracturing technology is expected to become a safe and effective way to control and manage hard roof.In order to make hard roof fracture in a directional way,a hydraulic fracture field test has been conducted in the third panel district of Tashan Coal Mine in Datong.First,two hydraulic fracturing drilling holes and four observing drilling holes were arranged in the roof,followed by a wedge-shaped ring slot in each hydraulic fracturing drilling hole.The hydraulic fracturing holes were then sealed and,hydraulic fracturing was conducted.The results show that the hard roof is fractured directionally by the hydraulic fracturing function of the two fracturing drilling holes; the sudden drop,or the overall downward trend of hydraulic pressure from hydraulic monitoring is the proof that the rock in the hard roof has been fractured.The required hydraulic pressure to fracture the hard roof in Tashan coal mine,consisting of carboniferous sandstone layer,is 50.09 MPa,and the fracturing radius of a single drilling hole is not less than 10.5 m.The wedge-shaped ring slot made in the bottom of the hydraulic fracturing drilling hole plays a guiding role for crack propagation.After the hydraulic fracturing drill hole is cracked,the propagation of the resulting hydraulic crack,affected mainly by the regional stress field,will turn to other directions.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  7. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, John

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  8. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  9. A Hard Day’s Night, de Richard Lester : une lecture sociologique

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Christian Le

    2006-01-01

    De quoi nous parlent les films des Beatles ? Christian Le Bart a re-visionné A Hard day’s night et s’intéresse à la notion de groupe. Qu’en est-il de cette structure si particulière aux rock, où s’effectue l’apprentissage commun et où se jouent toute une série de liens et de conflits internes et externes. L’analyse croise ici la méthode sociologique avec la lecture du film.

  10. Groundwater characterisation and modelling: problems, facts and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [INTERA KB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    For the last 10 years, the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden has been the main test site for the development of suitable methods for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Major achievements have been made in the development of new groundwater sampling and modelling techniques. The natural condition of the groundwater is easily disturbed by drilling and sampling. The effects from borehole activities which may bias the real character of the groundwater have been identified. The development of new sampling techniques has improved the representativeness of the groundwater samples. In addition, methods to judge the representativeness better have been developed. For modelling of the Aespoe site, standard groundwater modelling codes based on thermodynamic laws have been applied. The many limitations of existing geochemical models used at the Aespoe site and the need to decode the complex groundwater information in terms of origin, mixing and reactions at site scale necessitated the development of a new modelling tool. This new modelling concept was named M3. In M3 modelling the assumption is that the groundwater chemistry is a result of mixing as well as water/rock reactions. The M3 model compares the groundwater compositions from a site. The similarities and differences of the groundwater compositions are used to quantify the contribution from mixing and reactions on the measured data. In order to construct a reliable model the major components, stable isotopes and tritium are used. Initially, the method quantifies the contribution from the flow system. Subsequently, contributions from reactions are calculated. The model differs from many other standard models which primarily use reactions rather than mixing to determine the groundwater evolution. The M3 code has been used for the following type of modelling: calculate the mixing portions at Aespoe, quantify the contribution from inorganic and organic reactions such as biogenic decomposition and sulphate

  11. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  12. Methods of rock burst prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genkin, V.A.; Minin, Yu.Ya.; Morozov, G.D.; Proskuryakov, V.M.; Cmirnov, V.A.

    1979-07-01

    Some methods of predicting rock bursts in underground coal and iron ore mines are evaluated: using BP-18 indenters and the MGD indenter with automatic recording; seismic method consisting in measuring the speed of shock waves travelling through various layers (apparatus SB-20 is designed for use in coal mines); electrometric method (measuring resistance between two electrodes when electric currents flow through coal and rocks). The design of the AEhSSh-1 measuring instrument, used in the electrometric method in coal mines is also described. Each of the methods is described and mathematical fomulae used as their theoretical basis are presented. The calculating process is explained and brief information on the design and use of the measuring instrument is given. The methods are evaluated from the viewpoint of precision. (In Russian)

  13. Kimberley rock art dating project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, G.L. [Takarakka Rock Art Research Centre, NT, (Australia); Morwood, M. [New England University, Armidale, NSW, (Australia). Dept of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology

    1997-12-31

    The art`s additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a `window` into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it`s potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological `big picture` still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of `apparently old paintings`; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art.

  14. Origin of lunar feldspathic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Grove, T. L.; Longhi, J.; Stolper, E. M.; Hays, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Melting experiments and petrographic studies of lunar feldspathic rocks reveal possible genetic relationships among several compositionally and mineralogically distinct groups of lunar rocks and soil fragments. Dry, low PO2 partial melting of crustal anorthositic norites of the anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) suite produces liquids of the KREEP-Fra Mauro basalt type; dry, low PO2 partial melting of pink spinel troctolite (PST) produces liquids of the 'very high alumina basalt' or microtroctolite type. Both ANT and PST are probable components of the primitive terra crust. If crystal fractionation in a cooling basaltic liquid could have produced such a crust, it would also produce a mafic interior capable of yielding mare basalts by later remelting at depth.

  15. Damage Model of Brittle Coal-Rock and Damage Energy Index of Rock Burst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光志; 张东明; 魏作安; 李东伟

    2003-01-01

    Based on the mechanical experiment of brittle coal-rock and the damage mechanical theory, a damage model was established. Coal-Rock damage mechanical characteristic was researched. Furthermore, interior energy transformation mechanism of rock was analyzed from the point of view of damage mechanics and damage energy release rate of brittle coal rock was derived. By analyzing the energy transformation of rock burst, a new conception, damage energy index of rock burst, was put forward. The condition of rock burst was also established.

  16. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111673 Cao Ban(Zhejiang Institute of Geological & Mineral Resources,Hangzhou 310007,China);Ma Jun Determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence-Ultraviolet Detector(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(5),2010,p.539-542,2 illus.,4 tables,15 refs.)Key words:liquid chromatography,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,fluorescence analysis

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101621 Chen Heping (Nanyang Geology Testing & Research Center of Henan Province, Nanyang 473000, China); Sha Yanmei Simultaneous Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Carbonates by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Multi-direction Viewing Mode (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 28(4), 2009, p.367-369, 5 tables, 10 refs.)

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070970 Cheng Jian(Center of Analysis and Testing,Hunan Zhuye Torch Metals Co., Ltd.,Zhuzhou 412004,China)Direct Deter- mination of Lead in Refined Indium by Flume Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN 0254- 5357,CN11-2131/TD,25(1),2006,p.91 -92,94,1 illus.,7 tables,5 refs.) Key words:lead,atomic absorption

  19. The structures of noncrystalline rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The structural studies of noncrystalline rocks by total radial distribution function (RDF) which was derived from the wide angular X-ray scattering (WAXS) have been reported. In order to make a further study of the structural features shown by RDF, the unsymmetric peaks in total RDF were separated into the approximately symmetric peaks by the multi-peaks separation processing. By analyzing the relationship of the peak parameters with the compositions, the information of further structures has been discussed.

  20. 20020118: Rock (2), panel (14)

    OpenAIRE

    None

    2002-01-01

    Rock Art photograph, unknown [cam element='coordinate' qualifier='longitude']W 70deg34'55.9"[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='latitude']S 32deg49'49.0"[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='altitude']924[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='bearing']60[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='inclination']75[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='cartesian'](1.950,1.640,2.190)[/cam

  1. Shock Propagation In Crustal Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-29

    Muscovite dehydroxylation: High-temperature studies, Am. Mineral., 72, 537-550, 1986. Halbach, H., and N. D. Chatterjee, An empirical Redlich - Kwong ...earth and other planetary surfaces as well having application in the study of the Earth’s interior. Granitic rocks are the most common component of...their applicability to muscovite above 1000 K. Thermodynamic functions for H20 were taken from Halbach and Chatterjee [1982]. Gibbs’ free energy

  2. The impact of mechanical properties of rock to the collision of rock piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Macuh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical solution of the rock piece motion considering influences of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass on the arbitrary slope. The main objective of the paper is to determine the motion of the rock piece considering possibility of rock piece failure due to collision. Brief description of the analytical solution of the rock piece motion on a steep slope is given. The laboratory tests were performed to determine uniaxial compressive strength and elastic properties of the considered rock mass. Further, velocities that cause rock piece failure were determined. These maximum velocities indirectly belong to certain mass of rock piece and can be lower than velocities calculated in rock-fall analysis for certain slope geometry. Consequently, the energy magnitude is limited, because at certain velocity and mass of rock piece bigger pieces crash at collision.

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  4. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110887 Chen Yong(College of Geo-Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum,Qingdao 266555,China);Ge Yunjin Experimental Study on the Modes of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Inclusion Trapped in Carbonate Rock Reservoirs(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(3),2010,p.217-220,1 illus.,16 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:petroleum products,organic inclusion,carbonates20110888 Cheng Zhizhong(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Gu Tiexin Preparation of Nine Iron Ore Reference Materials of GFe-1~GFe-9(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(3),2010,p.305-308,5 tables,13 refs.)Key words:iron ores,type specimens Nine standard reference iron ore samples of GFe-1~GFe-9 were developed.The concentrations of TFe of the samples ranged from 20.17% to 66.87%,which covered a wide iron concentration range from concentrated iron ore powder to poor iron ores and can meet the needs for iron ore exploration and ore-dressing.Powder XRF technique was used for homogeneity test and the analytical results indicated that all elements tested were in good homogeneity.

  5. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  6. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  7. A Review on the British Rock Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hutapea, Alfian Hadi Pranata

    2011-01-01

    Music has an important role in people’s life. In people’s daily, music is often hearing of course and in people’s customs and traditions music is also be used. Music has many genres, one of them is rock music. Many people like rock music especially youngman because rock music has given a message in a song through enthusiasm expression. Rock music has many subgenres and each of subgenres have a distinctive feature. The developing of rock music is very wide in the world, especially in Great Bri...

  8. Hard Water and Soft Soap: Dependence of Soap Performance on Water Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Viktoria K. L.; de Oliveira, Wanda; El Seoud, Omar A.; Cotton, Wyatt; Easdon, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of the performance of soap in different aqueous solutions, which is due to water hardness and soap formulation, is described. The demonstrations use safe, inexpensive reagents and simple glassware and equipment, introduce important everyday topics, stimulates the students to consider the wider consequences of water hardness and…

  9. Research in the Hard Sciences, and in Very Hard "Softer" Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The author of this commentary argues that physical scientists are attempting to advance knowledge in the so-called hard sciences, whereas education researchers are laboring to increase knowledge and understanding in an "extremely hard" but softer domain. Drawing on the work of Popper and Dewey, this commentary highlights the relative…

  10. Petrology of unshocked crystalline rocks and shock effects in lunar rocks and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; James, O.B.; Minkin, J.A.; Boreman, J.A.; Jackson, E.D.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of rock modes, textures, and mineralogy, unshocked crystalline rocks are classified into a dominant ilmenite-rich suite (subdivided into intersertal, ophitic, and hornfels types) and a subordinate feldspar-rich suite (subdivided into poikilitic and granular types). Weakly to moderately shocked rocks show high strain-rate deformation and solid-state transformation of minerals to glasses; intensely shocked rocks are converted to rock glasses. Data on an unknown calcium-bearing iron metasilicate are presented.

  11. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    in the vertical and horizontal directions was addressed. A functioning prototype of a 2D silicon objective for use in a bright-field hard-XRM was demonstrated. The results are promising; showing acceptably low aberration and performance close to theoretical expectations. A resolution of 300 nm with 17 keV x......This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... intense and wider line beams with narrower waists. The thesis starts with a review of alternative x-ray lenses. Si-CRLs are identified as valuable optical components that allow shaping hard x-rays efficiently and creating beam waists that are clearly in the nanometer range. They stand out...

  12. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  13. Rock bending creep and disturbance effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志亮; 郑颖人; 刘元雪

    2008-01-01

    The bending creep and its disturbance effects of red sandstone rock beam and oil shale rock beam were studied by adopting the self-developed gravitation level style rock creep test machine and bending creep test system,and the constitutive equations were established.It is found that fracture morphology of rock beams under no disturbance load is regular,cracking position of fractures is on part of loading concentration,the crack starts from a neutral plane.However,fracture morphology of rock beams under disturbance load is irregular,cracking position of fractures deviates from a neutral plane.Delayed instability of rock beam occurs for some time under constant disturbance load.When disturbance load is beyond a certain range,suddenly instability of occurs rock beam in a certain time.The results show that there is a guiding significance for creep stability in the geotechnical engineering fields.

  14. UV curable hard coatings on polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datashvili, Tea; Brostow, Witold; Kao, David

    2006-10-01

    UV curable, hard and transparent hybrid inorganic-organic coatings with covalent links between the inorganic and the organic networks were prepared using organically crosslinked heteropolysiloxanes based on the sol-gel process. The materials were applied onto polyester sheets and UV cured. The deposition was followed by a thermal treatment to improve mechanical properties of the coatings. High light transmission and the resulting thermophysical properties indicate the presence of a nanoscale hybrid composition. The coatings show excellent adhesion to polyesters even without using primers. Further mechanical characterization shows that the coatings provide high hardness and good abrasion resistance.

  15. Hardness and incipient plasticity in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in oxide glasses with varying network modifier/modifier ratio is manifested as either a positive or negative deviation from linearity with a maximum deviation at the ratio of about 1:1. In an earlier study [J. Kjeldsen et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 369,61(2013)......The scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in oxide glasses with varying network modifier/modifier ratio is manifested as either a positive or negative deviation from linearity with a maximum deviation at the ratio of about 1:1. In an earlier study [J. Kjeldsen et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 369...

  16. Comparison of different hardness definitions usable for micro- and nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlenz, F.; Herrmann, K.; Seemann, R.; Menelao, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    In order to describe the hardness of substrates and layers, different definitions are used which consider the plastic or the elastic-plastic behavior of the material. For a chosen spectrum of substrate and layer materials the absolute hardness values according to these definitions are compared with each other. Moreover, relationships between the hardness values are derived. For the investigation of differences in the accuracy of the various hardness definitions the variance coefficients of different hardnesses were determined. (orig.)

  17. Rock burst proneness prediction by acoustic emission test during rock deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志镇; 高峰; 尚晓吉

    2014-01-01

    Rock burst is a severe disaster in mining and underground engineering, and it is important to predict the rock burst risk for minimizing the loss during the constructing process. The rock burst proneness was connected with the acoustic emission (AE) parameter in this work, which contributes to predicting the rock burst risk using AE technique. Primarily, a rock burst proneness index is proposed, and it just depends on the heterogeneous degree of rock material. Then, the quantificational formula between the value of rock burst proneness index and the accumulative AE counts in rock sample under uniaxial compression with axial strain increases is developed. Finally, three kinds of rock samples, i.e., granite, limestone and sandstone are tested about variation of the accumulative AE counts under uniaxial compression, and the test data are fitted well with the theoretic formula.

  18. Overexpression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibits human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbo; He, Xue; Ma, Yueying; Liu, Yanli; Shi, Huaiyin; Guo, Weiwei; Liu, Liangfa

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) over-expression has been implicated in the progression of many tumor types. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression levels were examined in 50 cases of human LSCC samples by immunohistochemistry. Effects of ROCK1 and ROCK2 on LSCC cell proliferation and motility were investigated in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. The results showed that ROCK1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis (P ROCK2 positively correlated with tumor size (P ROCK2 by Y-27632 significantly inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of LSCC cells. Our data indicate that expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 are closely associated with tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of LSCC. Thus, these two ROCK isoforms may be useful as molecular makers for LSCC diagnosis and may be useful therapeutic targets as well.

  19. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  20. Remember Hard but Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushu Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness, biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between hard and rigid and between soft and flexible in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affected cognitive functions requiring either rigidity (memory or flexibility (creativity. In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition than a cushioned one (the soft condition. In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity and flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations could be grounded via metaphorical association in bodily states.