WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerostatics

  1. Advanced aerostatic analysis of long-span suspension bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the span length of suspension bridges increases, the diameter of cables and thus the wind load acting on them, the nonlinear wind-structure interaction and the wind speed spatial non-uniformity all increase consequently, which may have unnegligible influence on the aerostatic behavior of long-span suspension bridges. In this work, a method of advanced aerostatic analysis is presented firstly by considering the geometric nonlinearity, the nonlinear wind-structures and wind speed spatial non-uniformity. By taking the Runyang Bridge over the Yangtze River as example, effects of the nonlinear wind-structure interaction, wind speed spatial non-uniformity, and the cable's wind load on the aerostatic behavior of the bridge are investigated analytically. The results showed that these factors all have important influence on the aerostatic behavior, and should be considered in the aerostatic analysis of long and particularly super long-span suspension bridges.

  2. Hydrostatic, aerostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W Brian

    2012-01-01

    Solve your bearing design problems with step-by-step procedures and hard-won performance data from a leading expert and consultant Compiled for ease of use in practical design scenarios, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides the basic principles, design procedures and data you need to create the right bearing solution for your requirements. In this valuable reference and design companion, author and expert W. Brian Rowe shares the hard-won lessons and figures from a lifetime's research and consultancy experience. Coverage includes: Clear e

  3. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ćetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  4. Nonlinear vibrations and stability of aerostatic bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozánek J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearings based on aerostatic principle belong to the new machine elements advantageous for low- and high-speed applications, but their dynamic and stability properties are not yet sufficiently known. This paper presents a new elaborated method and gained results of theoretical investigation of dynamic properties of aerostatic bearing in general dimensionless form. It is aimed also as a supporting tool for diagnostic and identification methods used at developing of new bearings proposed by TECHLAB, Prague for industrial applications. Mathematical model expresses nonlinear and evolutive properties in the entire area of bearing clearance, contains sufficient number of free parameters in functions of restoring and damping forces and can therefore describe all types of motions occurring in gas bearings as periodic, quasi-periodic, including beats and instability, which can leads to chaotic and self-excited vibrations. The influence of non-diagonal elements of stiffness and damping matrices of linearized model on the spectral properties and the stability of system is investigated, too.

  5. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9291

  6. An aerostat-supported ELF/VLF transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E. C., Jr.; Kies, L. R.; Bannister, P. R.; Ingram, R. F.; Hopkins, W. D.; Roberts, M. A.

    1989-03-01

    A demonstration of an aerostat-supported extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) transmitting antenna was performed. At ELF the vertical electric dipole (VED) antenna radiated at least 100,000 times more power than would a horizontal electric dipole having the same moment. That efficiency was achieved with an altitude of 12,500 feet (3810 m). Calculations show that the radiated power will increase as the fourth power of aerostat altitude. The tether antenna exhibited a corona onset voltage of 180 kV and was resistant to the degrading effects of ELF corona. Prolonged in-corona operation is therefore possible. The antenna was continuously tuned, despite changes in height and capacitance caused by the aerostat flight dynamics. The huge 300-H ELF tuning inductor posed no problem. Enhanced VED moments were achieved at ELF by operation at voltages up to 260 kV, 40% above the corona onset voltage. At VLF the antenna emulated a monopole that had a radiation efficiency greater than 90%. The measured bandwidths were large: 1.5 kHz at 23 kHz and 3.5 kHz at 34 kHz. The antenna height exceeded one-quarter wavelength at VLF, so the antenna could be tuned capacitively and required relatively low base voltages. At both VLF and ELF the measured fields agreed closely with predictions.

  7. Acoustic detection and localization from a tethered aerostat during the NATO TG-53 test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, C.; Scanlon, M.; Noble, J.

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic sensors mounted to a tethered aerostat detect and localize transient signals from mortars, artillery, C-4, propane cannon, and small arms fire. Significant enhancements to soldier lethality and survivability can be gained when using the aerostat array to detect, localize, and cue an aerial imager to a weapon's launch site, or use the aerostat's instantaneous position and orientation to calculate a vector solution to the ground coordinates of the launch site for threat neutralization. The prototype aerostat-mounted array was tested at Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) as part of the NATO TG-53 signature collection exercise. Acoustic wave form data was collected simultaneously with aerostat and ground-based sensor arrays for comparing wind noise, signal to noise related parameters, and atmospheric effects on propagation to an elevated array. A test description and summary of localization accuracy will be presented for various altitudes, ranges to target, and under differing meteorological conditions.

  8. Studying fluid squeeze characteristics for aerostatic journal bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, Gamal M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)], E-mail: gamalm60@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    The Reynolds equation for studying fluid squeeze of aerostatic journal bearing is solved numerically by considering the quasi-steady behavior of the air film. The radial displacement can influence the air film thickness modifying the pressure distribution in the journal-bearing gap. Also, the variations in the seal characteristics with eccentricity, time, squeeze number, length-to-diameter and supply pressure are presented. The numerical results for the squeeze load-carrying capacity are given in a non-dimensional for000.

  9. Freeform turning lathe with direct drives and aerostatic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chao-liang; Dai, Yi-fan; Yin, Zi-qiang; Yang, Fan

    2009-05-01

    More and more precision freeform parts are required by defense technology and national economy today and in the future. The applications of freeform parts have traditionally conformed to the limitations imposed by practical limits on high effective fabricating technology. Single point diamond turning is one of the important methods of machining freeform surface parts. Generally speaking, optical freeform surfaces have complex geometrical surface shapes and require ultra smooth surface (roughness down to 10nm) and high form accuracy (form accuracy down to several ten nanometers). So, the ultra precision turning lathe must improve the motion accuracy, dynamic stiffness and bandwidth of every axis. Direct drive technology combined with aerostatic bearing do not affect by frication and eliminate the micro-backlash and creeping; reduce the number of transmission element, shorten the transmitted chains and be propitious to improve dynamic stiffness and bandwidth. This paper presents a ultra precision diamond turning lathe with linear motor and aerostatic guide drive system. Combined with the lathe a FTS (Fast Tool Servo) system driven by voice coil actor is use to machining free form surface. The turning experiments show that this lathe can satisfy the requirement of machine freeform surface.

  10. Aerostatic Stability of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges: Parametric Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程进; 江见鲸; 肖汝诚; 项海帆

    2003-01-01

    The increasing span of cable-stayed bridges has focused more attention on the aerostatic stability of the design and construction of such bridges. This paper presents a new method to analyze the nonlinear aerostatic stability of cable-stayed bridges including all three components of the wind load and the geometric nonlinearity. The analysis was used to investigate the effects of the wind angle of incidence, the wind load of individual bridge elements, the sagging of cable elements, the changes of tower height and the changes of side span length on the aerostatic stability of cable-stayed bridges. The results show that the wind angle of incidence and the wind loads on the cables have an important effect on the aerostatic stability of cable-stayed bridges.

  11. Detection of impulsive sources from an aerostat-based acoustic array data collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Wayne E.; Clark, Robert C.; Strickland, Joshua; Frazier, Wm. Garth; Singleton, Jere

    2009-05-01

    An aerostat based acoustic array data collection system was deployed at the NATO TG-53 "Acoustic Detection of Weapon Firing" Joint Field Experiment conducted in Bourges, France during the final two weeks of June 2008. A variety of impulsive sources including mortar, artillery, gunfire, RPG, and explosive devices were fired during the test. Results from the aerostat acoustic array will be presented against the entire range of sources.

  12. Frictional Characteristics of a Small Aerostatic Linear Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Araki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Frictional characteristics of a small aerostatic linear bearing are accurately evaluated by means of a method, in which the force acting on the moving part of the bearing is measured as the inertial force. An optical interferometer is newly developed to measure the Doppler shift frequency of the laser light reflected on the small moving part. From the measured time-varying Doppler shift frequency, the velocity, the position, the acceleration and the inertial force of the moving part are numerically calculated. It is confirmed that the dynamic frictional force acting inside the bearing is almost proportional to the velocity of the moving part and is similar to the theoretical value calculated under the assumption that the flow inside the bearing is the Couette flow.

  13. Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.

  14. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF MOTION CORRECTED WIND VELOCITY USING AN AEROSTAT LOFTED SONIC ANEMOMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aerostat-lofted, sonic anemometer was used to determine instantaneous 3 dimensional wind velocities at altitudes relevant to fire plume dispersion modeling. An integrated GPS, inertial measurement unit, and attitude heading and reference system corrected the wind data for th...

  16. Simulation of the fluid structure interaction for an aerostatic bearing and a flexible substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieslagers, R.; Wild, M. de; Melick, S. van; Knaapen, R.

    2014-01-01

    The fluid structure interaction for an aerostatic bearing and a substrate is solved numerically by a semi-analytical model, programmed in the software package MATLAB. This semi-analytical model uses a fluidic network of resistances and capacities to solve the pressure field in the bearing channel. T

  17. Experimental study of aerodynamic interference effects on aerostatic coefficients of twin deck bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwen LIU; Zhengqing CHEN; Gao LIU; Xinpeng SHAO

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on aero-static coefficients of twin deck bridges with large span were investigated in detail by means of wind tunnel test.The distances between the twin decks and wind attack angles were changed during the wind tunnel test to study the effects on aerodynamic interferences of aerostatic coefficients of twin decks. The research results have shown that the drag coefficients of the leeward deck are much smaller than that of a single leeward deck. The drag coefficients of a windward deck decrease slightly com-pared with that of a single deck. The lift and torque coefficients of windward and leeward decks are also affected slightly by the aerodynamic interference of twin decks. And the aerodynamic interference effects on lift and torque coefficients of twin decks can be neglected.

  18. Study of the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinjun; Sun Hailing

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of span length,the bridge tends to be more flexible,and the wind stability be-comes an important problem for the design and construction of super long-span cable-stayed bridges. By taking a super long-span cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 400 m as example,the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of the bridge are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear aerostatic and aerodynamic stability analy-sis,and the results are compared with those of a suspension bridge with a main span of 1 385 m,and from the aspect of wind stability,the feasibility of using cable-stayed bridge in super long-span bridge with a main span above 1 000 m is discussed. In addition,the influences of design parameters including the depth and width of the girder,the tower structure,the tower height-to-span ratio,the side-to-main span ratio,the auxiliary piers in the side span and the anchorage system of stay cables,etc on the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of su-per long-span cable-stayed bridges are investigated numerically;the key design parameters are pointed out,and also their reasonable values are proposed.

  19. Coupled-mode induced transparency in aerostatically-tuned microbubble whispering gallery resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yong; Ward, Jonathan; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Coupled-mode induced transparency is realized in a single microbubble whispering gallery mode resonator. Using aerostatic tuning, we find that the pressure induced shifting rates are different for different radial order modes. A finite element simulation considering both the strain and stress effects shows a GHz/bar difference and this is confirmed by experiments. A transparency spectrum is obtained when a first order mode shifts across a higher order mode through precise pressure tuning. The resulting lineshapes are fitted with the theory. This work lays a foundation for future applications in microbubble sensing.

  20. An ultrahigh sensitivity, high resolution, aerostatic pressure sensor using microbubble resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yong; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-01-01

    Sensors based on whispering gallery resonators can push achievable sensitivities and resolutions to their limits, while maintaining minute footprints. Here, we report on the fabrication of a microbubble resonator using two CO$_2$ beams focused on a microcapillary; the resulting microbubble has an ultrathin wall. We show that, even when the wall is as thin as 500 nm, an intrinsic quality factor of $10^7$ is achievable at the telecommunications C-band. Considering strain and stress of the material, we investigate the feasibility of using the microbubble as an aerostatic pressure sensor. The measured sensitivity is 19 GHz/bar and is at the limit of current techniques. We have found that the sensitivity can be improved to 38 GHz/bar at the 780 nm wavelength range, where the resolution for pressure sensing is 0.14 mbar and the Q-factor remains higher than $10^7$.

  1. Calculation and analysis for stiffness of the thrust aerostatic bearing of ultra-precision machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhao, Ziqiang; Liang, Yingchun; Zhang, Longjiang

    2010-10-01

    The single point diamond turning (SPDT) lathe of vertical flying cutting milling style is one important ultra-precision machining method for Large-aperture optics. To realize ultra-precision machining with SPDT technology, the turning spindle of the machine tools should be with higher stiffness and stability. In this paper, based on finite element method (FEM), an iterative procedure is proposed and implemented to solve the fluid dynamic model and structure model for simulation the couple of air pressure and structure flexibility. Simulation results show that pressure in the air gap makes the plate deform and this deformation produced by the pressure adversely modifies the pressure distribution. Experimental results indicate that the method can predict the aerostatic spindle stiffness accurately, the prediction error is about 2.04%. These results show a relevant influence of the structural flexibility of the bearing on its static performance.

  2. Acoustic detection and localization of weapons fire by unattended ground sensors and aerostat-borne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, P.; Marty, Ch.; Hengy, S.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection and localization of artillery guns on the battlefield is envisaged by means of acoustic and seismic waves. The main objective of this work is to examine the different frequency ranges usable for the detection of small arms, mortars, and artillery guns on the same hardware platform. The main stages of this study have consisted of: data acquisition of the acoustic signals of the different weapons used, signal processing and evaluation of the localization performance for various types of individual arrays, and modeling of the wave propagation in the atmosphere. The study of the propagation effects on the signatures of these weapons is done by comparing the acoustic signals measured during various days, at ground level and at the altitude of our aerostat (typically 200 m). Numerical modeling has also been performed to reinforce the interpretation of the experimental results.

  3. Analysis of micro vibration in gas film of aerostatic guide way based on molecule collision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shao Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro vibration of the aerostatic guide way has a significant impact on its dynamic characteristics and stability, which limits the development of pneumatic component. High pressure gas molecules have been collided with the supporting surface and the internal surface of the throttle during the flow process. Variable impulse of the surfaces aside for the gas film are affected by the changes of impulse which formed irregular impact force in horizontal and vertical direction. Micro-vibration takes place based on the natural frequency of the system and its frequency doubling. In this paper, the vibration model was established to describe the dynamic characteristics of the gas film, and the formation mechanism of micro vibration in the film is defined. Through the simulation analysis and experimental comparison, formation mechanism of the micro vibration in the gas film is confirmed. It was proposed that the micro vibration of gas film can be produced no matter whether there is a gas chamber or not in the throttle. Under the same conditions, the micro vibration of the guide way with air chamber is greater than that without any chamber. The frequency points of the vibration peaks are almost the same, as well as the vibration pattern in the frequency domain.

  4. Design and implementation of an active rectangular aerostatic thrust bearing stage with electromagnetic actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO JunHong; LI LiChuan

    2009-01-01

    The design and implementation of an active rectangular aerostaUc thrust bearing stage with electro-magnetic actuators are presented. The stage is fundamentally precise and simple since the out-of-plane degree-of-freedoms (DOF) of a thrust air bearing are closed-loop controlled by electromagnetic actua-tors. The design is one-moving-part with mechanical symmetry, and a commercially available air bear-ing is rigidly attached to the table. The actuators are four independent coils mounted to the guiding surface of the table with iron cores, which are directly machined on the table. A bench level prototype system is developed and out-of-plane axes decoupled models of the system are derived. A control al-gorithm synthesized by arbitrarily placing closed-loop poles according to the model with air bearing dynamics neglected is implemented by C programming language running on the DOS platform. The stage is capable of vertical direction precision micro-positioning and guiding 3-DOF plane motions without limiting the working range of plane motions. Positioning accuracy of the stage no longer de-pends upon design and manufacturing of an air bearing, while passive preload of the stage for a flat film aerostatic thrust bearing is eliminated.

  5. Coriolis Mass-Flowmeter for aerostatic gas amount determination in zero pressure stratosperic balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The CNES ballooning community regularly operates zero pressure balloons in many countries around the world (recently in France, Sweden, Canada and soon, Australia in 2017). An important operational flight parameter is the aerostatic gas mass injected into the balloon (currently helium and hydrogen in the study). Besides the lifting force, it determines mainly the ascent rate from which the adiabatic expansion depends directly. A too high ascent velocity in very cold air temperature profiles could result in a gas temperature drop which if too great, might induce brittleness of the envelope. A precise gas mass determination is therefore critical for performance as well as for mission safety. The various gas supply tanks in various countries all have different characteristics with possible uncertainties with regard to their volumes. This makes the currently used gas mass determination method based on supply tank pressure measurements unreliable. This method also relies on tank temperature, another source of inaccuracy in the gas amount determination. CNES has therefore prospected for alternative methods to reduce inaccuracies and perhaps also ease the operational procedures during balloon inflation. Coriolis mass-flowmeters which have reached industrial maturity, offer the great advantage over other flowmeters to be able to directly measure the mass of the transferred fluid, and not deducing it from other parameters as other types of flowmeters would do. An industrial contractor has been therefore assigned to integrate this solution into the CNES operational setup. This new system is to be tested in February 2016. The presentation will briefly explain the Coriolis flowmeter's principle and display the February 2016 performance tests' results. The expected incidence on zero pressure balloons' trajectories will also be discussed based on simulations ran on a balloon flight simulator software.

  6. Acoustic data analysis and scenario over watch from an aerostat at the NATO SET-153 field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Christian; Scanlon, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the NATO SET-153 field experiment was to provide an opportunity to demonstrate multiple sensor technologies in an urban environment and determine integration capabilities for future development. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) experimental aerostat was used primarily as a persistent over watch capability as a substitute for a UAV. Continuous video was recorded on the aerostat and segments of video were captured of the scenarios on the ground that the camera was following manually. Some of the segments showing scenario activities will be presented. The captured pictures and video frames have telemetry in the headers that provides the UTM time and the Inertial Navigation System (INS) GPS location and the inertial roll, pitch, and yaw as well as the camera gimbal pan and tilt angles. The timing is useful to synchronize the images with the scenario events providing activity ground truth. The INS, GPS, and camera gimbal angle values can be used with the acoustic solution for the location of a sound source to determine the relative accuracy of the solution if the camera is pointed at the sound source. This method will be confirmed by the use of a propane cannon whose GPS location is logged. During the field experiment, other interesting acoustic events such as vehicle convoys, platoon level firefights with vehicles using blanks, and a UAV helicopter were recorded and will be presented in a quick analysis.

  7. Review on the Dynamic Characteristics of Aerostatic Motorized Spindles%气体悬浮电主轴动态特性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊万里; 侯志泉; 吕浪; 阳雪兵

    2011-01-01

    在高效超精密加工中,气体悬浮电主轴存在电动机高速拖动能力衰减过快、电磁偏心激振、高次谐波激振和电动机定、转子发热严重以及主轴高速带来的温度效应和气流惯性效应等一系列技术难题.因此有必要对气体悬浮电主轴动态特性的影响因素进行系统分析和深入总结.分析气体悬浮电主轴的技术现状以及存在的问题:从轴承结构、气体流动形态、电磁偏心激振和不平衡响应等四个方面对电主轴稳定性的影响进行评述;综述轴承类型、轴承参数、表面粗糙度和轴颈倾斜对系统刚度的影响:阐述系统临界转速和电动机转速-力矩特性以及主轴高速带来的温度变化和气流惯性对主轴系统的影响;围绕主轴的回转精度,对主要因素、回转误差形成机理和精度测试与误差分离技术逐一评述;最后对气体悬浮电主轴技术的发展趋势进行预测和展望.%There are a series of technical problems in the application of the aerostatic motorized spindle to meet the requirements of ultra-high speed and ultra-precision machining, such as electromagnetic losses of high frequency motor, eccentric electromagnetic excitation, high harmonic excitation, thermal effects and inertial effects caused by motor high speed running.Therefore, it is necessary to make systematic analysis and intensive review on the factors which influence the dynamic characteristics of aerostatic motorized spindle.The retrospection of the development history and status of the aerostatic motorized spindle is presented.The effects of critical factors on the stability of high speed motorized spindles are analyzed and commented from the aspects of aerostatic bearing structure, gas flow forms, eccentric electromagnetic excitation and unbalance response, then the influences of bearing type,bearing parameters optimization, surface roughness and journal inclination on the system stiffness are summarized

  8. 大跨人行悬索桥非线性静风稳定性分析%Nonlinear aerostatic stability analysis of a long-span suspension pedestrian bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓锋; 管青海; 胡兆同; 李加武; 刘健新

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear aerostatic stability of a 420m-main-span suspension pedestrian bridge was analysed numerically.Based on aerostatic coefficients of the main girder measured in wind tunnel tests,nonlinear influences caused by the structure and aerostatic load were analysed by using incremental double iteration method.The results conclude as follows:the structure deformation varying with wind speed shows obvious nonlinearity,and the aerostatic instability mode is of the characteristic of space deformation of bending-twisting coupling mode;comparing with the highway bridge,the torsional stiffness of the bridge due to main cables accounts for a greater proportion of the stiffness of the long-span suspension pedestrian bridge.The critical wind velocity and the reason of aerostatic instability can be got by tracing the stress in the main cable with the variation of wind speed;nonzero initial wind attack angle can reduce the critical wind speed;central buckles and anti-wind cables can raise the critical wind speed.The aerostatic instability mode after the installation of central buckles is the bending-twisting coupling mode of main girder,and the aerostatic instability mode after adding the measure of anti-wind cables is the local structural buckling due to the wind cables and hangers stress relaxation.The results are beneficial to the further research of long span narrow bridge aerostatic stability.%基于风洞试验所测加劲梁静力三分力系数,在综合考虑静风荷载非线性、结构几何非线性基础上,采用双重迭代计算分析方法对主跨420 m大跨窄人行悬索桥进行静风稳定性全过程分析。结果表明,结构变形随风速变化呈明显非线性,静风失稳形态弯曲扭转空间耦合变形特征显著;较公路桥大跨人行悬索桥主缆提供的扭转刚度比重更大,跟踪两主缆跨中应力随风速变化情况可定义静风失稳临界风速及与分析静风失稳原因;非零初始风攻角会降

  9. Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, LAI; Bao, FU; Shuangtao, CHEN; Qiyong, ZHANG; Yu, HOU

    2017-02-01

    The EAST superconducting tokamak, an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, has been built at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All the toroidal field magnets and poloidal field magnets, made of NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit conductor, are cooled with forced flow supercritical helium at 3.8 K. The cryogenic system of EAST consists of a 2 kW/4 K helium refrigerator and a helium distribution system for the cooling of coils, structures, thermal shields, bus-lines, etc. The high-speed turbo-expander is an important refrigerating component of the EAST cryogenic system. In the turbo-expander, the axial supporting technology is critical for the smooth operation of the rotor bearing system. In this paper, hydrostatic thrust bearings are designed based on the axial load of the turbo-expander. Thereafter, a computational fluid dynamics-based numerical model of the aerostatic thrust bearing is set up to evaluate the bearing performance. Tilting effect on the pressure distribution and bearing load is analyzed for the thrust bearing. Bearing load and stiffness are compared with different static supply pressures. The net force from the thrust bearings can be calculated for different combinations of bearing clearance and supply pressure.

  10. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet

  11. Research of the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges%超大跨度斜拉桥空气静力和动力稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新军; 孙海凌

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of span length,the cable-stayed bridge tends to be a more slen-der structural system,and consequently the wind stability becomes an important problem for its design and construction. Three-dimensional nonlinear aerostatic and aerodynamic stability anal-ysis of long-span bridges is used to investigate the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of a su-per long-span cable-stayed bridge with main span of 1 400 m,and the results are compared with those of a suspension bridge with the similar main span,and considering from the aspect of wind stability,the availability of using the cable-stayed bridge in super long-span bridges whose main span exceeds 1 000 m is discussed. In addition,parametric analysis on the aerostat-ic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges is conducted including the depth and width of the girder,structure style of the tower,the tower’s height-to-span ratio,the ratio of side span to main span,the auxiliary piers in the side span and the anchorage system of stay cables etc,and the key design parameters are pointed out,and also their reasonable values are proposed. The results show that as compared to the suspension bridge with the same main span,the cable-stayed bridge has greater structural stiffness,and becomes more stable under the static and dynamic wind action,and consequently becomes a favorable structural system for super long-span bridges whose main span exceeds 1 000 m;the super long-span cable-stayed bridge becomes more aerostatically and aerodynamically stable under the cases that the girder depth is increased,the girder width is decreased,the inverse Y-shaped tower is used,the tow-er’s height is increased,the side span is shortened,the auxiliary piers are installed in side span and the stayed cables are partially earth-anchored.%随着斜拉桥跨度的持续增长,结构更趋于轻柔,风作用下的结构稳定性已成为超千米主跨斜拉桥设计和研究的重要问题。采用

  12. Experimental Research on Stability of High-speed Aerostatic Bearing-Rotor System%供气压力对气体轴承-转子系统稳定性影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文琦; 黄鑫; 刘海艳

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome the problem that the aerostatic bearing-rotor system vibrates severely near the critical speed region,a large number of experimental studies about the effects of supply pressure on stability of high-speed aerostatic bearing-rotor system were carried out.In this paper,with turbine driven and the control of the electrical proportional valve,vibration of this system was tested and analyzed on various working conditions.The results demonstrate that the critical speed is increased with the increase of the bearing supply pressure.However,the change of the vibration amplitude is opposite,which is reduced with the increase of the bearing supply pressure.The method of secondary controlling the supply pressure can sufficiently inhibit the vibration amplitude of the critical speed region within a certain range,and the system stability can be corresponding improved.%为解决气浮轴承在经过临界转速的剧烈振动不稳定这一问题,进行了供气压力对气体轴承-转子系统稳定性影响的实验研究.基于涡轮驱动和电器比例阀压力控制,搭建了基于高速静压气体轴承-转子系统实验台,对不同供气压力工况组合下系统振动进行了测试与分析.结果表明:在一定供气压力范围内,临界转速值随着轴承供气压力增大而升高,振动幅值随着轴承供气压力增大而降低,合理控制临界转速区域附近供气压力可一定程度内抑制振动幅值,达到提高系统稳定性的目的.

  13. 气体静压轴承用多孔SiC陶瓷的制备及静态性能%Preparation and Static Properties of Porous SiC Ceramic as Aerostatic Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雪梅

    2011-01-01

    以α-SiC和β-SiC粉末为原料,羧甲基纤维素为造孔剂,制备了多孔SiC陶瓷.探讨了烧结温度、成型压力和造孔剂含量对SiC陶瓷的气孔率、显气孔率以及弯曲强度的影响,研究了用不同渗透率的多孔SiC陶瓷制备气体静压轴承的承载能力和静态刚度.结果表明:在高温下,β-SiC转变为α-SiC,同时,通过α-SiC的蒸发-凝聚过程实现了SiC陶瓷的烧结,并形成无收缩自结合结构;试样的气孔率和显气孔率随烧结温度和成型压力的增加而略有降低,但弯曲强度却增大;造孔剂含量越高,试样的气孔率和显气孔率越大,弯曲强度越低.添加质量分数为10%的造孔剂,经250 MPa冷等静压成型,在2 400℃下制备的试样气孔率和显气孔率分别为28.91%和24.03%,渗透率为7.74×10-13 m2,弯曲强度为63.8 MPa.因此,多孔siC陶瓷的渗透率越低,利用它制备的气体静压轴承的承载能力越低,静态刚度就越高.%Porous SiC ceramics were prepared with α-SiC and β-SiC powders, and carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) as the pore entraining agent. The porosity, open porosity, and the flexural strength as functions of sintering temperatures, shaping pressures, and pore entraining agent content were investigated. The load capacity and the static stiffness of aerostatic bearing assembled by porous SiC ceramics with different permeability were studied. The results show that porous SiC ceramic is able to be prepared when the β-SiC converts to α-SiC by the aggregates connection in high temperature range. The porosity and the open porosity decrease and the flexural strength increases with increasing sintering temperatures and shaping pressures. The porosity and the open porosity increases and the flexural strength decreases with increase of pore entraining agent content. For the sample with 10% (mass fraction) CMC prepared at 250 MPa and 2 400 ℃, the porosity and open porosity get respectively 28.91% and 24.03%, the

  14. 基于Benchmark模型的柔性大浮空结构模态参数辨识及振动主动控制方法%Identification of Modal Parameters and Active Vibration Control Method of Flexible Structures of Big Aerostat Based on Benchmark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖宏

    2015-01-01

    为形成统一、标准、实用的柔性大浮空结构振动控制评价体系,本文提出了一种基于Benchmark模型的振控效果评价准则,并依此作为对整个研究进程进行指导和后续研究结果进行评价的标准。在此基础上论述了以基于模态参数辨识的振动主动控制为目标的试验与仿真横向并行的研究方法,该方法贯穿于浮空结构振动主动控制的整个纵向研究流程。%For establishing uniform,standard and practical vibration control and estimation system of flexible struc⁃tures of big aerostat,this paper proposed an evaluation criteria of vibration control effects based on Benchmark mod⁃el,which is used as the standard for guiding the whole research process and evaluating later research results. Then the paper discussed a horizontal research method of experiments and simulation for the purpose of active vibration control based on identification of modal parameters. And the method runs through the whole vertical research process of active vibration control of aerostat structures.

  15. On The Modeling Of Hybrid Aerostatic - Gas Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar

    2010-01-01

    Gas journal bearing have been increasingly adopted in modern turbo-machinery applications, as they meet the demands of operation at higher rotational speeds, in clean environment and great efficiency. Due to the fact that gaseous lubricants, typically air, have much lower viscosity than more...... conventional oil bearings, carrying capacity and dynamic characteristics of passive systems are generally poorer. In order to enhance these characteristics, one solution is to employ active control strategies. The present contribution presents a detailed mathematical modeling for active lubrication...... of a compressible fluid film journal bearing. Control forces are generated by injecting pressurized air into the bearing gap through orifices located on the bearing walls. A modified form of the compressible Reynolds equation for active lubrication is derived. By solving this equation, stiffness and damping...

  16. On the stability analysis of flexible rotors supported by Hybrid Aerostatic - Gas Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar

    . A multibody dynamics model of a global system comprised of flexible rotor and hybrid journal bearing is built in order to study the lateral dynamics of the system. Different orifices configuration are analyzed; Campbell diagrams and stability maps are presented, showing the main advantages and drawbacks...

  17. A New Age for Aerostats: Proving Airfield-Centric MANPADS Defense for Civil Aircraft Supporting Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    groups have also used MANPADS in Nicaragua, Costa Rica , Vietnam, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Afghanistan. 37 In New York, officials arrested three... Costa , O., Holzapfel, F., and Sachs, G. “Trajectory Optimization for Protecting Airliners against Terroristic Threats.” American Institute of...Dec 2009. 75 Hall, Mimi. “ Drones Could Defend Airports.” USA Today, 23 Mar 2007. 76 Doyle, John M. 77 Aviation Week and Space Technology, “No

  18. Potential of Aerostats for the Recovery of Disabled Main Battle Tanks and Other Heavy Military Vehicles and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    PAGE UNCLASSIFIED 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 90 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 301 -227-5468...investigated for use in the ISO tank design: Stainless Steel Cold Rolled ( AISI Type 302 Stainless Steel, cold rolled to 1550 Mpa tensile strength) Titanium...Battle Tanks and Other Heavy Military Equipment 75 Appendix 5: ‘Hydrogen Storage’ Information MatWeb, The Online Materials Database AISI Type 302

  19. 浮空器氦气纯化方法应用研究%Research on application of aerostat helium purification method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小刚; 傅剑; 赵林华

    2011-01-01

    在浮空器使用过程中,外界空气的混入将导致其内部氦气纯度降低,从而影响到浮空器正常使用.文中通过对常用气体分离方法的分析研究,提出了以高压低温冷凝和低温吸附相结合的方式作为浮空器氦气提纯方式的思路,并详细给出了实现工艺流程和控制方案.换热计算结果表明:该纯化方法液氮消耗量小、氦气提纯成本低.%Aerostat’s working capability is influenced when atmosphere mixed into its envelope and debased the inner helium purity. Through analysis of general gas separation methods, this paper presented a kind of high - pressure condensation and adsorption method as aerostat’s heiium purification way, detailed working flow and control scheme were also presented. Heat exchange calculation shows that, this method costs low liquid nitrogen and low expense.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Termination of Lease and the Transfer of Property Back to the Landowner for the Morgan City, LA, Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    americanus luteolus T T PLANTS Golden Canna Canna flaccida Cypress-Knee Sedge Carex decomposita Floating Antler-Fern Ceratopteris...Louisiana Common Name Scientific Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Golden Canna Canna flaccida S4 G4 Cypress-Knee Sedge Carex ...This region is characteristic of freshwater and saltwater marsh vegetation of grasses, sedges , and rushes. It is not uncommon to hardly see any trees

  1. 基于浮空器的新型应急通信监测系统%A Novel Communication and Monitoring System for Emergency Based on Aerostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费东年; 赵攀峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的机动式空中应急通信监测系统,该系统以机动式系留气球和小型遥控飞艇为空中平台,搭载各种通信、侦察、监测等电子设备,具有快速灵活、机动性强、费用低廉等特点,能够适应复杂环境,面对突发事件时可以快速布置到任何需要的地方.%A novel airborne communication and observation system for emergency is introduced. In the system , the tethered balloon and small airship act as the platform for the carrier of electrical devices for communication, reconnaissance and detection. The system takes the advantage of strong flexibility and low cost, which is able to adapt complex environment and can be placed everywhere rapidly in emergency regarding the requirements.

  2. 柔性蒙皮材料氦气渗透的细观机制%Helium permeation through a lightweight flexible aerostat envelope material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马寅佶; 吴清; 姚学锋; 罗欢

    2011-01-01

    The helium permeation mechanism through a thin film fabric laminated envelope material was studied for consisting of a plain fabric polyarylate fiber(vectran) for the main structural layer,a protective layer PVF film(tedlar) and a helium barrier layer polyester film(mylar).The equivalent permeability of vectran layer was calculated based on the Hagen-Poiseuille law.Then,the solution-diffusion model and the multilayer permeation model were used to predict the contribution of each layer and the layer thickness on the helium permeability of the overall envelope.The predicted helium permeation rates are then shown to compare well with experimental data.%该文研究了由聚芳脂纤维(vectran)平纹织物为承力层、PVF膜(tedlar)为阻氦层、聚酯薄膜(mylar)为防护层的浮空器蒙皮材料氦气渗透的细观机制。首先,根据Hagen-Poiseuille定律,推导得到了承力层等效渗透率。然后,通过氦气溶解扩散模型和多层复合结构渗透模型,理论分析了各层对氦气密封性能的贡献比例,讨论了每层不同厚度对整体蒙皮材料氦气渗透率的影响,理论预测了蒙皮材料的整体氦气渗透率。最后,将实验结果与理论所得的数值进行了对比,验证了多层渗透模型的正确性。

  3. Termination of Lease and the Transfer of Property Back to the Landowner for the Matagorda, Texas Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Texas. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/geo/physiography.html World Wildlife Fund (WWF). (2001). Western Gulf Coastal...use landing facilities Source: Federal Aviation Administration, 800-457-6656 Epicenters: World earthquake epicenters, Richter 5 or greater Source... dragonflies , butterflies, cicadas, locusts, wasps, moths, bees, and others. Like most other falcons, Aploma- dos are swift f lyers. In full f light

  4. STUDY OF PUR-T/PA6/PUR-T MULTILAYER FILMS FOR MAKING THE ENVELOPE OF AEROSTAT%浮空器囊体材料用PUR-T/PA6/PUR-T复合膜的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 郭晓明; 郭川斌; 王永年; 杨宇明

    2006-01-01

    利用共挤出流延机组制备热塑性聚氨酯/尼龙6/热塑性聚氨酯(PUR-T/PA6/PUR-T)复合膜,采用原子力显微镜用多层膜方法研究PUR-T与PA6的相容性.结果表明,PA6/PUR-T复合膜层间具有良好的界面相容性,研制的PUR-T/PA6/PUR-T复合膜的性能能够满足轻型浮空器囊体材料的使用要求,可用于制造浮空器囊体材料.

  5. Great Lakes Oil-In-Ice Demonstration 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    B-9  Figure B-9. Fassi crane in operation (left), Fassi crane and power pack on a 10’ flat rack (right). ......... B-10... rack general specifications. ............................................................................. B-10  Table B-13. Sigma 6 OSD System selected...oil stowage capacity needs and methods. • Aerostat IC - A dark-colored Aerostat IC balloon would improve visibility when airborne and potentially

  6. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  7. Radiation of auroral electrons and the dynamics of the magnetosphere. Rentgenovskoe izluchenie avroralnykh elektronov i dinamika magnitosfery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazutin, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed concept is given of methods employed for aerostatic measurements of inhibitory radiation of auroral electrons and accompanying geophysical phenomena in order to identify the physical nature of magnetic storms, aurora borealis, electron precipitation, and other manifestations of magnetospheric processes in turbulent periods. A summarization is given of aerostatic studies by Soviet and foreign experimental groups who have undertaken measurements in the high altitude stratosphere. 302 references, 89 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Arctic Technology Evaluation 2014 Oil-in-Ice Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    USCGC Healy and evaluated their performance in the cold weather environment as part of Arctic Shield. Based on lessons learned in 2013, the RDC...servicing. Additional bottles were provided for cold weather . Figure 3. Aerostat and LRS (left) and aerostat deployed (right). Arctic Technology...long durations through all weather conditions; and communicate real-time data from the surface of the ocean. The model used in Arctic Shield 2014 was

  9. Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, S P

    2013-01-01

    Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of

  10. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),...

  11. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  12. Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    5.3.1 Air cushion __________________________________________________ 8 5.3.2 Hydrofoils ___________________________________________________ 8 5.3.3...Aerostatic Air Cushion Hydrostatic Single Planing Hull Twin Hulls (Floats) Hydrodynamic Surface Piercing Hydrofoil Fully Submerged Hydrofoil ... Hydrofoils Hydrofoils offer good seakeeping capabilities as well as low drag characteristics, particularly at higher speeds where frictional drag

  13. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  14. Sound source localization using distributed elevated acoustic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiao; Wagstaff, Ronald A.; Anderson, John D.; Gilbert, Kenneth E.

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and localizing impulsive acoustic sources in the daytime using distributed elevated acoustic sensors with large baseline separations has distinct advantages over small ground-based arrays. There are generally two reasons for this: first, during the daytime, because of more direct and less encumbered propagation paths, signal levels are generally larger at altitude than near the ground. Second, larger baselines provide improved localization accuracy. Results are reported from a distributed array of acoustic sensors deployed during an experiment near Bourges, France during June of 2008. The distributed array consisted of microphones and GPS receivers attached to the tether lines of three widely separated aerostats. The sound sources were various impulsive devices. Results from the measurements are presented and discussed. Localization errors (GPS accuracy, propagation calculation, and aerostat motion, etc) are discussed. Possible ways to improve the localization accuracy are suggested.

  15. Comment exercer l'expertise scientifique avec des savoirs non stabilisés ? aérostats, masque à gaz et lampes : inventions, chimie et demandes administratives et policières dans les années 1780 en France

    OpenAIRE

    Thébaud-Sorger, Marie

    2006-01-01

    I shall address the problem of the expertise of innovations, focusing on inventions which apply then recent discoveries in chemistry, a discipline which was in a period of great transformation. How could a judgement be accurate when knowledge was still forming? Before discussing this problem, I first take as examples some innovations which used the new chemistry of gases: the Argand lamp, the gas mask to drain the cesspools of Pilatre de Rozier and the first aerostatic experiments. Such inven...

  16. Technological Lessons from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    combination of unmanned vehi- cles and aerostats to relay information from sensors to central locations for analysis and modeling. Naturally , these...the use of some technologies: Summary ix • Distributed, wide-area sensors for rapid, real-time measurement— along with the employment of...in the cleanup. Characterizing the Extent of Contamination and Personal Exposure Knowing the extent and nature of contamination as a function of time

  17. Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ooka, Yuta; Ward, Jonathan; Chromaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a hollow microcapillary, and the realisation of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ and $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. Third-order cascaded Raman lasing was observed when pumped at $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. The aerostatic pressure tunability of the Raman laser was also investigated. Thence, we demonstrate that a high dynamic range, high resolution pressure sensor can be realised using the Raman spectrum of the hollow, bottle-like microresonator.

  18. A Low-Cost Launch Assistance System for Orbital Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the state of art of nonrocket launch assistance systems (LASs for spaceflight focusing on air launch options. The author proposes an alternative technologically feasible LAS based on a combination of approaches: air launch, high-altitude balloon, and tethered LAS. Proposed LAS can be implemented with the existing off-the-shelf hardware delivering 7 kg to low-earth orbit for the 5200 USD per kg. Proposed design can deliver larger reduction in price and larger orbital payloads with the future advances in the aerostats, ropes, electrical motors, and terrestrial power networks.

  19. Investigation of Kevlar fabric-based materials for use with inflatable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccum, R. J.; Munson, J. B.; Rueter, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Design, manufacture and testing of laminated and coated composite materials incorporating a structural matrix of Kevlar are reported. The practicality of using Kevlar in aerostat materials is demonstrated, and data are provided on practical weaves, lamination and coating particulars, rigidity, strength, weight, elastic coefficients, abrasion resistance, crease effects, peel strength, blocking tendencies, helium permeability, and fabrication techniques. Properties of the Kevlar-based materials are compared with conventional Dacron-reinforced counterparts. A comprehensive test and qualification program is discussed, and considerable quantitative biaxial tensile and shear test data are provided.

  20. 基于三维超声风速风向仪的高精度数据测量方法%High Precision Data Measurement of Wind Speed and Direction Based on Three-Axis Ultrasonic Anemometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴有恒; 荣海春

    2015-01-01

    Three‐Axis ultrasonic anemometer is very suitable for the environment monitor demand of teth‐ered aerostat and airship because of its high precision ,fast answer ,perfect function and agile configura‐tion .This paper proposes a detection design about wind speed and direction based on the sensor ,where the course of data collecting and processing is described emphatically.This method has been used successfully in a type of tethered aerostats .%三维超声风速风向仪具有测量精度高,响应速度快,功能全面,配置灵活等特点,非常适合系留气球及飞艇等浮空器对大气环境参数监测的要求。提出了基于该型传感器的风速风向检测系统的设计方法,重点介绍了风速风向数据的采集和处理过程。该方法已在某型系留气球系统中得到成功应用。

  1. MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Bias Adjustment Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, A.; Wei, J. C.; Petrenko, M.; Lary, D. J.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, global aerosol observations have been conducted by space-borne sensors, airborne instruments, and ground-base network measurements. Unfortunately, quite often we encounter the differences of aerosol measurements by different well-calibrated instruments, even with a careful collocation in time and space. The differences might be rather substantial, and need to be better understood and accounted for when merging data from many sensors. The possible causes for these differences come from instrumental bias, different satellite viewing geometries, calibration issues, dynamically changing atmospheric and the surface conditions, and other "regressors", resulting in random and systematic errors in the final aerosol products. In this study, we will concentrate on the subject of removing biases and the systematic errors from MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) aerosol product, using Machine Learning algorithms. While we are assessing our regressors in our system when comparing global aerosol products, the Aerosol Robotic Network of sun-photometers (AERONET) will be used as a baseline for evaluating the MODIS aerosol products (Dark Target for land and ocean, and Deep Blue retrieval algorithms). The results of bias adjustment for MODIS Terra and Aqua are planned to be incorporated into the AeroStat Giovanni as part of the NASA ACCESS funded AeroStat project.

  2. The centering and leveling adjustment and control technology for the ultra-precision turntable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanrong; Wang, Yun; Wang, Longxiao; Zhao, Weirui

    2015-08-01

    In order to realize the centering and leveling adjustment in large aperture spherical and aspheric surface shape measurement, by combining with the aerostatic bearing rotary shaft, working platform, high performance servo motor, photoelectric encoder, the micro displacement actuator of XYZ axis, sensor and Renishaw circular grating ,a set of fast and ultra-precision centering and leveling adjustment system is developed .The system is based on large range of air lubrication technology for high precision aerostatic bearing turntable, using the principle of three point supporting method, and the driving of tens nanometer resolution are provided by a piezoelectric micro displacement actuator. To realize the automatical centering and leveling adjustment in the large aperture spherical and aspheric surface shape measurement system, a software control program is designed with VC++. Through experimental test: centering adjusting operation can eventually converges to 0.5μm, leveling adjusting operation can eventually converges to 0.2 ", the time of adjusting can be less than 120 s. The experimental results shows that, compared with the previous system, the structure of the developed measurement and control system is more simple, more flexible, it can meet the demands of high precision, high resolution, large adjusting range, no friction, easy to drive, and high bearing stiffness etc in eccentric adjusting operation of optical precision measurement well.

  3. 超精密静压支承部件及其在超精密加工机床的应用%Ultra Precision Hydrostatic Bearing Components and Its Application in Ultra Precision Machine Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秋; 夏仰球; 米良; 李梦阳

    2015-01-01

    Ultra precision machining technique and equipment have developed greatly in recent years. Ultra precision hydrostatic bearing component is a key common component of ultra-precision processing equipment. The structure characteristics, technical proper-ties and application situation of hydrostatic/aerostatic bearing spindle, guide-way and rotary table were introduced roundly. A typical ul-tra-precision machine tool was taken as an example to present the application of the ultra precision hydrostatic/aerostatic bearing spin-dle, guide-way and rotary table.%超精密加工技术与装备在近年得到极大发展. 超精密静压部件是超精密加工装备关键共性部件. 以平面气体静压支承为例, 介绍了静压支承基本工作原理. 对超精密液体/气体静压主轴、 导轨和转台的结构特点、 技术特性、 应用场合作了较全面的介绍; 以典型超精密加工机床为例, 介绍静精密静压主轴、 导轨和转台在超精密加工机床中的应用.

  4. Aerodynamic challenges in span length of suspension bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Haifan; GE Yaojun

    2007-01-01

    The potential requirement of extreme bridge spans is firstly discussed according to horizontal clearances for navigation and economical construction of deep-water foundation. To ensure the technological feasibility of suspen- sion bridges with longer spans, the Static estimation of feasi- ble span length is then made based on current material strength and weight of cables and deck. After the performances of the countermeasures for raising the aerodynamic stability are reviewed, a trial design of a 5 000 m suspension bridge, which is estimated as a reasonable limitation of span length, is finally conducted to respond to the tomorrow's challenge in span length of suspension bridges with the particular aspects, including dynamic stiffness, aerodynamic flutter and aerostatic stability.

  5. Analysis of Geosynchronous Satellite-air Bistatic SAR Clutter Characteristics from the Point of View of Ground Moving Target Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dan-dan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic SAR where the geosynchronous satellite is the transmitter and aerostat is the receiver, in order to suppress clutter and detect slowly moving target using Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP, it is necessary to analyze the clutter characteristics. From the point of view of ground moving target indication, the theory model of the clutter characteristics under the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-space bistatic SAR is analyzed and established in this paper; especially, the range-dependence characteristics of the angle-Doppler curve of the clutter is analyzed. Finally, the simulation verifies correctness of the analysis. The theory model and the conclusion in this paper indicates the clutter characteristics of the new geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic SAR mode, and provide theory basis for the selection and research of ground moving target indication method under this mode.

  6. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R; Goldsmith, Paul F; Hall, Jeffery L; Hoffman, Scott E; Hovarter, Scott E; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M; Jones, Ross M; Kauffmann, Jens; Kiessling, Alina; King, Oliver G; Konidaris, Nick; Lachenmeier, Timothy L; Lord, Steven D; Neu, Jessica; Quetin, Gregory R; Ram, Alan; Sander, Stanley; Simard, Marc; Smith, Mike; Smith, Steve; Smoot, Sara; Susca, Sara; Swann, Abigail; Young, Eliot F; Zambrano, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude, stratospheric lighter-than-air (LTA) airship that could maneuver and remain in a desired geographic position (i.e., "station-keeping") for weeks, months or even years. Our study found considerable scientific value in both low altitude ( 60 kft) airships across a wide spectrum of space, atmospheric, and Earth science programs. Over the course of the study period, we identified stratospheric tethered aerostats as a viable alternative to airships where station-keeping was valued over maneuverability. By opening up the sky and Earth's strato...

  7. Aerial Delivery Systems and Technologies (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Gupta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE was started at Kanpur during latter part of 1950's consisting of two Aerial Delivery Sections primarily for the indigenisation of Parachutes and related equipment for Para-dropping of men and materials. Today, the charter of ADRDE includes design & development of parachutes, Aerostat Systems, Aircraft Arrester Barrier Systems and Heavy-Drop Systems for both military and civilian applications. The technological competence built in Aeronautical, Textile, Mechanical and Electronics engineering has imparted ADRDE, a unique combination of know-how and capabilities to evolve new solutions in these fields, with emphasis on quality assurance. This paper highlights the design and development of technologies developed by ADRDE to stengthen the India's aerial delivery system and its future plans.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.124-136, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.326

  8. From Hybrid to Actively-Controlled Gas Lubricated Bearings – Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano

    From a rotordynamic point of view there are two phenomena that limit the widespread of traditional gas lubrication: 1) low damping makes operation across critical speed dangerous, as even low level of unbalance can generate large vibration responses; 2) an upper bound to supercritical operation...... offer a low degree of robustness, meaning that an accurate optimization is necessary for each application. Another way of improving gas bearings operation performance is by using active control systems, transforming conventional gas bearings in an electro-mechanical machine component. In this framework...... the main focus of this thesis is the theoretical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental rotordynamic testing of a flexible rotor supported by hybrid aerostatic-aerodynamic gas journal bearing equipped with an electronic radial air injection system. Experimental results on a specially designed test...

  9. Tunable erbium-doped microbubble laser fabricated by sol-gel coating

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yong; Kasumie, Sho; Xu, Linhua; Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Lan; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show that the application of a sol-gel coating renders a microbubble whispering gallery resonator into an active device. During the fabrication of the resonator, a thin layer of erbium-doped sol-gel is applied to a tapered microcapillary, then a microbubble with a wall thickness of 1.3 $\\mu$m is formed with the rare earth diffused into its walls. The doped microbubble is pumped at 980 nm and lasing in the emission band of the Er$^{3+}$ ions with a wavelength of 1535 nm is observed. The laser wavelength can be tuned by aerostatic pressure tuning of the whispering gallery modes of the microbubble. Up to 240 pm tuning is observed with 2 bar of applied pressure. It is shown that the doped microbubble could be used as a compact, tunable laser source. The lasing microbubble can also be used to improve sensing capabilities in optofluidic sensing applications.

  10. To sail the skies of Mars - Scientific ballooning on the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric J.; Burke, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons represent a novel approach to exploring the surface of Mars. One promising aerostat system incorporates a solar-powered balloon as a means of generating diurnally varying lift and so can 'hop' across the surface, obtaining detailed information at a large number of sites. Two important areas of research and testing are underway on solar balloon technology and balloon payload design. The solar balloon concept has been demonstrated on earth, but more work is needed on a 'flyable' version for Mars. Particular attention must be paid to radiation heat transfer and aerodynamic effects. A special 'snake' payload concept has been demonstrated that allows for balloon system traverses of the surface and provides a usable instrument platform. A balloon system of this type could obtain unique surface imaging and physical and chemical data. The flight of the balloon also provides in situ atmospheric boundary-layer and circulation measurements.

  11. Power generation on a solar photovoltaic modules integrated Lighter-than-Air Platform at a low altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Duttagupta, Siddharth P

    2016-01-01

    Use of lighter than air platforms (aerostats and airships) for reconnaissance and surveillance over long periods can be facilitated by generation of power on-board through solar photovoltaic arrays. Attempts to integrate solar photovoltaic modules on such contoured surfaces leads to multiple challenges ranging from the choice of solar modules, determination of best method of their integration with the lighter than air platform, and design of the array layout in order to optimize the loss of power due to non-uniform illumination. This paper describes the method of designing such a system and suggests strategies for overcoming these challenges. The issue of non-uniform illumination has been tackled by maximum power point tracking using the scanning window technique for maximizing power generation and an algorithm of distributed maximum power point tracking has been suggested for further improvement. The procedure described in this paper can be used for obtaining the optimum power generation capability of a sola...

  12. The Identification of Nonlinear Systems Using Ct-Kt Plane Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to instantaneously distinguish the Ct (coefficient of viscous damping and Kt (coefficient of stiffness, which are both functions of time in an M.C.K. nonlinear system, a new identification method is proposed in this paper. The graphs of the Ct-Kt are analyzed and the dynamic behavior of M.C.K. systems in a Ct-Kt coordinate plane is discussed. This method calculates two adjacent sampling data, the displacement, velocity, and acceleration (which are obtained from the responses of a pulse response experiment and then distinguishes Ct and Kt of an instantaneous system. Finally, this method is used to identify the aerostatic bearing dynamic parameters, C and K.

  13. High-speed impact test using an inertial mass and an optical interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, T; Watanabe, K; Prayogi, I A; Takita, A; Mitatha, S; Djamal, M; Jia, H Z; Hou, W M; Fujii, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high-speed impact testing method for evaluating mechanical properties of materials is proposed using an inertial mass and a dual beat-frequencies laser Doppler interferometer (DB-LDI). In this method, an inertial mass levitated using an aerostatic linear bearing is made to collide with the material being tested at a high initial velocity. During the collision, the velocity of the mass, which is even higher than the critical velocity (±0.56 m/s) defined by the frequency difference of the Zeeman laser, is accurately measured using the DB-LDI. The position, acceleration, and impact force of the mass are calculated from the measured velocity. Using the proposed method, the mechanical properties of a visco-elastic material under a high-speed impact loading condition can be accurately evaluated.

  14. Investigation of Kevlar fabric based materials for use with inflatable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccum, R. J.; Munson, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Design, manufacture and testing of laminated and coated composite materials incorporating a structural matrix of Kevlar are reported in detail. The practicality of using Kevlar in aerostat materials is demonstrated and data are provided on practical weaves, lamination and coating particulars, rigidity, strength, weight, elastic coefficients, abrasion resistance, crease effects, peel strength, blocking tendencies, helium permeability, and fabrication techniques. Properties of the Kevlar based materials are compared with conventional, Dacron reinforced counterparts. A comprehensive test and qualification program is discussed and quantitative biaxial tensile and shear test data are provided. The investigation shows that single ply laminates of Kevlar and plastic films offer significant strength to weight improvements, are less permeable than two ply coated materials, but have a lower flex life.

  15. Figurative lights: Images of Techno-Scientific slides and Secularization in Spain during the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán LABRADOR MÉNDEZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper asembles and studies a set of iconological representations linked to technical and scientific transformations during the eighteenth Century in Spain, reading them in a dialectic between modern science, Enlightenment policies and popular culture. After analyzing the emergence of representations both of science and scientists according to the process of institutionalizing science as a socio-professional language, two specific eighteenth century technologies are studied: magic lanterns and aerostats. By interpreting their first images and their infiltration into popular and official speeches and the imagination of the moment, it is argued that in those images a tale of demo-Enlightenment is expressed, a tale about secularization and progress as a collective aesthetic experience.

  16. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  17. Experimental investigations of active air bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Morosi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Along with traditional oil lubrication, increasing demand for high-speed applications has renewed attention to gas bearings technology. Traditional aerostatic and aerodynamic gas lubrication has been widely used in a variety of applications, ranging from high-speed spindles to micro and meso......-scale turbomachinery. The present paper deals with experimental rotordynamic testing of a flexible rotor supported by hybrid aerostaticaerodynamic gas journal bearing equipped with an electronic radial air injection system. From a rotordynamic point of view there are two phenomena that limit the widespread...... of traditional gas lubrication: 1) Low damping makes operation across critical speed dangerous, as even low level of unbalance can generate large vibration responses. This is especially problematic for gas bearing applications, which often operate in the supercritical region. Moreover, 2) An upper bound...

  18. A method to change frictional characteristics based on ultrasonic micro driving technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weishan; ZHANG Fan; LIU Junkao

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce friction force and eliminate stick-slip phenomenon of a mechanic system at a low velocity, a method based on the ultrasonic micro driving technique to change the frictional characteristics is proposed. Exciting clockwise and anticlockwise microscopic elliptical motion of driving points on the ultrasonic actuator's two longitudinal bolt-clamped vibrators will generate ultrasonic lubrication action; furthermore, the friction can be actively controlled by adjusting the vibrators' vibrating amplitude. An experimental installation for friction control is designed using aerostatic guide, force sensors and a low speed moment motor.Fuzzy control theory is applied into this system. The experiments indicate the friction force has been reduced largely and the motion of the experimental system is stable. The friction coefficient is only about 0.0053 when the total mass of the ultrasonic actuator and load is3.8 kg and the motor's driving velocity is 0.5 mm/s.

  19. Deformation analysis of optical flat surface with finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengqiang; Ren, Boyuan; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Dewei; Zhang, Longjiang; Su, Xing

    2016-10-01

    Proposing a new method for testing the ultra-precision aerostatic spindle motion accuracy based on analyzing the online real-time dynamic interference image. Optical flat crystal as the testing standard will be installed at the end of the ultra precision aerostatic spindle and will motion along with the spindle. On the other end of the spindle, the tool will be installed for online processing. The image data of optical flat crystal collected by the high-precision dynamic interferometer will be processed for analyzing the spindle error. For collecting higher accuracy image data, the installation way of optical flat crystal is one of the key technologies. Base on this, the effects of the clamping means on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal is studied. At first, the finite element model of the optical flat crystal`s clamping structure were established. Secondly, the influence of the material of the supporting annulus, preload lateral clamping and spindle speed on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal had been analyzed. At last, the improved and optimized structure of the optical flat crystal has been presented. As the analysis results shown, the RMS value of reference surface is 9.47nm and the deformation values of the central region is 0.17nm which satisfies the requirement of surface accuracy and installation of optical flat crystal. It has a very important theoretical and practical significance to establish spindle online testing system and research rotary error generating mechanism of ultra-precision spindle to improve surface accuracy of ultra-precision machining.

  20. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to "harmonize" the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  1. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to harmonize the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  2. Exploring Venus with high-altitude balloons: Science objectives and mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Zahnle, Kevin; Atreya, Sushil K.

    Following the trailblazing flights of the 1985 twin Soviet VEGA balloons, missions to fly in the high atmosphere of Venus near 55 km altitude have been proposed to both NASA's Discovery Program and ESA's Cosmic Vision. Such missions would address a variety of fundamental science issues highlighted in a variety of high-level NASA-authorized science documents in recent years, including the Decadal Study, various NASA roadmaps, and recommendations coming out of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Such missions would in particular address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state, including detailed measurements of (1) trace gases associated with Venus's active photoand thermo-chemistry and (2) measurements of vertical motions and local temperature which characterize convective and wave processes. As an example of what can be done with a small mission (less than 500M US dollars), the Venus Aerostatic-Lift Observatories for in-situ Research (VALOR) Discovery mission will be discussed. This mission would fly twin balloon-borne aerostats over temperate and polar latitudes, sampling rare gases, chemicals and dynamics in two distinct latitude regions for several days. A variety of scenarios for the origin, formation, and evolution of Venus would be tested by sampling all the noble gases and their isotopes, especially the heaviest elements never reliably measured previously: xenon and krypton. Riding the gravity and planetary waves of Venus, the VALOR balloons would sample the chemistry, meteorology and dynamics of Venus's sulfur-cloud region. Tracked by an array of Earth-based telescopes, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds would be measured with unprecedented precision. Such measurements would help to develop a fundamental understanding of (1) the circulation of Venus, especially its enigmatic super-rotation, (2) the nature of Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Venus formed and evolved over the aeons.

  3. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS – altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products – were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and aerostat/"target="_blank" >http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/. The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT retrievals during 2006–2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2 values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties

  4. 径向变体飞艇总体参数估算方法%Parameters estimation method of radial transformable airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖治垣; 郦正能

    2012-01-01

    To break the crucial technical difficulties of controllable aerostat in near space,and make it possible of controlling aerostat going and returning between ground and near space,the conception of solar powered radial transformable airship was raised,and it’s parameters estimation method was given.The method was based on Archimedes theory and Li-style transformable airship theory.The self-adapting and controllable-transformation of sectional area was actualized by radial transformation of structure,net lift was changed by controlling the volume of airship.Controllable aerodynamic configuration was consistently kept through the change of volume,thereby the controls for ascending,descending and staying of airship were actualized.Size of inside ballonet and outside ballonet were accounted by designing transformation project,length of airship was accounted by analyzing dynamics balance and energy balance.Based on study out design parameter,an overall design project for solar powered radial transformable airship was given,feasibility and practicality of the method was validated by example.%为突破临近空间可操纵浮空器的关键技术难点,使可操纵浮空器往返地面至临近空间成为可能,提出了一种径向变体飞艇的总体参数估算方法,该方法基于阿基米德浮力定律和李式变体飞艇原理(Li-Style Transformable Airship Theory),通过艇体结构的径向变形来实现艇体截面积的自适与可控变化,控制飞艇容积变化以改变净升力大小,并使飞艇在容积变化中始终保持可操纵的气动外形,从而实现飞艇的升、降与驻空和飞行等控制.通过设计变形方案估算内气囊与外气囊尺寸,分析力学平衡与能源平衡估算飞艇长度.在拟定设计参数的基础上,给出了一种太阳能径向变体飞艇的总体设计方案,并通过设计实例验证了此方法的可行性与实用性.

  5. Development of an ultraprecision three axis micromilling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Bo; Liang, Yingchun

    2009-05-01

    To meet the requirement for high efficiency machining of the ultra-precision, ultra-smooth micro structured optical surface, an ultra-precision three axes micro milling machine was developed. The overall size of the machine is 600mm×500mm×700mm and all the strokes of three axes are 75mm. To overcome nonlinearity that always exists in conventional servo mechanism driven by ball screw, permanent-magnet linear motor is used to directly drive the aerostatic bearing slide. Linear encoder with 1.2 nm resolution was used as the feedback of position to buildup closed loop control system. The open architected CNC system is composed of the high performance embedded PMAC motion control card and standard industrial PC, and the control algorithm is based on "PID + velocity/acceleration feed forward + notch filter" strategy. Test results indicate that the positioning accuracy of all the three axes is less than +/-0.25μm, and the repetitive positioning accuracy is less than +/-0.2μm. The machine is proved to achieve nanometer scale through step response and sinusoidal signal track. The preparatory milling experiments with micro cemented carbide milling cutter further proves the processing capacity.

  6. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the “Flyer”) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration

  7. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  8. Characterization of the particulate emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Brian K; Hays, Michael D; Tabor, Dennis; Wal, Randy Vander

    2016-06-15

    Sampling of the smoke plumes from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns led to the unintentional collection of soot particles on the sail of an instrument-bearing, tethered aerostat. This first-ever plume sampling from oil burned at an actual spill provided an opportunistic sample from which to characterize the particles' chemical properties for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, elemental carbon, metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and physical properties for size and nanostructure. Thermal-optical analyses indicated that the particulate matter was 93% carbon with 82% being refractory elemental carbon. PAHs accounted for roughly 68μg/g of the PM filter mass and 5mg/kg oil burned, much lower than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicated that the soot is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure. PM-bound metals were largely unremarkable but PCDD/PCDF formation was observed, contrary to other's findings. Levels of lighter PCDD/PCDF and PAH compounds were reduced compared to historical samples, possibly due to volatilization or photo-oxidation.

  9. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  10. Acoustic properties in the low and middle atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi

    2016-08-01

    Generic predictions for acoustic dispersion and absorption in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are presented. For Mars, Pathfinder and Mars Express ambient data and averaged thermophysical parameters are used as inputs to a preliminary model based on the continuum approximation for Mars' thin atmosphere-the need for Boltzmann-based treatment is discussed in the context of Knudsen numbers. Strong absorption constrains acoustic sensing within the Martian planetary boundary layer. For the dense atmosphere of Venus, the van der Waals equation of state is used. The thermophysical and transport parameters were interpolated at the ambient conditions. Acoustic sensing is discussed at 50 km above Venus' surface, a level where aerostats (e.g., European Space Agency's EVE) and manned airships (e.g., NASA's HAVOC) may be deployed in the future. The salient atmospheric characteristics are described in terms of temperature, pressure, and convective stability profiles, followed by wavenumber predictions, and discussions of low- and high-frequency sensing applications. At low frequencies, emphasis is placed on infrasound. A simple generation mechanism by Martian dust devils is presented, yielding fundamental frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz. High-frequency sensing is exemplified by ultrasonic anemometry. Of the two environments, Venus is notably more dispersive in the ultrasonic range.

  11. Software for Correcting the Dynamic Error of Force Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Miyashita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Software which corrects the dynamic error of force transducers in impact force measurements using their own output signal has been developed. The software corrects the output waveform of the transducers using the output waveform itself, estimates its uncertainty and displays the results. In the experiment, the dynamic error of three transducers of the same model are evaluated using the Levitation Mass Method (LMM, in which the impact forces applied to the transducers are accurately determined as the inertial force of the moving part of the aerostatic linear bearing. The parameters for correcting the dynamic error are determined from the results of one set of impact measurements of one transducer. Then, the validity of the obtained parameters is evaluated using the results of the other sets of measurements of all the three transducers. The uncertainties in the uncorrected force and those in the corrected force are also estimated. If manufacturers determine the correction parameters for each model using the proposed method, and provide the software with the parameters corresponding to each model, then users can obtain the waveform corrected against dynamic error and its uncertainty. The present status and the future prospects of the developed software are discussed in this paper.

  12. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  13. External laser locking using a pressure-tunable microbubble resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Madugani, Ramgopal; Le, Vu H; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    The tunability of an optical cavity is an essential requirement for many areas of research especially for the rapidly progressing field of photonics. In particular, low-cost laser tuning methods and miniaturization of the optical components are desirable. By applying aerostatic pressure to the interior surface of a microbubble resonator, optical mode shift rates of around $58$ GHz/MPa are achieved. The micobubble can measure pressure with a limit of detection of $2\\times 10^{-4}$ MPa. Here we use the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, whereby a laser is locked to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of the microbubble resonator, to show that linear tuning of the WGM and the corresponding locked laser display almost zero hysteresis. The long-term frequency stability of this tuning method for different input pressures is measured. The frequency noise of the WGM, measured over 10 minutes, with a maximum input pressure of 0.5 MPa has a standard deviation of 36 MHz.

  14. Study on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-pylon Cable-stayed Bridge Girder by Numerical Simulation and Wind Tunnel Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The wind induced vibration is one of the key technical problems for long-span bridge design. Therefore, a study on the aerodynamic characteristics of a single-pylon cable-stayed bridge girder is carried out in this paper. The aerostatic coefficient of the bridge girder, including both construction state and service state, is investigated by wind tunnel test with varying wind attack angle. Then based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, the flow field around the bridge girder is visualized numerically. The risk of vortex-induced vibration (VIV is qualitatively evaluated by analyzing the flow features and by considering the Scruton number (Sc. Later a dynamic section model is tested in wind tunnel and the VIV phenomenon is observed subsequently. Results show that the aerodynamic stability is assured by the positive slope of the lift coefficient. The VIV response is influenced by the structural damping and the bridge accessory. The amplitude of VIV response can be lower by increasing the structural damping. The maintenance track rail of the bridge girder also does some good for suppressing the VIV as long as the track rail is located at the appropriate place.

  15. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  16. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  17. In-situ exploration of Venus on a global scale : direct measurements of origins and evolution, meterology, dynamics, and chemistry by a long-duration aerial science station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Atreya, Sushi; Carlson, Robert W.; Chutjian, Ara; Crisp, David; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kerzhanovich, Victor V.; Limaye, Sanjay S.

    2005-01-01

    Drifting in the strong winds of Venus under benign Earth-like temperature and pressure conditions, an instrumented balloon-borne science station presents a viable means to explore, in-situ, the Venusian atmosphere on a global scale. Flying over the ground at speeds exceeding 240 km/hour while floating in the Venusian skies near 55 km altitude for several weeks, such an aerostat can conduct a 'world tour' of our neighboring planet, as it circumnavigates the globe multiple times during its flight from equatorial to polar latitudes. Onboard science sensors can repeatedly and directly sample gas compositions, atmospheric pressures and temperatures and cloud particle properties, giving unprecedented insight into the chemical processes occurring within the sulfuric clouds. Additionally, interferometric tracking via Earth-based radio observatories can yield positions and windspeeds to better than 10 cm/sec over one-hour periods, providing important information for understanding the planet's meridional circulation and enigmatic zonal super-rotation, as well as local dynamics associated with meteorological processes. As well, hundreds of GCMS spectra collected during the flight can provide measurements of noble gas compositions and their isotopes with unprecedented accuracy, thereby enabling fundamental new insights into Venus's origin and evolution.

  18. Modeling and Simulation Tools for Heavy Lift Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Ron; Chachad, Girish; Hardy, Gordon; Blanken, Matthew; Melton, John

    2016-01-01

    For conventional fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft a variety of modeling and simulation tools have been developed to provide designers the means to thoroughly investigate proposed designs and operational concepts. However, lighter-than-air (LTA) airships, hybrid air vehicles, and aerostats have some important aspects that are different from heavier-than-air (HTA) vehicles. In order to account for these differences, modifications are required to the standard design tools to fully characterize the LTA vehicle design and performance parameters.. To address these LTA design and operational factors, LTA development organizations have created unique proprietary modeling tools, often at their own expense. An expansion of this limited LTA tool set could be accomplished by leveraging existing modeling and simulation capabilities available in the National laboratories and public research centers. Development of an expanded set of publicly available LTA modeling and simulation tools for LTA developers would mitigate the reliance on proprietary LTA design tools in use today. A set of well researched, open source, high fidelity LTA design modeling and simulation tools would advance LTA vehicle development and also provide the analytical basis for accurate LTA operational cost assessments. This paper will present the modeling and analysis tool capabilities required for LTA vehicle design, analysis of operations, and full life-cycle support. A survey of the tools currently available will be assessed to identify the gaps between their capabilities and the LTA industry's needs. Options for development of new modeling and analysis capabilities to supplement contemporary tools will also be presented.

  19. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  20. Experimental and numerical study on vibrations and static deflection of a thin hyperelastic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabili, Marco; Balasubramanian, Prabakaran; Breslavsky, Ivan D.; Ferrari, Giovanni; Garziera, Rinaldo; Riabova, Kseniia

    2016-12-01

    The hyperelastic behavior of a thin square silicone rubber plate has been investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally; the case of small-amplitude vibrations has been considered, as well as the case of large static deflection under aerostatic pressure. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model has been chosen to describe the material nonlinear elasticity. The material parameters have been identified by a fitting procedure on the results of a uniaxial traction test. For the analytical model, the equations of motion have been obtained by a unified energy approach, and geometrical nonlinearities are modeled according to the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory. A numerical model has also been developed by using a commercial Finite-Element code. In the experiments, the silicone rubber plate has been fixed to a heavy metal frame; a certain in-plane pre-load, applied by stretching the plate, has been given in order to ensure a flatness of the surface. An experimental modal analysis has been conducted; results have been used to identify the applied in-plane loads by optimization procedure with two different models: a numerical and an analytical one. The first four experimental and numerical natural modes and frequencies are in good agreement with the experiments after the pre-load identification. The static deflection has been measured experimentally for different pressures. Results have been compared to those obtained by analytical and numerical models. The static deflections are also satisfactorily compared, up to a deflection 50 times larger than the plate thickness, corresponding to a 30 percent strain.

  1. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  2. Fabrication of micro-lens array on convex surface by meaning of micro-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Yunlong; Wang, Bo; Shan, Debin

    2014-08-01

    In order to develop the application of the micro-milling technology, and to fabricate ultra-precision optical surface with complex microstructure, in this paper, the primary experimental research on micro-milling complex microstructure array is carried out. A complex microstructure array surface with vary parameters is designed, and the mathematic model of the surface is set up and simulated. For the fabrication of the designed microstructure array surface, a micro three-axis ultra-precision milling machine tool is developed, aerostatic guideway drove directly by linear motor is adopted in order to guarantee the enough stiffness of the machine, and novel numerical control strategy with linear encoders of 5nm resolution used as the feedback of the control system is employed to ensure the extremely high motion control accuracy. With the help of CAD/CAM technology, convex micro lens array on convex spherical surface with different scales on material of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and pure copper is fabricated using micro tungsten carbide ball end milling tool based on the ultra-precision micro-milling machine. Excellent nanometer-level micro-movement performance of the axis is proved by motion control experiment. The fabrication is nearly as the same as the design, the characteristic scale of the microstructure is less than 200μm and the accuracy is better than 1μm. It prove that ultra-precision micro-milling technology based on micro ultra-precision machine tool is a suitable and optional method for micro manufacture of microstructure array surface on different kinds of materials, and with the development of micro milling cutter, ultraprecision micro-milling complex microstructure surface will be achieved in future.

  3. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Hong, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, M. Y. [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zhu, Y. [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-12-15

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements’ repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  4. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  5. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.

    2015-12-01

    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  6. Error analysis of motion correction method for laser scanning of moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-05-01

    The limitation of conventional laser scanning methods is that the objects being scanned should be static. The need of scanning moving objects has resulted in the development of new methods capable of generating correct 3D geometry of moving objects. Limited literature is available showing development of very few methods capable of catering to the problem of object motion during scanning. All the existing methods utilize their own models or sensors. Any studies on error modelling or analysis of any of the motion correction methods are found to be lacking in literature. In this paper, we develop the error budget and present the analysis of one such `motion correction' method. This method assumes availability of position and orientation information of the moving object which in general can be obtained by installing a POS system on board or by use of some tracking devices. It then uses this information along with laser scanner data to apply correction to laser data, thus resulting in correct geometry despite the object being mobile during scanning. The major application of this method lie in the shipping industry to scan ships either moving or parked in the sea and to scan other objects like hot air balloons or aerostats. It is to be noted that the other methods of "motion correction" explained in literature can not be applied to scan the objects mentioned here making the chosen method quite unique. This paper presents some interesting insights in to the functioning of "motion correction" method as well as a detailed account of the behavior and variation of the error due to different sensor components alone and in combination with each other. The analysis can be used to obtain insights in to optimal utilization of available components for achieving the best results.

  7. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  8. Miniature robotic sample analysis lab for planetary in situ mineralogy and microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman; Wong, Brian; Haddad, Emile; Jamroz, Wes; Cloutis, Edward; Strong, Kimberly; Ghafoor, Nadeem; Jessen, Sean

    the data synergy provided by infrared (IR) reflection between 900 and 4300 nm at about 4 nm resolution, visible micro-imaging, and complementary IR Raman spectroscopy from about 400 to 4000 cm-1 . IR spectroscopy provides direct information on the presence of H2 O or OH, either as free H2 O or bonded within hydrated minerals. The IR Raman provides for direct C-C biological detection and supplementary measurement of IR inactive modes. The boresight microimaging provides information on the sample grain structure to assist the spectral data analysis. The combined data synergy can, for the first time, directly and unambiguously detect H2 O and determine its state (ice/liquid/structural), distinguish key mineral species (including those associated with favourable habitats for microbial activity) and determine their hydration states, as well as detect and differentiate various C-H and C-C molecular structures for astrobiological investigations. The mission features a small He-inflatable Skycam aerostat tethered to the rover. It will provide stereographic 2-D VIS surface maps of the rover and its geolocation from a 10-15 m altitude to improve the rover autonomy and maneuverability around obstacles. The Skycam aerostat will also provide boundary layer investigations of Mars weather and residual atmospheric processes with high 0.015 nm spectral resolution for CO2 and CH4 using tunable fiber-optic sources to study the C isotopic ratios. Mission cost effectiveness is achieved through a synergistic instrument suite based on advanced but mature patented MPBC miniaturization technologies that enable high IR spectral measurement performance with minimal mass and power, and an innovative MDA tethered mole drill design. The estimated Inukshuk net payload mass including instrument suite, robotic tethered mole drill with insitu bore-hole probe and Skycam aerostat is under 12 kg. The core IR spectral processor is based on MPBC's patented IOSPEC technology for miniature guided

  9. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  10. 基于运动目标检测的同步轨道星-空双站SAR杂波特性分析%Analysis of Geosynchronous Satellite-Air Bistatic SAR Clutter Characteristics from the Viewpoint of Ground Moving Target Indication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 仇晓兰; 胡东辉; 丁赤飚

    2013-01-01

    同步轨道星-空双站SAR构型下(卫星作为发射端、浮空器作为接收端),为了应用空时自适应处理(Space Time Adaptive Processing, STAP)方法更好地抑制杂波,进行地面慢速运动目标检测,有必要分析杂波特性。该文从地面运动目标检测角度出发,建立了同步轨道星-空双站 SAR 杂波特性的理论模型,分析了杂波的角度-多普勒轨迹的距离依赖性特点,仿真实验证明了模型建立和理论分析的正确性。该文的理论模型和分析结论揭示了同步轨道星-空双SAR这一新模式下的杂波特性,为该模式下地面运动目标检测方法的选择和研究奠定了理论基础。%Considering the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) where the geosynchronous satellite is the transmitter and the aerostat is the receiver, to suppress clutter and detect a slow-moving target using Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP), it is necessary to analyze the clutter characteristics. From the viewpoint of a ground moving target indication, a theoretical model of the clutter characteristics considering the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-space bistatic SAR is analyzed and established in this study; in particular, the range-dependence characteristics of the angle-Doppler curve of the clutter is analyzed. Finally, the simulation verifies the correctness of the analysis. The theoretical model described and the conclusion presented in this paper indicate the clutter characteristics of the new geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic SAR mode and provide a theoretical basis for the selection and research of a ground moving target indication method for use in this mode.

  11. Research and fabrication of noncontact tonometer based on principle of force equilibrium%基于力平衡原理的非接触式眼压计研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骥; 方典典; 赵晓明; 庞娜娜

    2013-01-01

    A noncontact tonometer design method is presented, based on force balance principle and air static pressure technology. Overall structure of a non-contact tonometer design of intraocular pressure measurement module and frame type air cushion are introduced. The intraocular pressure measurement module includes nozzle, corneal alignment system and a corneal applanation photoelectric detecting system. Frame type air cushion adopts the orifice of aerostatic thrust bearing. The pressure distribution of external frame type air cushion, and test the nozzle and comeal photoelectric detecting system are calculated and simulated. The experimental results show that when distance between cornea and nozzle is rated distance L,nozzle gas can be flat corneas,photoelectric receiving pipe just receives maximum light. Compared with imported instruments, absolute error of measuring mean value is 1.3 mmHg,development of noncontact tonometer can realize noncontact measurement.%提出一种基于力平衡原理和空气静压技术相结合的非接触式眼压计设计方法.介绍了非接触式眼压计的总体结构、眼压测量模块和外框式气浮垫的设计.其中,眼压测量模块主要包括喷嘴、角膜对准系统及角膜压平光电检测系统,外框式气浮垫采用小孔节流式静压止推气体轴承结构,用于悬浮无摩擦的承载眼压测量模块.对外框式气浮垫的压力分布进行了计算和仿真,对角膜压平光电检测系统和非接触式眼压计的性能进行了测试.实验结果显示:在喷嘴到眼角膜距离为额定距离L的情况下,喷嘴喷出的气体可压平眼角膜,此时光电接收管接收到的光电信号最大,与进口仪器相比眼压测量平均值的绝对误差为1.3 mmHg,研制的非接触式眼压计可实现对眼压的非接触测量.

  12. Nuclear Polar VALOR: An ASRG-Enabled Venus Balloon Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, T. S.; Baines, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    In situ exploration of Venus is expected to answer high priority science questions about the planet's origin, evolution, chemistry, and dynamics as identified in the NRC Decadal Survey and in the VEXAG White Paper. Furthermore, exploration of the polar regions of Venus is key to understanding its climate and global circulation, as well as providing insight into the circulation, chemistry, and climatological processes on Earth. In this paper we discuss our proposed Nuclear Polar VALOR mission, which would target one of the polar regions of Venus, while building on design heritage from the Discovery class VALOR concept, proposed in 2004 and 2006. Riding the strong zonal winds at 55 km altitude and drifting poleward from mid-latitude this balloon-borne aerial science station (aerostat) would circumnavigate the planet multiple times over its one- month operation, extensively investigating polar dynamics, meteorology, and chemistry. Rising and descending over 1 km altitude in planetary waves - similar to the two VEGA balloons in 1985 - onboard instrumentation would accurately and constantly sample and measure other meteorological and chemical parameters, such as atmospheric temperature and pressure, cloud particle sizes and their local column abundances, the vertical wind component, and the chemical composition of cloud-forming trace gases. As well, when viewed with terrestrial radio telescopes on the Earth-facing side of Venus, both zonal and meridional winds would be measured to high accuracy (better than 10 cm/sec averaged over an hour). Due to three factors: the lack of sunlight near the poles; severe limitations on the floating mass-fraction available for a power source; and the science requirements for intensive and continuous measurements of the balloon's environment and movement, a long-duration polar balloon mission would require a long-lived internal power source in a relatively lightweight package. For our concept we assumed an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope

  13. Hydroelastic Response of Surface-Effect Ship Bow Seals: Large-Scale Experiments and Post-Buckling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrew D.

    Bow seals are critical components on advanced marine vehicles that rely on aerostatic support to reduce drag. They consist of a series of open-ended fabric cylinders ("fingers") that contact the free surface and, when inflated, form a compliant pressure barrier. Bow seals are unique in that, unlike a majority of structures in civil and mechanical engineering, bow seals operate in a buckled state. The response characteristics of these structures are of practical interest due to unacceptable wear rates on seal components and difficulties in predicting seal performance. Despite this, the hydroelastic response of the seal system, particularly basic information on seal vibration modes and the mechanisms responsible for seal wear, remains largely unknown. Similarly, estimates of the hydrodynamic loads on the seal system are inaccurate and based on heuristic scaling of data from small-scale experiments, where similitude is challenging to maintain. Thus, a large-scale test system is necessary to obtain accurate estimates of bow seal response. The work is comprised of three parts. Part one presents detailed observations of bow seal response acquired using a large-scale test platform developed as part of the present study. These high-resolution observations, the first of their kind, show bow seal response to be characterized by complex post-buckling behavior. Part two proposes an analytical framework for interpreting the wide range of behavior observed at large scale. Using this framework, key parameters driving seal conformation and stability are identified. It is found that, due to their buckled state, bow seals are highly susceptible to a mode switching instability, which may be a potential mechanism responsible for the damaging vibrations. In part three, a benchtop experiment is used to demonstrate that the scalings identified in this study hold across a wide range of bending rigidities. This work has implications for improving drag and wear characteristics in future bow

  14. Extraction of the anomaly magnetic field of the earth from stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys at altitudes of 20-40 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Golovkov, V. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Pelle, V. A.; Krapivnyi, A. V.; Nikolaev, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The solution to the problem of extraction of the anomaly Earth's magnetic field (EMF) from stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys with the help of global analytical models of the normal EMF is proposed. In the problem solution, errors for the analytical models of the normal EMF and its secular variation at a set moment of time are assessed; the found error is introduced as a correction to the extracted anomaly EMF. The error of the model is determined in the places where significant magnetic anomalies are absent. In this case, the error of the model corresponds to deviations of the normal EMF components, synthesized by coefficients of analytical models, and to deviations of the EMF secular variations from the measured values at quite a low value of the variable EMF or one being taken into account. These places are determined when carrying out additional measurements in vertical gradients of the EMF with the use of scalar magnetometers at the gauge length of 6 km. It has been shown that the found places can be considered as nonanomaly, if the difference of values of the anomaly EMF at the gauge length of 6 km does not exceed 1.5 nT within the profile's portion of about 100 km in length. An experiment in nature has revealed that errors for the IGRF-2005 and IGRF-2010 models, corrected for secular variation of the EMF, can reach 200 and 140 nT, respectively, within the limits of the territory where the Kama-Emba magnetic anomaly is located; these errors are determined by the considered causes. Comparison of aerostatic profiles of magnetic anomalies with data on the anomaly EMF, derived from the maps, has shown that the realizations derived from the maps contain overestimated negative values of the anomaly EMF, because they reflect processes in the near-surface layer of the Earth's crust. This fact causes the situation when attempts to recalculate the anomaly EMF into the upper half-space by the near-surface data still have not been successful. Only realizations

  15. Study on Fluid-Structure Coupled Computational Method for Stratosphere Airship%平流层飞艇流固耦合分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓亮; 单雪雄; 陈丽

    2011-01-01

    The stratosphere airships need a larger volume for the purpose of obtaining the buoyancy. Because of the inflated large membrane structure, the fluid-structure coupled characteristics are very important. Based on the Computational Fluid Dynamica ( CFD) software FLUENT and Computation Struccure Dynamics ( CSD) software ABAQUS, a fluid-structure coupled computational meihod is proposed. To verify the validity of this method, the comparison between experimental and computational results of inflated sphere and NACA65A006 wing are done. It will be seen that from the comparison of results that this method is valid for the analysis of aero-elastic characteristics of aerostats. Thus, an efficient analysis tool is proposed for the study of fluid-structure coupled characteristics of stratosphere airship. The structure response of a certain stratosphere airship is analyzed under the condition of gust, and some conclusions are obtained.%平流层飞艇为了在平流层环境下获得足够的浮力,要求其体积庞大,由于跨度较大的充气柔性气囊结构容易发生变形,使得流固耦合特性非常显著.针对该类飞行器的流固耦合方法的研究是对其流固耦合特性分析的首要条件.本文基于流体动力学计算软件FLUENT和结构动力学分析软件ABAQUS,形成了分析平流层飞艇这类大型柔性充气结构流固耦合特性的非线性动态流体-结构交错积分耦合法.通过充气的圆球薄膜的解析解和NACA65A006机翼颤振特性的实验结果与计算结果的比较对该方法的有效性进行了分析.这为平流层飞艇流固耦合问题的研究提供了一种有效的分析工具,并对某平流层飞艇的突风干扰响应特性进行了分析,得出其流固耦合特性的变化规律.

  16. Unmanned Airborne Platforms for Validation of Volcanic Emission Composition and Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    satellite remote sensing data remain systematically unvalidated by in situ data. Of special concern with respect to aircraft operations are the validity syn-and-post eruption of estimates of the lateral and vertical extent, concentrations, and spatio-temporal variability of drifting volcanic ash clouds provided by aerosol transport models and remote sensing techniques. Within NASA there exist a variety of novel technological approaches for conducting in situ validation experiments, particularly the use of specially designed unmanned aircraft and miniaturized (e.g., mass spectrometers, optical particle detectors, impact samplers) instrumentation to range through ash and gas clouds, and the deployment of instrumented tethered aerostats up into such clouds, in coordination with multispectral satellite, airborne, and ground-based observations. For instance, new more powerful electric-powered UAVs may be most appropriate for these very hazardous regimes. A brief review of scientific issues and operational practices will be presented, along with a case study of our work at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  17. Design of High-speed Wear Lifetime Tester of the Instrument Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Gu, J. M.; Sun, Y.; Chen, X. Y.

    2006-10-01

    The instrument ball bearings are the key components of movable components for various kinds of measuring and control instruments; they often operate in the environmental condition of high-speed and light preload. In general, the non metal, disposable oilimpregnated retainer material has been used for these kinds of high precision miniature bearing. The engineering practice shows that the common failure mode of them is the wear which appears under the condition of insufficient lubrication condition. As the results, the vibration and noise will be enlarged, so does the frictional torque, which makes the ball bearings to lose its original working accuracy. It is the lifetime test of bearings that can enable the designers and manufacturers to chose the material of the bearing properly, optimize the product structure, mend the manufacturing technique process, and to enhance the technical level of the bearing products significantly. In this paper, the wear lifetime tester has been designed according to the requirements of the life test for the instrument ball bearings, which consists of the main body of tester, electric system, drive unit and computer measure and control system, etc. The motor spindle has been selected to drive the device which is supported by the aerostatic bearing; frequency conversion speed adjustment mode, its scope of rotating speed is between 0 and 10,000 rpm. A pair of bearings can be tested under the pure axial preload condition, the maximum load is up to 50N, the control accuracy is ±2% the scope of temperature control is up to 200°C. The variation of frictional torque on the bearing couple will be measured by an online torque transducer. The variation of power dissipation can be monitored under arbitrary speed by use of an on-line high-precision power meter. The wear and quality situation of the contact surface of the bearings will be reflected on these two parameters. Meanwhile, the values of temperature and vibration will also be monitored

  18. after tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is ridiculous to make plans in this world, especially when Bulgakov’s Annushka has already spilled the oil. The convulsion of nature in the neighbouring Japan confirms this once again. The destiny of Japan in general and of the UIA Tokyo Congress in particular is of great concern, as well as the courageous behaviour of the whole nation in the face of Mother Nature’s devastating anger. Actually, the subject of this issue – a long-term prognosis – was suggested by the themes of the UIA Congress “Design 2050” and of the next Winter University Session “Irkutsk 2036”.If you want to make God laugh, tell Him your plans. However, the essence of our profession is creation of environment for future life. So we cannot do without long-term prognoses. An architect works for the future, but there are many futures. There are a number of trajectories of further development starting from the point of today. Every scenario leads to its own future, and the architect is to choose the future with maximum realization chances, to reveal and to study several vectors of possible course of events and to choose the most harmonious among the realistic ones.Sometimes an architect’s imagination pictures a future that seems to other people absolutely impossible. There are times when this very scenario, quite unexpectedly for skeptics, becomes realized and makes others believe in it. Nobel laureates say that levitation is beyond doubt, and any time a human body can rise above the ground. Obviously, the cities will look quite different in this case, if they remain at all. But aerostatic architecture has already got adherents with concrete proposals (36The science of future development appeared more than one hundred years ago. Today its first experiments look childishly naïve. The day before yesterday’s fantasies of cities in the early 2000s evoke a gracious smile more often than admiration for their precise

  19. The Effectiveness of an Evaluation Model Based on Evidential Reasoning and its Application in the Planning of Multiple Missions in the Near Space%基于证据推理的效能评估及其在临近空间多任务规划中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭张林; 濮剑鹏; 张登洲; 胡笑旋; 张强; 詹明明

    2013-01-01

    As military and commercial values of near space exploration increase, air vehicles ( e. g. hypersonic vehicles and aerostats) installed in the near space are carrying more responsibility for military missions. Near space systems may have multiple military missions at the same time, and demand multi-mission planning. In the multi-mission planning, multiple alternatives may exist in order to meet the mission demand and resource attributes. However, what is the best planning alternative? This paper intends to evaluate the effectiveness of near space systems under different planning situations and decide on a multi-mission planning solution to maximize or optimize the effectiveness of near space system evaluation. One central problem of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of near apace systems. Near space systems involve dynamic variables, such as multiple resources, multiple missions, complex internal and external conditions. Therefore, traditional assessment methods will face the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of the coexistence of various certainties and uncertainties because they often deal with each variable independently. Evidential reasoning method considers various kinds of uncertainties, such as ignorance, fuzziness, interval data, and interval belief degrees, and can implement multiple sources of evidence. As such, the method can overcome the limitation of uncertain evaluations. In contrast, the traditional method deals with complex conditions and can effectively solve problems associated with the effectiveness evaluation of near space system to perform multiple missions. In view of this, this paper constructs an effectiveness evaluation model based on the evidential reasoning method, and applies the model in planning for performing multiple missions in the near space system. This paper is composed of two parts as follows: Firstly, this paper constructs an effectiveness evaluation model based on the evidential reasoning theory. This model is